WorldWideScience

Sample records for food group combinations

  1. Food groups for allergen risk assessment: Combining food consumption data from different countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G

    2018-01-01

    To prevent allergic reactions, food producers have to be able to make a knowledge based decision on whether to label their products with precautionary labelling. As many manufactured food products are sold in different countries across Europe, the allergen risk assessment should be estimated...... at the European levels. As currently, there are no pan-European food data suitable for food allergy risk assessment. The aim of this paper is to investigate if consumption data, at a meal level, from National Food Consumption Surveys, can be combined to form a common Food Consumption database. In this first...... attempt we developed a procedure to investigate, if national food consumption data can be combined and grouped using data from Netherlands, France and Denmark. The homogeneity of consumption patterns and the relevance of difference in risk of allergic reaction were compared, using a fixed framework...

  2. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children.

  3. Food irradiation and combination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Platt, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    International approval of food irradiation is being given for the use of low and medium doses. Uses are being permitted for different categories of foods with maximum levels being set between 1 and 10 kGy. To maximize the effectiveness of these mild irradiation treatments while minimizing any organoleptic quality changes, combination processes of other technologies with irradiation will be useful. Combinations most likely to be exploited in optimal food processing include the use of heat, low temperature, and modified-atmosphere packaging. Because irradiation does not have a residual effect, the food packaging itself becomes an important component of a successful process. These combination processes provide promising alternatives to the use of chemical preservatives or harsher processing techniques. (author)

  4. Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.

  5. Simultaneous grouping and ranking with combination of SOM and TOPSIS for selection of preferable analytical procedure for furan determination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Tsakovski, Stefan; Lavenu, Aurore; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Novel methodology for grouping and ranking with application of self-organizing maps and multicriteria decision analysis is presented. The dataset consists of 22 objects that are analytical procedures applied to furan determination in food samples. They are described by 10 variables, referred to their analytical performance, environmental and economic aspects. Multivariate statistics analysis allows to limit the amount of input data for ranking analysis. Assessment results show that the most beneficial procedures are based on microextraction techniques with GC-MS final determination. It is presented how the information obtained from both tools complement each other. The applicability of combination of grouping and ranking is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods selected are adequate. Protein sources from the Protein Foods Group for vegetarians include eggs (for ovo-vegetarians), beans and peas, nuts, nut butters, and soy products (tofu, tempeh, ...

  7. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research

  8. Effectiveness of Group Supervision versus Combined Group and Individual Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee; Altekruse, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of different types of supervision (large group, small group, combined group, individual supervision) with counseling students (N=64). Analyses revealed that all supervision formats resulted in similar progress in counselor effectiveness and counselor development. Participants voiced a preference for individual…

  9. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  10. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiation in combined treatments and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix Monique; Dussault Dominic; Turgis Melanie; Salmieri Stephane; Perlette Takala; Vu Dang Khanh; Ayari Samia

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation combined with other processes can contribute to insuring food safety to consumers and controlling severe losses during transportation and commercialisation. We have demonstrated that using in synergy with other treatments; a lower dose could be used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and permit a better protection of the sensorial quality and to prolong the shelf life of foods. Results indicated that some bacteria are more sensitive to irradiation under modified atmosphere (MAP) and the presence of active compound can increase the bacterial radiosensitivity by more than 4 times under air and by more than 10 times under MAP. Mild heat treatment or addition of natural antimicrobial compounds before irradiation treatment has also permitted an increase of Bacillus cereus radiosensitization. An increase of the bacterial radiosensitization of 1.5 and 1.56 was respectively observed. The effectiveness of the use of edible coating containing natural antimicrobial compounds, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) or mild treatment before irradiation treatment was demonstrated in order to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus growth or B. cereus spore germination, to increase the bacterial sensitivity to irradiation, to reduce the water loss and to extend the shelf life of the food when stored at 4 deg C. Also, the use of edible coating previously crosslinked by irradiation have permitted a better control of the active compounds release. Studies of combined treatments were used in ready to eat vegetables, fruits and meat products. (author)

  12. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  13. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  14. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-09-15

    Statistics show that over forty per cent of the human population, a large portion of which come from the Third World, are suffering from hunger and malnutrition. While the solution to these problems depends to a great extent on the food production strategies of the various governments, equally important is the need to preserve existing food supply by reducing food and crop spoilage. It has been reported that estimated losses due to bacterial spoilage are heavy; those of highly perishable commodities such as fish and fishery products have been reported as amounting to thirty per cent of the total catch. An additional loss of five to ten per cent due to insects and microbes during lengthy periods of drying and/or storage has also been reported. After about thirty years of research, treatment with ionizing radiations has been proved to be a valuable potential tool for reducing post-harvest storage losses and for preserving quickly perishable food from deterioration. Since irradiation is a purely physical method of food conservation, it may for many purposes become the preferred method, for it is an environmentally clean process not tainted with the chemical residue problem, it is energy saving, and it can, in many cases, produce effects that cannot be achieved by conventional techniques (e.g. decontamination of frozen food without significant temperature changes, disinfestation and decontamination of food in bulk and packaged). The preservative effects of ionizing radiations can often be advantageously combined with effects of other physical or chemical agents. The resulting ''combination treatments'' may involve synergistic or cumulative action of the combination partners, leading to a decreased treatment requirement for one or both agents. This in turn may result in cost and/or energy savings and may bring about improvements in the sensory properties and bacteriological quality of the food thus treated. To review progress in this field a Symposium on Combination

  15. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Statistics show that over forty per cent of the human population, a large portion of which come from the Third World, are suffering from hunger and malnutrition. While the solution to these problems depends to a great extent on the food production strategies of the various governments, equally important is the need to preserve existing food supply by reducing food and crop spoilage. It has been reported that estimated losses due to bacterial spoilage are heavy; those of highly perishable commodities such as fish and fishery products have been reported as amounting to thirty per cent of the total catch. An additional loss of five to ten per cent due to insects and microbes during lengthy periods of drying and/or storage has also been reported. After about thirty years of research, treatment with ionizing radiations has been proved to be a valuable potential tool for reducing post-harvest storage losses and for preserving quickly perishable food from deterioration. Since irradiation is a purely physical method of food conservation, it may for many purposes become the preferred method, for it is an environmentally clean process not tainted with the chemical residue problem, it is energy saving, and it can, in many cases, produce effects that cannot be achieved by conventional techniques (e.g. decontamination of frozen food without significant temperature changes, disinfestation and decontamination of food in bulk and packaged). The preservative effects of ionizing radiations can often be advantageously combined with effects of other physical or chemical agents. The resulting ''combination treatments'' may involve synergistic or cumulative action of the combination partners, leading to a decreased treatment requirement for one or both agents. This in turn may result in cost and/or energy savings and may bring about improvements in the sensory properties and bacteriological quality of the food thus treated. To review progress in this field a Symposium on Combination

  16. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  17. Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk: a protective diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yian; Nieves, Jeri W; Stern, Yaakov; Luchsinger, Jose A; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    To assess the association between food combination and Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Because foods are not consumed in isolation, dietary pattern (DP) analysis of food combination, taking into account the interactions among food components, may offer methodological advantages. Prospective cohort study. Northern Manhattan, New York, New York. Two thousand one hundred forty-eight community-based elderly subjects (aged > or = 65 years) without dementia in New York provided dietary information and were prospectively evaluated with the same standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures approximately every 1.5 years. Using reduced rank regression, we calculated DPs based on their ability to explain variation in 7 potentially AD-related nutrients: saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, vitamin B(12), and folate. The associations of reduced rank regression-derived DPs with AD risk were then examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Main Outcome Measure Incident AD risk. Two hundred fifty-three subjects developed AD during a follow-up of 3.9 years. We identified a DP strongly associated with lower AD risk: compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of adherence to this pattern, the AD hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects in the highest DP tertile was 0.62 (0.43-0.89) after multivariable adjustment (P for trend = .01). This DP was characterized by higher intakes of salad dressing, nuts, fish, tomatoes, poultry, cruciferous vegetables, fruits, and dark and green leafy vegetables and a lower intake of high-fat dairy products, red meat, organ meat, and butter. Simultaneous consideration of previous knowledge regarding potentially AD-related nutrients and multiple food groups can aid in identifying food combinations that are associated with AD risk.

  18. Methods combined with irradiation for food preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, consumers have been looking for safer, higher quality foods, but also more convenient and ready-to-eat. Quality assurance through the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms has been a major concern for the food industry. However, an alarming number of diseases are still caused by different foodborne pathogens, which cause hundreds of deaths.1 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes are food poisoning microorganisms frequently involved in microbial outb...

  19. Careers that Combine Culinary and Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, Michelle

    Imagine yourself perusing the aisles of your local grocery store. You head down the frozen food section and, being a cost-conscious shopper with little to no time to cook, you choose a seemingly delectable heat-and-serve meal of grilled chicken medallions and sautéed spinach doused in a mushroom sauce. Taking a closer look at the bag, you ask yourself, is this a delicious food concoction of culinary art or of food technology?

  20. Vegetables and other core food groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Astrid A.M.; Delahunty, Conor M.; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n =

  1. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Assa'ad, Amal H; Bahna, Sami L; Bock, S Allan; Sicherer, Scott H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2009-06-01

    Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food.

  2. Optimum Plans For Oilpalm And Food Crop Combinations In Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercropping food crops in oil palm plantations is a popular practice among oil ... are not guided by economic rationale for the choice of food crops and oil palm. ... linear programming model for oil palm/food crops enterprise combinations in ...

  3. Reliability and validity of child/adolescent food frequency questionnaires that assess foods and/or food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Julia K; Merchant, Gina; Norman, Gregory J

    2012-07-01

    Summarize the validity and reliability of child/adolescent food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) that assess food and/or food groups. We performed a systematic review of child/adolescent (6-18 years) FFQ studies published between January 2001 and December 2010 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Main inclusion criteria were peer reviewed, written in English, and reported reliability or validity of questionnaires that assessed intake of food/food groups. Studies were excluded that focused on diseased people or used a combined dietary assessment method. Two authors independently selected the articles and extracted questionnaire characteristics such as number of items, portion size information, time span, category intake frequencies, and method of administration. Validity and reliability coefficients were extracted and reported for food categories and averaged across food categories for each study. Twenty-one studies were selected from 873, 18 included validity data, and 14 included test-retest reliability data. Publications were from the United States, Europe, Africa, Brazil, and the south Pacific. Validity correlations ranged from 0.01 to 0.80, and reliability correlations ranged from 0.05 to 0.88. The highest average validity correlations were obtained when the questionnaire did not assess portion size, measured a shorter time span (ie, previous day/week), was of medium length (ie, ≈ 20-60 items), and was not administered to the child's parents. There are design and administration features of child/adolescent FFQs that should be considered to obtain reliable and valid estimates of dietary intake in this population.

  4. Combination irradiation treatments for food safety and phytosanitary uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combination of irradiation treatment with other preservation techniques is of potential importance in enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the energy or dose requirement for destroying food borne illness and spoilage organisms while retaining or improving product quality. Phytosanitary irradiati...

  5. A procedure for grouping food consumption data for use in food allergen risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G.

    2017-01-01

    Food allergic subjects need to avoid the allergenic food that triggers their allergy. However, foods can also contain unintended allergens. Food manufacturers or authorities need to perform a risk assessment to be able to decide if unintended allergen presence constitutes a risk to food allergic...... consumers. One of the input parameters in risk assessment is the amount of a given food consumed in a meal. There has been little emphasis on how food consumption data can be used in food allergen risk assessment. The aim of the study was to organize the complex datasets from National Food Consumption...... Surveys from different countries (France, Netherlands and Denmark) to be manageable in food allergen risk assessment. To do this, a two-step method was developed. First, based on initial groups of similar food items, the homogeneity of consumption was evaluated using a customized clustering method. Then...

  6. Perancangan Buku Visual Grafis Tentang Pola Makan Food Combining

    OpenAIRE

    Raditya, Bie Karina; H, Prayanto Widyo; Yuwono, Adiel

    2013-01-01

    Perancangan Buku Visual Grafis tentang Pola Makan Food Combining ini bertujuan untuk membuat sebuah buku visual yang mengangkat tema pola makan yang sehat. Buku ini menggunakan pendekatan visual yang bertujuan untuk memberikan arahan atau sekedar menjadi pendukung visual sehingga lebih menarik. Perancangan Buku Visual Grafis tentang Pola Makan Food Combining ini mencakup desain cover buku dan isi buku yang dirancang secara komunikatif. Dengan pendekatan komunikasi visual dalam sebuah buku ten...

  7. [Physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Dong; Hua, Wei-Guo; Chu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ju

    2006-11-01

    To observe the physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice, and to evaluate the safety and beneficial effects of this regimen. One hundred and forty-four adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: standard feed AL group (ad libitum intake of standard feed), hunger-resistant food AL group (ad libitum intake of hunger-resistant food), standard feed IF group (feeding standard feed and fasting on alternate days), and hunger-resistant food IF group (feeding hunger-resistant food and fasting on alternate days). The experiment lasted for 4-8 weeks and all mice drank water freely. The quality of life, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid, blood routine test, liver and kidney functions as well as the viscera indexes were examined. Compared to the standard feed AL group, the caloric taking and the increment of body-weight were reduced (Pfasting blood glucose were reduced in standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group (Pintermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food is safe and beneficial to metabolic regulation, such as controlling body-weight and adjusting blood glucose and serum lipid. It is expected that development of this regimen will be helpful to the control of obesity and diabetes, etc.

  8. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  9. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  10. The effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit food evaluation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food. Participants were 240 undergraduate women who were randomly allocated to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (avoidance training: training versus control) x 2 (control training: training versus control) between-subjects design. The combined training group had a more negative implicit evaluation of unhealthy food than either of the two training conditions alone or the control condition. In addition, participants trained to avoid unhealthy food cues subsequently made fewer unhealthy snack food choices. No significant group differences were found for food intake. Participants were women generally of a healthy weight. Overweight or obese individuals may derive greater benefit from combined training. Results lend support to the theoretical predictions of dual-process models, as the combined training reduced implicit liking of unhealthy food. At a practical level, the findings have implications for the effectiveness of interventions targeting unhealthy eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Food security: what the community wants. Learning through focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, D; Dewolfe, J A; Thompson, L

    1994-01-01

    We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.

  13. Whole Foods Market Group, Inc. Nationwide RCRA Administrative Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced an agreement with the grocery chain Whole Foods Market Group, Inc., to implement a state-of-the-art electronic system at its stores throughout the U.S. for identifying and classifying consumer

  14. Consumers’ grouping of organic and conventional food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove

    2014-01-01

    or not they were organic. These consumers were found to have significantly higher levels of confidence in the benefits of organic produce, to state significantly higher levels of organic consumption and higher willingness to pay for organoleptic attributes of fresh milk, than consumers who placed fruits in one......A detailed account of the way consumers choose to group different varieties of organic and conventional food produce might have practical implications in terms of improved space management in supermarkets and better targeted promotions of organic products. The results presented here were obtained...... in a case study using a web-based questionnaire and 849 Danish consumers. The consumers were asked to group the contents of a virtual basket of organic and non-organic fruits and vegetables into two smaller baskets. A significant share of the consumers grouped the food products according to whether...

  15. Status report - FoodReach Toronto: lowering food costs for social agencies and community groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Coleman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toronto has the largest absolute number of food insecure households for any metropolitan census area in Canada: of its 2.1 million households, roughly 252 000 households (or 12% experience some level of food insecurity. Community organizations (including social agencies, school programs, and child care centres serve millions of meals per year to the city’s most vulnerable citizens, but often face challenges accessing fresh produce at affordable prices. Therefore in 2015, Toronto Public Health, in collaboration with public- and private-sector partners, launched the FoodReach program to improve the efficiency of food procurement among community organizations by consolidating their purchasing power. Since being launched, FoodReach has been used by more than 50 community organizations to provide many of Toronto’s most marginalised groups with regular access to healthy produce.

  16. [Vitamin and minerals consumed food group by Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Aguero, Samuel; Reyes García, Susanne; Gaete, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The lifestyle changes in college, students go through periods of physical inactivity and irregular meal times, which leads to increased consumption of processed foods and fast food. To calculate vitamins and minerals intakes for groups in the diet of Chilean university students. We studied 654 university students (18 to 24 years, 54% female), a 7-day food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment, the information collected was classified into 12 groups representing each set of food, and then nutrient intake was determined. The main results were: (a) women had lower intake of most micronutrients than men (b) pantothenic acid, vitamin B12 and E, calcium, magnesium and iron are nutrients that showed mean intakes below the daily recommendations, (c) the consumption of bread is essential for the supply of B vitamins, iron, copper and selenium. In the usual diet of college students, bread is a key to the dietary intake of B vitamins, iron, copper and selenium, as well as dairy products for calcium, meat and fish for vitamin B12 and zinc; vegetables for vitamin A and fruits for vitamin C. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P; Crivellenti, L C; Nishimura, R Y; Sartorelli, D S

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies conducted among pregnant women to test the accuracy of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) for estimating food group intake were restricted to one specific trimester of pregnancy. The present study aimed to validate a FFQ for assessing the intake of food groups throughout pregnancy. In total, 75 adult pregnant Brazilian women were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by the FFQ (completed at the third trimester of pregnancy) and by three 24-h dietary recalls; one in each trimester of pregnancy. The food items were classified into 20 groups. Adequate deatenuatted Pearson correlation coefficients (>0.4) were observed for the intake of bread/cake, butter/margarine; milk/dairy products; soft drinks/artificial juices; coffee/tea; and pastries/sandwiches. The FFQ served poorly for estimating fruit and vegetable intake. A high percentage (>70%) of women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles for estimates of cookies/crackers, butter/margarine, milk/dairy products, fruit juices, soft drinks/artificial juices, coffee/tea, roots, rice, beans, meat/chicken/sausages, fried foods, fish, eggs, sweets/sugars, and pastries/sandwiches. Nevertheless, the agreement of joint classification between the dietary methods was mostly into adjacent quartiles, rather than in the same quartile, and low values of kappa were found. The data reported in the present study suggest that the FFQ might not be an appropriate dietary method for evaluating food group intake throughout pregnancy. The joint classification between methods by categories of intake of food groups was mostly into adjacent quartiles, which could lead to attenuated associations when investigating diet-disease relationships during pregnancy. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  19. Differences between food group reports of low energy reporters and non-low energy reporters on a food frequency questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Amy E.; Tooze, Janet A.; Subar, Amy F.; Kahle, Lisa L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low-energy reporters (LERs) and non-LERs differ with respect to a number of characteristics, including self-reported intake of foods. Limited data exists investigating food intake differences with LERs identified using doubly labeled water (DLW). Objective In the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (September, 1999-March, 2000), differences were examined between food group reports of LERs and non-LERs on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=440). Design LERs were identified using DLW. LERs' (n=220) and non-LERs' (n=220) reports of 43 food groups on the FFQ were examined in three ways: whether they reported consuming a food group (yes/no), how frequently they reported consuming it (times/day), and the reported portion size (small, medium, or large). Analyses were adjusted for total energy expenditure from DLW. Results LERs compared to non-LERs were less likely to report consumption for one food group among women (soft drinks/regular) and no food groups among men. Reported mean daily frequency of consumption was lower in LERs compared to non-LERs for 23 food groups among women and 24 food groups among men (18 food groups were similar in men and women). Additionally, reported mean portion sizes were smaller for LERs compared to non-LERs for 6 food groups among women and 5 food groups among men (3 food groups were similar in men and women). Results varied minimally by sex and body mass index (BMI). Conclusions LERs as compared to non-LERs were more likely to differ regarding their reported frequency of consumption of food groups than their reported consumption (yes/no) of the food groups or the food groups' reported portion sizes. Results did not vary greatly by sex or BMI. It still remains to be known whether improvement in questionnaire design or additional tools or methods would lead to a decrease in differential reporting due to LER status on an FFQ. PMID:19559136

  20. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vrana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.

  1. Food parenting measurement issues: working group consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Frankel, Leslie A; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on childhood obesity. Six subgroups were formed to address key measurement issues. The conceptualization subgroup proposed to define and distinguish constructs of general parenting styles, feeding styles, and food parenting practices with the goal of understanding interrelating levels of parental influence on child eating behaviors. The observational subgroup identified the need to map constructs for use in coding direct observations and create observational measures that can capture the bidirectional effects of parent-child interactions. The self-regulation subgroup proposed an operational definition of child self-regulation of energy intake and suggested future measures of self-regulation across different stages of development. The translational/community involvement subgroup proposed the involvement of community in the development of surveys so that measures adequately reflect cultural understanding and practices of the community. The qualitative methods subgroup proposed qualitative methods as a way to better understand the breadth of food parenting practices and motivations for the use of such practices. The longitudinal subgroup stressed the importance of food parenting measures sensitive to change for use in longitudinal studies. In the creation of new measures, it is important to consider cultural sensitivity and context-specific food parenting domains. Moderating variables such as child temperament and child food preferences should be considered in models.

  2. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  3. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  4. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food g...

  5. Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    combined these data with food balance sheets available in all nations and years. A hierarchical Bayesian model estimated mean food intake and associated uncertainty for each age-sex-country-year stratum, accounting for differences in intakes versus availability, survey methods and representativeness......OBJECTIVE: To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We......, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING/POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global fruit intake was 81.3 g/day (95% uncertainty interval 78.9-83.7), with country-specific intakes ranging from 19.2-325.1 g/day; in only 2 countries (representing 0...

  6. 78 FR 21128 - Molecular Diagnostic Instruments With Combined Functions; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0258] Molecular Diagnostic Instruments With Combined Functions; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  7. Effects of a meal replacement system alone or in combination with phentermine on weight loss and food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Christina P; Weldon, Abby J; Daher, Noha S; Schneider, Louise E; Bellinger, Denise L; Berk, Lee S; Hermé, Alyson C; Aréchiga, Adam L; Davis, Willie L; Peters, Warren R

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of phentermine combined with a meal replacement program on weight loss and food cravings and to investigate the relationship between food cravings and weight loss. In a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 77 adults with obesity received either phentermine or placebo. All participants were provided Medifast ® meal replacements, were instructed to follow the Take Shape for Life ® Optimal Weight 5&1 Plan for weight loss, and received lifestyle coaching in the Habits of Health program. The Food Craving Inventory and the General Food Cravings State and Trait Questionnaires were used to measure food cravings. The phentermine group lost 12.1% of baseline body weight compared with 8.8% in the placebo group. Cravings for all food groups decreased in both groups; however, there was a greater reduction in cravings for fats and sweets in the phentermine group compared with the placebo group. Percent weight loss correlated significantly with reduced total food cravings (r = 0.332, P = 0.009), cravings for sweets (r = 0.412, P meal replacement program and meal replacements alone significantly reduced body weight and food cravings; however, the addition of phentermine enhanced these effects. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) analyze average food and nutrient intake over extended periods to associate habitual dietary intake with health problems and chronic diseases. A tool of this nature applicable to both women and men is not presently available in Mexico. To validate a FFQ for adult men and women. The study was conducted on 97 participants, 61% were women. Two FFQs were administered (with a one-year interval) to measure reproducibility. To assess validity, the second FFQ was compared against dietary record (DR) covering nine days. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The de-attenuation of the ICC resulting from intraindividual variability was controlled. The validity analysis was complemented by comparing the classification ability of FFQ to that of DR through concordance between intake categories and Bland-Altman plots. Reproducibility: ICC values for food groups ranged 0.42-0.87; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.34 and 0.82. ICC values for food groups ranged 0.35-0.84; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.36 and 0.77. Most subjects (56.7-76.3%) classified in the same or adjacent quintile for energy and nutrients using both methods. Extreme misclassification was <6.3% for all items. Bland-Altman plots reveal high concordance between FFQ and DR. FFQ produced sufficient levels of reproducibility and validity to determine average daily intake over one year. These results will enable the analysis of possible associations with chronic diseases and dietary diagnoses in adult populations of men and women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Technological innovation and valorisation of traditional food: a sustainable combination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dalla Rosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Valorization of traditional foods is nowadays a key element for market developments where national industries are strongly involved in saving product peculiarity against imitative food coming from foreign countries or even different continents. Other than the lack in well defined and garanteed sensorial quality, the production conditions, the quality of raw material and the different cultural background lead to produce foods that, despite to the name indicating some italian origin or recallin in some ways Italy and italian food and traditions, are only imitation without safety and quality proper of the original traditional food. Thus it is necessary to individuate appropriated technologies and strategies to increase le level of garantee offered to the consumer in order to promote the consumption of traditional foods with the promised quality and safety. In this paper the role that the modern food technology and the food science can assume to improve the processing conditions and yields, introducing some innovations into the old processes will be pointed out. Furthermore, the characterization of the complexity of the chemical, chemico-physical and rheological properties that influence the whole sensorial aspect of traditional foods, both from animal and vegetal (and fruit origin, is a growing challenge of the food science since the new analytical methodologies now available. In the paper some example of objective characterization and introduction of innovation steps are reported as well as genuinity marker individuation in order to give sustainability to the production of traditional foods in particular in SME.

  10. Combined effects of food deprivation and food frequency on the amount and temporal distribution of schedule-induced drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, José Luis; Pellón, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    Under intermittent food schedules animals develop temporally organized behaviors throughout interfood intervals, with behaviors early in the intervals (interim) normally occurring in excess. Schedule-induced drinking (a prototype of interim, adjunctive behavior) is related to food deprivation and food frequency. This study investigated the interactions that resulted from combining different food-deprivation levels (70%, 80% or 90% free-feeding weights) with different food-occurrence frequencies (15-, 30- or 60-s interfood intervals) in a within-subjects design. Increases in food deprivation and food frequency generally led to increased licking, with greater differences due to food deprivation as interfood intervals became shorter. Distributions of licking were modestly shifted to later in the interfood interval as interfood intervals lengthened, a result that was most marked under 90% food deprivation, which also resulted in flatter distributions. It would therefore appear that food deprivation modulates the licking rate and the distribution of licking in different ways. Effects of food deprivation and food frequency are adequately explained by a theory of adjunctive behavior based on delayed food reinforcement, in contrast to alternative hypotheses. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Effects of baclofen and naltrexone, alone and in combination, on the consumption of palatable food in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    Excess consumption of palatable food has been shown to affect reward-related brain regions, and pharmaceutical treatments for drug addiction may also be effective in treating overeating of such foods. The GABA-B agonist baclofen and opioid antagonist naltrexone have both been used to treat addiction, and have been shown to suppress intake of certain foods. The combination of these drugs has shown to be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than either drug alone. The present study assessed the effects of naltrexone and baclofen, alone and in combination, on intake of foods comprised of various macronutrients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 12-hr daily access to chow and a fat emulsion, sugar-fat emulsion, or a sugar solution for 21 days. Rats were then administered (intraperitoneal) baclofen-naltrexone combinations (0.1 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.0 mg/kg baclofen, 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.8 mg/kg baclofen), and naltrexone (0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) alone. The high dose of the baclofen-naltrexone combination reduced palatable food intake in both the fat and sugar-fat groups compared with vehicle, without affecting chow consumption in these groups. Naltrexone showed little significant effects on intake of either palatable food or chow. Baclofen also reduced palatable food intake in the fat and fat-sugar groups, but differences were only noted between the low and high dose. The combination of baclofen and naltrexone may be a useful tool in selectively targeting the consumption of high-fat and sugar- and fat-rich foods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991.

  13. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  14. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  15. Nutrient and Food Group Analysis in the 2016 ASA24® System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, clinicians, and educators can use the ASA24 system to analyze 65 nutrients and 37 food groups (U.S. and Canadian versions) from food recall or record data. Analyses for ASA24-Australia-2016 provide 41 nutrients and no food groups.

  16. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-10-11

    © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Frequently, models are required to combine information obtained from different data sources and on different scales. In this work, we are interested in estimating the risk of wildfire ignition in the USA for a particular time and location by merging two levels of data, namely, individual points and aggregate count of points into areas. The data for federal lands consist of the point location and time of each fire. Nonfederal fires are aggregated by county for a particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence of a latent process, and fuel conditions are included as a covariate. The model assessment is based on a residual analysis, while the False Discovery Rate detects spatial patterns. A benefit of the proposed model is that there is no need of arbitrary aggregation of individual fires into counts. A map of predicted probability of ignition for the Midwest US in 1990 is included. The predicted ignition probabilities and the estimated total number of expected fires are required for the allocation of resources.

  17. Effects of Group Prenatal Care on Food Insecurity during Late Pregnancy and Early Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Frongillo, Edward A; Picklesimer, Amy H; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    This study compared the effects of group to individual prenatal care in late pregnancy and early postpartum on (1) women's food security and (2) psychosocial outcomes among food-insecure women. We recruited 248 racially diverse, low-income, pregnant women receiving CenteringPregnancy™ group prenatal care (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124) to complete surveys in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and early postpartum, with 84 % completing three surveys. Twenty-six percent of group and 31 % of individual care participants reported food insecurity in early pregnancy (p = 0.493). In multiple logistic regression models, women choosing group versus individual care were more likely to report food security in late pregnancy (0.85 vs. 0.66 average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p = 0.052) in intention-to-treat models. Group participants were more likely to change perceptions on affording healthy foods and stretching food resources. Group compared to individual care participants with early pregnancy food insecurity demonstrated higher maternal-infant attachment scale scores (89.8 vs. 86.2 points for individual care, p = 0.032). Group prenatal care provides health education and the opportunity for women to share experiences and knowledge, which may improve food security through increasing confidence and skills in managing household food resources. Health sector interventions can complement food assistance programs in addressing food insecurity during pregnancy.

  18. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  19. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  20. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  1. Non-dairy probiotic food products: An emerging group of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R; Mason, Susan L; Hussain, Malik A

    2018-04-09

    The functional food sector has shown tremendous growth in recent years with the application of probiotic bacteria as "food additives". The utilization of probiotic bacteria in food presents many challenges related to their growth, survival, viability, stability and functionality in food processing, storage and consumption as well as changes of sensory characteristics of probiotic foods. Although dairy foods are currently the most common food carrier to deliver probiotics, an increasing number of non-dairy food matrices exhibit potential for delivery of probiotics. This review provides more recent insight into the emergence of non-dairy probiotics products, the interactions between probiotics and different food matrices and the challenges in developing such products. Some of the technical issues are also reviewed and discussed. These issues include the efficacy of probiotic bacteria in non-chilled, low pH or high water activity foods; the potential loss of bacterial viability, additionally unwanted fermentation and changes of the sensory characteristics of food products which may result in poor microbiological quality and low acceptability to consumers.

  2. Food micro systems : report on Focus Group on Consumers' Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This report forms part of the deliverables from a project called "FoodMicroSystems" which has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 287634. The Community is not responsible for any use that might be made of the content of this

  3. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  4. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seconda, Louise; Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Hamza, Oualid; Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Soler, Louis-Georges; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-12

    Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed). Conv-NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv-Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org-NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org-Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org-Med and Conv-Med groups compared to the Conv-NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points): 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.23-9.36) and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24-9.35) versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17-8.22)) respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01-1.74) for the Org-Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28-0.60) for the Conv-NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org-Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34-11.52). This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain.

  5. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human...... and environmental exposure. Comparative pesticide substitution scenarios are presented to address this need. In a case study on wheat, different pesticides have been compared with respect to their substitution potential with focus on human health. Results demonstrate that health impacts can be reduced up to 99......% by defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use...

  6. Reproducibility and relative validity of food group intake in a food frequency questionnaire developed for Nepalese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Connell, Frederik A; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Shrestha, Pramita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2017-08-01

    We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to measure the dietary practices of adult Nepalese. The present study examined the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, 116 subjects completed two 115-item FFQ across a four-month interval. Six 24-h dietary recalls were collected (1 each month) to assess the validity of the FFQ. Seven major food groups and 23 subgroups were clustered from the FFQ based on macronutrient composition. Spearman correlation coefficients evaluating reproducibility for all food groups were greater than 0.5, with the exceptions of oil. The correlations varied from 0.41 (oil) to 0.81 (vegetables). All crude spearman coefficients for validity were greater than 0.5 except for dairy products, pizzas/pastas and sausage/burgers. The FFQ was found to be reliable and valid for ranking the intake of food groups for Nepalese dietary intake.

  7. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A.; Silva, Fabio F. da

    2009-01-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day -1 per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  8. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-01-01

    particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence

  9. Effects of combination processes on the nutritive value of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment with ionizing radiation can reduce the nutritive value of foodstuffs, particularly the levels of certain vitamins. Combination treatments can either aggravate or ameliorate these effects. Considerable losses can occur when irradiation is combined with heating. On the other hand, if irradiation is carried out at low temperature, or with oxygen-free packing, or in the presence of added antioxidants, radiation-induced changes can be minimized. A review of the literature and of the author's work in this field is presented, and some areas of uncertainty which demand further research are mentioned. (author)

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S AGRO-FOOD EXPORT AND IMPORT BY EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRY GROUP AND AGRO-FOOD PRODUCT GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of Romania’s the agro-food export, import and trade balance by the EU country group and agro-food product group based on the statistical data in the year 2010 in order to identify the commercial relationships with a positive and respectively a negative impact of the trade balance. The EU trade partners were divided into 4 groups: Central Eastern (CE, Western (W, Northern (N and Southern (S EU countries and the agro-food product groups were: Live animals and preparations of animal origin, Vegetal products, Fats and oils of vegetal and animal origin, Food, beverages and tobacco. The data were processed using the share and comparison methods. In 2010, Romania registered a negative agro-food trade balance with a deficit of Euro thousand 903,148.This was due to the unefficient commerce with the CE and W EU countries, which together recorded Euro Thousand 1,400,298 deficit. The balance was positively influenced by the Southern EU trade partners whose contribution accounted for Euro thousand 513,953. Therefore, the agro-food trade has to be intensified with the Southern EU countries and to become more relaxed with the CE and W EU countries, especially regarding imports. Live animals are mainly required in the CE and W EU countries, vegetal products in the W and S EU countries, fats and oils in the CE and S EU countries, and finally, food, beverages and tobacco in the S and the CE EU countries. Agro-food imports have to be substantially diminished as long as Romania’ s agriculture is able to produce for the internal market and export has to be intensified especially with the countries with a positive impact on the trade balance.

  11. Energy contribution of NOVA food groups and sociodemographic determinants of ultra-processed food consumption in the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrón-Ponce, Joaquín A; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Batis, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    To identify the energy contributions of NOVA food groups in the Mexican diet and the associations between individual sociodemographic characteristics and the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods (UPF). We classified foods and beverages reported in a 24 h recall according to the NOVA food framework into: (i) unprocessed or minimally processed foods; (ii) processed culinary ingredients; (iii) processed foods; and (iv) UPF. We estimated the energy contribution of each food group and ran a multiple linear regression to identify the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and UPF energy contribution. Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Individuals ≥1 years old (n 10 087). Unprocessed or minimally processed foods had the highest dietary energy contribution (54·0 % of energy), followed by UPF (29·8 %), processed culinary ingredients (10·2 %) and processed foods (6·0 %). The energy contribution of UPF was higher in: pre-school-aged children v. other age groups (3·8 to 12·5 percentage points difference (pp)); urban areas v. rural (5·6 pp); the Central and North regions v. the South (2·7 and 8·4 pp, respectively); medium and high socio-economic status v. low (4·5 pp, in both); and with higher head of household educational level v. without education (3·4 to 7·8 pp). In 2012, about 30 % of energy in the Mexican diet came from UPF. Our results showed that younger ages, urbanization, living in the North region, high socio-economic status and high head of household educational level are sociodemographic factors related to higher consumption of UPF in Mexico.

  12. Investigation of food irradiation technology for application to plant quarantine. Working group report of food irradiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi; Ito, Hitoshi; Takatani, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Haruki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hirano, Tsuyoshi; Tokunaga, Okihiro

    1999-06-01

    The commercialization of food irradiation in Japan was started in 1973 for the sprout inhibition of potatoes as the first successful food irradiation facility in the world. Since approval of potato irradiation, no items has been commercialized in Japan. However, international agreement for phase out of methyl bromide after 2005 and increasing incidences of foodborn diseases such as by Escherichia coli O157:H7 are forcing to have interesting to food irradiation. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment has long experiences on research of irradiation effect and engineering of food irradiation in Japan. From these back ground, working group of food irradiation was organized at August 1997 by some members of Department of Radiation Research for Environment and Resources and Advanced Technology Center for supporting technically on commercialization of food irradiation. This report presents the result of discussion in working group on generalization up to date researches of food irradiation, application fields and items, technical problems and future prospects of this technology in Japan. (author)

  13. Searching to combine technologies for safer food attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Imbroinise Azeredo Caruso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an infection frequently acquired through the consumption of animal origin products. Chicken can be considered the main responsible cause in the transmission chain of this disease. Ionizing radiation was used to verify the reduction of the microbiological load of Campylobacter jejuni present in chicken liver, which, in natura, can present contamination in up to 100% of the cases. The doses of irradiation used were: 0.20 kGy, 0.27 kGy, 0.30 kGy and 0.35 kGy. The samples of chicken liver were acquired in aviaries, local supermarkets and large chain supermarkets. The samples were analyzed for Campylobacter at FIOCRUZ. Irradiation was performed at COPPE/UFRJ, using a Gamma Cell Irradiator with a 60Co gamma source. Only the frozen sample acquired at the local supermarket did not contain the bacterium. Campylobacter sp. was present in all other samples, even when using procedures and technologies that aimed at the impediment of the presence of this bacterium in food and, consequently, at the protection of human health. On the whole, the results were satisfactory; nevertheless, it is known that the bacterial growth conditions required by this bacterium are uncommon when compared to other enteropathogenic bacteria.

  14. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION THE COMBINED FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Manzhesov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In work of work the choice of use of lupin’s flour is reasonable, her physical and chemical indicators are studied. The technological scheme of development of the combined meat and cereal products of a functional orientation is developed and proved. The chemical composition of a ready-made product is investigated. Balance of amino-acid structure is noted that allows to carry meat and cereal meatballs «Domashnie obogashhennye» to functional products. Calculation of economic efficiency has shown that production is expedient. The net profit will make 2731,96 rub. Level of profitability has made 17,02%.

  15. Food group consumption in an Italian population using the updated food classification system FoodEx2: Results from the Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey (INHES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, G; Bonanni, A; Ruggiero, E; Di Castelnuovo, A; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Bonaccio, M; Cerletti, C; Riccardi, G; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2017-04-01

    Dietary habits evolve over time, being influenced by many factors and complex interactions. This work aimed at evaluating the updated information on food group consumption in Italy. A total of 8944 (4768 women and 4176 men) participants aged >18 years from all over Italy recruited in 2010-13 (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) was analyzed. The recruitment was performed using computer-assisted-telephone-interviewing and one-day 24-h dietary recall retrieved from all participants. The updated, second version, of FoodEx2 food classification system was applied to extract data on food group consumption. The participation rate was 53%; 6.2% of the participants declared to follow a special diet, the most prevalent being hypo-caloric diets (55.7% of special diets). Men compared to women presented significantly higher intakes of "grains and grain-based products", "meat and meat products", "animal and vegetable fats and oils and primary derivatives" and "alcoholic beverages" (P for alldiets, food imitates and food supplements" (P for all<0.001). Differences in food group intake among age groups, geographical regions and educational level groups were also identified (P for all<0.05). Data on the consumption of more than 70 food groups and sub-groups were illustrated in different strata. The present analysis could be considered as an updated source of information for future nutrition research in Italy and in the EU. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Food Parenting Measurement Issues: Working Group Consensus Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Frankel, Leslie A.; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on...

  17. Staff Food-Related Behaviors and Children's Tastes of Food Groups during Lunch at Child Care in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anundson, Katherine; Sisson, Susan B; Anderson, Michael; Horm, Diane; Soto, Jill; Hoffman, Leah

    2017-10-04

    Young children should consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods to support growth, while limiting added fat and sugar. A majority of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years attend child care in the United States, which makes this environment and the child-care staff influential at meals. The aim was to determine the association between best-practice food-related behaviors and young children's tastes of fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, and high-fat/high-sugar foods at child care. This was a cross-sectional study. A community-based study with 201 children ages 3 to 5 years from 25 early care and education centers, including 11 tribally affiliated centers and two Head Start programs across Oklahoma. Data collection occurred from fall 2011 to spring 2014. Classroom observations used the Environmental Policy Assessment Observation tool to measure the staff behaviors and environment. Staff behavior was compared at three different levels: the composite score of staff nutrition behavior, each constituent staff behavior, and staff behaviors grouped into broader feeding behaviors. Tasted food was measured through the Dietary Observation in Child Care method. The children's meals were categorized into the following food groups: fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, fried vegetable, fried meat, high-fat meat, and high-fat/high-sugar food. Descriptive statistics were calculated for relevant variables. Relationships between the constituent staff behaviors and food groups that children tasted were compared using multilevel mixed-model analysis. The mean number of tasted fruit or vegetable items was higher and the mean number of tasted high-fat/high-sugar food items was lower when staff: 1) determined fullness before plate removal when less than half of food was eaten, 2) ate with the children, 3) and talked about healthy food. The utilization of the three staff behaviors and their association with higher mean tastes of nutrient-dense items and lower mean tastes of high

  18. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-27

    To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study-EPIC-Norfolk. East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Complete FFQ data from 11 250 men and 13 602 women (mean age 59 years; range 40-79 years). Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113 kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175 kJ (2630) in men, 8091 kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255 g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations.

  19. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  20. Combination processes for food irradiation. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing consumer demand for food that is safe, minimally processed, visually attractive, full flavoured, nutritious, and convenient to prepare and serve, that has fewer preservatives, and that is available throughout the year at an affordable cost. Consumer concern and regulatory restrictions on the use of preservatives and pesticides in food are adversely affecting international trade in many food products. As a result, minimally processed, chilled foods and ready to eat foods are increasingly being marketed to satisfy consumer demand in both developed and developing countries. However, such foods could introduce new microbiological risks to the population, especially to those who are immunocompromised or generally at risk (children, pregnant women, the elderly, etc.). In view of these factors, a 5 year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Irradiation in Combination with Other Processes for Improving Food Quality was initiated in 1991 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency through their Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The objectives of this CRP were to evaluate: 1) Combination treatment involving irradiation in order to extend the self-life of meat, seafood, fruits and vegetables at refrigeration temperatures and under ambient conditions; 2) Combination treatment involving irradiation in order to ensure the microbiological safety of foods, both individual and composite, including prepared meals; 3) Shelf-life extension of chilled, prepared meals and the development of shelf stable food and food components through combination treatment involving irradiation; 4) Energy requirements of combination processes involving irradiation in comparison to other food processes. Scientists from 14 countries participated in the CRP by carrying out the work under Research Contracts and Agreements with the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first Research Co

  1. Enhanced evaluation data initiates a collaborative out-of-school time food sponsors work group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Robin; Williams, Lauren A; Grode, Gabrielle M; Roberts-Johnson, Wendy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Philadelphia's Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Out-of-School Time (OST) Initiative led by the Health Promotion Council developed 10 Healthy Living Guidelines for Out-of-School Time Programs to support a healthy environment for Philadelphia youth in 200 OST programs. Health Promotion Council participated in an enhanced cross-site evaluation with the national Robert Wood Johnson Foundation evaluator during the final year of funding to learn more about food and nutrition in the OST setting, and to share data and engage the OST food providers. A plate waste study measured the quantity and nutrition composition of meals served to youth compared to food not eaten. Staff interviews measured program adherence to the Healthy Living Guidelines, along with other facets of the food environment in 7 Philadelphia OST programs. Online surveys were sent to OST programs. Food providers (sponsors) were interviewed using Appreciative Inquiry methodology to gain insight into systems, goals, and common interests. Aggregated plate waste data from 7 observations showed an average of 42% of the food uneaten after meal/snack consumption, and high sodium content of the meals. Twenty-nine staff at OST programs completed the online survey, and 3 food sponsors were interviewed. Recommendations to improve the food included increasing variety, offering more salads, fruits and vegetables, and culturally appropriate foods. Food sponsor interviews showed a variety of meal production, distribution, service and training systems, and an interest in working together. The food sponsors met to review the data and prioritized common goals. They continue to work together to improve systems and meals for food service. A food sponsors work group formed and continues as a result of sharing enhanced cross-site data about food in OST settings. Food sponsors continue to work together to improve systems and nutritional offerings for Philadelphia OST programs.

  2. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  3. 76 FR 70520 - Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal Energy, Inc., Sun Motor International, Inc... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Sun Cal Energy, Inc. because it has not... Sun Motor International, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  4. Exploring the perceived usefulness of practical food groups in day treatment for individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiscombe, Rachel J; Scanlan, Justin Newton; Ross, Jessica; Horsfield, Sarah; Aradas, Jessica; Hart, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Recovery from eating disorders is a challenging process. Emerging literature suggests that occupational therapists may provide a useful contribution in delivering purposeful eating-related interventions as a potential treatment to support sustained cognitive and behavioural changes for individuals with eating disorders. This study aimed to evaluate participants' perceptions of the contribution of occupational therapy practical food groups (food based outings and cooking groups) in supporting their functional recovery. Individuals attended practical food groups as part of standard treatment at an outpatient eating disorders day program. Ninety-nine participants completed questionnaires at discharge and up to three follow-up points (6, 12 and 24 months). Questions related to practical food groups were analysed, exploring participants' experiences and perceived usefulness of groups using rating-scale and open-ended questions. Open-ended responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for responses to rating-scale questions. At discharge, participants rated the importance and usefulness of practical food groups as high (4.73 and 4.43 on 5-point scales, respectively), but tended to rate their enjoyment of the groups lower (3.50 on a 5-point scale). Some skill transfer was typically reported by participants at discharge (3.92 on a 5-point scale). One core theme, 'success through participation', emerged from qualitative comments. Six subthemes were also identified: helpful components of practical food groups; perceived benefit of exposure; impact of applying cognitive and behavioural skills; challenges affecting participation; facilitating adaptation; and influence of eating disorders on challenging feared foods. This study highlights that participation in practical food groups was perceived as useful in assisting individuals to improve eating behaviours and, in some circumstances, transfer these skills into their lives outside of

  5. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  6. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  7. Mothers of young children cluster into 4 groups based on psychographic food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-08-01

    This study explored how mothers grouped into clusters according to multiple psychographic food decision influencers and how the clusters differed in nutrient intake and nutrient content of their household food supply. Mothers (n = 201) completed a survey assessing basic demographic characteristics, food shopping and meal preparation activities, self and spouse employment, exposure to formal food or nutrition education, education level and occupation, weight status, nutrition and food preparation knowledge and skill, family member health and nutrition status, food decision influencer constructs, and dietary intake. In addition, an in-home inventory of 100 participants' household food supplies was conducted. Four distinct clusters presented when 26 psychographic food choice influencers were evaluated. These clusters appear to be valid and robust classifications of mothers in that they discriminated well on the psychographic variables used to construct the clusters as well as numerous other variables not used in the cluster analysis. In addition, the clusters appear to transcend demographic variables that often segment audiences (eg, race, mother's age, socioeconomic status), thereby adding a new dimension to the way in which this audience can be characterized. Furthermore, psychographically defined clusters predicted dietary quality. This study demonstrates that mothers are not a homogenous group and need to have their unique characteristics taken into consideration when designing strategies to promote health. These results can help health practitioners better understand factors affecting food decisions and tailor interventions to better meet the needs of mothers.

  8. Measurement invariance of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 across gender and racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Meagan M; Catak, Pelin D; Pejsa-Reitz, Megan C; Saules, Karen K; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2017-08-01

    Food addiction describes a psychological and behavioral eating pattern that is similar to the experience of those compulsively taking drugs of abuse. Recent developments related to food addiction, including the development and validation of an updated measure (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0; Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2016), have increased knowledge as to the prevalence and associated correlates of food addiction. However, less is known about the phenomenological experience of food addiction in diverse samples or how the existing measure of food addiction performs in heterogeneous samples. In a cross-sectional survey design, using a diverse sample of undergraduate students (N = 642) tests of measurement invariance were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized factor structure, indicating a single latent construct of food addiction modeled by 11 dichotomous indicators, in samples of White and Black participants as well as samples of men and women. Measurement invariance testing across the various demographic groups broadly provided good psychometric support for use of the measure. However, a single indicator related to attempts to cut down on highly palatable food varied across men and women. Thus, when using the measure in mixed gender samples researchers may consider obtaining additional information regarding gender and its relative impact on the experience of food addiction, particularly with respect to efforts to quit or cut down intake of highly palatable foods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriguet, Didier

    2010-12-01

    To calculate total intake of a nutrient and estimate inadequate intake for a population, the amounts derived from food/beverages and from vitamin/mineral supplements must be combined. The two methods Statistics Canada has suggested present problems of interpretation. Data collected from 34,386 respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare four methods of combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements: adding average intake from supplements to the 24-hour food/beverage recall and estimating the usual distribution in the population (Method 1); estimating usual individual intake from food? beverages and adding intake from supplements (Method 2); and dividing the population into supplement users and non-users and applying Method 1 or Method 2 and combining the estimates based on the percentages of users and non-users (Methods 3 and 4). Interpretation problems arise with Methods 1 and 2; for example, the percentage of the population with inadequate intake of vitamin C and folate equivalents falls outside the expected minimum-maximum range. These interpretation problems are not observed with Methods 3 and 4. Interpretation problems that may arise in combining food and supplement intake of a given nutrient are overcome if the population is divided into supplement users and non-users before Method 1 or Method 2 is applied.

  10. The food-pharma interface: consequences of combined use of functional foods and statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.R.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that most chronic diseases are multifactorial in origin. The focus of this thesis was cardiovascular disease (CVD), a multifactorial disease in which a combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the aetiology and progression of the disease. To

  11. Combined effect of heat sterilization and ionizing radiation on folacin in canned food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.

    1986-01-01

    The results are reported of a study in folacin changes following heat sterilization at reduced intensity combined with irradiation of model food products, such as pickled cauliflower and beef in gravy. The folacin content in cauliflower was found to vary with the intensity of heat sterilization; no significant effect was observed of varying radiation doses. With respect to beef in gravy, the study confirmed the suitability of the combined preservation process in view of the higher folacin retention in the given food type. (author). 3 tabs., 14 refs

  12. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  13. From mothers to daughters: transgenerational food and diet communication in an underserved group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane Baer; Musham, Catherine; McLellan, Mary S

    2004-01-01

    Studies show that young girls are highly influenced by their mothers' attitudes toward food and body image. To investigate the nature of the information about food that mothers transfer to their daughters, the researchers used focus groups comprising African American women. Results suggest that when educators work with low-income African American women, they should be cognizant of overeating from the perspectives of early food scarcity, reverence for the mother's authoritative role in the family and respect for cultural differences in body size norms. In addition, nutrition educators should counsel young mothers to understand the impact of their eating habits on their daughters.

  14. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  15. 15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants. L'ionisation combinee au froid dans les industries agro-alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisseau, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Physiologie Vegetale et Ecosystemes)

    1991-04-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research.

  17. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  18. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, E; Amiano, P; Ege, M; Bower, E; Lioret, S; Brants, H; Kaic-Rak, A; de Boer, E J; Andersen, L F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren. A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark. Each child and one of their parents completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a FRB, followed by a 7-day-estimated FR. Energy intake was significantly higher with the 24-HDR method than with the 7-dFR method for both age groups. Mean energy intake was 6% higher for the youngest (P = 0.02) and 11% for the oldest children (P = 0.01); underreporting of energy occurs among the oldest children, being less present with the 24-HDR method. The intakes of carbohydrate and dietary fiber (absolute and related to energy) were significantly higher with the 24-HDR than with the 7-dFR for both age groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences between the two methods were observed for absolute intake of fat and added sugar between both age groups, and for intake of protein among the 7- to 8-year olds. The percentage of energy intake from fat from the 24-HDR, however, was significantly lower for both age groups and for energy intake from added sugar for the 12- to 13-year olds. The 2 × 24-HDR method compared with the 7-dFR yields relatively good values on the group level for many macronutrients and foods. However, some differences in estimated intakes of macronutrients suggest the need to carefully adapt the tools to be age and country specific. There is a tendency for parents and schoolchildren to report a healthier diet

  19. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  20. Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niiranen, S.; Yletyinen, J.; Tomczak, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional...... biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future......Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed...

  1. Development of sterilized porridge for patients by combined treatment of food technology with radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok

    2010-09-01

    This research was conducted to develop patient foods of high quality using a radiation fusion technology with food processing. Radiation technique to increase calorie of porridge was established, and it was investigated that radiation effects on functional materials, which can could be added to increase functionality of patient foods. Moreover, sterilized semi-fluid meal (milk porridge) for patients with higher calorie was developed by a sterilization process by gamma irradiation, combined treatments to improve the sensory qualities, and fortification with various nutrients. Also, sensory survey on irradiated commercial patient foods was performed to find the problems and improvement points of the developed products. Optimal packaging material was selected by evaluation of effect of irradiation in packaging materials and a convenient package for consuming by patients was decided. Safety of the irradiated milk porridge was confirmed by in-vivo genotoxicological test, and its nutritional composition for patients was evaluated by nutritional analysis. Finally, the milk porridge was developed as liquid, dried, powdered, and pellet type products. This research may contribute to improve life quality of patients by supplement of various foods with high quality to immuno-compromised patients. Furthermore, economic profits and technological advances are expected by commercialization of the patient foods

  2. Development of sterilized porridge for patients by combined treatment of food technology with radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok; and others

    2010-09-15

    This research was conducted to develop patient foods of high quality using a radiation fusion technology with food processing. Radiation technique to increase calorie of porridge was established, and it was investigated that radiation effects on functional materials, which can could be added to increase functionality of patient foods. Moreover, sterilized semi-fluid meal (milk porridge) for patients with higher calorie was developed by a sterilization process by gamma irradiation, combined treatments to improve the sensory qualities, and fortification with various nutrients. Also, sensory survey on irradiated commercial patient foods was performed to find the problems and improvement points of the developed products. Optimal packaging material was selected by evaluation of effect of irradiation in packaging materials and a convenient package for consuming by patients was decided. Safety of the irradiated milk porridge was confirmed by in-vivo genotoxicological test, and its nutritional composition for patients was evaluated by nutritional analysis. Finally, the milk porridge was developed as liquid, dried, powdered, and pellet type products. This research may contribute to improve life quality of patients by supplement of various foods with high quality to immuno-compromised patients. Furthermore, economic profits and technological advances are expected by commercialization of the patient foods.

  3. Overview of applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M, E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Severino, R. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Univ. of Salerno, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Vu, K.D. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Donsi, F. [Univ. of Salerno, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Salmieri, S. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Ferrari, G. [Univ. of Salerno, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Fisciano, SA (Italy); ProdAl Scarl, Competence Center on Agro-Food Productions, Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Natural antimicrobials (NA) were tested for their efficiency at increasing bacterial relative radiosensitivity (BRR) and, therefore, reducing the radiation dose necessary to eliminate pathogens in meat and vegetables. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility of using NA in combination to radiation to increase food shelf life, NA were added to food at low concentrations (which do not affect the sensory properties). Then, a bioactive coating formulation was developed to allow retention of the bioactivity of the NA during storage time. Results showed that NA, can increase BRR from 2 to 4 times and lower the dose necessary to eliminate a pathogen by a factor of 3 to 4. (author)

  4. Overview of applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M; Severino, R.; Vu, K.D.; Donsi, F.; Salmieri, S.; Ferrari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials (NA) were tested for their efficiency at increasing bacterial relative radiosensitivity (BRR) and, therefore, reducing the radiation dose necessary to eliminate pathogens in meat and vegetables. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility of using NA in combination to radiation to increase food shelf life, NA were added to food at low concentrations (which do not affect the sensory properties). Then, a bioactive coating formulation was developed to allow retention of the bioactivity of the NA during storage time. Results showed that NA, can increase BRR from 2 to 4 times and lower the dose necessary to eliminate a pathogen by a factor of 3 to 4. (author)

  5. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Justine; González-Martínez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-08-15

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to the food packaging requirements. Starch, in particular, is very water sensitive and its film properties are heavily dependent on the moisture content, exhibiting relatively low mechanical resistance. PLA films are very brittle and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. Their combination as blend or multilayer films could provide properties that are more adequate for packaging purposes on the basis of their complementary characteristics. The main characteristics of PLA and starch in terms of not only the barrier and mechanical properties of their films but also of their combinations, by using blending or multilayer strategies, have been analyzed, identifying components or processes that favor the polymer compatibility and the good performance of the combined materials. The properties of some blends/combinations have been discussed in comparison with those of pure polymer films.

  6. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to the food packaging requirements. Starch, in particular, is very water sensitive and its film properties are heavily dependent on the moisture content, exhibiting relatively low mechanical resistance. PLA films are very brittle and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. Their combination as blend or multilayer films could provide properties that are more adequate for packaging purposes on the basis of their complementary characteristics. The main characteristics of PLA and starch in terms of not only the barrier and mechanical properties of their films but also of their combinations, by using blending or multilayer strategies, have been analyzed, identifying components or processes that favor the polymer compatibility and the good performance of the combined materials. The properties of some blends/combinations have been discussed in comparison with those of pure polymer films. PMID:28809808

  7. 78 FR 78063 - Appendix 4 to Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... small or very small businesses that are engaged only in specific types of on-farm food production... Vol. 78 Tuesday, No. 247 December 24, 2013 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services Food... Risk of Activity/ Food Combinations for Activities (Outside the Farm Definition) Conducted in a...

  8. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Approaches to influencing food choice across the age groups: from children to the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-05-01

    Nutrition across the lifespan encompasses both preventative and treatment options to maintain health and vitality. This review will focus on the challenge of overconsumption of energy relative to energy expenditure and the consequent development of overweight and obesity, since they are responsible for much of the burden of chronic disease in the developed world. Understanding the mechanisms of hunger and satiety and how particular foodstuffs and nutrients affect appetite and motivation to eat is important for evidence-based interventions to achieve weight control and design of community-wide dietary strategies that reach across the lifespan. Food reformulation for appetite control and weight management requires a knowledge of the mechanisms of hunger and satiety, how food interacts with peripheral and central regulatory systems, and how these interactions change across the lifecourse, allied to the technical capability to generate, evaluate and develop new ingredients and foods with enhanced biological potency based on these mechanisms. Two European Union-funded research projects, Full4Health and SATIN, are adopting these complementary approaches. These research projects straddle the sometimes conflicted ground between justifiable public health concerns on the one hand and the food and drink industry on the other. These multi-disciplinary projects pull together expertise in nutrition, neuroimaging, psychology and food technology that combines with food industry partners to maximise expected impact of the research. Better knowledge of mechanisms regulating hunger/satiety will lead to evidence base for preventive strategies for the European population, to reduction of chronic disease burden and to increased competitiveness of European food industry through the development of new food products.

  10. Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascompte, Jordi; Melián, Carlos J; Sala, Enric

    2005-04-12

    The stability of ecological communities largely depends on the strength of interactions between predators and their prey. Here we show that these interaction strengths are structured nonrandomly in a large Caribbean marine food web. Specifically, the cooccurrence of strong interactions on two consecutive levels of food chains occurs less frequently than expected by chance. Even when they occur, these strongly interacting chains are accompanied by strong omnivory more often than expected by chance. By using a food web model, we show that these interaction strength combinations reduce the likelihood of trophic cascades after the overfishing of top predators. However, fishing selectively removes predators that are overrepresented in strongly interacting chains. Hence, the potential for strong community-wide effects remains a threat.

  11. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    compromising food shelf-life or safety. Natural antimicrobial compounds have therefore gained increased interest as a label-friendly alternative that can be added directly to food products. Although natural antimicrobials constitute an interesting source of compounds, it is often not understood how...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  12. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...

  13. Do stakeholder groups influence environmental management system development in the Dutch agri-food sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Haverkamp, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey that included 492 companies in the Dutch agri-food sector with respect to the influence of stakeholder groups on the companies' level of environmental management system (EMS) implementation. It is concluded that primary stakeholders (government, clients)

  14. 78 FR 15894 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    .... FDA-2012-N-1258] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for... comment period for a document entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/ [[Page... ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside the Farm...

  15. 78 FR 64428 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    .... FDA-2013-N-1043] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for... entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...(n) of the FD&C Act. II. Qualitative Risk Assessment As explained in the draft RA, we conducted the...

  16. 78 FR 3824 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    .... FDA-2012-N-1258] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for... entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside... defined in the regulation promulgated under section 418(n) of the FD&C Act. II. Qualitative Risk...

  17. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods, by a combination of PCR and DNA probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingianni, A; Floris, M; Palomba, P; Madeddu, M A; Quartuccio, M; Pompei, R

    2001-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a frequent contaminant of water and foods. Its rapid detection is needed before some foods can be prepared for marketing. In this work L. monocytogenes has been searched for in foods, by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a DNA probe. Both PCR and the probe were prepared for recognizing a specific region of the internalin gene, which is responsible for the production of one of the most important pathogenic factors of Listeria. The combined use of PCR and the DNA probe was used for the detection of L. monocytogenes in over 180 environmental and food samples. Several detection methods were compared in this study, namely conventional culture methods; direct PCR; PCR after an enrichment step; a DNA probe alone; a DNA probe after enrichment and another commercially available gene-probe. Finally PCR and the DNA probe were used in series on all the samples collected. When the DNA probe was associated with the PCR, specific and accurate detection of listeria in the samples could be obtained in about a working-day. The present molecular method showed some advantages in terms of rapidity and specificity in comparison to the other aforementioned tests. In addition, it resulted as being easy to handle, even for non-specialized personnel in small diagnostic microbiology laboratories. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Inactivation of food-borne pathogens by combined high hydrostatic pressure and irradiation- a model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, Anu; Thomas, Paul; Kesavan, P.C.; Fotedar, R.

    1997-01-01

    Application of radiation or high pressure as a food processing method is comparatively recent development in food industry. To investigate the response to hydrostatic pressure, cells of pathogens at logarithmic phase were exposed to 200 MPa for various time intervals in saline as model system. The cells of Salmonella were observed to be most sensitive whereas Listeria monocytogenes were most resistant as revealed by 7 and 2 log cycle inactivation respectively in 10 min. The cells of Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica showed 3 long cycles reduction by the same treatment. Bacterial spores because of their resistant nature, are inactivated only at high radiation doses, which are technologically unfeasible. Studies carried out to examine the effectiveness of combination of pressure and radiation clearly suggested that combination treatment given in either sequence reduces the bacterial spore load more effectively than the individual treatment per se. (author)

  19. Sterilization of ready-to-cook Bibimbap by combined treatment with gamma irradiation for space food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Han, In-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Bibimbap, Korean traditional cooked rice mixed with various kinds of vegetables, together with mushrooms and a ground meat, and seasoned with red pepper paste, was developed as a ready-to-cook food by combined treatment with irradiation for the use in space. By gamma irradiation of 25 kGy, the total aerobic bacteria of Bibimbap that was initial by 6.3 log CFU/g decreased to below detection limit, but its sensory qualities were drastically decreased. To enhance the sensory quality, the effects of antioxidant in Bibimbap were evaluated. A treatment with 0.1% of vitamin C, vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiated at 25 kGy and -70 °C showed higher sensory scores than only the irradiation process. This result indicates that the radiation technology may be useful to produce a variety of space foods with high quality of taste and flavor, when combined with other methods.

  20. What are the key food groups to target for preventing obesity and improving nutrition in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A C; Swinburn, B A

    2004-02-01

    To determine differences in the contribution of foods and beverages to energy consumed in and out of school, and to compare consumption patterns between school canteen users and noncanteen users. Cross-sectional National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Australia. SUBJECTS ON SCHOOL DAYS: A total of 1656 children aged 5-15 y who had weekday 24-h dietary recall data. An average of 37% of total energy intake was consumed at school. Energy-dense foods and beverages such as fat spreads, packaged snacks, biscuits and fruit/cordial drinks made a greater contribution to energy intake at school compared to out of school (Pfoods and soft drinks contributed 11 and 3% of total energy intake; however, these food groups were mostly consumed out of school. Fruit intake was low and consumption was greater in school. In all, 14% of children purchased food from the canteen and they obtained more energy from fast food, packaged snacks, desserts, milk and confectionary (Pfoods and beverages are over-represented in the Australian school environment. To help prevent obesity and improve nutrition in schools, biscuits, snack bars and fruit/cordial drinks brought from home and fast food, packaged snacks, and confectionary sold at canteens should be replaced with fruit and water.

  1. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  2. Dioxins: validation of food frequency questionnaire and intake in a group of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Joanna; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata; Helbin, Jadwiga; Potocki, Artur

    2017-09-21

    A lot of has been heard about dioxins and dioxins-like compounds. These molecules are typically connected in public awareness with affairs. The main source of dioxins for humans is food (90% of typical exposition); thus, assessment of dioxins intake and monitoring of levels of dioxins in food remain an important issue. The aim of the presented work was checking the reproducibility of the authors' semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, focusing on products that may contain dioxins and related compounds among adolescents. The uptake of these compounds was also assessed using obtained data. For survey purposes, an album of food products from the questionnaire was constructed. A modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was constructed and distributed twice in a 2-week time span among 55, 15-year-old, students of secondary schools. The correlation coefficient for both declared frequencies and assessed amounts in the case of the majority of food items was above 0.70. The average assessed intake of dioxins and related compounds was 1.57pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, and 1.85 pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, during test and retest, respectively. The modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire is a reproducible tool that can be used for adolescents. Average intake in the analyzed group was lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake, but in contrast to other countries remains one of the highest intakes in a comparable age group. The main sources of dioxins exposition were fish (38%), and meat products.

  3. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  4. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Aburto, Tania C; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations. Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups. We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables. For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas. These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population. © 2016 American

  5. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming) was used ...

  6. The preservation of Listeria-critical foods by a combination of endolysin and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiou, Ourania; van Nassau, Tomas J; Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this work was to examine the combination of endolysin PlyP825 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing against a cocktail of stationary phase Listeria monocytogenes cells in several Listeria-critical food products (i.e. milk, mozzarella and smoked salmon). In order to determine the efficacy of the combined application, both challenge-lethality tests and storage tests were performed. In milk and mozzarella, we could demonstrate that the application of PlyP825 prior to HHP processing allowed for a synergistic inactivation of cells, a reduction in the pressure level with equal antimicrobial efficacy and an enhanced eradication of L. monocytogenes during storage at abuse temperatures. For smoked salmon, no such effects were detected. Although the efficacy of the method was highly dependent on the food vehicle and parameters applied, we hereby demonstrated the potential of the combined endolysin-HHP application for complete eradication of L. monocytogenes from foods at milder processing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of food-borne molds by combination of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    After enumerating the fungi responsible for food spoilage, work done on the factors influencing growth of fungi in stored foods is reviewed and the methods using heat, radiation or chemicals for control of food-borne molds are briefly surveyed. Work on combination process employing heat treatment and radiation treatment is reviewed in detail. The review covers the following aspects: (1) theory and engineering aspects of combination process of heat and radiation including modes of heat transfer, radiation physics, radiation sources, heat radiation effect and calculation of energy balance of the process, (2) biological effects of heat, radiation and heat-radiation combination treatments on mold growth with special reference to DNA and (3) application of the process for mold control in cereal products, nuts and raisins and fruits. Heat treatment and radiation treatment have been found to complement each other and when given in proper sequence show synergism. Design requirements of radiation sources and heat transfer equipment are also surveyed. (M.G.B.)

  8. PEF and UV combined system for pathogen microorganisms inactivation in liquid food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramariuc, R [Competence Center in Electrostatics and Electrotechnologies, Bucharest (Romania); Popa, M; Mitelut, A; Geicu, M [University of Agronomic Science and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest (Romania); Tudorache, A; Brinduse, E; Kontek, A; Fotescu, L [Research and Development Institute in Viticulture and Vinification Valea Calugareasca (Romania); Cramariuc, B [IT Center for Science and Technology, Bucharest (Romania); Nisiparu, L, E-mail: raducramariuc@yahoo.com [Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-06-23

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) treatment is a non-thermal food preservation technology based on the use of the electrical field in impulses applied in order to inactivate and control pathogen microorganisms in foods. This technology is highly appreciated for its ability to prolong the shelf life of the treated product without the use of heat and also for its ability to preserve the product's sensory qualities and nutritional value as well as for the microbiological control of the treated products. This paper presents the PEF and UV treatment methods, or a combination between the two, for microbe inactivation in liquid products. The experiments were carried out using yeasts, lactic bacteria and acetic bacteria in the following systems: stand-alone treatments (PEF or UV) or in combination (UV+PEF or PEF+UV). The results of these experiments showed that one can obtain total inactivation of microorganisms using the combined UV+PEF system, thus leading to the possibility of increasing liquid food products quality as compared to the quality obtained using thermal pasteurization.

  9. PEF and UV combined system for pathogen microorganisms inactivation in liquid food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramariuc, R.; Popa, M.; Tudorache, A.; Brînduşe, E.; Kontek, A.; Mitelut, A.; Fotescu, L.; Cramariuc, B.; Geicu, M.; Nisiparu, L.

    2011-06-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) treatment is a non-thermal food preservation technology based on the use of the electrical field in impulses applied in order to inactivate and control pathogen microorganisms in foods. This technology is highly appreciated for its ability to prolong the shelf life of the treated product without the use of heat and also for its ability to preserve the product's sensory qualities and nutritional value as well as for the microbiological control of the treated products. This paper presents the PEF and UV treatment methods, or a combination between the two, for microbe inactivation in liquid products. The experiments were carried out using yeasts, lactic bacteria and acetic bacteria in the following systems: stand-alone treatments (PEF or UV) or in combination (UV+PEF or PEF+UV). The results of these experiments showed that one can obtain total inactivation of microorganisms using the combined UV+PEF system, thus leading to the possibility of increasing liquid food products quality as compared to the quality obtained using thermal pasteurization.

  10. PEF and UV combined system for pathogen microorganisms inactivation in liquid food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramariuc, R; Popa, M; Mitelut, A; Geicu, M; Tudorache, A; Brinduse, E; Kontek, A; Fotescu, L; Cramariuc, B; Nisiparu, L

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) treatment is a non-thermal food preservation technology based on the use of the electrical field in impulses applied in order to inactivate and control pathogen microorganisms in foods. This technology is highly appreciated for its ability to prolong the shelf life of the treated product without the use of heat and also for its ability to preserve the product's sensory qualities and nutritional value as well as for the microbiological control of the treated products. This paper presents the PEF and UV treatment methods, or a combination between the two, for microbe inactivation in liquid products. The experiments were carried out using yeasts, lactic bacteria and acetic bacteria in the following systems: stand-alone treatments (PEF or UV) or in combination (UV+PEF or PEF+UV). The results of these experiments showed that one can obtain total inactivation of microorganisms using the combined UV+PEF system, thus leading to the possibility of increasing liquid food products quality as compared to the quality obtained using thermal pasteurization.

  11. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  12. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  13. Enhancing effectiveness of agriculture group in supporting government program to increase food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnowati, Daru; Subarjo, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    Food Security is closely related to agriculture, including fisheries. Food is a basic necessity and indispensable to humans. Nowadays, there are many agricultural lands and fisheries are turning to settlements and offices. To overcome these obstacles, the government took the policy of forming farmer groups. Farmer groups are channeling the government assistance, whether capital, seeds, training, or technology and knowledge assistance. This research is qualitative. The population in this study were members of the fish farming group in Purwomartani, Kalasan, Sleman. The population in this study were 4 Farmers Group in Purwomartani, Kalasan, Sleman. The sample in this research is 1 farmer group with the largest number of members that is 31 people. For the other three groups of fish farmers the number of members is 20 people. The results show that farmer groups are effective in supporting government programs. The role of farmer groups is needed to support the successful management of agricultural land, improvement of knowledge and skills of fish farmers, renewal of agricultural technology and equipment, and marketing of agricultural products.

  14. Dietary amino acid intakes associated with a low-phenylalanine diet combined with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods and neuropsychological outcomes in subjects with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides original data on median dietary intake of 18 amino acids from amino acid medical foods, glycomacropeptide medical foods, and natural foods based on 3-day food records obtained from subjects with phenylketonuria who consumed low-phenylalanine diets in combination with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods for 3 weeks each in a crossover design. The sample size of 30 subjects included 20 subjects with classical phenylketonuria and 10 with a milder or variant form of phenylketonuria. Results are presented for the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery; the tests were administered at the end of each 3-week dietary treatment with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods. The data are supplemental to our clinical trial, entitled “Glycomacropetide for nutritional management of phenylketonuria: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 2016 (1 and “Metabolomic changes demonstrate reduced bioavailability of tyrosine and altered metabolism of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway with ingestion of medical foods in phenylketonuria, 2017 (2. This data has been made public and has utility to clinicians and researchers due to the following: 1 This provides the first comprehensive report of typical intakes of 18 amino acids from natural foods, as well as amino acid and glycomacropeptide medical foods in adolescents and adults with phenylketonuria; and 2 This is the first evidence of similar standardized neuropsychological testing data in adolescents and adults with early-treated phenylketonuria who consumed amino acid and glycomacropeptide medical foods.

  15. Electron-beam and combined e-b and microwave processing of dried food ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.; Martin, D.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Oproiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There are summarized and presented the results on the irradiated dried food ingredients, as starches, flour, spices, enzymes, pigments. It has investigated the electron-beam and microwave processing to achieve the hygienic and microbiological quality requirements for these materials. There are presented the results regarding the e-b and microwave effects on the main specific parameters (nutritional; microbiological; physical and chemical) for each item. Irradiation has carried out to different electron accelerators, mainly to ALIN-7 linac (W e ∼6 MeV) and using a special designed microwave equipment (2.45 GHz magnetron of 850 W maximum output power). The samples have been irradiated up to 25 kGy (dose rate ∼ 2.0 kGy/min) and there were treated by microwaves (250 W-550 W) for different exposure time. There have analyzed and presented the influence of these two physical fields on some common physical, biochemical and microbiological properties (mainly the total germ count, CFU/g) of these food materials. The main technological and physical characteristics of the materials are preserved, under irradiation up to 10 kGy and microwave treatment in the case of satisfying the national requirements for food and food grade additives microbiological load. The combined treatment seems to be present a synergistic effect arising on non-thermal basis. From these results it could be pointed out that electron-beam and microwave treatment is feasible and represents an alternative to other hygienization techniques for the dried food ingredients. It should be considered that combined treatments lead to reducing irradiation dose without losing the microbicidal effects

  16. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during...

  17. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  18. Preservation of semi-perishable food and development of convenience food using a combination of irradiation and other physicochemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, N.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Youssouf, Q.M.; Rashid, H.; Begum, A.A.; Alam, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the development and irradiation preservation of semi-dried fish, e.g. Labeo rohita (Ruhi) and Cirrhiuas mrigala (Mrigel), the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature, and the improvement in the microbiological quality of sealed, ready to eat, commercially prepared fish kebabs by a combination of gamma irradiation with spices and an acidulant such as ascorbic acid. In the processing of semi-dried fish, the combination treatment of a salt dip and irradiation at a dose of 4 kGy extended the shelf-life by more than 3 months. Kebabs prepared in the laboratory and irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy were found to have a shelf-life of up to 6 months at room temperature. With commercially prepared fish kebabs collected from ordinary and sophisticated food shops, the maximum shelf-life extension was 14 days for the 5 kGy treated samples stored at ambient temperature. The microbiological quality of such kebabs indicated that the fish used was of poor quality, resulting in a limited shelf-life, even after chemical and irradiation treatments. Inoculated pack studies of Clostridium botulinum spores showed that when oil fried, the kebab size had a definite effect on heat penetration, and consequent spore reduction. No spores were recovered from the 5 kGy irradiated fried kebabs. (author)

  19. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  20. [Evaluation of nitrites and nitrates food intake in the students' group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Pankowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the intake of nitrites and nitrates in daily food rations of the students' group in 2008 using 3-day dietary food records method and literature mean values of nitrates and nitrites in food products. Intakes of these compounds were calculated and compared to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The average intake of nitrites was 1.7 mg NaNO2/per person/day (28.0% of ADI), nitrates 77.3 mg NaNO3/per person/day that means 25.4% of ADI. The largest nitrites food intake was noticed for meat products supplied 56.5% of nitrites and cereals (20%). Whereas vegetables and their products supplied 76.1% of nitrates: potatoes 17.1%, cabbage 15.5%, beetroots 13.7%. Calculated nitrites intake for men was 2.4 higher than for women. There were no significant differences of nitrates intake between men and women groups.

  1. High School Students' Recommendations to Improve School Food Environments: Insights From a Critical Stakeholder Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-11-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. Glycaemic responses to liquid food supplements among three Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P Chinese vs. Indian vs. Malay). The GR for three different types of liquid nutritional supplements did not differ between the three main ethnic groups in Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.

  3. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  4. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  5. Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hillier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.

  6. Exploring the role of the food environment on food shopping patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: a semiquantitative comparison of two matched neighborhood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-14

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual's food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.

  7. Combined use of focalized meditation and group psychological intervention in patients with terminal chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma Taimara Cisneros Acosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic renal failure is within the first 35 death causes in the country within the last five years.Objective: to determine the effectiveness of the combined use of the group psychological intervention with the focalized meditation (FM in the psychological rehabilitation of patients suffering from terminal chronic renal failure who underwent hemodialysis treatment in “Juan Bruno Zayas” General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from January to June, 2014.Methods: a pre-test, post-test and control group intervention was carried out. The study sample was divided into three groups: one for the group psychological intervention (GPI, another one for the focalized meditation FM and the other one for the combined use of them both. The research process had three stages: the diagnostic phase with the use of: interview, observation, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI, Beck Diagnostic Inventory (BDI, and coping ways questionnaire; the intervention, where treatment was imposed with six sessions of group psychological intervention to a group, eight sessions of focalized meditation to another one and the combination of them both to the other one; and the last phase, which was the post-intervention one, was carried out to evaluate the changes of the impaired adjustment and coping with emotional states, applying the same diagnostic techniques.Results: after the application of the therapeutic modalities, the results were: in the groups treated with the GPI and FM separately, the 80 % of the subjects reduced their anxiety levels; meanwhile, with the combination of the techniques, improvement was for the 100 % of the patients. The variable depression had a similar behavior. As for the coping styles: in the GPI group, 80 % of the subjects got active coping styles and the 20 % got mixed ones; in the FM group, the 40 % showed active styles, another 40 % passive styles, and 20 % got mixed ones; in the group with the combined treatment, the results were the

  8. Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R

    2007-08-01

    Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.

  9. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Heat-radiation combination for control of mold infection in harvested fruits and processed cereal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawdal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Thomas, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of mild heat and low dose irradiation was found to extend the shelf-life of fresh fruits and processed cereal foods by controlling mold infection. Chapaties (Indian unleavened bread) and bread slices packed in polycell pouches, subjected to 50 krad followed by dry heat (65 0 C) were free from mold and shelf-stable for 10 weeks at ambient temperature (28-32 0 C). Inoculated pack studies confirmed the efficiency of the treatment. No immediate changes in organoleptic attributes were discernible even after exposure to 100 krad. The quality deterioration in sliced bread stored for 2 1/2 months has been attributed to natural staling rather than radiation. Hot water dip (50 0 C for 5 min) followed by 150 krad irradiation extended the shelf-life of fresh figs by 3-4 days at 28-32 0 C and 8-10 days at 15 0 C. Regardless of the sequence of treatments, combination of heat and 100 krad extended the shelf-life of grapes both at ambinet and refrigerated storage. In mangoes, heat followed by 50 krad was effective in controlling anthracnose and stem-end rot whereas in bananas irradiated for delayed ripening, hot water treatment can be used as a supplementary process to control stem-end rot. Quality of combination treated fruits was comparable to normally ripened fruits. In vitro studies with fungal pathogens isolated from the above fruits and cereal foods revealed that the synergistic effect of heat-radiation combination depends on the sequence of treatments which varied with respect to different pathogens studied. Some biochemical aspects of combination treated fruits is discussed. (F.J.)

  11. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  12. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  13. Learning about Foodborne Pathogens: Evaluation of Student Perceptions of Group Project Work in a Food Microbiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of students in an active learning group work exercise in an introductory food microbiology course involving the study of foodborne pathogens. Small groups were required to access, analyze, and present information regarding a single food poisoning bacterium. The presentations contained features and…

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, the dipeptide L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 305, using the Procedure in Commission...... been provided for the candidate substance. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  15. 78 FR 24693 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1258] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for..., and requesting comment on, a document entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity...

  16. Social Information on Fear and Food Drives Animal Grouping and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Michael A; Emberts, Zachary; Jones, Harrison; St Mary, Colette M

    2017-03-01

    Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness. We characterized optimal behavior from a set of strategies that included grouping with different numbers of conspecifics or heterospecifics and the option to forage or be vigilant over the course of a day. We show that the use of social information alone increases grouping behavior but constrains group size to limit competition, ultimately increasing individual fitness substantially across various ecological contexts. We also found that across various contexts, foraging in mixed-species groups is generally better than foraging in conspecific groups, supporting recent theory on competition-information quality trade-offs. Our findings suggest that multiple forms of social information shape animal grouping and fitness, which are sensitive to resource availability and predation pressure that determine information usefulness.

  17. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16-20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90-208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  18. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  19. Are We What We Eat? Food Metaphors in the Conceptualization of Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene López-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speakers of English often understand ethnic and racial differences in terms of food imagery. It is quite common in this language to encounter metaphors presenting different groups of people in terms of beans, rice, bread, cheese, apples or chocolate. Given the cognitive and social force of metaphor in our understanding of the world and of ourselves as well as the important role language plays as a channel through which ideas and beliefs are transmitted and perpetuated, such food images may offer a window on the (deconstruction of ethnic identi-ties and, ultimately, hide racist views against others who are different because of their skin color, physical features, languages and, obviously, diets.

  20. Ethical hot spots of combined individual and group therapy: applying four ethical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabender, Virginia M; Fallon, April

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Combined therapy presents ethical quandaries that occur in individual psychotherapy and group psychotherapy, and dilemmas specifically associated with their integration. This paper examines two types of ethical frameworks (a classical principle-based framework and a set of context-based frameworks) for addressing the ethical hot spots of combined therapy: self-referral, transfer of information, and termination. The principle-based approach enables the practitioner to see what core values may be served or violated by different courses of action in combined therapy dilemmas. Yet, the therapist is more likely to do justice to the complexity and richness of the combined therapy situation by supplementing a principle analysis with three additional ethical frameworks. These approaches are: virtue ethics, feminist ethics, and casuistry. An analysis of three vignettes illustrates how these contrasting ethical models not only expand the range of features to which the therapist attends but also the array of solutions the therapist generates.

  1. Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kettinger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate how these advance echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1 simple arithmetic averaging, (2 BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3 temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4 temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e. group-level t-values compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned.

  2. Prevalence, PFGE typing, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus group isolated from food in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzougui, Souad; Lkhider, Mustapha; Grosset, Noel; Gautier, Michel; Cohen, Nozha

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different foods (milk and dairy products, spices, and rice salad) in Morocco. In total, 402 different food samples collected from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed by microbiological methods to isolate B. cereus. The strains were subjected to a polymerase chain reaction test in order to verify whether they belonged to the B. cereus group. Sixty-four of all isolates (15.9%) were found to be positive. Among the sources, B. cereus strains from milk and dairy products constituted the largest proportion of isolates (33/64; 51.6%) followed by spices (22/64; 34.4%) and salad with rice (9/64; 14.1%). The genetic diversity of the strains of B. cereus group was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal DNA digested with SmaI. The enzyme restriction profiles showed a high degree of polymorphism among the strains. The results showed that PFGE analysis could reveal the genetic differences among B. cereus strains. Investigation of antibiotic-resistance profiles showed that isolates were resistant to ampicillin (98.4%), tetracycline (90.6%), oxacillin (100%), cefepime (100%), and penicillin (100%), and were susceptible to chloramphenicol (67.2%), erythromycin (84.4%), and gentamicin (100%). The results of this study indicated that B. cereus could be a significant etiological agent of food poisoning in Morocco because of its high prevalence. Also, we demonstrated that the majority of strains came from milk and dairy products. However, additional research involving cytotoxicity tests is needed to more evaluate this sanitary risk.

  3. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet...... (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren.Subjects/Methods:A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children...

  4. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  5. A combined group treatment for nightmares and insomnia in combat veterans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Favorite, Todd K; Horin, Elizabeth; Arnedt, J Todd

    2009-12-01

    Insomnia and nightmares are hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sleep disturbances in PTSD negatively impact clinical course and functioning. In this open clinical trial, the preliminary effects of a combined treatment for insomnia and nightmares in combat veterans with PTSD were assessed. Ten combat veterans participated in a 10-session group treatment combining cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia with exposure, rescripting, and relaxation therapy. Participants maintained daily sleep and dream diaries and completed self-report measures of sleep quality and PTSD symptoms pre- and posttreatment. Participants reported improvements in sleep and nightmares following treatment. Future research using controlled designs to evaluate this treatment is warranted.

  6. Social interaction with non-averse group-mates modifies a learned food aversion in single- and mixed-species groups of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, H M; Smith, A C

    2005-04-01

    For social species, being a member of a cohesive group and performing activities as a coordinated unit appear to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of information about food. Social learning about food palatability was investigated in two captive primates, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus, which form stable and cohesive mixed-species groups in the wild. We explored whether an induced food aversion toward a preferred food is modified during and after social interaction with non-averse conspecifics or congeners. Sets of intra- and interspecific pairs were presented with two foods, one of which was considered distasteful by one of the pairs (the other was palatable), and their behavior was compared pre-interaction, during interaction, and post-interaction. For the aversely-conditioned individuals of both species, the change in social context corresponded to a change in their preference for the food that they considered unpalatable, regardless of whether they had interacted with a conspecific or congeneric pair, and the change in food preference was maintained post-interaction. In a control condition, in which averse individuals did not have the opportunity to interact with non-averse animals, S. fuscicollis sampled the preferred food, but not as quickly as when given the opportunity to interact. We conclude that the social learning demonstrated here may allow individual tamarins to track environmental change, such as fruit ripening, more efficiently than asocial learning alone, because social learners can more quickly and safely focus on appropriate behavior by sharing up-to-date foraging information. Furthermore, since the behavior of congeners, as well as conspecifics, acts to influence food choice in a more adaptive direction, social learning about food palatability may be an advantage of mixed-species group formation to tamarins of both species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  7. Dietary patterns, food groups, and rectal cancer risk in Whites and African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A; Adair, Linda S; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-05-01

    Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk for rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1,520 Whites (720 cases, 800 controls) and 384 African-Americans (225 cases, 159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk for rectal cancer whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African-Americans, high consumption of other fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African-Americans. The high fat/meat/potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.15). The vegetable/fish/poultry and fruit/whole grain/dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African-Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the fruit/vegetables pattern (P(trend) pattern (P(trend) dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African-Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations.

  8. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  9. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO 2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming was used to determine the best supplier. In this analysis, several suppliers’ criteria were considered, namely quality, delivery, completeness, quality loss and environmental management. By maximizing the suppliers’ performances based on each criterion and aggregating the suppliers’ performances based on the overall criteria, the best supplier was determined. Keywords: supplier selection, taguchi loss function, AHP, fuzzy linear programming,environment

  11. Reliability and Validity of Food Frequency Questions to Assess Beverage and Food Group Intakes among Low-Income 2- to 4-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2016-06-01

    Fruits, vegetables, sweetened foods, and beverages have been found to have positive and negative associations with obesity in early childhood, yet no rapid assessment tools are available to measure intake of these foods among preschoolers. This study examines the test-retest reliability and validity of a 10-item Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire designed to assess fruits, vegetables, and sweetened foods and beverages intake among 2- to 4-year-old children. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire was developed for use in periodic phone surveys conducted with low-income families with preschool-aged children. Seventy primary caregivers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed two Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaires within a 2-week period for test-retest reliability. Participants also completed three 24-hour recalls to allow assessment of validity. Intraclass correlations were used to examine test-retest reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression analyses were used to examine validity of the Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire compared with three 24-hour recalls. Intraclass correlations between Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire administrations ranged from 0.48 for sweetened drinks to 0.87 for regular sodas. Intraclass correlations for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.56, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.15 to 0.59 for beverages, with 0.46 for sugar-sweetened beverages. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.30, 0.33, and 0.30, respectively. Although observation of the Bland-Altman plots and linear regression analyses showed a slight upward trend in mean differences, with increasing mean intake for five beverage groups, at least 90% of data plots fell within the limits of agreement for all food/beverage groups. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire

  12. 76 FR 54801 - Reynolds Food Packaging LLC, a Subsidiary of Reynolds Group Holding Limited, Grove City, PA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,183] Reynolds Food Packaging LLC, a Subsidiary of Reynolds Group Holding Limited, Grove City, PA; Notice of Revised Determination... (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Reynolds Food Packaging LLC, a subsidiary of Reynolds...

  13. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.; Fazekasova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  14. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-08-01

    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing the total productivity of a land by combining mobile photovoltaic panels and food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, B.; Simonneau, T.; Sourd, F.; Pechier, P.; Hamard, P.; Frisson, T.; Ryckewaert, M.; Christophe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Combining solar panels and crops on the same land increases the total productivity. •Use of solar trackers permits to balance or promote food/energy production. •Controlling mode of trackers strongly affect the total production per unit area. •Dynamic agrivoltaic systems increases productivity without competing with food. -- Abstract: Agrivoltaic systems, consisting of the combination of photovoltaic panels (PVPs) with crops on the same land, recently emerged as an opportunity to resolve the competition for land use between food and energy production. Such systems have proved efficient when using stationary PVPs at half their usual density. Dynamic agrivoltaic systems improved the concept by using orientable PVPs derived from solar trackers. They offer the possibility to intercept the variable part of solar radiation, as well as new means to increase land productivity. The matter was analysed in this work by comparing fixed and dynamic systems with two different orientation policies. Performances of the resulting agrivoltaic systems were studied for two varieties of lettuce over three different seasons. Solar tracking systems placed all plants in a new microclimate where light and shade bands alternated several times a day at any plant position, while stationary systems split the land surface into more stable shaded and sunlit areas. In spite of these differences, transient shading conditions increased plant leaf area in all agrivoltaic systems compared to full-sun conditions, resulting in a higher conversion of the transmitted radiation by the crop. This benefit was lower during seasons with high radiation and under controlled tracking with more light transmitted to the crop. As expected, regular tracking largely increased electric production compared to stationary PVPs but also slightly increased the transmitted radiation, hence crop biomass. A large increase in transmitted radiation was achieved by restricting solar tracking around midday

  16. Functional groupings and food web of an artificial reef used for sea cucumber aquaculture in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuelei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reef is considered as a useful tool to remodel habitats in coastal and estuarine area. Some artificial reefs (ARs) were conducted in Shandong Peninsula for sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). Little is known about the main feeding type and food resources of living organisms in this IMTA ecosystem. Neither is the information about other animals competing food with A. japonicus. Functional group (FG) and their food resources of mobile organisms and epifauna in ARs area were investigated. There were three types of food resources and five FGs within two trophic levels in studied area. Particle organic matter (POM), seaweed detritus and sediment were considered to be the main food resources. The first three FGs were primary consumers and were mainly epifauna, while the other two FGs were secondary consumers. FG 1 species were filter feeders, and group 2 was all deposit feeders and A. japonicus was in this group. FG 2 contained few species and this indicated that A. japonicus had few food competitors. FG 3 contained most epifauna species which were detritus feeders and this result implied that the artificial oyster shell reed can retain detritus effectively. The food sources of group 4 were complex. Species of group 5, mostly fish, occupied the top trophic level and fed primarily on species of FG 1 and FG 2. This kind of ARs can retain detritus effectively and provide suitable habitat to epifauna and surrounding natural fauna community.

  17. Combining bimodal presentation schemes and buzz groups improves clinical reasoning and learning at morning report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balslev, Thomas; Rasmussen, Astrid Bruun; Skajaa, Torjus; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Muijtjens, Arno; De Grave, Willem; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2014-12-11

    Abstract Morning reports offer opportunities for intensive work-based learning. In this controlled study, we measured learning processes and outcomes with the report of paediatric emergency room patients. Twelve specialists and 12 residents were randomised into four groups and discussed the same two paediatric cases. The groups differed in their presentation modality (verbal only vs. verbal + text) and the use of buzz groups (with vs. without). The verbal interactions were analysed for clinical reasoning processes. Perceptions of learning and judgment of learning were reported in a questionnaire. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by a 20-item multiple-choice test. Combined bimodal presentation and buzz groups increased the odds ratio of clinical reasoning to occur in the discussion of cases by a factor of 1.90 (p = 0.013), indicating superior reasoning for buzz groups working with bimodal materials. For specialists, a positive effect of bimodal presentation was found on perceptions of learning (p presentation on diagnostic accuracy was noted in the specialists (p presentation and buzz group discussion of emergency cases improves clinicians' clinical reasoning and learning.

  18. Choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia-Herzegovina: focus group interviews with immigrant women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Inger M; Wallin, Anne-Marie; Hallberg, Lillemor R-M; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt

    2002-08-01

    Immigrants in Sweden have on average poorer health than native Swedes, including the risk of nutritional problems. In Sweden's multicultural society there is a need for increased knowledge about eating habits in public health work within health and education. A survey of refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina living in Sweden was undertaken to describe the choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia. The purpose was to introduce the subject of food, health and migration into public health work and develop culture-adapted food and health advice. Focus-group interviews were undertaken with a total of 20 women refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina. Qualitative data analysis identified a large consumption of bread as a staple food with meat, vegetables, milk, cheese, legumes, egg and fish as additions. Self-sufficiency was noted with milk souring, jam making and the production of sweet fruit drinks. Home made cheese and drying or smoking of meat were common methods of food storage. In child rearing, breast-feeding for 6-8 months was most common. Home made breast milk replacements were made from semolina, rice and 'petit biscuits'. Several important factors need to be taken into account when giving culturally adapted food and health advice to Bosnian families, such as encouraging bread, vegetable and legume consumption and giving advice on substituting sweet fruit drinks for natural fruit. One should be conscious of how religious beliefs as well as socio-cultural, historical, ecological, economical and psychological influences may guide food choices.

  19. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  20. Bioequivalence and food effect assessment for vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose combination tablets relative to free combination of vildagliptin and metformin in Japanese healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Sachiko; Chitnis, Shripad D; Kulmatycki, Kenneth; Salunke, Atish; He, Yan-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Suzuki, Hikoe

    2016-04-01

    To assess the bioequivalence of vildagliptin/metformin fixeddose combination (FDC) tablets (50/250 mg and 50/500 mg) to free combinations of vildagliptin and metformin and the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of vildagliptin and metformin following administration of 50/500 mg FDC tablets. Two openlabel, randomized, single-center, singledose, 2-period crossover studies were conducted in Japanese healthy male volunteers. Participants were administered vildagliptin/ metformin FDC tablets (study I: 50/250 mg, study II: 50/500 mg) or their free combinations under fasted condition. Food effect (standard Japanese breakfast: fat, 20 - 30% with ~ 600 kcal in total) was assessed during an additional period in study II (50/500 mg). PK parameters (AUC, C(max), t(max), t(1/2)) were calculated for vildagliptin and metformin. In both studies, vildagliptin/metformin FDC tablets were bioequivalent to their respective free combinations. Administration of FDC tablets after meals had no effect on vildagliptin PK parameters. The rate of absorption of metformin decreased when administered under fed condition, as reflected by a prolonged t(max) (3 hours in fasted state vs. 4 hours in fed state) and decrease in C(max) by 26%, however, the extent of absorption (AUC(last)) was similar to that in the fasted state. Vildagliptin/metformin FDC tablets were bioequivalent to their free combinations. Food decreased the C(max) of metformin by 26%, while AUC(last) was unchanged, consistent with previous reports. No food effect was observed on the C(max) or AUC(last) of vildagliptin. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effects on the PK of metformin or vildagliptin.

  1. Does food group consumption vary by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Yang, Su-Jau; Berenson, Gerald S

    2007-02-01

    To examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. Cross-sectional. Young adults (n=1,266, 74% European American, 26% African American; 39% men, 61% women) aged 20 to 38 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Food group consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic (eg, income and education), demographic (eg, age, sex, and ethnicity), and lifestyle (eg, marital status and physical activity) information was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and the subjects were stratified according to these groups. Analysis of covariance (adjusted for covariates) was used to detect differences in the mean servings of food groups consumed per day between the various socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle groups. Compared to income$45,000 had lower consumption of burgers/sandwiches (Pconsumption of mixed dishes (P12 years of education. European-American men consumed more servings of dairy products (Pfood group consumption varies by socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting. Food and nutrition professionals who encounter diverse populations need to consider the influence of income, education, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and physical activity on food consumption patterns when planning diets, nutrition education programs, and interventions for young adults.

  2. Myocardial 201Tl washout after combined dipyridamole submaximal exercise stress: Reference values from different patient groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dipyridamole stress is favorable in patients unable to exercise maximally for 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Aside from an analysis of uptake defects, proper washout analysis can be limited by heart rate variations when isolated dipyridamole stress is used. Heart rate standardized 201 Tl washout kinetics after a combined dipyridamole and submaximal exercise stress protocol (CDSE), feasible in elderly patients as well as in patients with peripheral artery disease, were therefore studied to investigate the 201 Tl washout after CDSE in differently defined patient groups: Group I comprised 19 patients with documented heart disease and angiographically excluded coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 17 patients with a very low likelihood of CAD determined by both normal exercise radionuclide ventriculography and normal 201 Tl uptake. Group III comprised 56 patients with a 50% pretest likelihood of CAD but normal 201 Tl uptake. Mean washout values were nearly identical in all groups. Despite similar uptake patterns, however, washout standardized by CDSE was significantly lower than the normal washout values after maximal treadmill exercise. Thus an obviously lower 201 Tl washout after CDSE than after maximal treadmill exercise must be considered if washout analysis criteria after dipyridamole are applied to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, heart rate elevation achieved by additional submaximal exercise stress seems necessary, adequate and clinically safe for standardisation of washout analysis in dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy. (orig.)

  3. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 2. Radioactive cesium in daily food rations of selected population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibniewska, K.; Smoczynski, S.S.; Wisniewska, I.

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium isotopes emitting beta radiation was studied in daily food rations analysed in diets of working-class and non-working-class families from food products from the regions of Olsztyn, Poznan, Lublin, Warsaw and Wroclaw in 1987 and 1988. In 1987 the highest level of radioactive cesium was found in the food rations in Olsztyn, and lowest in the rations in Poznan (3.32 and 0.65 Bq/kg respectively). In 1988 higher radiocesium content was found in rations composed according to the data on the diet consumed daily in non-working-class families. In that case the highest content was in the daily food rations composed in Warsaw - 2.35 Bq/kg and lowest in Poznan - 1.19 Bq/kg in the daily food rations of working-class families about one half of that value was found. The calculated means values of both analysed rations were: 1.35 for Olsztyn, 0.89 for Poznan, and 1.86 Bq/kg for Warsaw. The calculated mean value of the contamination with radioactive cesium was in 1988 0.93 Bq/kg for the rations in working-class families (in 1987 it was 1.80 Bq/kg). (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  4. Interactions with combined chemical cues inform harvester ant foragers' decisions to leave the nest in search of food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Greene

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies operate without central control or any global assessment of what needs to be done by workers. Colony organization arises from the responses of individuals to local cues. Red harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus regulate foraging using interactions between returning and outgoing foragers. The rate at which foragers return with seeds, a measure of food availability, sets the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest on foraging trips. We used mimics to test whether outgoing foragers inside the nest respond to the odor of food, oleic acid, the odor of the forager itself, cuticular hydrocarbons, or a combination of both with increased foraging activity. We compared foraging activity, the rate at which foragers passed a line on a trail, before and after the addition of mimics. The combination of both odors, those of food and of foragers, is required to stimulate foraging. The addition of blank mimics, mimics coated with food odor alone, or mimics coated with forager odor alone did not increase foraging activity. We compared the rates at which foragers inside the nest interacted with other ants, blank mimics, and mimics coated with a combination of food and forager odor. Foragers inside the nest interacted more with mimics coated with combined forager/seed odors than with blank mimics, and these interactions had the same effect as those with other foragers. Outgoing foragers inside the nest entrance are stimulated to leave the nest in search of food by interacting with foragers returning with seeds. By using the combined odors of forager cuticular hydrocarbons and of seeds, the colony captures precise information, on the timescale of seconds, about the current availability of food.

  5. Essential element contents in food groups from the second Brazilian total diet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogi, J.B.; Avegliano, R.P.; Maihara, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Total diet study (TDS) has been considered as one of the most appropriate approaches to estimate dietary exposure of essential elements. This paper presents preliminary results of concentrations and average dietary daily intakes of Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn from the 2nd Brazilian TDS. Nineteen groups from a Food List which represents the daily intake of the population from the Brazilian southeastern region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary daily intake values for Ca (641 mg), Fe (19.6 mg), K (2738 mg), Na (2466 mg), Se (56.4 μg), and Zn (15.3 mg) were higher than the 1st Brazilian TDS. (author)

  6. Perception of chemesthetic stimuli in groups who differ by food involvement and culinary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia; Loss, Christopher R; Hayes, John E

    2015-12-01

    In the English language, there is generally a limited lexicon when referring to the sensations elicited by chemesthetic stimuli like capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate, and eugenol, the orally irritating compounds found in chiles, wasabi, and cloves, respectively. Elsewhere, experts and novices have been shown to use language differently, with experts using more precise language. Here, we compare perceptual maps and word usage across three cohorts: experts with formal culinary education, naïve individuals with high Food Involvement Scale (FIS) scores, and naïve individuals with low FIS scores. We hypothesized that increased experience with foods, whether through informal experiential learning or formal culinary education, would have a significant influence on the perceptual maps generated from a sorting task conducted with chemesthetic stimuli, as well as on language use in a descriptive follow-up task to this sorting task. The low- and highFIS non-expert cohorts generated significantly similar maps, though in other respects the highFIS cohort was an intermediate between the lowFIS and expert cohorts. The highFIS and expert cohorts generated more attributes but used language more idiosyncratically than the lowFIS group. Overall, the results from the expert group with formal culinary education differed from the two naïve cohorts both in the perceptual map generated using MDS as well as the mean number of attributes generated. Present data suggest that both formal education and informal experiential learning result in lexical development, but the level and type of learning can have a significant influence on language use and the approach to a sorting task.

  7. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  8. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Payne, B.; Cole, L.; Goodwin, M.; Borsa, J.

    1989-11-01

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D 10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D 10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  9. Introduction on microbiological and biological methods and their possible combination with other analytical techniques for the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing and preserving food. One of the main purposes of the application of this technology to food is to obtain specific biological effects on the treated foodstuff. Typical examples of these treatment effects are listed in the article. A whole range of techniques is at disposal of the analyst to assure the Quality Control (QC) of various foodstuffs. They are based on microbiological, organoleptical, chemical, biochemical, immunological and/or physical methods. In the case of irradiation preserved food the opinion of the writer is that very often only a combination of analytical methods can solve the problem of detection of irradiated foodstuffs and in particular in most cases this combination could be formed by a biological or microbiological method + a chemical or physical one. The meaning of these combination of techniques is manifold. Combining the advantages of a rapid screening method with those of a more refined, reliable, even if more time consuming one; offering the possibility to carry out the analysis for the control of irradiated foodstuffs to different kinds of food control laboratories, often equipped in a different way, are some of the most evident advantages. These methods are briefly explained. At present, none method seems promising for the quantitative determination of the irradiation dose. Moreover, some of the proposed methods can only give a good presumption of the irradiation treatment applied to particular foodstuffs. (18 refs)

  10. Batch scale storage of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature; pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Yang, H.S.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop the commercial storage method of potatoes by irradiation combined with natural low temperature, two varieties of potatoes, Irish cobbler and Shimabara were stored at natural low temperature storage room (450x650x250cm; year round temperature change, 2-17 degC; 70-85% R.H.) on a batch scale followed by irradiation with optimum dose level. Irish cobbler and Shimabara were 100% sprouted after 3 months storage in control, whereas in 15Krad irradiated group, sprouting was completely inhibited at Irish cobbler for 9 months storage, and at Shimabara for 12 months. The extent of loss due to rot attack after 9 months storage was 6% in control, 6-8% in 10-15Krad irradiated group at Irish cobbler and weight loss was 16.5% in control, 5.1-5.6% in irradiated group, whereas rotting rate of Shimabara after 12 months storage was 100% in control, 15% in irradiated group and the weight loss of its was 12.6% in control, 7.3-7.4% in irradiated group. The moisture content in whole storage period of two varieties were 72-82% without remarkable changes. The total sugar and ascorbic acid contents were slightly decreased according to the dose increase and elapse of storage period, whereas reducing sugar content was increased. Irish cobbler was 90% markrtable after 9 months storage and 85% in Shimabara after 12 months storage. (Author)

  11. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D., E-mail: me00806@cc.uoi.g [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G. [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 {sup o}C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 {sup o}C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [{sup 60}Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since

  12. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2011-08-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected

  13. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 o C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 o C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [ 60 Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not

  14. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenting; Hewson, Louise; Linforth, Robert; Taylor, Moira; Fisk, Ian D

    2017-07-01

    Food flavour is important in appetite control. The effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake, were studied. Twenty-six females (24 ± 4 years, 20.9 ± 1.9 kg⋅m -2 ) consumed, over 15 min period, one of four sample drinks as a preload, followed by an ad libitum consumption of a pasta meal (after 65 min). Sample drinks were: water (S1, 0 kcal), water with strawberry aroma (S2, 0 kcal), water with sucrose and citric acid (S3, 48 kcal) and water with strawberry aroma, sucrose and citric acid (S4, 48 kcal). Appetite sensation did not differ between the S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste) conditions. Compared with S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste), S4 (aroma + taste) suppressed hunger sensation over the 15 min sample drink consumption period (satiation) (p < 0.05). S4 (aroma + taste) further reduced hunger sensation (satiety) more than S1 at 5, 20 and 30 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), more than S2 (aroma) at 5 and 20 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), and more than S3 (taste) at 5 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05). Subsequent pasta energy intake did not vary between the sample drink conditions. S4 (aroma + taste) had the strongest perceived flavour. This study suggests that the combination of aroma and taste induced greater satiation and short-term satiety than the independent aroma or taste and water, potentially via increasing the perceived flavour intensity or by enhancing the perceived flavour quality and complexity as a result of aroma-taste cross-modal perception. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A bioengineered nisin derivative, M21A, in combination with food grade additives eradicates biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Anne Draper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The burden of foodborne disease has large economic and social consequences worldwide. Despite strict regulations, a number of pathogens persist within the food environment, which is greatly contributed to by a build-up of resistance mechanisms and also through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to be highly resistant to a number of antimicrobials and can be extremely difficult to remove once they are established. In parallel, the growing concern of consumers regarding the use of chemically derived antimicrobials within food has led to a drive towards more natural products. As a consequence, the use of naturally derived antimicrobials has become of particular interest. In this study we investigated the efficacy of nisin A and its bioengineered derivative M21A in combination with food grade additives to treat biofilms of a representative strain of Listeria monocytogenes. Investigations revealed the enhanced antimicrobial effects, in liquid culture, of M21A in combination with citric acid or cinnamaldehyde over its wild type nisin A counterpart. Subsequently, an investigation was conducted into the effects of these combinations on an established biofilm of the same strain. Nisin M21A (0.1 µg/ml alone or in combination with cinnamaldehyde (35 µg/ml or citric acid (175 µg/ml performed significantly better than combinations involving nisin A. All combinations of M21A with either citric acid or cinnamaldehyde eradicated the L. monocytogenes biofilm (in relation to a non-biofilm control. We conclude that M21A in combination with available food additives could further enhance the antimicrobial treatment of biofilms within the food industry, simply by substituting nisin A with M21A in current commercial products such as Nisaplin (Danisco, DuPont.

  16. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  17. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  18. Combination of existing and alternative technologies to promote oilseeds and pulses proteins in food applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chéreau Denis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous world population growth induces a total protein demand increase based mainly on plant sources. To meet these global nutritional challenges, existing and innovative dry and wet fractionation processes will have to be combined to better valorise plant protein fraction from pulses and oilseeds. The worldwide success of soy protein isolates originate from the intrinsic qualities of soybean proteins but also from a continuous R&D effort since mid-twenty century. Therefore, the soy protein development model can be applied to protein isolates from diverse pulses and oilseeds meals as rapeseed which has already been recognised as novel food protein in Europe. To boost the delivery of plant proteins, agrofood-industries and academics must pool their respective expertise. Innovative and issue solving R&D projects have to be launched to better valorise pulses and oilseed proteins by (i creating oil extraction processes which preserve native proteins structure; (ii developing novel protein extraction processes from lab up to industrial pilot scale; (iii producing plant protein isolates having comparable foaming, emulsifying or gelling functionality than animal; and (iv generating hydrolysed proteins with high digestibility adapted to human nutrition. It is also essential to initiate research programs to innovate in wet and dry fractionations of plants or to design in vitro models to evaluate proteins digestibility and allergenicity. The increased awareness regarding plant protein valorisation resulted in the creation by agro-industries and academics of the open platform IMPROVE which propose a combination of competencies and equipment to boost market uptake of Plant Based Proteins.

  19. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Espina

    Full Text Available This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  20. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  1. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  2. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  3. [Hygienic substantiation of the permissible levels for tetracycline-group antibiotics in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of

  4. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron,Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L.; Broussole,Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis,Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Winker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S.Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite

  5. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reduce Food Sharing Behavior in Male, but Not Female Marmosets in Family Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Taylor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is critical for lactation and maternal care, but OT and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and OT on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings with intranasal vasopressin, OT, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. OT reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with OT. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and OT do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on both sex and parental status.

  6. Role of the central R&D laboratories of an international group in the field of Food-Feed Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovari Katalin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased globalisation and more frequent crises within food/feed industry, public concern over food safety will remain at its present level and may even increase. The crushing/refining industry is likely to face further problems in the future. The recently established Food/Feed Safety Coordination Committee will be able to deal with any new crises at group level (communication, action organisation, in close cooperation with R&D, which in turn will provide the scientific background, analytical results, proposals for technical solutions and continuous monitoring, for any given situation.

  7. Consumption of key food groups during the postpartum period in low-income, non-Hispanic black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Wasser, Heather; Adair, Linda S; Thompson, Amanda L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Bentley, Margaret E

    2017-10-01

    The postpartum period can impact diet quality and subsequently place women at greater risk for overweight or obesity. This study examined consumption of key food groups during the first 2 years postpartum among low income, non-Hispanic black, first-time mothers. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 mother-infant dyads, followed from 3 to 18 months postpartum, collected from 2003 to 2007. At each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months) 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Consumption levels were compared to those recommended from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) for each of the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, whole grains, protein foods and dairy, as well as an estimated upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. At each time point, mothers met recommended intake levels for grains and protein foods only. In random-intercept logistic regression models, no demographic or household characteristics were associated with a likelihood of consuming recommended levels for any of the food groups according to the DGAs. Given the low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein foods and high intake of SSBs and refined grains, interventions targeting women's diet during the postpartum period are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Hannah Lee; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Hopkins, Laura; Braunstein, Nadine; Mui, Yeeli; Gittelsohn, Joel

    Developing nutrition-focused environmental interventions for youth requires accurate assessment of where they purchase food. We have developed an innovative, technology-based method to improve the accuracy of food source recall among children using a tablet PC and ground-truthing methodologies. As part of the B'more Healthy Communties for Kids study, we mapped and digitally photographed every food source within a half-mile radius of 14 Baltimore City recreation centers. This food source database was then used with children from the surrounding neighborhoods to search for and identify the food sources they frequent. This novel integration of traditional data collection and technology enables researchers to gather highly accurate information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City. Funding is provided by the NICHD U-54 Grant #1U54HD070725-02.

  9. EFSA EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304 (FGE.304): Five carboxamides from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate five flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances...... data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all five candidate substances....

  10. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  11. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-01-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  12. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake...... in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation...

  13. Frequency of food group consumption and risk of allergic disease and sensitization in schoolchildren in urban and rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zheng, W; Yung, E; Zhong, N; Wong, G W K; Li, J

    2015-12-01

    Diet is a potential determinant of allergic diseases. To examine in schoolchildren the association between food intake and allergic diseases and determine whether there is effect of environment - rural vs. urban. A questionnaire survey was performed in 11 473 children aged 7-12 years in 20 schools from urban Guangzhou and rural Shaoguan, China. A nested case-control group, 402 from Guangzhou and 349 from Shaoguan, was recruited. Food ingestion frequency data were collected. Serum-specific IgE to 34 food and airborne allergens was determined. Associations between food ingestion frequency and clinical outcomes were sought by logistic analyses. The prevalence of self-reported asthma (6.6% vs. 2.5%), rhinitis (23.2% vs. 5.3%) and eczema (34.1% vs. 25.9%) was significantly higher in Guangzhou subjects compared to Shaoguan, whereas prevalence of food hypersensitivity (9.7% vs. 9.2%) and food allergy (4.0% vs. 3.5%) was not significantly different. In this case-control study, seafood and fruits were two major food groups causing food hypersensitivity. Urban children consumed more milk, egg, chocolate, fruits, vegetable and cereals compared to rural children. Significantly higher percentage of Guangzhou children was sensitized to egg and milk, whereas more Shaoguan children were sensitized to seafood, nuts and seeds, fruit, vegetables, legumes and cereals. High consumption of milk (OR 2.604, 95 CI% 1.569-4.322, P food allergy was observed. Diets of schoolchildren are affected by disease-related modification and country's urbanization. High vegetable intake and low milk intake might protect against asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Supporting academic publication: evaluation of a writing course combined with writers' support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Claire M; McGrail, Matthew R; Jones, Rebecca; O'Meara, Peter; Robinson, Anske; Burley, Mollie; Ray-Barruel, Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Publication rates are a vital measure of individual and institutional performance, yet many nurse academics publish rarely or not at all. Despite widespread acceptance of the need to increase academic publication rates and the pressure university faculty may experience to fulfil this obligation, little is known about the effectiveness of practical strategies to support academic writing. In this small cohort study (n=8) comprising nurses and other professionals involved in university education, a questionnaire survey was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-week "Writing for Publication" course combined with a monthly writers support group to increase publication rates. Two year pre and post submissions increased from 9 to 33 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Publications (in print) per person increased from a baseline of 0.5-1.2 per year. Participants reported increased writing confidence and greater satisfaction with the publishing process. Peer support and receiving recognition and encouragement from line managers were also cited as incentives to publish. Writing for publication is a skill that can be learned. The evaluated model of a formal writing course, followed by informal monthly group support meetings, can effectively increase publication rates.

  15. Effect of combined maternal and infant food-allergen avoidance on development of atopy in early infancy: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, R S; Heller, S; Mellon, M H; Forsythe, A B; O'Connor, R D; Hamburger, R N; Schatz, M

    1989-07-01

    The effect of maternal and infant avoidance of allergenic foods on food allergy was examined in a prenatally randomized, controlled trial of infants of atopic parents. The diet of the prophylactic-treated group (N = 103) included (1) maternal avoidance of cow's milk, egg, and peanut during the third trimester of pregnancy and lactation and (2) infant use of casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) for supplementation or weaning, and avoidance of solid foods for 6 months; cow's milk, corn, soy, citrus, and wheat, for 12 months; and egg, peanut, and fish, for 24 months. In the control group (N = 185), mothers had unrestricted diets, and infants followed American Academy of Pediatrics feeding guidelines. The cumulative prevalence of atopy was lower at 12 months in the prophylactic-treated (16.2%) compared to the control (27.1%) group (p = 0.039), resulting from reduced food-associated atopic dermatitis, urticaria and/or gastrointestinal disease by 12 months (5.1% versus 16.4%; p = 0.007), and any positive food skin test by 24 months (16.5% versus 29.4%; p = 0.019), caused primarily by fewer positive milk skin tests (1% versus 12.4%; p = 0.001). The prevalences of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and inhalant skin tests were unaffected. Serum IgE levels in the prophylactic-treated group were marginally lower only at 4 months. Thus, reduced exposure of infants to allergenic foods appeared to reduce food sensitization and allergy primarily during the first year of life.

  16. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Selim Hossain

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM, which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text] and Area × Time × Energy (ATE product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  17. Combining Photovoice and focus groups: engaging Latina teens in community assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, Jayme; Dudley, Robert; Milan, Stephanie; Leibovitz, Paula K

    2013-03-01

    Latino adolescents, especially girls, experience higher obesity rates and are more likely to be physically unfit than non-Latino white peers. Out-of-school programs to increase physical activity and fitness in older Latino teens are critical, but sustained engagement is challenging. This study combined a community-based participatory research methodology, Photovoice, with focus groups to engage Latina teens and their parents in identifying barriers to physical activity and initiating policy change actions to address them. The study investigates the effectiveness of applying Photovoice as both an evaluation tool and a leadership/advocacy intervention in a community-based obesity prevention program. Focus group data were collected between July 2009 and October 2010 and analyzed between November 2010 and July 2011. Five focus groups were held with adults (n = 41: 95% Latino) and four with teens (n = 36: 81% Latino, 10% non-Hispanic white, 9% African-American). All participants (19 teens, six adults) were Latino. Spanish-speaking staff of a community-based agency, program staff, high school guidance counselors, and a job development agency recruited participants. Teens aged 14-19 years enrolled in New Britain CT, high schools, and their parents were eligible. Data from Photovoice workshops (three with teens, two with parent-teen dyads) were collected and concurrently analyzed between July 2009 and August 2011. Teens criticized school-based physical exercise programs in favor of out-of-school exercise and career advice. Parental restrictions and work, transportation, and safety issues were cited as barriers to afterschool physical activity programs. Photovoice can empower teens and parents to address exercise barriers by promoting advocacy that leads to policy change (e.g., an out-of-school physical education option). Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects Of Different Age Groups And Education Towards Consumption Of Traditional Finger Foods In Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Nilda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (Pengaruh Usia dan Pendidikan terhadap Pola Konsumsi Kue Tradisional di Banda Aceh  ABSTRACT. Traditional finger foods are closely related to the culture and habits of the population where the foods are produced and carry a symbolic value. The perception of local citizens towards the consumption of traditional foods will affect the existence and integrity of these foods. Primary research was done by interviewing 263 consumers of traditional finger food in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, between April and May 2011. Demography factors are believed to have strong influence in the consumption pattern of traditional finger food in Banda Aceh. The interviews were performed by using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of dichotomous, multiple-choice questions and scale questions. The sampling technique which was used is a nonprobability with convenience approach in order to select consumers of traditional food. The data analysis was processed by descriptive and bivariate analysis using Chi-square distribution. The results showed that demographic factors, such as age and education, have a correlation with consumer behavior and consumption habits of traditional finger foods. As a side dish, the consumption of these foods is usually related to special occasions and leisure time. Although most of the consumers are satisfied with the traditional finger foods they consume, some improvements are still needed to enhance the quality and appearance of the products based on the respondents demand. These demands, such as improvement in taste and packaging are potential factors in supporting the increase of consumption of traditional finger food in Banda Aceh.

  19. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques : present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A.; van Kranen, Henk; Manach, Claudine; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Roche, Helen M.; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bouwman, Jildau; Capozzi, Francesco; De Saeger, Sarah; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Kulling, Sabine E.; Landberg, Rikard; Linseisen, Jakob; Mattivi, Fulvio; Mensink, Ronald P.; Scaccini, Cristina; Skurk, Thomas; Tetens, Inge; Vergeres, Guy; Wishart, David S.; Scalbert, Augustin; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently

  20. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  1. Barriers to Eating Traditional Foods Vary by Age Group in Ecuador With Biodiversity Loss as a Key Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penafiel, Daniela; Termote, Celine; Lachat, Carl; Espinel, Ramon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    To document the perceptions of indigenous peoples for the sustainable management of natural resources against malnutrition. Initially 4 and then 12 interviews were conducted with 4 different age groups. Eight rural villages in Guasaganda, central Ecuador, were studied in 2011-2012. A total of 75 people (22 children, 18 adolescents, 20 adults, and 15 elders). Benefits, severity, susceptibility, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of eating traditional foods. Qualitative content analysis was completed using NVivo software. Initial analysis was inductive, followed by a content analysis directed by the Health Belief Model. Coding was completed independently by 2 researchers and kappa statistics (κ ≥ 0.65) were used to evaluate agreement. Healthy perceptions toward traditional foods existed and differed by age. Local young people ate traditional foods for their health benefits and good taste; adults cultivated traditional foods that had an economic benefit. Traditional knowledge used for consumption and cultivation of traditional foods was present but needs to be disseminated. Nutrition education in schools is needed that supports traditional knowledge in younger groups and prevents dietary changes toward unhealthy eating. Increased production of traditional food is needed to address current economic realities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation...... for a majority of the parents. In future studies, it may be beneficial to develop the FRB more like a structured food record (FR), which might, in principle, change the method to a one-day FR method from more than a 24-HDR method. It is recommended then to further investigate the use of EPIC-Soft as a data...

  3. The influence of gender and group membership on food safety: the case of meat sellers in Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Delia; Olowoye, Janice; Dipeolu, Morenike; Odebode, Stella; Randolph, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We describe a study to assess the bacteriological quality and safety of meat in Bodija market in Ibadan and to investigate the influence of gender and group membership on food safety. Mixed methods were used to gather information on meat safety and related socioeconomic factors. These methods included a participatory urban appraisal, focus group discussions with eight butchers' associations, in depth discussions with six key informants, a questionnaire study of 269 meat sellers and a cross-sectional survey of meat quality (200 samples from ten associations). We found that slaughter, processing and sale of beef meat take place under unhygienic conditions. The activities involve both men and women, with some task differentiation by gender. Meat sold by association members is of unacceptable quality. However, some groups have consistently better quality meat and this is positively correlated with the proportion of women members. Women also have significantly better food safety practice than men, though there was no significant difference in their knowledge of and attitude towards food safety. Most meat sellers (85 %) reported being ill in the last 2 weeks and 47 % reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness. Eating beef, eating chicken, eating offal, consuming one's own products and belonging to a group with poor quality of meat were all strong and significant predictors of self-reported gastrointestinal illness. We include that gender and group membership influence meat quality and self-reported gastrointestinal illness and that butchers' associations are promising entry points for interventions to improve food safety.

  4. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  5. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers' markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, April B; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers' markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants' diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers' markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance.

  6. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Methods Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4, four with parents of overweight children (n = 14 and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8. A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. Results To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents’ internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. Conclusion This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  7. Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web

    OpenAIRE

    Bascompte, Jordi; Melián, Carlos J.; Sala, Enric

    2005-01-01

    The stability of ecological communities largely depends on the strength of interactions between predators and their prey. Here we show that these interaction strengths are structured nonran- domly in a large Caribbean marine food web. Specifically, the cooccurrence of strong interactions on two consecutive levels of food chains occurs less frequently than expected by chance. Even when they occur, these strongly interacting chains are accompa- nied by strong omnivory more often than expected ...

  8. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Justine; Gonz?lez-Mart?nez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to th...

  9. Key environmental challenges for food groups and regions representing the variation within the EU, Ch.3 Salmon Aquaculture Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been ch...... chosen: • Orange juice • Beef and dairy • Aquaculture (salmon)...

  10. Effects of Collective Efficacy, Teamwork Attitudes, and Experience on Group Project Performance: Comparisons between 2 Food Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Poppy Lauretta; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between past teamwork and task-related experiences, attitude toward teamwork, collective efficacy, and task performance among undergraduates (N = 298) assigned to group projects (N = 48) in 2 different Food Science courses was examined. The results of survey data collected at the beginning and end of the projects showed that past…

  11. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  12. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  13. Temperature and food quantity effects on the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes: Combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy T.; Lundström Belleza, Elin; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes has become a popular model species for toxicity testing over the past few decades. However, the combined influence of temperature and food shortage, two climate change-related stressors, has never been assessed in this species. Consequently, effects of three temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and six food regimes (between 0 and 5 × 105 algal cells/mL) on the life cycle of N. spinipes were examined in this study. Similarly to other copepod species, development times and brood sizes decreased with rising temperatures. Mortality was lowest in the 20°C temperature setup, indicating a close-by temperature optimum for this species. Decreasing food concentrations led to increased development times, higher mortality and a reduction in brood size. A sex ratio shift toward more females per male was observed for increasing temperatures, while no significant relationship with food concentration was found. Temperature and food functions for each endpoint were integrated into an existing individual-based population model for N. spinipes which in the future may serve as an extrapolation tool in environmental risk assessment. The model was able to accurately reproduce the experimental data in subsequent verification simulations. We suggest that temperature, food shortage, and potentially other climate change-related stressors should be considered in environmental risk assessment of chemicals to account for non-optimal exposure conditions that may occur in the field. Furthermore, we advocate combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling as a cost effective higher tier approach to assess such considerations. PMID:28334000

  14. Effects of combined heat and ionizing radiation on thiamine (Vitamin B1) content in model systems and food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, γ-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 x 10 -5 M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HCl (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120 0 C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by γ-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120 0 C for one hour 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  15. Combined effect of enterocin and lipase from Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363 against food borne pathogens: mode of action studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Narayan, Bhaskar; Halami, Prakash M

    2012-08-01

    Food borne diseases have a major impact on public health whose epidemiology is rapidly changing. The whole cells of pathogens involved or their toxins/metabolites affect the human health apart from spoiling sensory properties of the food products finally affecting the food industry as well as consumer health. With pathogens developing mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, there has been an increased need to replace antibiotics as well as chemical additives with naturally occurring bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are known to act mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and with little or no effect towards Gram-negative enteric bacteria. In the present study, combination effect of lipase and bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363, a highly lipolytic lactic acid bacterium against various food pathogens was assessed. The lipase in combination with enterocin exhibited a lethal effect against Gram-negative pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy studies carried out to ascertain the constitutive mode of action of lipase and enterocin revealed that the lipase degrades the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and creates a pore through which enterocin enters thereby resulting in cell death. The novelty of this work is the fact that this is the first report revealing the synergistic effect of lipase with enterocin against Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Effects of combined heat and ionizing radiation on thiamine (Vitamin B sub 1 ) content in model systems and food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment)

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, {gamma}-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 x 10{sup -5}M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HCl (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120{sup 0}C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by {gamma}-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120{sup 0}C for one hour 24 h after irradiation. (author).

  17. Benefits of Combining Massage Therapy with Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy in Prenatally Depressed Women

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Deeds, Osvelia; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Gauler, Andy; Sullivan, Susan; Wilson, Donna; Nearing, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    One hundred twelve pregnant women who were diagnosed depressed were randomly assigned to a group who received group Interpersonal Psychotherapy or to a group who received both group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and massage therapy. The group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (one hour sessions) and massage therapy (30 minute sessions) were held once per week for six weeks. The data suggested that the group who received psychotherapy plus massage attended more sessions on average, and a greater perce...

  18. [Folic acid fortified foods available in Spain: types of products, level of fortification and target population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2009-01-01

    Folic acid is a potentially relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies (congenital abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and neurocognitive decline). This has led to the introduction of different strategies in order to increase folate intake: nutritional education, pharmacological supplementation and mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with folic acid. In Spain there is a growing number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis, but there is also a lack of reliable data to assess their impact on the population's dietary folate intakes. To gather a better knowledge of folic acid food fortification practices in Spain. A Food Composition Database was developed using data from a market study. Also, previously published data of unfortified staple foods from Food Composition Tables was reviewed. The Database included 260 folic acid fortified food items and it was periodically updated. Food groups included were primarily "Cereals and derivatives" (52%) followed by "Dairy products". Most of these foodstuffs lacked a target population for their consumption (37%) or were aimed at "Weight control" (28%) and "Children" (23%), but only 2% targeted women at a reproductive age. Number of unfortified foods included was 690. Fortification levels declared by manufacturers ranged between 15 and 430% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for folic acid per 100 g/ml, and simultaneous addition of B6 and B12 vitamins was observed in 75% of the products. Currently, Spain market offers a significant number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis and at a level > or = 15% of the RDA per 100 g/ml or serving declared by manufacturers.

  19. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-03-26

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity.

  20. The combined effects of exercise and food intake on adipose tissue and splanchnic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Macdonald, I A

    2004-01-01

    were measured by Fick's Principle. Food intake before exercise reduced whole-body lipid combustion during exercise to about 50% of the combustion rate found during exercise in the fasted state. The increase in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise was not influenced...... by preexercise food intake, while the fatty acid mobilization was increased by only 1.5-fold during postprandial exercise compared to a fourfold increase during exercise in the fasted state. During exercise, catecholamine concentrations increased similarly in the fasted and the postprandial state, while...... for by changes in the regional splanchnic tissue or adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism. Exercise was able to increase hepatic glucose production irrespective of food intake before exercise. It is concluded that exercise performed in the fasted state shortly before a meal leads to a more favourable lipid...

  1. A study of the relationship between food group recommendations and perceived stress: findings from black women in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tiffany L; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E; Baskin, Monica L

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m(2)) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  3. Combined method for the fast determination of pure beta emitting radioisotopes in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, Eva; Savkin, Birgit; Mehlsam, Isabell; Poppitz-Spuhler, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Fast radioanalytical methods are essential for a rapid response of decision makers. A fast method for the simultaneous determination of the pure beta emitting radionuclides 89 Sr/ 90 Sr and 99 Tc in food samples was developed. It includes the precipitation of fat and proteins with trichloroacetic acid for milk and dairy products and microwave digestion for other food products, followed by an anion exchange step to separate strontium from technetium. The purification steps for strontium and technetium are done using Sr-resin and TEVA-resin, respectively. Typical chemical yields are around 70 % for both radionuclides. The whole determination takes only around 20 h. (author)

  4. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K.P.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2017-01-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli. - Highlights: • Idli (traditional Indian fermented food) was prepared in ready-to-eat (RTE) form. • Ready-to-eat Idli was then subjected to combination processing comprised of lowest irradiation dosage of 2.5 kGy with mild heat treatment to extend its shelf life. • Increase in hardness and decrease in brightness of combination processed Idli was observed. • Combination processed Idli was microbiologically safe and

  5. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

  6. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial

  7. Whole eggs enhance antioxidant activity when combined with energy dense, cooked breakfast foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute metabolic changes following the consumption of energy dense foods high in saturated fat (SFA) and glycemic load (GL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Eggs provide highly digestible protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds tha...

  8. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and

  9. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and

  10. The "take a nurse to lunch" program. A unique focus group improves and promotes food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Dan Booth is the director of hospitality services for MaineGeneral Health. For this 450-bed health care organization, he directs six departments, which include environmental services, food and nutrition, security, laundry services, telecommunications, and transportation. In this article he describes how his Take a Nurse to Lunch program operates, what its benefits are, and how it was implemented.

  11. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  12. Use of electronic group method in assessing food safety training needs and delivery methods among international college students in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Lampousi, Anna-Maria; Knüppel, Sven; Iqbal, Khalid; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Bechthold, Angela; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) on risk of T2D. Summary relative risks were estimated using a random effects model by contrasting categories, and for linear and non-linear dose-response relationships. Six out of the 12 food-groups showed a significant relation with risk of T2D, three of them a decrease of risk with increasing consumption (whole grains, fruits, and dairy), and three an increase of risk with increasing consumption (red meat, processed meat, and SSB) in the linear dose-response meta-analysis. There was evidence of a non-linear relationship between fruits, vegetables, processed meat, whole grains, and SSB and T2D risk. Optimal consumption of risk-decreasing foods resulted in a 42% reduction, and consumption of risk-increasing foods was associated with a threefold T2D risk, compared to non-consumption. The meta-evidence was graded "low" for legumes and nuts; "moderate" for refined grains, vegetables, fruit, eggs, dairy, and fish; and "high" for processed meat, red meat, whole grains, and SSB. Among the investigated food groups, selecting specific optimal intakes can lead to a considerable change in risk of T2D.

  14. The effect of the Malaysian Food Guideline guidance on a group of overweight and obese women during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriani, Ismail; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Abdul Latif, Khalib; Saad, Hazizi A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of imparting knowledge of the Malaysian Food Guideline (MFG) on a group of overweight and obese women during Ramadan. This intervention study was conducted during the months of Ramadan 2011. A group of 84 Malay Muslim women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 were recruited. Prior to Ramadan, the respondents were educated regarding MFG, and how to monitor and record their daily food intake in a food diary. Their quantity of food intake, BMI, blood pressure (BP), blood lipid profile, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured before Ramadan as a baseline. Their quantity of food intake was then measured again in the third week, whereas their BMI, BP, blood lipid profile, and FBS were determined on the fourth week of Ramadan. At baseline, compared with the MFG recommendations, the intake of protein (107.5%), and milk and dairy products (133%) was higher, whereas the intake of carbohydrates (78.5%), and vegetables and fruits (44.4%) was lower. During Ramadan, carbohydrate intake, BMI, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL)-C (all p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.005), and FBS (p=0.002) were reduced, but the TC/HDL-C ratio was increased (p=0.000). A month-long Ramadan fast guided by the knowledge of MFG resulted in certain positive changes in this group of respondents. These changes can be a good start for health improvement, provided that they are followed-up after Ramadan.

  15. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  16. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli.

  17. Combined Effect of food deprivation and serotonin injection on plasma prolactin and glucose levels in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Khamis, F.I.; Abu Zaid, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) on the homeostasis of plasma prolactin and glucose in rats induced by gamma irradiation and food deprivation. Animals were divided into seven groups; control, irradiated at a dose level of 6 Gy, injected with 500 mg/kg b.wt. 5-HT intra-peritoneally, injected with 5-HT before irradiation food deprived for 48 hrs then irradiated, food deprived then injected with 5-HT, and food deprived then injected with 5-HT before whole body irradiation. Samples were collected at 1,3, 7 and 14 days post irradiation. The results showed that gamma irradiation firstly elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in plasma (1 and 3 days) then the levels decreased after 7 and 14 days as compared to control values. Rats received serotonin before irradiation exhibited an increased level of PRL after 14 days post irradiation compared to control value, while the level decreased after 1, 3, 7 days post irradiation. Food deprivation for 48 hrs altered the effect of serotonin and /or irradiation on PRL levels in plasma. Rats injected with serotonin showed a decreased level of plasma prolactin in food deprived rats, 3 days post injection. The obtained results showed that serotonin causes variable effects on plasma prolactin compared to control values. Glucose plasma levels were increased in both irradiated and serotonin injected rats before irradiation, and also in serotonin injected rats as compared to control values. Irradiation of rats after 48 hrs food deprivation induced an increase in plasma glucose levels measured throughout the different experimental periods. Injection of serotonin to rats after 48 hrs food deprivation before irradiation increased plasma glucose levels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days compared to control value. Also, injection of serotonin to 48 hrs food deprived rats increased glucose levels during all examined days of experiment.It could be concluded that serotonin may have a variable mechanism controlling prolactin

  18. Sample preparation combined with electroanalysis to improve simultaneous determination of antibiotics in animal derived food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wesley Pereira; de Oliveira, Luiz Henrique; Santos, André Luiz Dos; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves

    2018-06-01

    A procedure based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and phase separation using magnetically stirred salt-induced high-temperature liquid-liquid extraction (PS-MSSI-HT-LLE) was developed to extract and pre-concentrate ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) and enrofloxacin (ENRO) from animal food samples before electroanalysis. Firstly, simple LLE was used to extract the fluoroquinolones (FQs) from animal food samples, in which dilution was performed to reduce interference effects to below a tolerable threshold. Then, adapted PS-MSSI-HT-LLE protocols allowed re-extraction and further pre-concentration of target analytes in the diluted acid samples for simultaneous electrochemical quantification at low concentration levels. To improve the peak separation, in simultaneous detection, a baseline-corrected second-order derivative approach was processed. These approaches allowed quantification of target FQs from animal food samples spiked at levels of 0.80 to 2.00 µmol L -1 in chicken meat, with recovery values always higher than 80.5%, as well as in milk samples spiked at 4.00 µmol L -1 , with recovery values close to 70.0%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IL-4 production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes food allergy by blocking regulatory T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C; Chatila, Talal

    2016-09-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote allergic inflammation. However their role in food allergy is largely unknown. We sought to investigate the role of ILC2s in food allergy. Food allergy-prone mice with a gain-of-function mutation in the IL-4 receptor α chain (Il4raF709) were orally sensitized with food allergens, and the ILC2 compartment was analyzed. The requirement for ILC2s in food allergy was investigated by using Il4raF709, IL-33 receptor-deficient (Il1rl1(-/-)), IL-13-deficient (Il13(-/-)), and IL-4-deficient (Il4(-/-)) mice and by adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded ILC2s. Direct effects of ILC2s on regulatory T (Treg) cells and mast cells were analyzed in coculture experiments. Treg cell control of ILC2s was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Il4raF709 mice with food allergy exhibit increased numbers of ILC2s. IL-4 secretion by ILC2s contributes to the allergic response by reducing allergen-specific Treg cell and activating mast cell counts. IL-33 receptor deficiency in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice protects against allergen sensitization and anaphylaxis while reducing ILC2 induction. Adoptive transfer of wild-type and Il13(-/-) but not Il4(-/-) ILC2s restored sensitization in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice. Treg cells suppress ILC2s in vitro and in vivo. IL-4 production by IL-33-stimulated ILC2s blocks the generation of allergen-specific Treg cells and favors food allergy. Strategies to block ILC2 activation or the IL-33/IL-33 receptor pathway can lead to innovative therapies in the treatment of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the dietary habits of eating disordered women during pregnancy that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective To examine the nutrient and food group intake of women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) during pregnancy and compare their intake to women with no eating disorders. Design Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs are from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating disorder category as the referent group were conducted using log (means) adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were conducted using a Wilcoxon two-sided normal approximation test also adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results Women with BED before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total mono-saturated and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C compared to the referent (p<.02). Women with incident BED during pregnancy had higher total energy and saturated fat intake compared to the referent (p=.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruits and fats. Conclusions Women with BN before and during pregnancy and those with BED before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns different from women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and may influence pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18469258

  1. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kristina; Atkins, Louise; Brown, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion co...

  2. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, P.N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K.D. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, 531, Blvd des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Lacroix, M., E-mail: Monique.Lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, 531, Blvd des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and {gamma}-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10{sup 6} CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D{sub 10} value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to {gamma}-irradiation. - Highlights: > Demonstrate scientifically the synergistic effect of the combined treatment of gamma-irradiation and natural antimicrobial coating in reduction of food pathogens in broccoli. > The coating containing organic acids plus citrus extract was the most efficient formulation for increasing the sensitization of E. coli by 2.40 times as compared to the control. > The coating containing organic acids plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites was the most effective formulation causing the sensitization of S. Typhimurium to {gamma}-irradiation by 2.4 times. > Potential in application of developed formulations to protect food products against food pathogens.

  3. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, P.N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K.D.; Lacroix, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and γ-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10 6 CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D 10 value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to γ-irradiation. - Highlights: → Demonstrate scientifically the synergistic effect of the combined treatment of gamma-irradiation and natural antimicrobial coating in reduction of food pathogens in broccoli. → The coating containing organic acids plus citrus extract was the most efficient formulation for increasing the sensitization of E. coli by 2.40 times as compared to the control. → The coating containing organic acids plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites was the most effective formulation causing the sensitization of S. Typhimurium to γ-irradiation by 2.4 times. → Potential in application of developed formulations to protect food products against food pathogens.

  4. Combining social and genetic networks to study HIV transmission in mixing risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarrabi, N.; Prosperi, M.C.F.; Belleman, R.G.; Di Giambenedetto, S.; Fabbiani, M.; De Luca, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of HIV transmission networks is important for understanding and preventing the spread of the virus and drug resistant variants. Mixing risk groups is important in network analysis of HIV in order to assess the role of transmission between risk groups in the HIV epidemic. Most of the

  5. Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhaut, V.; Arntz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Schema Therapy (ST) is a highly effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). In a group format, delivery costs could be reduced and recovery processes catalyzed by specific use of group processes. As patients may also need individual attention, we piloted

  6. Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Tremorin, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS), respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg) by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG) data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS) (NBS/g CO2 per serving), a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets. PMID:29659497

  7. Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Chaudhary

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS, respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS (NBS/g CO2 per serving, a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets.

  8. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  9. Onto-clust--a methodology for combining clustering analysis and ontological methods for identifying groups of comorbidities for developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Mor; Asbeh, Nuaman; Kuflik, Tsvi; Schertz, Mitchell

    2009-02-01

    Children with developmental disorders usually exhibit multiple developmental problems (comorbidities). Hence, such diagnosis needs to revolve on developmental disorder groups. Our objective is to systematically identify developmental disorder groups and represent them in an ontology. We developed a methodology that combines two methods (1) a literature-based ontology that we created, which represents developmental disorders and potential developmental disorder groups, and (2) clustering for detecting comorbid developmental disorders in patient data. The ontology is used to interpret and improve clustering results and the clustering results are used to validate the ontology and suggest directions for its development. We evaluated our methodology by applying it to data of 1175 patients from a child development clinic. We demonstrated that the ontology improves clustering results, bringing them closer to an expert generated gold-standard. We have shown that our methodology successfully combines an ontology with a clustering method to support systematic identification and representation of developmental disorder groups.

  10. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices - a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals' point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  11. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Material and methods: A dietary survey was

  12. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Preservation of ethnic food dodol combination of irradiation and atmosphere modified packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanhindarto, Rindy P

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the suitable types of modified atmosphere treatment combined with irradiation to extend the storage life of dodol at room temperature. The samples were obtained from the manufacture and the production date was known. The sample were vacuum-packed, vacuum-packed with N 2 , and vacuum-packed with CO 2 in polyethylene laminated nylon pouches. A part of the samples were unirradiated, and the irradiated ones received total doses of 2,5 and 5 kGy. The quality of the samples were determined by chemical, microbiological, and organoleptic test. The results showed that the three types of packaging combined with irradiation were not significant. The storage life of irradiation treatment with the doses of 2,5 and 5 kGy combined with modified atmosphere treatment dodol could be extended up to 10 and 12 months, respectively. For Unirradiated dodol, the storage life could be extended up to 8 months. (authors)

  14. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  16. The Chandra Source Catalog 2.0: Combining Data for Processing (or How I learned 17 different words for "group")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Roger; Allen, Christopher E.; Anderson, Craig S.; Budynkiewicz, Jamie A.; Burke, Douglas; Chen, Judy C.; Civano, Francesca Maria; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Ian N.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Graessle, Dale E.; Grier, John D.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; Houck, John C.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Laurino, Omar; Lee, Nicholas P.; Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph; McLaughlin, Warren; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Paxson, Charles; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis Anthony; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael; Van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2018-01-01

    The Second Chandra Source Catalog (CSC2.0) combines data at multiple stages to improve detection efficiency, enhance source region identification, and match observations of the same celestial source taken with significantly different point spread functions on Chandra's detectors. The need to group data for different reasons at different times in processing results in a hierarchy of groups to which individual sources belong. Source data are initially identified as belonging to each Chandra observation ID and number (an "obsid"). Data from each obsid whose pointings are within sixty arcseconds of each other are reprojected to the same aspect reference coordinates and grouped into stacks. Detection is performed on all data in the same stack, and individual sources are identified. Finer source position and region data are determined by further processing sources whose photons may be commingled together, grouping such sources into bundles. Individual stacks which overlap to any extent are grouped into ensembles, and all stacks in the same ensemble are later processed together to identify master sources and determine their properties.We discuss the basis for the various methods of combining data for processing and precisely define how the groups are determined. We also investigate some of the issues related to grouping data and discuss what options exist and how groups have evolved from prior releases.This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.

  17. The combined effect of heat and gamma irradiation on the inactivation of selected microorganisms associated with food hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.J.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The bactericidal effectiveness of radiation alone or in combination with heat against 8 strains associated with food hygiene were evaluated. In the case of radiation alone, D values of micro-organisms were 0.14~0.48 kGy, and inactivation factors were 4.54~21.43 at the doses of 2~3 kGy. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive among the tested strains, resulting in a D value of 0.14 kGy. D values of tile strains were 10~40 minutes at 50±1°C and 5~10 minutes at 60±1°C. Combination with heat and radiation showed D values of 0.04~0.31. Inactivation factors were 6.45~75 at the doses of 2 to 3 kGy. Therefore, heat treatment prior to irradiation significantly increased activation rate by increasing radiation sensitivity of microorganisms

  18. Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Muñoz-Espinosa, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A; González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2016-09-01

    Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status. We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design. Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05). Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Combining bar adsorptive microextraction with capillary electrophoresis--application for the determination of phenolic acids in food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Neng, Nuno; Sequeiros, Rute C P; Florêncio Nogueira, José Manuel

    2014-09-01

    In this contribution, bar adsorptive microextraction coated with a mixed-mode anion exchange/RP followed by liquid desorption was combined for the first time with a capillary electrophoresis-diode array detection system (BAμE(MAX)-LD/CE-DAD), for the determination of phenolic acids in food matrices, using chlorogenic, ferulic, cumaric, and caffeic acids as model compounds. Assays performed in aqueous media spiked at the 0.8 mg/L level yielded average recoveries up to 40% for all four phenolic acids, under optimized experimental conditions. The analytical performance showed also good precision (RSD 0.9900). By using the standard addition method, the application to food matrices such as green tea, red fruit juice, and honey allowed very good performances for the determination of minor amounts of phenolic acids. The proposed methodology proved to be a suitable alternative for the analysis of polar to ionic compounds, showing to be easy to implement, reliable, sensitive, and requiring a low sample volume to determine phenolic acids in food samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Combining focus group discussions and choice experiments for economic valuation of peatland restoration : A case study in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; van Beukering, P. J.H.; Oskolokaite, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of combining results of qualitative focus group discussions (FGDs) with a quantitative choice experiment (CE) in a low-income country context. The assessment addresses the compensation needed by local communities in Central Kalimantan to cooperate in peatland

  1. Saturation flow mathematical model based on multiple combinations of lane groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    The ideal value of the traffic stream that can pass through an intersection is known as the saturation flow rate per hour on vehicle green time. The saturation flow is important in the understanding of the traffic light cycle and from there the understanding the Level of Service. The paper wishes to evaluate through a series of applied mathematical methods the effect of different lane grouping and critical lane group concept on the saturation flow rate. The importance of this method is that it creates a base for a signalized intersections timing plan. (Author)

  2. Inseguridad alimentaria en latinos de California: observaciones de grupos focales Food insecurity among Latinos in California: A focal groups study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudiar la percepción y la experiencia sobre inseguridad alimentaria entre latinoamericanos de California, así como su interpretación de los insumos incluidos en la Escala de Seguridad Alimentaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre y diciembre de 2000, en los condados californianos de Solano y San Joaquín, se efectuaron cuatro grupos focales, con 30 adultos de origen latinoamericano residentes allí. Los comentarios de los participantes fueron codificados por dos investigadores para determinar los temas principales, y fueron confrontados para verificar su convergencia. RESULTADOS: Las preguntas fueron bien comprendidas, no percibiéndose como ofensivas. El marco conceptual se confirmó como "proceso manejado" con diferentes niveles de severidad. Las causas de inseguridad alimentaria identificadas fueron: desempleo, alto costo de algunos alimentos y falta de información nutricional. La necesidad de educación nutricional fue una constante. CONCLUSIONES: Para interpretar datos nacionales de inseguridad alimentaria en latinoamericanos es esencial considerar su percepción particular de ese fenómeno.OBJECTIVE: To assess the perception and experience with food insecurity among Latinos living in California, as well as their interpretation of the items included in the Food Security Scale. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of four focus groups were carried out among 30 adults of Latin-American descent living in California. The participant's responses were coded by two researchers to identify the main issues, and to compare them for assessing their convergence. RESULTS: The items were well understood and were not perceived as offensive. The conceptual framework was confirmed as a "managed process" with different severity levels. The causes of food insecurity were: unemployment, high cost of some food items, and lack of nutritional information. The demand for nutritional education was constant. CONCLUSION: Interpreting data on food

  3. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products...... (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those...... which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus...

  4. Modelling of resuspension, seasonality and losses during food processing. First report of the VAMP terrestrial working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This is the first report of the Terrestrial Working Group of the Coordinated Research Programme. ''The validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments and the acquisition of data for that purpose''. The programme seeks to use information on the environmental behaviour of radionuclides available after the Chernobyl accident to test the reliability of assessment models. The models themselves are useful for assessing the radiological impact of all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. This report contains reviews of three topics: resuspension of radioactive particles; removal of radionuclides during food processing; and seasonality of radioactive contamination of food. The three reviews have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Influence of environmental factors on food intake among nursing home residents: a survey combined with a video approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckinx F

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fanny Buckinx,1 Jean-Yves Reginster,1 Alison Morelle,2 Nicolas Paquot,3 Nicole Labeye,3 Médéa Locquet,1 Stéphane Adam,4,* Olivier Bruyère1,5,* 1Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liège, 2Nutrition and Dietetics, Haute Ecole de la Province de Liège, 3Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, University Teaching Hospital of Liège, 4Psychology of Senescence, 5Department of Sport Sciences and Rehabilitation, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an original video approach, the influence of the environment on food intake in nursing homes. Methods: The perception of the environment during meals in nursing homes was evaluated by residents and by two groups of volunteers who either work in the field of geriatrics, or who do not work in the field of geriatrics. First, a random sample of residents answered a self-administered questionnaire related to different indicators (ie, noise, space, comfort, light, odors, perceived satisfaction of meals, taste of meals, presentation of meals, service and setting. Second, two separate panels, one including the people who work in the field of geriatrics (ie, experts and one including the people who have no particular interest in geriatrics (ie, nonexperts, were asked to answer a questionnaire on their perception of the environment after having watched a video of the lunch in each nursing home. Then, the food intake of the residents was measured by a precise food-weighing method. Results: A total of 88 residents from nine different nursing homes, 18 experts and 45 nonexperts answered the questionnaires. This study highlighted that, on the one hand, after adjustment on confounding variables, the perception

  6. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of gamma-irradiation technology in combination with edible coating to produce shelf-stable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, B.; Sabato, S.F.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation combined with edible coatings to produce shelf-stable foods. Three types of commercially distributed food products were investigated: precooked shrimps, ready to cook pizzas, and fresh strawberries. Samples were coated with various formulations of protein-based solutions and irradiated at total doses between 0 and 3 kGy. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth. Sensorial analysis was also performed using a nine-point hedonic scale to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics (odor, taste and appearance). The results showed significant (p≤0.05) combined effect of gamma-irradiation and coating on microbial growth (APCs and Pseudomonas putida). The shelf-life extension periods ranged from 3 to 10 days for shrimps and from 7 to 20 days for pizzas, compared to uncoated/unirradiated products. No significant (p>0.05) detrimental effect of gamma-irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, taste, appearance) was observed. In strawberries, coating with irradiated protein solutions resulted in significant reduction of the percentage of mold contamination

  8. Combining Identity and Integration: Comparative Analysis of Schools for Two Minority Groups in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses school systems for two of Ukraine's minorities, the Hungarians and the Crimean Tatars with the aim of assessing their success in promoting ethnocultural identity and social integration of the minority youth. I demonstrate that the exclusive instruction in Hungarian ensures the reproduction of group language knowledge and…

  9. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression...

  10. A Combined group EA-PROMETHEE method for a supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rezaee Kelidbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important decisions which impacts all firms’ activities is the supplier selection problem. Since the 1950s, several works have addressed this problem by treating different aspects and instances. In this paper, a combined multiple criteria decision making (MCDM technique (EA-PROMETHEE has been applied to implement a proper decision making. To this aim, after reviewing the theoretical background regarding to supplier selection, the extension analysis (EA is used to determine the importance of criteria and PROMETHEE for appraisal of suppliers based on the criteria. An empirical example illustrated the proposed approach.

  11. A model of group cognitive behavioral intervention combined with bio-feedback in oncology settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri

    2010-01-01

    This article's goal is to present a model for social work with cancer patients and their relatives aimed at teaching ways of coping with cancer and its implications. The article presents a model of six meetings, emphasizing learning processes and acquisition of skills enabling participants to recognize and change distressing thoughts, combined with learning relaxation methods and guided imagery. An additional unique property of this model is the bio-feedback, which assists in creating awareness of physiological alertness states and in learning and implementing the different methods for decreasing pressure and stress.

  12. Combination of plant and insect eggs as food sources facilitates ovarian development in an omnivorous bug Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Wenjing; Li, Yunhe; Wu, Kongming G

    2013-06-01

    Diet nutrient is considered as an important regulatory factor for reproduction of insects. To understand the effect of different food sources on the reproductive physiology of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), the ovarian development in adult females was investigated when they were fed on green beans (Gb), combination of green beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Helicoverpa armigera eggs (GbHe), or H. armigera eggs (He). A female of A. lucorum has two ovaries, and each ovary contained seven yellowish ovarioles. Females fed on Gb or GbHe had larger ovaries and the ovarioles contained larger numbers of oocytes compared with those fed on He. Females in GeHe treatment has significantly higher number of follicles per ovary throughout the whole adult period compared with those in Gb or He treatment. Furthermore, the length of the best developed ovariole was affected by the diet type. The females fed on GbHe had the most developed ovarioles, with significantly longer ovarioles than those fed on Gb or He. A method was described to quantitatively score the degree of ovarian development in the current study. Similarly, the ovarian development scores were significantly higher for females in GbHe treatment than those in other two diet treatments. The ovarian development significantly delayed for females fed on He. Our results demonstrate that A. lucorum, as an omnivorous insect species, can acquire nutrients from both plant and animal origin food sources, and the combination of plants and animal food sources can significantly facilitate the ovary development of its females.

  13. Batch scale storage of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature; pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Lee, C.H.; Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Yang, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two varieties of potatoes, Irish cobbler and Shimabara stored for seven and nine months respectively by irradiation combined with natural low temperature (year-round temperature change: 2-17degC) on a batch scale were investigated on the suitability for processing of potato chip. Nine months after storage, irradiated potatoes (Irish cobbler) tended to maintain somewhat better texture and sensory quality than untreated in potatoe chip processing. Peel rate, closely related to potato chip yield, of untreated potatoes were 20-25% higher than those of irradiated and Agtron color determination of potato chip from both irradiated were commercially acceptable. Preservation of potatoes by irradiation combined with natural low temperature was evaluated as an alternative method of the supply for raw materials of potato chip processing in the off-season in Korea. (Author)

  14. Combination of existing and alternative technologies to promote oilseeds and pulses proteins in food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chéreau Denis; Videcoq Pauline; Ruffieux Cécile; Pichon Lisa; Motte Jean-Charles; Belaid Saliha; Ventureira Jorge; Lopez Michel

    2016-01-01

    The continuous world population growth induces a total protein demand increase based mainly on plant sources. To meet these global nutritional challenges, existing and innovative dry and wet fractionation processes will have to be combined to better valorise plant protein fraction from pulses and oilseeds. The worldwide success of soy protein isolates originate from the intrinsic qualities of soybean proteins but also from a con...

  15. Comparative study of oxidation in canned foods with a combination of vegetables and covering oils

    OpenAIRE

    E. Bravi; A. Mangione; O. Marconi; G. Perretti

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sunflower (SFO), extra-virgin olive (EVO), and soybean oils (SBO), in combination with canned aubergins and dried tomatoes were studied during an accelerated shelf-life trial. Hydrolytic and oxidative quality parameters was determined and a sensorial test was run. For both canned vegetables, the SBO showed greater resistance to the oxidation at the end of the shelflife trial. The SBO in both vegetables yielded similar results for peroxide formation, whereas a reduced formation ...

  16. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla Francis; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jacobsen, Anne Stine

    2008-01-01

    of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS....... Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding...... is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects...

  17. Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. A.; Buesseler, K. O.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-03-01

    The export of organic carbon from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the global carbon cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous global carbon export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean global carbon export from the euphotic zone of 6 Pg C yr-1. Global export estimates show small variation (typically model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.

  18. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  19. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; Turgis, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Borsa, J. [MDS Nordion, 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario, K2K 2P7 (Canada); Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Han, J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  20. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  1. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Dzhakova, A.; Tsvetkov, Tsv.

    2008-01-01

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  2. A JASTRO study group report. A randomized phase III trial of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide

    1998-01-01

    Result of study about local effect of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors was reported. The irradiation was more than 90% isodose for lesion, and total dose was 60 Gy in cases with anamnesis and 40-50 Gy and without anamnesis at a rate of five times a week and 2 Gy at one time. Hyperthermia was carried out four times; once a week, at 42.5 degrees on tumor side edge, and for 40 minutes. Total 53 cases (neck lymph node metastasis 30 cases, relapse breast cancer 11, advanced breast cancer 1, other superficial tumor 11) were divided into 2 groups. Radiotherapy without hyperthermia (group R) was 27 cases, radiotherapy with hyperthermia (group H) was 26 cases. CR and CR+PR within 2 months after treatment were as follows: Group R: 50%, 85%, Group H: 64%, 100%. The CR+PR was superior in group H (p=0.0497). The CR at maximum effect after treatment was 65% of group R and 86% of group H (p=0.17). The local control rate after CR was not different in both groups. (K.H.)

  3. Metabolomic Insights into the Nutritional Status of Adults and Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Consuming a Low-Phenylalanine Diet in Combination with Amino Acid and Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Bridget M; Ney, Denise M; Murali, Sangita G; Rohr, Frances; Gleason, Sally T; van Calcar, Sandra C; Levy, Harvey L

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient status in phenylketonuria (PKU) requires surveillance due to the restrictive low-Phe diet in combination with amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) or glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Micronutrient profiles of medical foods are diverse, and optimal micronutrient supplementation in PKU has not been established. In a crossover design, 30 participants with PKU were randomized to consume AA-MF and Glytactin™ GMP-MF in combination with a low-Phe diet for 3 weeks each. Fasting venipunctures, medical food logs, and 3-day food records were obtained. Metabolomic analyses were completed in plasma and urine by Metabolon, Inc. The low-Phe diets in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF were generally adequate based on Dietary Reference Intakes, clinical measures, and metabolomics. Without micronutrient supplementation of medical foods, >70% of participants would have inadequate intakes for 11 micronutrients. Despite micronutrient supplementation of medical foods, inadequate intakes of potassium in 93% of participants and choline in >40% and excessive intakes of sodium in >63% of participants and folic acid in >27% were observed. Sugar intake was excessive and provided 27% of energy. Nutrient status was similar with AA-MF and Glytactin GMP-MF. More research related to micronutrient supplementation of medical foods for the management of PKU is needed.

  4. The combined effect of food-simulating solutions, brushing and staining on color stability of composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara Da; Sales, Ana Luísa Leme Simões; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the effect of food-simulating media associated with brushing and coffee staining on color stability of different composite resins. Materials and methods: Eighty specimens were prepared for each composite: Grandio SO (Voco), Amaris (Voco), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE), Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE). They were divided into four groups according to food-simulating media for 7 days: artificial saliva (control), heptane, citric acid and ethanol. The composite surface was submitted to 10,950 brushing cycles (200 g load) in an automatic toothbrushing machine. The specimens were darkened with coffee solution at 37 °C for 24 h. After each treatment, color measurements were assessed by spectrophotometry, using CIE L*a*b* system. The overall color change (ΔE) was determined for each specimen at baseline (C1) and after the treatments (food-simulating media immersion/C2, brushing/C3 and dye solution/C4). Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p composites (p = .001), time (p = .001) and chemical degradation (p = .002). The mean of ΔE for composites were: Z350XT (5.39)a, Amaris (3.89)b, Grandio (3.75)bc, P90 (3.36)c. According to food-simulating media: heptane (4.41)a, citric acid (4.24)a, ethanol (4.02)ab, artificial saliva (3.76)b. For the treatments: dye solution (4.53)a, brushing (4.26)a, after food-simulating media (3.52)b. Conclusions: The composite resin Filtek Z350XT showed significantly higher staining than all other composite resin tested. The immersion in heptane and citric acid produced the highest color alteration than other food-simulating media. The exposure of samples to brushing protocols and darkening in coffee solution resulted in significant color alteration of the composite resins. PMID:28642926

  5. Comparative study of oxidation in canned foods with a combination of vegetables and covering oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bravi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sunflower (SFO, extra-virgin olive (EVO, and soybean oils (SBO, in combination with canned aubergins and dried tomatoes were studied during an accelerated shelf-life trial. Hydrolytic and oxidative quality parameters was determined and a sensorial test was run. For both canned vegetables, the SBO showed greater resistance to the oxidation at the end of the shelflife trial. The SBO in both vegetables yielded similar results for peroxide formation, whereas a reduced formation of secondary oxidation products was observed in aubergins. The results highlighted a higher oxidation stability of canned vegetables in SBO and EVO than those in SFO. The sensorial test underlined differences between the oils, in aubergins and dried tomatoes, after 30 days of accelerated storage (corresponding to the sell-by date. Flavour and texture were judged better for vegetables in SBO.

  6. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present opinion concerns a group of 26 sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th m...

  8. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1): Four carboxamides from Chemical Groups 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate four flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565...... criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all four candidate substances....

  9. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  10. [Improving the control of food allergy and intolerance risks in school settings: qualitative inputs from focus groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Teresa; Trabado, Verónica; García-Rodríguez, Alejo; Balfagón, Pere; Villalbí, Joan R

    2018-04-21

    This paper describes the use of focus groups as part of the evaluation of programmes to control food allergy and intolerance (FAI) in school settings in the city of Barcelona (Spain). After fostering their adoption and as a qualitative component of their evaluation, the public health services ran two focus groups, one with people from schools that manage their own kitchen, and another from companies that outsource this service. There were 28 participants from 46% of the centres invited. All the schools seem to have implemented a self-control programme on FAI. Although outsourcing companies already had a programme, the schools that managed their own service mostly adopted the programme promoted by the public health services. The number of schoolchildren with reported FAI reduced after the programme, as it required more rigorous documentation from families. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Land Use and Food Intake of Future Inhabitants: Outlining a Representative Individual of the Most Exposed Group for Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetre, Peter; Kautsky, Ulrik; Valentin, Jack; Lageraas, Per; Avila, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    The radiation doses to humans resulting from a potential release of radionuclides from a geological repository for long-lived waste are assessed over tens or even hundreds of thousands of years. Ingestion is expected to be the major exposure pathway, and the group with the highest exposures will be those that consume the most contaminated food. In this paper, we characterize the group of individuals with the highest exposures by considering the physical and biological characteristics of the contaminated area and human requirements for energy and nutrients. We then calculate intake rates based on land-use scenarios drawn from self-sustained communities spanning prehistoric times to an industrial-age agrarian culture. The approach is illustrated by simulating groundwater release of four radionuclides to an expected discharge area. We argue that the derived intake rates may serve as credible bounding cases when projected doses are evaluated for compliance with regulatory criteria

  12. High-dose irradiation: Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy. Report of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of an international group of experts convened by the World Health Organization, in association with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency, to consider the implications of food irradiated to doses higher than those recommended in 1980 by the Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. The public perception of the safety of food irradiation has generally precluded its widespread use. However, current applications of food irradiation to doses over 10 kGy have been in the development of high-quality shelf-stable convenience foods for specific target groups such as immunosuppressed individuals and those under medical care, astronauts and outdoor enthusiasts. The Study Group reviewed data relating to the toxicological, nutritional, radiation chemical and physical aspects of food irradiated to doses above 10kGy from a wide range and number of studies carried out over the last forty years. This report presents a comprehensive summary, along with references, of the effectiveness and safety of the irradiation process. It concludes that foods treated with doses greater than 10kGy can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate when produced under established Good Manufacturing Practice

  13. Group Communication Training for Young People with Combined Visual and Hearing Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhlova A. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the communication training for young people with visual and hearing impairments. Boys and girls aged 16–25 with simultaneous hearing and visual impairments of varying severity took part in the group trainings. The variety of means of communication used by them described, conditions of effective training work outlined. The results showed that young people with visual and hearing impairments demonstrate a fairly high level of possession of various means of communication without pronounced additional violations. Communicative needs and preferences in young people with visual and hearing impairments are age-appropriate. Communication training allows the following: to eliminate some of the objective communicative difficulties which are exists in deaf-blind people, to motivate participants to show initiative in communication, to learn new about each other. Also communicative training creates a positive experience of communication with a wider range of people. The most important result is the opportunity to talk about ones feelings in a supportive atmosphere.

  14. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  15. A Substance Called Food: Long-Term Psychodynamic Group Treatment for Compulsive Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah C; Nickow, Marcia S; Arseneau, Ric; Gisslow, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Obesity has proven difficult to treat. Many approaches neglect to address the deep-rooted underlying psychological issues. This paper describes a psychodynamically oriented approach to treating compulsive overeating as an addiction. Common to all addictions is a compulsion to consume a substance or engage in a behavior, a preoccupation with using behavior and rituals, and a lifestyle marked by an inability to manage the behavior and its harmful consequences. The approach represents a shift away from primarily medical models of intervention to integrated models focusing on the psychological underpinnings of obesity. Long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy is recommended as a primary treatment.

  16. How tight are the limits to land and water use? - Combined impacts of food demand and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotze-Campen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the coming decades, world agricultural systems will face serious transitions. Population growth, income and lifestyle changes will lead to considerable increases in food demand. Moreover, a rising demand for renewable energy and biodiversity protection may restrict the area available for food production. On the other hand, global climate change will affect production conditions, for better or worse depending on regional conditions. In order to simulate these combined effects consistently and in a spatially explicit way, we have linked the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ with a "Management model of Agricultural Production and its Impact on the Environment" (MAgPIE. LPJ represents the global biosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. MAgPIE covers the most important agricultural crop and livestock production types. A prototype has been developed for one sample region. In the next stage this will be expanded to several economically relevant regions on a global scale, including international trade. The two models are coupled through a layer of productivity zones. In the paper we present the modelling approach, develop first joint scenarios and discuss selected results from the coupled modelling system.

  17. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of methane production from highly concentrated food waste in a combined anaerobic digester and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungyu; Lee, Beom; Tian, Donjie; Jun, Hangbae

    2018-01-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology for enhancing biogas production from an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor. In this study, the effects of the MEC on the rate of methane production from food waste were examined by comparing an AD reactor with an AD reactor combined with a MEC (AD+MEC). The use of the MEC accelerated methane production and stabilization via rapid organic oxidation and rapid methanogenesis. Over the total experimental period, the methane production rate and stabilization time of the AD+MEC reactor were approximately 1.7 and 4.0 times faster than those of the AD reactor. Interestingly however, at the final steady state, the methane yields of both the reactors were similar to the theoretical maximum methane yield. Based on these results, the MEC did not increase the methane yield over the theoretical value, but accelerated methane production and stabilization by bioelectrochemical reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining product attributes with recommendation and shopping location attributes to assess consumer preferences for insect-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    into consumers' preferences for termite-based food products (TBFPs) using data from a choice experiment survey in Kenya. A novel feature of this paper is that it investigates the combined effects of product-related and contextual attributes, as well as consumer attitudes on preferences for TBFPs. In addition......, the paper focuses on the extent to which preferences may be affected depending on the meal formats, i.e. whether the termites are introduced either as whole insects or as a processed component in a typical daily meal. The results suggest that consumers prefer TBFPs with high nutritional value and especially...... when they are recommended by officials. Results further indicate that affirmative recommendations are particularly important for the processed TBFP, and consumers prefer to buy this type of product in kiosks or supermarkets than at local marketplaces. Despite a considerable degree of preference...

  19. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens.

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...

  1. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  2. The role of street foods in the dietary pattern of two low-income groups in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwangi, A.M.; Mwadime, R.K.N.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the frequency of street food consumption of people living in low-income settlements in Nairobi and the role of street foods in their daily diet and to reveal why people consume street foods rather than home-prepared foods. Setting, subjects and methods: A cross-sectional

  3. Simulation of processes of water aerosol coagulation-condensation growth using a combination of methods of groups and fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander G Godizov; Alexander D Efanov; Alexander A Lukianov; Olga V Supotnitskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: To describe the phenomena involving aerosol, the model in lumped parameters is used, which is based on the kinetic integral-differential equation for the function of particle distribution of size and content of soluble and insoluble impurities with sources and collision integrals. By the function of particle size distribution, the integral parameters of aerosol can be determined: water content (mass of condensed moisture in a unit of volume), dust content (mass of insoluble condensation nuclei in a unit of volume), calculational concentration and the mean radius of particles. In the aerosol transfer problem being considered, the thermodynamic fields are the external data obtained with a thermal-hydraulic computer code. For numerical simulation of the kinetic equation describing aerosol behavior in coagulation-condensation processes, a hybrid method is used, which combines the method of groups and the method of fractions. To solve the complete equation of aerosol transfer, the method of fractions is used. The integral equation describing aerosol coagulation is solved by means of the group method. The group method based on the representation of particle size distribution in terms of a linear combination of δ-functions with time-dependent arguments makes it possible to calculate the integral parameters of spectrum: the moments of distribution function at a small number of groups. The test calculations were performed by giving the particle spectrum as a lognormal distribution and Γ- function. The hybrid method combined with the thermal-hydraulic computer code enables one to simulate volume condensation of steam at varying thermal-hydraulic conditions. (authors)

  4. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency ques...

  5. Sequential Combination of Electro-Fenton and Electrochemical Chlorination Processes for the Treatment of Anaerobically-Digested Food Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Uk; Yoo, Ha-Young; Kim, Seonghun; Chung, Kyung-Mi; Park, Yong-Gyun; Hwang, Kwang-Hyun; Hong, Seok Won; Park, Hyunwoong; Cho, Kangwoo; Lee, Jaesang

    2017-09-19

    A two-stage sequential electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) oxidation followed by electrochemical chlorination (EC) was demonstrated to concomitantly treat high concentrations of organic carbon and ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) in real anaerobically digested food wastewater (ADFW). The anodic Fenton process caused the rapid mineralization of phenol as a model substrate through the production of hydroxyl radical as the main oxidant. The electrochemical oxidation of NH 4 + by a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) resulted in temporal concentration profiles of combined and free chlorine species that were analogous to those during the conventional breakpoint chlorination of NH 4 + . Together with the minimal production of nitrate, this confirmed that the conversion of NH 4 + to nitrogen gas was electrochemically achievable. The monitoring of treatment performance with varying key parameters (e.g., current density, H 2 O 2 feeding rate, pH, NaCl loading, and DSA type) led to the optimization of two component systems. The comparative evaluation of two sequentially combined systems (i.e., the E-Fenton-EC system versus the EC-E-Fenton system) using the mixture of phenol and NH 4 + under the predetermined optimal conditions suggested the superiority of the E-Fenton-EC system in terms of treatment efficiency and energy consumption. Finally, the sequential E-Fenton-EC process effectively mineralized organic carbon and decomposed NH 4 + -N in the real ADFW without external supply of NaCl.

  6. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  7. Interactive effects of an insecticide and a fungicide on different organism groups and ecosystem functioning in a stream detrital food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Mohab; Bundschuh, Mirco; Goedkoop, Willem; McKie, Brendan G

    2017-05-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are often affected by cocktails of multiple pesticides targeting different organism groups. Prediction and evaluation of the ecosystem-level effects of these mixtures is complicated by the potential not only for interactions among the pesticides themselves, but also for the pesticides to alter biotic interactions across trophic levels. In a stream microcosm experiment, we investigated the effects of two pesticides targeting two organism groups (the insecticide lindane and fungicide azoxystrobin) on the functioning of a model stream detrital food web consisting of a detritivore (Ispoda: Asellus aquaticus) and microbes (an assemblage of fungal hyphomycetes) consuming leaf litter. We assessed how these pesticides interacted with the presence and absence of the detritivore to affect three indicators of ecosystem functioning - leaf decomposition, fungal biomass, fungal sporulation - as well as detritivore mortality. Leaf decomposition rates were more strongly impacted by the fungicide than the insecticide, reflecting especially negative effects on leaf processing by detritivores. This result most like reflects reduced fungal biomass and increased detritivore mortality under the fungicide treatment. Fungal sporulation was elevated by exposure to both the insecticide and fungicide, possibly representing a stress-induced increase in investment in propagule dispersal. Stressor interactions were apparent in the impacts of the combined pesticide treatment on fungal sporulation and detritivore mortality, which were reduced and elevated relative to the single stressor treatments, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of trophic and multiple stressor interactions to modulate the ecosystem-level impacts of chemicals, highlighting important challenges in predicting, understanding and evaluating the impacts of multiple chemical stressors on more complex food webs in situ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a novel PROMETHEE-based method for construction of a group compromise ranking to prioritization of green suppliers in food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kadziński, Miłosz; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    green supply chain management (GSCM) elements is essential for utilizing the food supply chain in an environmentally benign way. As a solution to the above challenge, the economic and green characteristics for supplier selection in green purchasing are studied in this paper. For an organization......, the evaluation and selection of the green supplier is a vital issue due to several tangible and intangible criteria involved. Accordingly, we apply multiple criteria decision aiding techniques.We propose a hybrid approach that combines the revised Simos procedure, PROMETHEE methods, algorithms for constructing......The food sector has a prodigious focus and is constantly gaining in importance in today's global economic marketplace. Due to an increasing global population, society faces a greater challenge for sustainable food production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the food supply chain. Adopting...

  9. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda: high-risk groups not targeted by food aid programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas; Ovuga, Emilio; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance System aged 15 years and older were considered eligible. Trained field assistants collected anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and administered questionnaires with information on sociodemographic characteristics, food security, smoking and alcohol. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index. In total, 2062 men and 2924 women participated and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of underweight was 22.3% for men and 16.0% for women, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 1.5% for men and 7.6% for women. In men, underweight was associated with younger (15-19 years) and older age (>55 years) (P < 0.001), being divorced/separated [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.99] and smoking (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.67-2.73). For women, underweight was associated with older age (P < 0.001) and hungry-gap rainy season (May-July) (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.69). Widowed or divorced/separated women were not more likely to be underweight. No association was found between education, alcohol consumption or food security score and underweight. Our findings are not in line with the conventional target groups in nutritional programmes and highlight the importance of continuous health and nutritional assessments of all population groups that reflect local social determinants and family structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. Folate, iron, calcium and fiber intake were lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) amounts (70, 76, 90, 56% of RDA, respectively). Forty five percent of the population consumed fast foods 2 times a week and 35% used the frying oils for cooking most of the time. Female youths had lower amount of some micronutrients. Consuming frying oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and fast food intake should be limited among this group.

  11. Identification of human-pathogenic strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food by a combination of serotyping and molecular typing of Shiga toxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutin, Lothar; Miko, Angelika; Krause, Gladys; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine

    2007-08-01

    We examined 219 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from meat, milk, and cheese samples collected in Germany between 2005 and 2006. All strains were investigated for their serotypes and for genetic variants of Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2). stx(1) or variant genes were detected in 88 (40.2%) strains and stx(2) and variants in 177 (80.8%) strains. Typing of stx genes was performed by stx-specific PCRs and by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of PCR products. Major genotypes of the Stx1 (stx(1), stx(1c), and stx(1d)) and the Stx2 (stx(2), stx(2d), stx(2-O118), stx(2e), and stx(2g)) families were detected, and multiple types of stx genes coexisted frequently in STEC strains. Only 1.8% of the STEC strains from food belonged to the classical enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) types O26:H11, O103:H2, and O157:H7, and only 5.0% of the STEC strains from food were positive for the eae gene, which is a virulence trait of classical EHEC. In contrast, 95 (43.4%) of the food-borne STEC strains carried stx(2) and/or mucus-activatable stx(2d) genes, an indicator for potential high virulence of STEC for humans. Most of these strains belonged to serotypes associated with severe illness in humans, such as O22:H8, O91:H21, O113:H21, O174:H2, and O174:H21. stx(2) and stx(2d) STEC strains were found frequently in milk and beef products. Other stx types were associated more frequently with pork (stx(2e)), lamb, and wildlife meat (stx(1c)). The combination of serotyping and stx genotyping was found useful for identification and for assignment of food-borne STEC to groups with potential lower and higher levels of virulence for humans.

  12. Use of enhanced nisin derivatives in combination with food-grade oils or citric acid to control Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Alicia; Morrissey, Ruth; Field, Des; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2017-08-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are well known food-borne pathogens that can cause severe disease. The identification of new alternatives to heating to control these pathogens in foods, while reducing the impact on organoleptic properties and nutritional value, is highly desirable. In this study, nisin and its bioengineered variants, nisin V and nisin S29A, are used alone, or in combination with plant essential oils (thymol, carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde) or citric acid, with a view to controlling C. sakazakii and E. coli O157:H7 in laboratory-based assays and model food systems. The use of nisin variants (30 μM) with low concentrations of thymol (0.015%), carvacrol (0.03%) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.035%) resulted in extended lag phases of growth compared to those for corresponding nisin A-essential oil combinations. Furthermore, nisin variants (60 μM) used in combination with carvacrol (0.03%) significantly reduced viable counts of E. coli O157:H7 (3-log) and C. sakazakii (4-log) compared to nisin A-carvacrol treatment. Importantly, this increased effectiveness translated into food. More specifically, sub-inhibitory concentrations of nisin variants and carvacrol caused complete inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice within 3 h at room temperature compared to that of the equivalent nisin A combination. Furthermore, combinations of commercial Nisaplin and the food additive citric acid reduced C. sakazakii numbers markedly in infant formula within the same 3 h period. These results highlight the potential benefits of combining nisin and variants thereof with carvacrol and/or citric acid for the inhibition of Gram negative food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study.

  14. Prioritisation of allergenic foods with respect to public health relevance. Report from an ILSI Europe Food Allergy Task Force Expert Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Geert; Burney, Peter; Chan, Chun Han; Crevel, René; Dubois, Anthony; Faludi, Roland; Klein Entink, Rinke; Knulst, André; Taylor, Steve; Ronsmans, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Regulators and risk managers in general need to decide whether an allergenic food or ingredient is of such public health importance that it needs to be actively managed. There is therefore a need to scale the relative allergenicity of foods and ingredients according to the hazards they pose.

  15. Prioritisation of allergenic foods with respect to public health relevance. : Report from an ILSI Europe Food Allergy Task Force Expert Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.; Burney, P.; Chan, C.H.; Crevel, R.; Dubois, A.; Faludi, R.; Klein Entink, R.H.; Knulst, A.; Taylor, S.; Ronsmans, S.

    2016-01-01

    Regulators and risk managers in general need to decide whether an allergenic food or ingredient is of such public health importance that it needs to be actively managed. There is therefore a need to scale the relative allergenicity of foods and ingredients according to the hazards they pose.

  16. Prioritisation of allergenic foods with respect to public health relevance Report from an ILSI Europe Food Allergy Task Force Expert Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Geert; Burney, Peter; Chan, Chun-Han; Crevel, Rene; Dubois, Anthony; Faludi, Roland; Entink, Rinke Klein; Knulst, Andre; Taylor, Steve; Ronsmans, Stefan

    Regulators and risk managers in general need to decide whether an allergenic food or ingredient is of such public health importance that it needs to be actively managed. There is therefore a need to scale the relative allergenicity of foods and ingredients according to the hazards they pose.

  17. Differences in diet and activity pattern between two groups of Alouatta palliata associated with the availability of big trees and fruit of top food taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jacob C; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Veà, Joaquím J

    2009-08-01

    The threat that forest fragmentation and habitat loss presents for several Alouatta taxa requires us to determine the key elements that may promote the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments and to evaluate how changes in the availability of these elements may affect their future conservation prospects. In this study we analyzed the relationship between the availability of both big trees of top food taxa (BTTFT) (diameter at breast height>60) and fruit of top food taxa (FrTFT) in the home ranges of two groups of Alouatta palliata mexicana occupying different forest fragments in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, and their diet and activity pattern. Both study groups preferred big trees for feeding and the group with lower availability of BTTFT in their home range fed from more, smaller food sources. Furthermore, both study groups also increased the number of food sources when their consumption of fruit decreased, and the group with lower availability of FrTFT in their home range fed from more food sources. The increase in the number of food sources used under such conditions, in turn, set up a process of higher foraging effort and lower rest. In summary, our results support other studies that suggest that the availability of big trees and fruit may be two important elements influencing the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments.

  18. Household food group expenditure patterns are associated with child anthropometry at ages 5, 8 and 12 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2017-08-01

    Population-level analysis of dietary influences on nutritional status is challenging in part due to limitations in dietary intake data. Household expenditure surveys, covering recent household expenditures and including key food groups, are routinely conducted in low- and middle-income countries. These data may help identify patterns of food expenditure that relate to child growth. We investigated the relationship between household food expenditures and child growth using factor analysis. We used data on 6993 children from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam at ages 5, 8 and 12y from the Young Lives cohort. We compared associations between household food expenditures and child growth (height-for-age z scores, HAZ; body mass index-for-age z scores, BMI-Z) using total household food expenditures and the "household food group expenditure index" (HFGEI) extracted from household expenditures with factor analysis on the seven food groups in the child dietary diversity scale, controlling for total food expenditures, child dietary diversity, data collection round, rural/urban residence and child sex. We used the HFGEI to capture households' allocations of their finances across food groups in the context of local food pricing, availability and pReferences RESULTS: The HFGEI was associated with significant increases in child HAZ in Ethiopia (0.07), India (0.14), and Vietnam (0.07) after adjusting for all control variables. Total food expenditures remained significantly associated with increases in BMI-Z for India (0.15), Peru (0.11) and Vietnam (0.06) after adjusting for study round, HFGEI, dietary diversity, rural residence, and whether the child was female. Dietary diversity was inversely associated with BMI-Z in India and Peru. Mean dietary diversity increased from age 5y to 8y and decreased from age 8y to 12y in all countries. Household food expenditure data provide insights into household food purchasing patterns that significantly predict HAZ and BMI-Z. Including food

  19. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software......-8 years and 47 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through schools in Spain. Each child with one parent completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a food-recording booklet (FRB) to be filled in by the child, a parent or other proxy persons for preparing the recalls. Feasibility...

  20. Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Cava, Edda; Edda, Cava; Paolini, Maddalena; Maddalena, Paolini; Scavone, Luciano; Luciano, Scavone; Ceccarelli, Paola; Paola, Ceccarelli; Castellaneta, Emanuela; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Savina, Claudia; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-10-01

    This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 8 week trial assessed the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by a consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, capsaicins, piperine and L-carnitine) versus a placebo, as part of a therapeutic 'lifestyle change' diet, in 86 overweight subjects. Forty-one patients (2/14 F/M; age 43.7 ± 8.5; BMI 30.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the supplemented group and 45 (29/16; age 40.7 ± 10.2; BMI 30.0 ± 2.7) to the control group. We observed that consumption of the dietary supplement was associated with a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, assessed by homostasis model assessment (p < 0.001), leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.04), respiratory quotient (p < 0.008). LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01). Moreover, statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups in relation to urinary norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). Leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group (p < 0.05, 0.03, 0.02 and 0,02 respectively), but not in the placebo group; adiponectin decreased significantly in the placebo group (0.001) but not in the supplemented group, although no statistical significance between the groups was elicited. BMI, fat mass (assessed by DXA) and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly decreased, whilst the resting energy expenditure/free fat mass significantly increased in both groups. In general, a greater change was recorded in the supplemented group compared to the placebo, although no statistically significant difference between the two groups was recorded. These results suggest that the combination of bioactive food ingredients studied might be useful for the treatment of obesity-related inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions.

  1. Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya : a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food

  2. Combining deep residual neural network features with supervised machine learning algorithms to classify diverse food image datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Patrick; Zheng, Huiru; Bond, Raymond; Moorhead, Anne

    2018-04-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide and can cause many chronic conditions such as type-2 diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea, and some cancers. Monitoring dietary intake through food logging is a key method to maintain a healthy lifestyle to prevent and manage obesity. Computer vision methods have been applied to food logging to automate image classification for monitoring dietary intake. In this work we applied pretrained ResNet-152 and GoogleNet convolutional neural networks (CNNs), initially trained using ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) dataset with MatConvNet package, to extract features from food image datasets; Food 5K, Food-11, RawFooT-DB, and Food-101. Deep features were extracted from CNNs and used to train machine learning classifiers including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), Random Forest, and Naive Bayes. Results show that using ResNet-152 deep features with SVM with RBF kernel can accurately detect food items with 99.4% accuracy using Food-5K validation food image dataset and 98.8% with Food-5K evaluation dataset using ANN, SVM-RBF, and Random Forest classifiers. Trained with ResNet-152 features, ANN can achieve 91.34%, 99.28% when applied to Food-11 and RawFooT-DB food image datasets respectively and SVM with RBF kernel can achieve 64.98% with Food-101 image dataset. From this research it is clear that using deep CNN features can be used efficiently for diverse food item image classification. The work presented in this research shows that pretrained ResNet-152 features provide sufficient generalisation power when applied to a range of food image classification tasks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined effect of workplace noise and smoking on some hematological parameters on workers in a food manufacturing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, no industry can be found to be safe in terms of noise pollution. Noise is the wide- spread form of environmental stressor in the industrialized urban areas. Aim: the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the combined effect of workplace noise and smoking on some hematological parameters on employing work in a food manufacturing plant. This is a retrospective study before and after for five years since starting of the work. In this study, 50 male subjects participated: smokers (n=11 and nonsmokers (n=39, for further individual information and certain specific points, a developed standard questionnaire, were filled out by participants. For the past 4-year’s details, blood tests and medical records of persons since initially hired, were used. The details of the fifth year were measured by the presenters. Using the ISO protocol 1999 and 9612, workplace noise was measured and the noise map was drawn using arc-view GIS software. Statistical analysis SPSS software version 18 was investigated. Due to the nature of the study, the significance level was set at a P value ≤0.1. Statistical findings and laboratory data showed that the effect of noise and smoking on red blood cells and white blood cells of smokers and nonsmokers was significant (p<0.1, so that the amount of red blood cells in smokers who are exposed to noise exceeding 88.83 dB, is higher than nonsmokers, and the white blood cells are lower in nonsmokers in compared with smokers. Our findings showed that combined of workplace noise and smoking has severe adverse effects on hematological parameters, and these alterations might be associated with a greater risk for more diseases. It is notable that results are from a research effort of its researchers and it is not completely certain so further investigation will be needed.

  4. Risk assessment of combined exposure to alkenylbenzenes through consumption of plant food supplements containing parsley and dill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlouni, Abdalmajeed M; Al-Malahmeh, Amer J; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Kalli, Marina; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-12-01

    A risk assessment was performed of parsley- and dill-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing apiol and related alkenylbenzenes. First, the levels of the alkenylbenzenes in the PFS and the resulting estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from use of the PFS were quantified. Since most PFS appeared to contain more than one alkenylbenzene, a combined risk assessment was performed based on equal potency or using a so-called toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for the different alkenylbenzenes. The EDIs resulting from daily PFS consumption amount to 0.74-125 µg kg -1 bw for the individual alkenylbenzenes, 0.74-160 µg kg -1 bw for the sum of the alkenylbenzenes, and 0.47-64 µg kg -1 bw for the sum of alkenylbenzenes when expressed in safrole equivalents. The margins of exposure (MOEs) obtained were generally below 10,000, indicating a priority for risk management if the PFS were to be consumed on a daily basis. Considering short-term use of the PFS, MOEs would increase above 10,000, indicating low priority for risk management. It is concluded that alkenylbenzene intake through consumption of parsley- and dill-based PFS is only of concern when these PFS are used for long periods of time.

  5. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, P. N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K. D.; Lacroix, M.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and γ-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10 6 CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D10 value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to γ-irradiation.

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3 (FGE.11Rev3): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 11 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substances......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all candidate substances....

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5 (FGE.21Rev5): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 41 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... have also been considered. Adequate specifications, including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce, have been provided for all 41 candidate substances....

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....

  9. Report on the combined meeting of the core confinement and internal transport barrier expert group, confinement database and modeling expert group and edge pedestal expert group, 12-16 April 1999, Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Connor, J.W.; Cordey, G.; Kardaun, O.; Mukhovatov, V.; Stambaugh, R.; Ryter, F.; Wakatani, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution to the ITER EDA Newsletter reports on the combined meeting of the core confinement and internal transport barrier expert group, confinement database and modeling expert group and edge pedestal expert group in Garching, Germany. This is the first workshop of its kind after the re-organisation of the expert groups. The new scheme of the meetings, namely to permit more interaction between groups by arranging them at the same time and location turned out to be very successful. The main issues discussed were for the Confinement Database: merging of edge pedestal and confinement data, improvement of the density- and magnetic shape parameters, addition of new dedicated threshold data, the effect of different divertors in JET; for the H-Mode Power Threshold Database: assembly of a new version of the database with about 650 time points from 10 tokamaks; for the 1-D Modelling Workshop: management of the database after the re-organisation of the Joint Central Team an ongoing efforts in plasma transport modelling; for the newly formed pedestal group: issues of the H-mode shear layer at the plasma edge. There was also an executive summary given of a recent USA workshop on internal transport barriers and regimes with weak or negative magnetic shear

  10. Associations between intakes of individual nutrients or whole food groups and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Mi; Jo, An Na; Lee, Seung Min; Bae, Hyun Suk; Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Ahn, Sang Bong; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Seong Woo; Jang, Eun Chul

    2014-06-01

    Dietary factors are closely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Asian and Western diets differ in energy-nutrient composition, fatty-acid composition, and main nutritional sources; therefore, the implications would be limited if the Western-oriented study results were applied to Asian patients. We aimed to identify the nutrient and food group intakes of a typical Asian diet and assess their effects on NAFLD risk. In total, 348 subjects were recruited from 5 participating hospitals. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors were obtained through face-to-face interviews. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Dietary intakes were assessed with a 24-h recall applying a multiple-pass approach and 4-day food records that included 1 or 2 weekend days. There were no significant differences in health-related behaviors between the cases and controls except for smoking behavior. The cases had elevated triacylglycerol, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the controls. In men, after adjusting for variables, low intakes of vitamin C (odds ratio [OR], 4.23), vitamin K (OR, 3.93), folate (OR, 3.37), omega-3 fatty acids (OR, 2.16), and nuts and seeds (OR, 3.66) were associated with a significantly higher risk for developing NAFLD. In women, vitamin K (OR, 2.54) and vegetable (OR, 4.11) intakes showed a significant beneficial effect for lowering NAFLD risk. Adequate intakes of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, nuts and seeds, and vegetables may help in preventing NAFLD in Korean adults.

  11. Effect of the herbal formulation Jianpijiedu on the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma and subjected to food restriction combined with laxative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguo; Meng, Jun; Xiang, Ting; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Liuxiang; Chen, Yan; Luo, Haoxuan; Yang, Zhangbin; Chen, Zexiong; Zhang, Shijun

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Chinese herbal formulation Jianpijiedu (JPJD) in a rat model of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (OHC). The tumor-bearing rats underwent food restriction combined with laxative (FRL) treatment in order to model the nutritional and digestive symptoms of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the study aimed to elucidate the effect of JPJD on the T cell receptor Vβ-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (TCRVβCDR3) repertoire and the underlying mechanism. The FRL rat model was established by alternate-day food restriction and the oral administration of Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate), based on which the OHC model was then established. Subsequently, the FRL-OHC induced animals received JPJD or thymopentin-5 (TP5) for 17 days. Differences in the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in the rat thymus, liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the FRL-OHC model animals without any treatment, those treated with JPJD exhibited significantly inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma growth (PSimpsons diversity index (Ds) values and the quasi-Gaussian distribution rate of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in the thymus, liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. However, no anti-hepatoma effects were evident in the rats treated with TP5. In addition, TP5 increased the Ds values and the quasi-Gaussian distribution rate of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues compared with those in the JPJD-treated group. The anti-hepatoma effects of JPJD in FRL-OHC-induced animals may be due to the promotion of the Ds values of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire.

  12. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Panel; Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 1 (outbreak data analysis and risk ranking of food/pathogen combinations)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    shelf life. Shortcomings in the approach using outbreak data were discussed. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonellaspp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonellaspp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonellaspp. and tomatoes, Salmonellaspp. and melons...

  13. A Practical Application Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things: Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexing Zhong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Internet of Things (IoT has attracted increasing attention in the field of computer and information science. In this paper, a specific application of IoT, named Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups (SMS-TC, is proposed for use in the construction industry field. The operating status of each tower crane was detected by a set of customized sensors, including horizontal and vertical position sensors for the trolley, angle sensors for the jib and load, tilt and wind speed sensors for the tower body. The sensor data is collected and processed by the Tower Crane Safety Terminal Equipment (TC-STE installed in the driver’s operating room. Wireless communication between each TC-STE and the Local Monitoring Terminal (LMT at the ground worksite were fulfilled through a Zigbee wireless network. LMT can share the status information of the whole group with each TC-STE, while the LMT records the real-time data and reports it to the Remote Supervision Platform (RSP through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. Based on the global status data of the whole group, an anti-collision algorithm was executed in each TC-STE to ensure the safety of each tower crane during construction. Remote supervision can be fulfilled using our client software installed on a personal computer (PC or smartphone. SMS-TC could be considered as a promising practical application that combines a Wireless Sensor Network with the Internet of Things.

  14. A Practical Application Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things: Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dexing; Lv, Hongqiang; Han, Jiuqiang; Wei, Quanrui

    2014-01-01

    The so-called Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted increasing attention in the field of computer and information science. In this paper, a specific application of IoT, named Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups (SMS-TC), is proposed for use in the construction industry field. The operating status of each tower crane was detected by a set of customized sensors, including horizontal and vertical position sensors for the trolley, angle sensors for the jib and load, tilt and wind speed sensors for the tower body. The sensor data is collected and processed by the Tower Crane Safety Terminal Equipment (TC-STE) installed in the driver's operating room. Wireless communication between each TC-STE and the Local Monitoring Terminal (LMT) at the ground worksite were fulfilled through a Zigbee wireless network. LMT can share the status information of the whole group with each TC-STE, while the LMT records the real-time data and reports it to the Remote Supervision Platform (RSP) through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Based on the global status data of the whole group, an anti-collision algorithm was executed in each TC-STE to ensure the safety of each tower crane during construction. Remote supervision can be fulfilled using our client software installed on a personal computer (PC) or smartphone. SMS-TC could be considered as a promising practical application that combines a Wireless Sensor Network with the Internet of Things. PMID:25196106

  15. A practical application combining wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things: Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dexing; Lv, Hongqiang; Han, Jiuqiang; Wei, Quanrui

    2014-07-30

    The so-called Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted increasing attention in the field of computer and information science. In this paper, a specific application of IoT, named Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups (SMS-TC), is proposed for use in the construction industry field. The operating status of each tower crane was detected by a set of customized sensors, including horizontal and vertical position sensors for the trolley, angle sensors for the jib and load, tilt and wind speed sensors for the tower body. The sensor data is collected and processed by the Tower Crane Safety Terminal Equipment (TC-STE) installed in the driver's operating room. Wireless communication between each TC-STE and the Local Monitoring Terminal (LMT) at the ground worksite were fulfilled through a Zigbee wireless network. LMT can share the status information of the whole group with each TC-STE, while the LMT records the real-time data and reports it to the Remote Supervision Platform (RSP) through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Based on the global status data of the whole group, an anti-collision algorithm was executed in each TC-STE to ensure the safety of each tower crane during construction. Remote supervision can be fulfilled using our client software installed on a personal computer (PC) or smartphone. SMS-TC could be considered as a promising practical application that combines a Wireless Sensor Network with the Internet of Things.

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  17. Study of Aided Diagnosis of Hepatic Carcinoma Based on Artificial Neural Network Combined with Tumor Marker Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shanjuan; Feng, Feifei; Wu, Yongjun; Wu, Yiming

    To develop a computer-aided diagnostic scheme by using an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with tumor markers for diagnosis of hepatic carcinoma (HCC) as a clinical assistant method. 140 serum samples (50 malignant, 40 benign and 50 normal) were analyzed for α-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), sialic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca). The five tumor marker values were then used as ANN inputs data. The result of ANN was compared with that of discriminant analysis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of ANN and discriminant analysis among all samples of the test group was 95.5% and 79.3%, respectively. Analysis of multiple tumor markers based on ANN may be a better choice than the traditional statistical methods for differentiating HCC from benign or normal.

  18. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  19. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  20. Analysis of toxicity in a group of patients treated for pancreatic cancer with combined modality 3D radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, Robert M.; Fernandez-Vicioso, Eduardo; Higgins, Patrick; Schell, Michael; Sohn, Jason; Pelley, Robert; Walsh, R. M.; Vogt, David; Hermann, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute toxicity of a group of 37 pancreatic cancer patients treated with noncoplanar, nonopposed, conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy (5-FU). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a group of initially nonadvanced 37 pancreatic cancer patients treated with combined concurrent chemotherapy and 3D radiation therapy treated between 1992 until 1995. During this period we began treating the initially unresectable patients with preoperative chemo-RT (50.4 Gy) after treating an initial group of unresectable patients to a higher dose of 66.6 Gy. We also include a group of patients who received postop chemo-RT after Whipple resection (59.4 Gy). All radiation was delivered at a 1.8 Gy per fraction dose rate. The total group was made up of 37 patients of whom 21 were male (57%) and 16 female (43%). There were 22 (59%) head of pancreas lesions, 10 (27%) body of pancreas lesions, and 5 (14%) head and body of pancreas cancers. Of these 37 patients 7 (19%) were treated with chemo-RT as their only treatment, 10 patients (29%) were treated post Whipple resection, and 20 patients (54%) were treated with preoperative intent. Results: Three patients (8%) required a treatment break, one with a body and 2 with head lesions. Two of these patients stopped RT short of planned dose (32.56 and 46.8 Gy) both suffering from nausea, vomiting, and anorexia with the third, who finished a planned 66.6 Gy dose, after a 4 day rest for leukopenia. One of 20 patients (5%) preop patients underwent the planned post chemo-RT Whipple resection, while 4 of the 20 patients (20%), remained unresectable, but without disease progression and had Iodine 125 interstitial implants at exploration delivering a minimal tumor dose of 120 Gy on top or the 50.4 Gy delivered preoperatively. Four patients (11%) maintained a minimal Karnofsky score of 100, 23 patients (62%) maintained a minimal KPS of 90, 6 patients (16%) maintained a minimal KPS of 80, and 4

  1. Effects of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, DHPG, and injection stress on striatal cell signaling in food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Kenneth D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu. Psychostimulants are known to induce striatal glutamate release, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR have been implicated in the cellular and behavioral responses to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chronic food restriction increases striatal MAP kinase signaling in response to the group I mGluR agonist, DHPG. Results Western immunoblotting was used to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of DHPG (500 nmol produces greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted as compared to ad libitum fed rats. Fos-immunostaining induced by DHPG was also stronger in CPu and NAc core of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats. However, i.c.v. injection of saline-vehicle produced greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats, and this difference was not seen when subjects received no i.c.v. injection prior to sacrifice. In addition, although DHPG activated Akt, there was no difference in Akt activation between feeding groups. To probe whether the augmented ERK1/2 and CREB activation in vehicle-injected food-restricted rats are mediated by one or more GluR types, effects of an NMDA antagonist (MK-801, 100 nmol, AMPA antagonist (DNQX, 10 nmol, and group I mGluR antagonist (AIDA, 100 nmol were compared to saline-vehicle. Antagonist injections did not diminish activation of ERK1/2 or CREB. Conclusions These results indicate that a group I mGluR agonist induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and CREB in both CPu and NAc. However, group I mGluR-mediated signaling may not be upregulated in food-restricted rats

  2. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2011-02-01

    In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8°C and 25°C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8°C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p < 0.05). However, at 25°C, none of the concentrations of the essential oil alone showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. At 8°C, the combination effect of the essential oil and nisin on bacteria was noted at 0.25 μg mL(-1) for nisin and 0.05 μL mL(-1) for the essential oil (p < 0.05). The combination of nisin and the essential oil demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the vegetative forms of bacteria at 25°C, although it was comparable to that of nisin alone at the same concentrations. Electron microscopy studies revealed a great deal of damage to B. cereus treated with a combination of nisin and the essential oil. However, the combination of nisin with the essential oil led to a complete destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of vegetative cells of B. subtilis.

  3. Unsaturated Fatty Acid, cis-2-Decenoic Acid, in Combination with Disinfectants or Antibiotics Removes Pre-Established Biofilms Formed by Food-Related Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, Shayesteh; Rahmani-Badi, Azadeh; Babaie-Naiej, Hamta; Soudi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation by food-related bacteria and food-related pathogenesis are significant problems in the food industry. Even though much disinfection and mechanical procedure exist for removal of biofilms, they may fail to eliminate pre-established biofilms. cis-2 decenoic acid (CDA), an unsaturated fatty acid messenger produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is reportedly capable of inducing the dispersion of established biofilms by multiple types of microorganisms. However, whether CDA has potential to boost the actions of certain antimicrobials is unknown. Here, the activity of CDA as an inducer of pre-established biofilms dispersal, formed by four main food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and E. coli, was measured using both semi-batch and continuous cultures bioassays. To assess the ability of CDA combined biocides treatments to remove pre-established biofilms formed on stainless steel discs, CFU counts were performed for both treated and untreated cultures. Eradication of the biofilms by CDA combined antibiotics was evaluated using crystal violet staining. The effect of CDA combined treatments (antibiotics and disinfectants) on biofilm surface area and bacteria viability was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy, digital image analysis and LIVE/DEAD staining. MICs were also determined to assess the probable inhibitory effects of CDA combined treatments on the growth of tested microorganisms' planktonic cells. Treatment of pre-established biofilms with only 310 nM CDA resulted in at least two-fold increase in the number of planktonic cells in all cultures. While antibiotics or disinfectants alone exerted a trivial effect on CFU counts and percentage of surface area covered by the biofilms, combinational treatments with both 310 nM CDA and antibiotics or disinfectants led to approximate 80% reduction in biofilm biomass. These data suggests that combined treatments with CDA would pave the way toward developing new strategies

  4. Unsaturated fatty acid, cis-2-decenoic acid, in combination with disinfectants or antibiotics removes pre-established biofilms formed by food-related bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Sepehr

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation by food-related bacteria and food-related pathogenesis are significant problems in the food industry. Even though much disinfection and mechanical procedure exist for removal of biofilms, they may fail to eliminate pre-established biofilms. cis-2 decenoic acid (CDA, an unsaturated fatty acid messenger produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is reportedly capable of inducing the dispersion of established biofilms by multiple types of microorganisms. However, whether CDA has potential to boost the actions of certain antimicrobials is unknown. Here, the activity of CDA as an inducer of pre-established biofilms dispersal, formed by four main food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and E. coli, was measured using both semi-batch and continuous cultures bioassays. To assess the ability of CDA combined biocides treatments to remove pre-established biofilms formed on stainless steel discs, CFU counts were performed for both treated and untreated cultures. Eradication of the biofilms by CDA combined antibiotics was evaluated using crystal violet staining. The effect of CDA combined treatments (antibiotics and disinfectants on biofilm surface area and bacteria viability was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy, digital image analysis and LIVE/DEAD staining. MICs were also determined to assess the probable inhibitory effects of CDA combined treatments on the growth of tested microorganisms' planktonic cells. Treatment of pre-established biofilms with only 310 nM CDA resulted in at least two-fold increase in the number of planktonic cells in all cultures. While antibiotics or disinfectants alone exerted a trivial effect on CFU counts and percentage of surface area covered by the biofilms, combinational treatments with both 310 nM CDA and antibiotics or disinfectants led to approximate 80% reduction in biofilm biomass. These data suggests that combined treatments with CDA would pave the way toward

  5. Food Groups and Risk of Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Hoffmann, Georg; Knüppel, Sven; Iqbal, Khalid; Andriolo, Violetta; Bechthold, Angela; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence on the relation of the intakes of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with the risk of hypertension. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched systematically until June 2017 for prospective studies having quantitatively investigated the above-mentioned foods. We conducted meta-analysis on the highest compared with the lowest intake categories and linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses to analyze the association. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using a random-effects model. Overall, 28 reports were included in the meta-analysis. An inverse association for the risk of hypertension was observed for 30 g whole grains/d (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98), 100 g fruits/d (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96, 0.99), 28 g nuts/d (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.08), and 200 g dairy/d (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.97), whereas a positive association for 100 g red meat/d (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28), 50 g processed meat/d (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26), and 250 mL SSB/d (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.10) was seen in the linear dose-response meta-analysis. Indication for nonlinear relations of the intakes of whole grains, fruits, fish, and processed meats with the risk of hypertension was detected. In summary, this comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis of 28 reports identified optimal intakes of whole grains, fruits, nuts, legumes, dairy, red and processed meats, and SSBs related to the risk of hypertension. These findings need to be seen under the light of very-low to low quality of meta-evidence. However, the findings support the current dietary guidelines in the prevention of hypertension. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Feasibility of a network of excellence postharvest food losses : combining knowledge and competences to reduce food losses in developing and emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogh, van J.B.; Aramyan, L.H.; Sluis, van der A.A.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Scheer, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: food security & postharvest losses Fruits and vegetables supply chains in developing countries are characterised by relatively high losses between harvest and consumption. In general, the postharvest system includes all stages in the chain where the activity/service is intended to

  7. Food/Hunger Macro-Analysis Seminar. A Do-It-Yourself Manual for College Courses and Action Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, William; Thorne, Erika

    This guide describes a fifteen-week macro-analysis seminar about food production, distribution, and consumption on international, national, and local levels. The macro-analysis approach emphasizes the interrelatedness of all parts of the food/hunger issue; therefore the seminar also addresses escalating military expenditures, widening poverty, and…

  8. THE ROLE OF CONSUMERS IN THE TRANSITION TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD SUPPLY. THE CASE OF GRUPPI DI ACQUISTO SOLIDALE (SOLIDARITY PURCHASING GROUPS IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Randelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of ethical consumers in the transition process towards a sustainable food supply. The questions that immediately come to mind are: can the consumers put changes in motion in the established food supply regime? Which are the mechanisms hindering a transition driven by consumers? In order to answer to these questions we analyse the case of Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale (Solidarity Purchasing Groups in Italy, as a support for a broader reflection to the topic. The growing dissatisfaction with the established food supply, dominated by the duopoly supermarket-global food supplier, has driven a few pioneers to search for new solutions. In the case of Italy, consumers have organized themselves into informal networks, in order to purchase quality food together from local farmers. They are motivated by the meeting of social, ethical and environmental needs (providing sustainable food and support local farmers which were not served in the beginning by incumbent firms and they operate in the social economy as community groups.

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113], a steviol glycoside. The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. Since a comprehensive and adequate...... toxicological database, including human studies, is available for steviol glycosides, the Panel based its evaluation of rebaudioside A on a comparison of the ADI of 4 mg/kg bw, expressed as steviol, established by EFSA, with the estimated dietary exposure figures based on the MSDI and mTAMDI approaches....... The Panel concluded that rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113] would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated level of intake arising from its use as flavouring substance....

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured...... whether the conclusion for the candidate substance can be applied to the material of commerce, it is necessary to consider the available specifications. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have been provided for the flavouring substance...

  11. Organizing the Co-Production of Health and Environmental Values in Food Production: The Constitutional Processes in the Relationships between Italian Solidarity Purchasing Groups and Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Solidarity Purchasing Group (SPG, defined as a group of households that establishes an organization primarily to provide food to its members. The study aims at illustrating and testing two hypotheses. The first is that within the group, specific organizational processes take place according to which food communication practices determine the resource use objectives. The second hypothesis is the SPG tends to assign larger values to health and environmental protection than other resource use objectives. These hypotheses concern the ranking of the resource use objectives managed by the group. The idea is that an SPG defines the resource uses according to the specific group’s objectives and by means of organizational tools, especially the food communication practices. For testing purposes, we conducted an empirical analysis by submitting an online questionnaire to 900 Italian SPGs. The results firstly indicate that the organizational dimensions of SPGs, including the relationships between SPGs and farmers, influence the group objectives, providing empirical evidence that supports the first hypothesis. Moreover, the test of the second hypothesis indicates that group objectives concerning health and environmental protection are particularly valued by the SPGs. We then conclude that the groups are aimed at co-producing health and environmental protection with public authorities. We then underlined limits of the study and potential future research paths.

  12. Influence of food availability on the diet and activity budget of two western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups of differing size in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Neba, Terence Fuh; Donati, Giuseppe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    Variation in food availability, body size and group size are known to influence primate diet and activity budgets. Here we report how seasonal food availability shapes the diet and activity patterns of two habituated western lowland gorilla (WLG) groups of differing size. WLGs are ripe fruit opportunists, showing dietary flexibility when preferred foods are scarce. However, as fruit can be rare/ patchily distributed, as intra-group feeding competition increases with group size, access to indi...

  13. A freshwater food web model for the combined effects of nutrients and insecticide stress and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, T.P.; Janse, J.H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.; Aldenberg, T.

    2004-01-01

    A microcosm experiment that addressed the interaction between eutrophication processes and contaminants was analyzed using a food web model. Both direct and indirect effects of nutrient additions and a single insecticide application (chlorpyrifos) on biomass dynamics and recovery of functional

  14. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  15. Food allergy guidance in the United States Military: A work group report from the AAAAI Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly (MAIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Kirk; Lee, Rachel; Coop, Christopher; Mendoza, Yun; White, Kevin

    2018-05-16

    A diagnosis of food allergy adversely impacts one's ability to join or remain in the military. Inadequate knowledge or misconceptions of current military-specific standards regarding food allergy and how these apply to enlistment, induction, and retention in the United States military can potentially lead to inaccurate counseling as each military service has specific regulations which impact the evaluation and decision-making process. Recognizing this knowledge gap, the American Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly (MAIA) established a Work Group who reviewed and summarized all aspects of military instructions, policies, and regulations regarding IgE mediated food allergy. A flowchart was developed outlining each step of the military entry process for an individual with a history of food allergy. Further, summary tables were made to provide improved "fluency" regarding each service's medical regulations while key considerations were outlined for the allergist who is evaluating an individual who is seeking military entry or retention. Both civilian and military allergists play an essential role in the evaluation, counseling, and management of patients with a food allergy history. Understanding the service-specific language and regulations regarding food allergy will improve the allergist's awareness, counseling, and management of these individuals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303, Revision 1 (FGE.303Rev1): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the flavouring substance spilanthol [FL-no: 16.121] in Flavouring Group Evaluation 303, Revision 1, using the Procedure according to Commission Regulation...... (MSDI) approach. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have been provided for the candidate substance....

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3 (FGE.25Rev3): Aliphatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity and identity criteria for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 14...

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs....... However, this does not preclude evaluation of the flavouring substances in the present group using the Procedure (SCF, 1999a). It is considered that on the basis of the default MSDI approach these nine flavouring substances would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated levels of intake arising...

  19. Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% α-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya.

  20. Major dietary patterns in relation to demographic and socio-economic status and food insecurity in two Iranian ethnic groups living in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-12-01

    To identify major dietary patterns and their association with socio-economic status (SES) and food insecurity in two major ethnic groups living in Urmia, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study. All four geographical zones of Urmia city. Participants (n 723; 427 women and 296 men), aged 20-64 years, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri Turks and 278 Kurds). Three major dietary patterns were extracted: 'Traditional High SES' (THS), 'Traditional Low SES' (TLS) and 'Transitional'. After adjusting for confounders, the THS pattern was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with moderate or severe food insecurity in Azeri Turks; whereas, among Kurds, it was more common in women and positively associated with age. The TLS pattern was more common among men and negatively associated with educational level and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men, positively associated with being married and negatively associated with household income/capita. The 'Transitional' pattern was positively associated with being employed and negatively associated with age and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men and negatively associated with age, being married and physical activity level. Findings suggest that household SES and food insecurity are associated with detrimental dietary patterns and that this effect may be stronger than cultural and ethnic background. These patterns differ by age and gender. Therefore, such characteristics should be considered in planning and formulating diet-related policies and programmes.

  1. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collec...

  2. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2 (FGE.24Rev2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 24 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 candidate substances....

  3. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is made due to the inclusion of the assessment of new toxicity data on one supporting substance 5,6-dihydro-2,4,6-tris(2-methylpropyl)-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL-no: 15.113], which is considered to be str...

  4. Development of an Analytical Method for Analyzing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Different Groups of Food by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-Ho

    2018-03-21

    Suspected nontargeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), without analytical reference standard, were observed and interfered with the determination of targeted PAs in complex food matrices, especially for spices samples. Selectivity and applicability of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, multistage fragmentation (MS3), and MRM with differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) for eliminating false positive identifications were evaluated. Afterward, a selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 15 PAs and 13 PA N-oxides in foodstuffs was developed. The sample preparation and cleanup are applicable to a wide range of foodstuffs, including cereal products, dairy products, meat, eggs, honey, tea infusion, and spices. Freezing-out of the raw extract and the water/acetonitrile washing steps in a solid phase extraction was found to efficiently remove complex matrices. The method was validated at 0.05 μg kg -1 for general food and 0.5 μg kg -1 for spices, with reference to the Eurachem Guide. The estimated limit of quantifications of different PAs was in the range of 0.010-0.087 μg kg -1 for general food and 0.04-0.76 μg kg -1 for spices. Isotopically labeled PAs were used as internal standards to correct the variation of PAs/PANs performance in different food commodities. Matrix effects observed in complex food matrices could be reduced by solvent dilution. Recoveries of PAs and PA N-oxides were all seen within 50-120%.

  5. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin2ψ and crystallite group methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkovits, Theo; Zhao, Yue; O'Brien, Rebecca; Dowey, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin 2 ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin 2 ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a 0 in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a 0 as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin 2 ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm

  6. Association of the consumption of common food groups and beverages with mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus in Serbia, 1991-2010: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena; Stojanovic, Goran; Zivanovic-Macuzic, Ivana

    2016-01-05

    This paper reports association between mortality rates from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus and the consumption of common food groups and beverages in Serbia. In this ecological study, data on both mortality and the average annual consumption of common food groups and beverages per household's member were obtained from official data-collection sources. The multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between consumption of common food groups and beverages and mortality rates. Markedly increasing trends of cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus mortality rates were observed in Serbia in the period 1991-2010. Mortality rates from cancer were negatively associated with consumption of vegetable oil (p=0.005) and grains (p=0.001), and same was found for ischaemic heart disease (p=0.002 and 0.021, respectively), while consumption of other dairy products showed a significant positive association (pfood groups and beverages consumption was observed and should be assessed in future analytical epidemiological studies. Promotion of healthy diet is sorely needed in Serbia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Using Food Grade Lye “omushelekha” in the Formulation of Health Products from Commonly Consumed African Indigenous Vegetables and Vegetable Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence O Habwe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lye, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide has been used over the years in food preparation including the preparation of vegetables and dried meat products, washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, cocoa processing, caramel production, poultry scalding and cooking among others. Lye is believed to improve the organoleptic properties and also enhances the nutritional value to the products.Objective: To assess the effect of food grade lye on the levels of copper and iron in the raw, boiled and boiled-fried single vegetables and vegetable combinations treated with and without food grade lye.Methods: Single vegetables, Crotalaria occroleuca, Solanum scabrum, Vigna unguiculata and Amaranthus blitum and their combinations were cooled and kept in the fridge at 4oCs. Elemental analysis was done for the raw, boiled and boiled-fried samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS under standard conditions using wavelengths of 248.3nm for iron and 324.2nm for copper. Paired t-test was used to compare the iron and copper levels of the boiled and boiled-fried vegetables while the independent t-test was done to assess the levels of iron and copper in the raw, boiled and boiled fried samples.Results: Boiled-fried samples recorded higher content of iron and copper than the boiled ones. A combination of Amaranthus blitum-Crotolaria occloreuca boiled without lye boiled-fried with lye, and boiled-fried without lye had the highest copper contents of 1.66mg/100gram, 4.56mg/100gram, and 4.56mg/100gram respectively, compared to Amaranthus blitum aloneFunctional Foods in Heals and Disease 2011; 5:189-197(3.48mg/100gram and Crotolaria occloreuca (0.42mg/100gram. A combination of Amaranthus blitum-Crotolaria occloreuca boiled in non-lye water, and those boiled-fried with and without lye had the highest extractable iron of 557mg/100g, 859.2mg/100g, and 859.2mg/100g respectively. Iron content was high in the Solanum scabrum (281.1mg/100g

  8. A Characterization of Visual, Semantic and Auditory Memory in Children with Combination-Type Attention Deficit, Primarily Inattentive, and a Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luz Angela; Arenas, Angela Maria; Henao, Gloria Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This investigation describes and compares characteristics of visual, semantic and auditory memory in a group of children diagnosed with combined-type attention deficit with hyperactivity, attention deficit predominating, and a control group. Method: 107 boys and girls were selected, from 7 to 11 years of age, all residents in the…

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity...... assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For five substances, the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture has to be specified further....

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 3 (FGE.21Rev3): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, including an additional three substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commiss......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, including an additional three substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure.......086, 15.090, 15.099, 15.114, 15.119 and 15.133] were considered to have genotoxic potential. The remaining 52 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern.......092, 15.093, 15.094, 15.096, 15.097, 15.106, 15.107, 15.129 and 15.135] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been...

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 (FGE.300): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance was not conside......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance...... was not considered to have genotoxic potential. The substance was evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded...... that for the substance [FL-no: 16.115] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. The composition of the stereoisomeric...

  12. Matrix-derived combination effect and risk assessment for estragole from basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Klaus, V.; Alhusainy, W.; Rietjens, I.

    2013-01-01

    Basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS) can contain estragole which can be metabolised into a genotoxic and carcinogenic 1'-sulfoxymetabolite. This study describes the inhibition of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of estragole by compounds present in basil-containing PFS.

  13. Combining Satellite Data and Models to Assess Vulnerability to Climate Change and Its Impact on Food Security in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloua Rochdane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes satellite and socioeconomic data to explore the relationship between food and wood demand and supply, expressed in terms of net primary production (NPP, in Morocco. A vulnerability index is defined as the ratio of demand to supply as influenced by population, affluence, technology and climate indicators. The present situation (1995–2007, as well as projections of demand and supply, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Scenarios A2 and B2, are analyzed for a 2025 horizon. We find that the food NPP demand increased by 34.5%, whereas the wood consumption NPP demand decreased by 19.3% between 1995 and 2007. The annual NPP required to support the population’s food and wood appropriation was 29.73 million tons of carbon (MTC in 2007, while the landscape NPP production for the same year was 60.24 MTC; indicating that the population appropriates about 50% of the total NPP resources. Both scenarios show increases in demand and decreases in supply. Under A2, it would take more than 1.25 years for terrestrial ecosystems in Morocco to produce the NPP appropriated by populations in one year. This number is 0.70 years under B2. This already high vulnerability for food and wood products is likely to be exacerbated with climate changes and population increase.

  14. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: In vivo safety assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Stejskal, D.; Bartek, J.; Dvořáčková, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2008), s. 1003-1013 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food supplement * volunteers * blood pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2008

  15. Risk assessment of combined exposure to alkenylbenzenes through consumption of plant food supplements containing parsley and dill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alajlouni, Abdalmajeed M.; Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Kalli, Marina; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment was performed of parsley- and dill-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing apiol and related alkenylbenzenes. First, the levels of the alkenylbenzenes in the PFS and the resulting estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from use of the PFS were quantified. Since most PFS

  16. Study protocol: combining experimental methods, econometrics and simulation modelling to determine price elasticities for studying food taxes and subsidies (The Price ExaM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Blakely, Tony; Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Wilson, Nick; Jiang, Yannan; Swinburn, Boyd; Jacobi, Liana; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-07-19

    There is a need for accurate and precise food price elasticities (PE, change in consumer demand in response to change in price) to better inform policy on health-related food taxes and subsidies. The Price Experiment and Modelling (Price ExaM) study aims to: I) derive accurate and precise food PE values; II) quantify the impact of price changes on quantity and quality of discrete food group purchases and; III) model the potential health and disease impacts of a range of food taxes and subsidies. To achieve this, we will use a novel method that includes a randomised Virtual Supermarket experiment and econometric methods. Findings will be applied in simulation models to estimate population health impact (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) using a multi-state life-table model. The study will consist of four sequential steps: 1. We generate 5000 price sets with random price variation for all 1412 Virtual Supermarket food and beverage products. Then we add systematic price variation for foods to simulate five taxes and subsidies: a fruit and vegetable subsidy and taxes on sugar, saturated fat, salt, and sugar-sweetened beverages. 2. Using an experimental design, 1000 adult New Zealand shoppers complete five household grocery shops in the Virtual Supermarket where they are randomly assigned to one of the 5000 price sets each time. 3. Output data (i.e., multiple observations of price configurations and purchased amounts) are used as inputs to econometric models (using Bayesian methods) to estimate accurate PE values. 4. A disease simulation model will be run with the new PE values as inputs to estimate QALYs gained and health costs saved for the five policy interventions. The Price ExaM study has the potential to enhance public health and economic disciplines by introducing internationally novel scientific methods to estimate accurate and precise food PE values. These values will be used to model the potential health and disease impacts of various food pricing policy

  17. Study protocol: combining experimental methods, econometrics and simulation modelling to determine price elasticities for studying food taxes and subsidies (The Price ExaM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma E. Waterlander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for accurate and precise food price elasticities (PE, change in consumer demand in response to change in price to better inform policy on health-related food taxes and subsidies. Methods/Design The Price Experiment and Modelling (Price ExaM study aims to: I derive accurate and precise food PE values; II quantify the impact of price changes on quantity and quality of discrete food group purchases and; III model the potential health and disease impacts of a range of food taxes and subsidies. To achieve this, we will use a novel method that includes a randomised Virtual Supermarket experiment and econometric methods. Findings will be applied in simulation models to estimate population health impact (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] using a multi-state life-table model. The study will consist of four sequential steps: 1. We generate 5000 price sets with random price variation for all 1412 Virtual Supermarket food and beverage products. Then we add systematic price variation for foods to simulate five taxes and subsidies: a fruit and vegetable subsidy and taxes on sugar, saturated fat, salt, and sugar-sweetened beverages. 2. Using an experimental design, 1000 adult New Zealand shoppers complete five household grocery shops in the Virtual Supermarket where they are randomly assigned to one of the 5000 price sets each time. 3. Output data (i.e., multiple observations of price configurations and purchased amounts are used as inputs to econometric models (using Bayesian methods to estimate accurate PE values. 4. A disease simulation model will be run with the new PE values as inputs to estimate QALYs gained and health costs saved for the five policy interventions. Discussion The Price ExaM study has the potential to enhance public health and economic disciplines by introducing internationally novel scientific methods to estimate accurate and precise food PE values. These values will be used to model the potential

  18. A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet for 2003 and 2009 to obtain infor- mation on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification tax- onomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments cap- tured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol out- lets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both. This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop meas- ures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replic- able methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited.

  19. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p -value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  20. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. PMID:28902145

  1. Usage pattern and exposure assessment of food colours in different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, S; Purshottam, S K; Gupta, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, M

    2010-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the nature and levels of colours in food items and to undertake risk assessment vis-a-vis intake among different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 478 edible foodstuffs were analysed, and of six permitted colours, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and Tartrazine were most popular, and two non-permitted colours, namely Metanil Yellow and Rhodamine B, were encountered. The study showed a marked improvement in the trend of use of non-permitted colours over previous surveys, with 90% foods now resorting to approved food colours. However, 59% of foods employing permitted colours exceeded the maximum allowable limit, with average quantities crossing the threshold of 100 mg kg(-1) in most food commodities. The intake of SSYFCF exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for children and adolescents by 88% and 39%, respectively, and was statistically significant when analysed by error bars and distribution curves. In adults, SSYFCF saturated 59% of the ADI. For Carmoisine, Tartrazine and Ponceau 4R, saturation of ADI ranged from 27.4% to 90.3% in children and adolescents and from 10.8% to 47.6% in adult subjects. These results indicate that children and adolescents are more vulnerable to higher intakes of food colours compared with the adult population. Allowing a uniform level of all colours in foods under Indian rules, notwithstanding wide variations of 250-fold in their allocated ADIs, could be one reason for the higher intake and hence only technological need-based levels of individual colours are desired to be prescribed.

  2. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  3. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  4. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R

    2017-12-01

    This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. A dietary survey was conducted at baseline in cohorts subsamples including chemical analysis of food samples representing average consumptions. Ecologic correlations of dietary variables were computed across cohorts with 50-year all-cause mortality rates, where 97% of men had died. There was a 12-year average age at death population difference between extreme cohorts. In the 1960s the average population intake of saturated (S) and trans (T) fatty acids and hard fats was high in the northern European cohorts while monounsaturated (M), polyunsaturated (P) fatty acids and vegetable oils were high in the Mediterranean areas and total fat was low in Japan. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r= -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S, (M + P)/(S + T) and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. Adjustment for high socio-economic status strengthened (r= -0.62 to -0.77) these associations including MAI diet score. The protective fatty acids and vegetable oils are indicators of the low risk traditional Mediterranean style diets. KEY MESSAGES We aimed at studying the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in the Seven Countries Study. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r = -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S [monounsaturated (M) + polyunsaturated (P)]/[saturated (S) + trans (T)] fatty acids and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. After adjustment for high socio-economic status, associations with the ratios strengthened (r = -0.62 to -0.77) including also the MAI diet score

  5. Composition-Based Prediction of Temperature-Dependent Thermophysical Food Properties: Reevaluating Component Groups and Prediction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David Martin; Frelka, John C; Heldman, Dennis Ray

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity) is an important component of process design for food manufacturing. Current models for prediction of thermophysical properties of foods are based on the composition, specifically, fat, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, water, and ash contents, all of which change with temperature. The objectives of this investigation were to reevaluate and improve the prediction expressions for thermophysical properties. Previously published data were analyzed over the temperature range from 10 to 150 °C. These data were analyzed to create a series of relationships between the thermophysical properties and temperature for each food component, as well as to identify the dependence of the thermophysical properties on more specific structural properties of the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Results from this investigation revealed that the relationships between the thermophysical properties of the major constituents of foods and temperature can be statistically described by linear expressions, in contrast to the current polynomial models. Links between variability in thermophysical properties and structural properties were observed. Relationships for several thermophysical properties based on more specific constituents have been identified. Distinctions between simple sugars (fructose, glucose, and lactose) and complex carbohydrates (starch, pectin, and cellulose) have been proposed. The relationships between the thermophysical properties and proteins revealed a potential correlation with the molecular weight of the protein. The significance of relating variability in constituent thermophysical properties with structural properties--such as molecular mass--could significantly improve composition-based prediction models and, consequently, the effectiveness of process design. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Sirichai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle, Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum, Morus alba (mulberry, Aegle marmelos (bael, and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively

  7. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Ruengsamran, Thanyachanok; Kampa, Patcharaporn; Sompong, Weerachat

    2012-07-31

    Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu's reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of roselle and butterfly pea

  8. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values

  9. Decreases in High-Fat and/or High-Added-Sugar Food Group Intake Occur when a Hypocaloric, Low-Fat Diet Is Prescribed Within a Lifestyle Intervention: A Secondary Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie A

    2016-10-01

    When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. To examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Secondary cohort analysis. One hundred sixty-nine participants (aged 52.0±8.6 years, body mass index 34.9±4.5, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% women) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. From three 24-hour telephone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from Nutrition Data System for Research software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher-fat and/or added-sugar food groups vs naturally lower-fat and/or added-sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of nonmodified vs fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Significant reductions (Phypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Decreases in high-fat and/or high added sugar food group intake occur when a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed within a lifestyle intervention: a secondary cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshani, Vaishali Deepak; Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. Objective Examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake, and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Design Secondary cohort analysis. Participants One hundred sixty-nine participants (52.0 ± 8.6 years, 34.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% female) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. Main Outcome Measures From 3, 24-hr phone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from NDSR software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher fat and/or added sugar food groups vs. naturally lower fat and/or added sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of non-modified vs. fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Statistical Analyses Performed Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Results Significant reductions (p hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. PMID:27436530

  11. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined food and micronutrient supplements during pregnancy have limited impact on child blood pressure and kidney function in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kahn, Ashraf I; Hawlader, Mohammad D H; Fulford, Anthony J C; Arifeen, Shams-El; Persson, Lars-Åke; Moore, Sophie E

    2013-05-01

    Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood.

  13. A Bioengineered Nisin Derivative, M21A, in Combination with Food Grade Additives Eradicates Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Muireann K.; Draper, Lorraine A.; Hazelhoff, Pieter-Jan; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. P.; Hill, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The burden of foodborne disease has large economic and social consequences worldwide. Despite strict regulations, a number of pathogens persist within the food environment, which is greatly contributed to by a build-up of resistance mechanisms and also through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to be highly resistant to a number of antimicrobials and can be extremely difficult to remove once they are established. In parallel, the growing concern of consumers regarding the use...

  14. Evaluation of a Recirculating Dipper Well Combined with Ozone Sanitizer for Control of Foodborne Pathogens in Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Giselle; Gibson, Kristen E

    2016-09-01

    In the retail food service industry, small countertop sinks, or dipper wells, are utilized to rinse and store serving utensils between uses. These dipper wells are designed to operate under a constant flow of water, which serves both to prevent the accumulation of microorganisms and to aid in the cleanliness of the dipper well itself. Here, a recirculating dipper well ozone sanitation system (DWOSS) was evaluated for the control and inactivation of Escherichia coli , Listeria innocua , PRD1 bacteriophage, and Staphylococcus aureus present on a stainless steel disher. In a low ozone (O 3 ) demand medium, the DWOSS achieved over a 5-log reduction for E. coli , L. innocua , and PRD1 at 30 s when exposed to 0.45 to 0.55 ppm of residual O 3 . A greater than 5-log total CFU reduction was achieved for S. aureus at a 600-s exposure time and 0.50 ppm of residual O 3 . When evaluated in the presence of high O 3 demand medium (10% skim milk), the DWOSS performed significantly better (P food service. To our knowledge, a dipper well with a cleaning-in-place sanitizing system is not currently available for use in the food service industry; and, thus, this is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning-in-place dipper well.

  15. The potential of species-specific tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group for galactose reduction in fermented dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-04-01

    Residual lactose and galactose in fermented dairy foods leads to several industrial and health concerns. There is very little information pertaining to manufacture of fermented dairy foods that are low in lactose and galactose. In the present study, comparative genomic survey demonstrated the constant presence of chromosome-encoded tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group. Lactose/galactose utilization tests and β-galactosidase assay suggest that PTS Gal system, PTS Lac system and T6P pathway are major contributors for lactose/galactose catabolism in this group of organisms. In addition, it was found than lactose catabolism by Lb. casei group accumulated very limited galactose in the MRS-lactose medium and in reconstituted skim milk, whereas Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) strains secreted high amount of galactose extracellularly. Moreover, co-culturing Lb. casei group with Str. thermophilus showed significant reduction in galactose content, while co-culturing Lb. casei group with Lb. bulgaricus showed significant reduction in lactose content but significant increase in galactose content in milk. Overall, the present study highlighted the potential of Lb. casei group for reducing galactose accumulation in fermented milks due to its species-specific T6P pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  17. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  18. Extraction and reliable determination of acrylamide from thermally processed foods using ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted selective microextraction combined with spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Elik, Adil; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2018-02-01

    Acrylamide (AAm) is a carcinogenic chemical that can form in thermally processed foods by the Maillard reaction of glucose with asparagine. AAm can easily be formed especially in frequently consumed chips and cereal-based foods depending on processing conditions. Considering these properties of AAm, a new, simple and green method is proposed for the extraction of AAm from thermally processed food samples. In this study, an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Bmim][BF 4 ]) as extractant was used in the presence of a cationic phenazine group dye, 3,7-diamino-5-phenylphenazinium chloride (PSH + , phenosafranine) at pH 7.5 for the extraction of AAm as an ion-pair complex from selected samples. Under optimum conditions, the analytical features obtained for the proposed method were as follows; linear working range, the limits of detection (LOD, 3S b /m) and quantification (LOQ, 10S b /m), preconcentration factor, sensitivity enhancement factor, sample volume and recovery% were 2.2-350 µg kg -1 , 0.7 µg kg -1 , 2.3 µg kg -1 , 120, 95, 60 mL and 94.1-102.7%, respectively. The validity of the method was tested by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs) and intra-day and inter-day precision studies. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of AAm levels in thermally processed foods using the standard addition method.

  19. Combining nutrition, food science and engineering in developing solutions to Inflammatory bowel diseases--omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Smith, Bronwen G; James, Bryony J

    2010-10-01

    The Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are debilitating conditions, characterised by lifelong sensitivity to certain foods, and often a need for surgery and life-long medication. The anti-inflammatory effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids justify their inclusion in enteral nutrition formulas that have been associated with disease remission. However, there have been variable data in clinical trials to test supplementary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inducing or maintaining remission in these diseases. Although variability in trial design has been suggested as a major factor, we suggest that variability in processing and presentation of the products may be equally or more important. The nature of the source, and rapidity of getting the fish or other food source to processing or to market, will affect the percentage of the various fatty acids, possible presence of heavy metal contaminants and oxidation status of the various fatty acids. For dietary supplements or fortified foods, whether the product is encapsulated or not, whether storage is under nitrogen or not, and length of time between harvest, processing and marketing will again profoundly affect the properties of the final product. Clinical trials to test efficacy of these products in IBD to date have utilised the relevant skills of pharmacology and gastroenterology. We suggest that knowledge from food science, nutrition and engineering will be essential to establish the true role of this important group of compounds in these diseases. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010

  20. Effect of Oxyntomodulin, Glucagon, GLP-1 and Combined Glucagon +GLP-1 Infusion on Food Intake, Appetite and Resting Energy Expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    Context: The gut hormone, oxyntomodulin, is a proglucagon product with body weight-lowering potential. It binds to both the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor and the glucagon receptor; however, the mechanism behind the body weight-lowering effect remains elusive. Objective: We wanted.......86 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), oxyntomodulin (3 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), or glucagon+GLP-1 (same doses). Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated resting energy expenditure (measured as oxygen uptake, gastric emptying (GE), composite appetite scores (CAS), and food intake. Results: Oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and GLP-1...

  1. Demonstration of Combined Food and Landscape Waste Composting at Fort Leonard Wood, MO: Fort Leonard Wood Installation Strategic Sustainable Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    potential for it to contain small amounts of materials such as plastic or paper food packaging, eating utensils, and condiment containers. To...randomly collected from breakfast, lunch, and dinner services to determine moisture content. Table 4-1 summarizes these mois- ture contents by date...83.8 Dinner 87.3 16 April 2015 Lunch 78.1 Dinner 84.6 21 April 2015 Breakfast 89.4 Lunch 89.1 22 April 2015 Lunch 85.3 Dinner 78.8 28 April

  2. The influence of combined storage procedures of foods on B vitamins content demonstrated at the example of heat sterilisation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozová, B.; Takácsová, M.

    1993-01-01

    This work presents a literary survey of accessible information on the applications of binary and trinary combinations of preservation methods (thermosterilization and irradiation with other preservation methods) and on their influence on B vitamin groups (thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and folacin) in comparison with traditionally used thermosterilization. It refers to the advantages of the combined techniques of preservation as a real possibility to replace the traditional preservation techniques by non-traditional and less destructive processes [de

  3. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  4. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  5. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1 (FGE.300Rev1): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance,cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1....... The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. The substance was evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity....... The Panel concluded that the substance [FL-no: 16.115] does not give rise to safety concern at its levels of dietary intake estimated on the basis of the Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the material...

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 3 (FGE.17Rev3): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, including seven additional substances considered in this Revision 3, using the Procedure......-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 24 substances [FL-no: 14.057, 14.081, 14.083, 14.084, 14.086, 14.087, 14.091, 14.097, 14.099, 14.101, 14.102, 14.108, 14.109, 14.111, 14.112, 14.113, 14.122, 14...... substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for one substance [FL-no: 14.102], the composition of mixture has not been specified sufficiently....

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2 (FEG.17Rev2): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro...... substance [FL-no: 14.051] no intake data are available preventing it from being evaluated through the Procedure. The remaining 18 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold...... intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining substance [FL-no: 14.052] additional toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for two substances...

  9. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. PMID:28218715

  10. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group "Grain (Cereal)", Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-02-18

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended "grain (cereal)" core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the "grain (cereal)" group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used ( n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI ( p < 0.001), waist circumference ( p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre ( p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference ( p = 0.006) and BMI ( p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  12. Combination of Morphological Operations with Structure based Partitioning and grouping for Text String detection from Natural Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vyankatesh V. Rampurkar; Gyankamal J. Chhajed

    2014-01-01

    Text information in natural scene images serves as important clues for many image-based applications such as scene perceptive, content-based image retrieval, assistive direction-finding and automatic geocoding. Now days different approaches like countours based, Image binarization and enhancement based, Gradient based and colour reduction based techniques can be used for the text detection from natural scenes. In this paper the combination of morphological operations with structure based part...

  13. American Brachytherapy Society Task Group Report: Combination of brachytherapy and external beam radiation for high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Daniel E; Soni, Payal D; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Merrick, Gregory S; Stock, Richard G; Blasko, John C; Zelefsky, Michael J

    To review outcomes for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy (CMRT) utilizing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with a brachytherapy boost. The available literature for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy was reviewed and summarized. At this time, the literature suggests that the majority of high-risk cancers are curable with multimodal treatment. Several large retrospective studies and three prospective randomized trials comparing CMRT to dose-escalated EBRT have demonstrated superior biochemical control with CMRT. Longer followup of the randomized trials will be required to determine if this will translate to a benefit in metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Although greater toxicity has been associated with CMRT compared to EBRT, recent studies suggest that technological advances that allow better definition and sparing of critical adjacent structures as well as increasing experience with brachytherapy have improved implant quality and the toxicity profile of brachytherapy. The role of androgen deprivation therapy is well established in the external beam literature for high-risk disease, but there is controversy regarding the applicability of these data in the setting of dose escalation. At this time, there is not sufficient evidence for the omission of androgen deprivation therapy with dose escalation in this population. Comparisons with surgery remain limited by differences in patient selection, but the evidence would suggest better disease control with CMRT compared to surgery alone. Due to a series of technological advances, modern combination series have demonstrated unparalleled rates of disease control in the high-risk population. Given the evidence from recent randomized trials, combination therapy may become the standard of care for high-risk cancers. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Melanie A. J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; van Vugt, John M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal NT, free β-human

  15. Using Optimal Combination of Teaching-Learning Methods (Open Book Assignment and Group Tutorials) as Revision Exercises to Improve Learning Outcome in Low Achievers in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H.; Suryapriya, R.; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B.; Revathy, G.; Priyadarssini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving…

  16. Stable isotope dilution quantification of mutagens in cooked foods by combined liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaizumi, Ziro; Kasai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Susumu; Edmonds, C.G.; McCloskey, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of general applicability for the detection and quantification of mutagens in cooked foods at the ppb level is presented. A minimal sample prefractionation is employed and [Me- 2 H 3 ]-labeled analogs of the compounds of interest are added for identification and quantification of mutagens by accurate measurement of chromatographic retention (K') in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and by measurement of the ratio of response of the protonated molecular ions of analyte and internal standard by directly coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Initial application is demonstrated in the analysis of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MelQ) in broiled salmon. (Auth.)

  17. Cost-effectiveness of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrients on infant survival: analysis of data from MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Persson, Lars Åke; Ahmed, Shakil; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2015-05-28

    Absence of cost-effectiveness (CE) analyses limits the relevance of large-scale nutrition interventions in low-income countries. We analyzed if the effect of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) on infant survival represented value for money compared to invitation to food supplementation at usual time in pregnancy combined with iron-folic acid. Outcome data, infant mortality (IM) rates, came from MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, ISRCTN16581394). In MINIMat, women were randomized to early (E around 9 weeks of pregnancy) or usual invitation (U around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μgm of folic acid. In MINIMat, EMMS significantly reduced IM compared to UFe60F (U plus 60 mg iron 400 μgm Folic acid). We present incremental CE ratios for incrementing UFe60F to EMMS. Costing data came mainly from a published study. By incrementing UFe60F to EMMS, one extra IM could be averted at a cost of US$907 and US$797 for NGO run and government run CNCs, respectively, and at US$1024 for a hypothetical scenario of highest cost. These comparisons generated one extra life year (LY) saved at US$30, US$27, and US$34, respectively. Incrementing UFe60F to EMMS in pregnancy seems worthwhile from health economic and public health standpoints. Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab; ISRCTN16581394 ; Date of registration: Feb 16, 2009.

  18. Changes in lipids and in the sensoric properties of foods due to combined preservation (thermosterilization + ionizing radiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajniakova, A.; Sorman, L.; Hozova, B.; Salkova, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical changes in lipids were examined in ''Beef with Cauliflower'' model samples prepared by combined preservation, consisting in thermosterilization at 121 degC for 30 min and exposure to ionizing radiation doses of 3 to 5 kGy immediately after preparation and during storage (115 days at 20±2 degC). The acid, peroxide and carbonyl values increased with increasing radiation dose. The sensoric characteristics of the samples were examined as well, and no changes were observed in the 115 days of storage. Various preservation modes were tested, and the combination of steady sterilization at 121 degC for 30 min with subsequent exposure to a 5 kGy dose emerged as optimal; the nutrition value of the beef was higher and energy demands lower than in the application of conventional thermosterilization. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  19. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  20. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high loads of debris.

  1. Avoiding Severe Toxicity From Combined BRAF Inhibitor and Radiation Treatment: Consensus Guidelines from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anker, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.anker@UVMHealth.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Vermont Cancer Center, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Grossmann, Kenneth F. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Atkins, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, Georgetown-Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Kirkwood, John M. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-06-01

    BRAF kinase gene V600 point mutations drive approximately 40% to 50% of all melanomas, and BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have been found to significantly improve survival outcomes. Although radiation therapy (RT) provides effective symptom palliation, there is a lack of toxicity and efficacy data when RT is combined with BRAFi, including vemurafenib and dabrafenib. This literature review provides a detailed analysis of potential increased dermatologic, pulmonary, neurologic, hepatic, esophageal, and bowel toxicity from the combination of BRAFi and RT for melanoma patients described in 27 publications. Despite 7 publications noting potential intracranial neurotoxicity, the rates of radionecrosis and hemorrhage from whole brain RT (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or both do not appear increased with concurrent or sequential administration of BRAFis. Almost all grade 3 dermatitis reactions occurred when RT and BRAFi were administered concurrently. Painful, disfiguring nondermatitis cutaneous reactions have been described from concurrent or sequential RT and BRAFi administration, which improved with topical steroids and time. Visceral toxicity has been reported with RT and BRAFi, with deaths possibly related to bowel perforation and liver hemorrhage. Increased severity of radiation pneumonitis with BRAFi is rare, but more concerning was a potentially related fatal pulmonary hemorrhage. Conversely, encouraging reports have described patients with leptomeningeal spread and unresectable lymphadenopathy rendered disease free from combined RT and BRAFi. Based on our review, the authors recommend holding RT ≥3 days before and after fractionated RT and ≥1 day before and after SRS. No fatal reactions have been described with a dose <4 Gy per fraction, and time off systemic treatment should be minimized. Future prospective data will serve to refine these recommendations.

  2. Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Sattler, U; Pilo, P; Waldvogel, A S

    2013-09-01

    A fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) and orthopoxvirus (OPXV) in Asian marmots (Marmota caudata) is reported in this article. A total of 7 Asian marmots from a small zoological garden in Switzerland were found dead in hibernation during a routine check in the winter of 2011. The marmots died in February 2011. No clinical signs of disease were observed at any time. The viruses were detected in all individuals for which the tissues were available (n = 3). Detection of the viruses was performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The most consistent gross lesion was a neck and thorax edema. A necrotizing pharyngitis and a multifocal necrotizing pneumonia were observed histologically. Numerous large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions were seen in the epithelial cells of the pharynx, of the airways, and in the skin keratinocytes. Brain lesions were limited to mild multifocal gliosis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the marmot CDV strain was closely related to the clusters of CDVs detected in Switzerland in wild carnivores during a local outbreak in 2002 and the 2009-2010 nationwide epidemic, suggesting a spillover of this virus from wildlife. The OPXV was most closely related to a strain of cowpoxvirus, a poxvirus species considered endemic in Europe. This is the first reported instance of CDV infection in a rodent species and of a combined CDV and OPXV infection.

  3. Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesani, Aliza; DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T; Newton, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    Whereas the psychosocial benefits of orthognathic treatment for the individual patient are established, there is little data relating to social perceptions in relation to changes in facial appearance as a result of combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the social impact of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction for class III malocclusion in Caucasian subjects. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions of facial appearance prior to and after orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion. Eighty undergraduate students were shown photographs of four Caucasian subjects (2 male and 2 female) pre- and post-orthognathic class III correction. Observers were asked to rate these subjects in relation to four different outcomes: (i) social competence (SC); (ii) intellectual ability (IA); (iii) psychological adjustment (PA); (iv) attractiveness. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to determine the effect of each variable. Statistically significant differences were found in ratings of the same face before and after treatment. After treatment, faces were rated as more psychologically adjusted, more sociable, more likely to be successful and more attractive; with the mean psychological adjustment rating being associated with the most change (before treatment=8.06 [SD 2.30]; after treatment=6.64 [SD 2.03], t=2.04, pclass III malocclusion in Caucasians, individuals are rated by young adults as being better adjusted both psychologically and socially, more likely to be successful and more attractive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  5. Influence of food matrix on inactivation of Bacillus cereus by combinations of nisin, pulsed electric field treatment, and carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, I E; Mastwujk, H C; Slump, R A; Popa, M E; Smid, E J

    2001-07-01

    Carvacrol was used as a third preservative factor to enhance further the synergy between nisin and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment against vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus. When applied simultaneously with nisin (0.04 microg/ml), carvacrol (0.5 mM) enhanced the synergy found between nisin and PEF treatment (16.7 kV/cm, 30 pulses) in potassium-N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer. The influence of food ingredients on bactericidal activity was tested using skimmed milk that was diluted to 20% with sterile demineralized water. The efficacy of PEF treatment was not affected by the presence of proteins, and results found in HEPES buffer correlated well with results in milk (20%). Nisin showed less activity against B. cereus in milk. Carvacrol was not able to enhance the synergy between nisin and PEF treatment in milk, unless used in high concentrations (1.2 mM). This concentration in itself did not influence the viable count. Carvacrol did act synergistically with PEF treatment in milk, however not in HEPES buffer. This synergy was not influenced by proteins in milk, as 5% milk still allows synergy between carvacrol and PEF treatment to the same extent as 20% milk.

  6. Bonding in Heavier Group 14 Zero-Valent Complexes-A Combined Maximum Probability Domain and Valence Bond Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Jan; Braïda, Benoît; De Proft, Frank

    2017-10-17

    The bonding in heavier Group 14 zero-valent complexes of a general formula L 2 E (E=Si-Pb; L=phosphine, N-heterocyclic and acyclic carbene, cyclic tetrylene and carbon monoxide) is probed by combining valence bond (VB) theory and maximum probability domain (MPD) approaches. All studied complexes are initially evaluated on the basis of the structural parameters and the shape of frontier orbitals revealing a bent structural motif and the presence of two lone pairs at the central E atom. For the VB calculations three resonance structures are suggested, representing the "ylidone", "ylidene" and "bent allene" structures, respectively. The influence of both ligands and central atoms on the bonding situation is clearly expressed in different weights of the resonance structures for the particular complexes. In general, the bonding in the studied E 0 compounds, the tetrylones, is best described as a resonating combination of "ylidone" and "ylidene" structures with a minor contribution of the "bent allene" structure. Moreover, the VB calculations allow for a straightforward assessment of the π-backbonding (E→L) stabilization energy. The validity of the suggested resonance model is further confirmed by the complementary MPD calculations focusing on the E lone pair region as well as the E-L bonding region. Likewise, the MPD method reveals a strong influence of the σ-donating and π-accepting properties of the ligand. In particular, either one single domain or two symmetrical domains are found in the lone pair region of the central atom, supporting the predominance of either the "ylidene" or "ylidone" structures having one or two lone pairs at the central atom, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated average populations in the lone pair MPDs correlate very well with the natural bond orbital (NBO) populations, and can be related to the average number of electrons that is backdonated to the ligands. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Acute effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1, free fatty acids, and glycerol following consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Edda, Cava; Maddalena, Paolini; Luciano, Scavone; Paola, Ceccarelli; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-01-01

    A combination of bioactive food ingredients (capsaicinoids, epigallocatechin gallate, piperin, and l-carnitine, CBFI) may promote satiety and thermogenesis. The study was conducted in order to assess whether there is any effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol release, following a standardized mixed meal with or without single consumption of a CBFI. An 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dietetic and Metabolic Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, University of Pavia and "Villa delle Querce" Clinical Rehabilitation Institute, Rome, Italy. Thirty-seven overweight adults (body mass index [BMI]: 25-35). Nineteen overweight subjects were included in the supplemented group (14 women, 5 men; age 46.4 ± 6.4; BMI: 30.5 ± 3.3) and 18 in the placebo group (13 women, 5 men; age 40.8 ± 11.5; BMI: 30.1 ± 2.6). Satiety was assessed using 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) and the area under the curve was calculated. All measured parameters increased significantly in comparison with baseline in response to meal, both with CBFI and with placebo. However, throughout the study day, the supplemented group experienced a significantly greater increase than the placebo group in their sensation of satiety following acute administration of the supplement. CBFI may therefore be of great value in the treatment of overweight patients by increasing satiety and stimulating thermogenesis.

  8. Qualitative Investigation of the "Cooking with Kids" Program: Focus Group Interviews with Fourth-Grade Students, Teachers, and Food Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…

  9. Novel method to classify hemodynamic response obtained using multi-channel fNIRS measurements into two groups: Exploring the combinations of channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eIchikawa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in psychiatric studies has widely demonstrated that cerebral hemodynamics differs among psychiatric patients. Recently we found that children with attention attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD showed different hemodynamic responses to their own mother’s face. Based on this finding, we may be able to classify their hemodynamic data into two those groups and predict which diagnostic group an unknown participant belongs to. In the present study, we proposed a novel statistical method for classifying the hemodynamic data of these two groups. By applying a support vector machine (SVM, we searched the combination of measurement channels at which the hemodynamic response differed between the two groups; ADHD and ASD. The SVM found the optimal subset of channels in each data set and successfully classified the ADHD data from the ASD data. For the 24-dimentional hemodynamic data, two optimal subsets classified the hemodynamic data with 84% classification accuracy while the subset contains all 24 channels classified with 62% classification accuracy. These results indicate the potential application of our novel method for classifying the hemodynamic data into two groups and revealing the combinations of channels that efficiently differentiate the two groups.

  10. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  11. Validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess folate status. Results discriminate a high-risk group of women residing on the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Ley y de Góngora, Silvia; Castro-Vázquez, Brenda Yuniba; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate dietary intake of folate in two groups of women from different economic backgrounds and to evaluate validity of the 5-day-weighed food registry (5-d-WFR) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) using biological markers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two samples of urban Mexican women: one represented the middle socioeconomic status (middle SES) and the other, low socioeconomic status (low SES). Middle SES included 34 women recruited from 1998 to 1999. Participants were between the ages of 18 and 32 years and were employed in the banking industry (middle SES) in the US-Mexican border city of Tijuana, Baja California. Low SES included 70 women between the ages of 18 and 35 years recruited during the year 2000. These women were receiving care at a primary health care center in Ensenada, Baja California Norte State, Mexico (low SES). Pearson correlations were calculated between folate intake among 5-day diet registry, FFQ, and biochemical indices. FFQ reproducibility was performed by Spearman correlation of each food item daily and of weekly intake. Average folate intake in middle SES from 5-d-WFR was 210 microg +/- 171. Fifty four percent of participants had intakes risk of NTDs as a result of low folate intake and low serum folate and RBC folate concentrations.

  12. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaneder Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Héctor R.; García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1), gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), and saxitoxin (STX), with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg−1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established. PMID:28604648

  13. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaneder Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Héctor R; García, Carlos

    2017-06-12

    The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium , and Pyrodinium . Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1), gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), and saxitoxin (STX), with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg -1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established.

  14. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The saxitoxin-group (STX-group corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs. Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1, gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2, neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX, and saxitoxin (STX, with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg−1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established.

  15. Combination of electromembrane extraction and liquid-phase microextraction in a single step: Simultaneous group separation of acidic and basic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    at high concentration. This approach was further investigated from human plasma. Extraction recoveries were strongly dependent on dilution of plasma with buffer and on extraction time. Finally, this simultaneous EME/LPME approach was evaluated in combination with liquid chromatography (LC......Electromembrane extraction (EME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) were combined in a single step for the first time to realize simultaneous and clear group separation of basic and acidic drugs. Using 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for EME and dihexyl ether...

  16. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-10-13

    A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15.09 ± 1.72 years), were analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to collect information related to dietary behavior including energy drink intake and junk food consumption. Single item measures of sleep dissatisfaction, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were also administered. Associations between energy drink intake and sleep dissatisfaction, perceived severe stress, persistent depressive mood, and suicidality were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from demographic and lifestyle factors could be controlled for statistically. Energy drink intake was significantly associated with sleep dissatisfaction (adjusted odd ratios [AORs] = 1.64 and 1.25), severe stress (AORs = 2.23 and 1.38), depressive mood (AOR = 2.59 and 1.51), suicidal ideation (AORs = 3.14 and 1.43), suicide plan (AORs = 4.65 and 1.78), and suicide attempt (AORs = 6.79 and 1.91), with a higher risk for more frequent use of energy drinks (≥5 times/wk) than for less frequent use (1-4 times/wk). The detrimental effect of energy drinks on mental health was particularly prominent in frequent junk food consumers. Our data suggest that energy drink intake had detrimental effects related to stress, sleep dissatisfaction, mood, and suicidality, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional study design

  17. Biohydrogen production from co-digestion of high carbohydrate containing food waste and combined primary and secondary sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.; Sahito, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, FW (Food Waste) and SS (Sewage Sludge) were co-digested for biohydrogen production. After characterization both FW and SS were found as better option for biohydrogen production. FW was rich in carbohydrate containing specially rice, which was added as more than 50% and easily hydrolyzable waste. FW is considered as an auxiliary substrate for biohydrogen production and high availability of carbohydrate in FW makes it an important substrate for the production of biohydrogen. On the contrary, SS was rich in protein and has a high pH buffering capacity, which makes it appropriate for codigestion. Adequate supplementation of inorganic salts, the addition of hydrogen producing inoculums, protein enrichment and pH buffering capacity of SS and carbohydrate content in FW increases the hydrogen production potential. Various experiments were performed by considering different mixing ratios like 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 of FW and SS. The 50:50 and 90:10 mixing ratio of FW and SS were found as best among all other co-digested ratios. The maximum specific hydrogen yield 106.7 mL/gVS added was obtained at a waste composition of 50:50 followed by 92.35 mL/gVS added from 90:10 of FW to SS. The optimum pH and temperature for operating this process were in the range of 5.5-6.5 and 35°C. The production of clean energy and waste utilization in anaerobic co-digestion process makes biohydrogen generation a promising and novel approach to fulfilling the increasing energy needs as a substitute for fossil fuels. (author)

  18. EIGEN-5C - the new GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam / Groupe de Recherche de Geodesie Spatiale combined gravity field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerste, C.; Flechtner, F.; Stubenvoll, R.; Rothacher, M.; Kusche, J.; Neumayer, H. K.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.; Barthelmes, F.; Bruinsma, S.; Koenig, R.; Dahle, C.

    2008-12-01

    Global gravity field models play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to applications in geosciences, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. In this presentation we report on the latest, recently released EIGEN-model, EIGEN-5C (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques) and its associated satellite-only model EIGEN-5S. The global gravity field model EIGEN-5C is complete to degree and order 360 (corresponding to half-wavelength of 55 km) and was jointly elaborated by GFZ Potsdam and CNES/GRGS Toulouse. As its precursor EIGEN-GL04C (released in March 2006), this model is inferred from a combination of GRACE and LAGEOS satellite tracking data with surface gravity data, based on the accumulation of normal equations. However, this new model presents remarkable changes and improvements compared to its precursors. EIGEN-5C incorporates a further extended GRACE and LAGEOS data set, covering almost the entire GRACE period from mid 2002 to end of 2007, but also newly available gravity anomaly data sets for Europe and Australia. New processing features are the complete reprocessing of the GRACE and LAGEOS data using the recent RL04 standards and background models by GFZ (combined with the GRACE/LAGEOS 10-days time series derived at GRGS based on nearly identical standards and background models) and a further extension of the full normal equations (in contrast to block diagonal form) derived from terrestrial data to a maximum degree and order of 280 (which was restricted to 179 for EIGEN-GL04C). In particular, this presentation focuses on the inter-comparison of this latest EIGEN model with the recently presented EGM08 model, which was developed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the USA. The EIGEN-5C model and its associated satellite-only model EIGEN-5S are available for download at the ICGEM data base (International

  19. Salmeterol versus slow-release theophylline combined with ketotifen in nocturnal asthma: a multicentre trial. French Multicentre Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J F; Bertin, L; Georges, D

    1992-11-01

    We wished to assess the efficacy of inhaled salmeterol (SML; 50 micrograms b.i.d.) compared to a combination of slow-release theophylline and ketotifen p.o. (TK; T 300 mg+K 1 mg b.i.d.) for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. Ninety six patients with nocturnal asthma, (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 60-90% of predicted value, reversibility > or = 15%, at least two nocturnal awakenings per week) were eligible for a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy cross-over study (14-day run-in, two successive 28-day treatment periods). Efficacy was assessed as success/failure, success being defined as the complete disappearance of nocturnal symptoms/awakening during the last week of each treatment period. There was a statistically significant difference between SML and TK for this criterion: 46% and 39% success with SML during periods I (first 28-day period) and II (following the cross-over), compared to only 15% and 26% with TK, respectively (p < 0.01). SML was also significantly better for the other criteria (lung function, rescue salbutamol intake during day and night). Side-effects were five times less frequent in SML-treated patients (p < 0.004). Efficacy and tolerance of SML were obviously far better than those of TK in patients with nocturnal asthma.

  20. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-08

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Transition-metal-doped group-IV monochalcogenides: a combination of two-dimensional triferroics and diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wu, Menghao; Yao, Kailun

    2018-05-01

    We report the first-principles evidence of a series of two-dimensional triferroics (ferromagnetic + ferroelectric + ferroelastic), which can be obtained by doping transition-metal ions in group-IV monochalcogenide (SnS, SnSe, GeS, GeSe) monolayers, noting that a ferromagnetic Fe-doped SnS2 monolayer has recently been realized (Li B et al 2017 Nat. Commun. 8 1958). The ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity and ferromagnetism can be coupled and the magnetization direction may be switched upon ferroelectric/ferroelastic switching, rendering electrical writing + magnetic reading possible. They can be also two-dimensional half-metals or diluted magnetic semiconductors, where p/n channels or even multiferroic tunneling junctions can be designed by variation in doping and incorporated into a monolayer wafer.

  2. Inactivation of Listeria in Foods Packed in Films Activated with Enterocin AS-48 plus Thymol Singly or in Combination with High-Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ortega Blázquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of films activated with enterocin AS-48 plus thymol singly, or in combination with high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP on the inactivation of Listeria innocua in sea bream fillets and in fruit puree stored under refrigeration for 10 days. L. innocua proliferated in control fish fillets during storage. The activated film reduced viable Listeria counts in fillets by 1.76 log cycles and prevented growth of survivors until mid-storage. Application of HHP treatment to fillets packed in films without antimicrobials reduced Listeria counts by 1.83 log cycles, but did not prevent the growth of survivors during storage. The combined treatment reduced viable counts by 1.88 log cycles and delayed growth of survivors during the whole storage period. L. innocua survived in puree during storage. The activated film reduced Listeria counts by 1.80 and 2.0 log cycles at days 0 and 3. After that point, Listeria were below the detection limit. No viable Listeria were detected in the purees after application of HHP treatment singly, or in combination with the activated film. Results from the study indicate that the efficacy of activated films against Listeria is markedly influenced by the food type.

  3. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION OF DIABETES AND EX-LEPROSY PATIENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS AND PATIENT PREFERENCE FOR COMBINED SELF-CARE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Christiaan De Vries

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier we showed that neuropathic complications limit social participation of ex-leprosy patients, even in a non-endemic leprosy setting like the Netherlands. Self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients can strengthen self-worth of participants, prevent further handicap, and enable the exchange of coping strategies. For non-endemic leprosy settings with a very low rate of leprosy patients a self-care group exclusively for (exleprosy patients is not likely to be feasible. A combined group with patients facing comparable morbidity would be more efficient than disease specific self-care groups. Here, we studied the comparability in social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients. Moreover, we investigated if combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients would be desirable and acceptable for possible participants.Methods: Social participation was studied based on in-depth interviews and Participation Scale information collected from 41 diabetic patients and compared with the data of 31 ex-leprosy patients from a prior study. Moreover, we made an inventory of potential strengths and limitations and attitudes towards combined self-care groups for diabetic patients with neuropathy.Results: The following themes emerged among diabetic patients: disease confrontation, dependency, conflict with partner or relatives, feelings of inferiority, stigma, abandoning social activities, fear of the future, lack of information and hiding the disease. These themes were very similar to those voiced by the previously interviewed ex-leprosy patients. The latter more often mentioned stigma and disease ignorance among Dutch health care workers. Whereas ex-leprosy patients perceived stigma on multiple fronts, diabetic patients only mentioned feeling inferior. Diabetic patients experienced some form of participation restriction in 39% of the cases as opposed to 71% of the ex-leprosy patients. Diabetic patients did

  4. Performance characteristics of a combined hepatitis C virus core antigen and anti–hepatitis C virus antibody test in different patient groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fu Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the performance of a hepatitis C virus (HCV antigen/antibody combination test [Murex HCV Antigen/Antibody Combination Test (Murex Ag/Ab test] by comparing it with the current third-generation HCV antibody enzyme immunoassay (anti-HCV. A total of 403 serum samples were consecutively collected from four patient groups: healthy controls (n=100; HCV-infected patients (HCV group, n=102; Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HCV-infected patients (HIV/HCV group, n=100; and patients with uremia (uremia group, n=101. Performances were evaluated for the Murex Ag/Ab, anti-HCV, and HCV RNA in the HIV/HCV and uremia patient groups. In the HCV group, all 102 samples showed concordant positive and negative results for anti-HCV, Murex Ag/Ab, and HCV RNA tests. In the HIV/HCV group, all 100 samples were positive for both anti-HCV and Murex Ag/Ab tests, whereas 88 patients (88% were HCV RNA positive. In the uremia group, 14 (69.0% of the 23 anti-HCV-positive patients were HCV RNA positive, whereas 14 (77.8% of the 18 Murex Ag/Ab–positive patients were HCV RNA positive. None of anti-HCV-negative or Murex Ag/Ab–negative patients were HCV RNA positive. Based on the HCV RNA assay, the sensitivities for both anti-HCV and Murex Ag/Ab assays were 100%, whereas the specificities of these two assays were 89.7% and 95.4%, respectively. With good sensitivity and specificity, the Murex Ag/Ab assay could be a useful alternative diagnostic tool, especially in immunocompromised populations, such as patients with uremia or those infected with HIV.

  5. Social participation of diabetes and ex-leprosy patients in the Netherlands and patient preference for combined self-care groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; de Groot, Roos; van Brakel, Wim H

    2014-01-01

    Earlier, we showed that neuropathic complications limit social participation of ex-leprosy patients, even in a non-endemic leprosy setting like the Netherlands. Self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients can strengthen self-worth of participants, prevent further handicap, and enable the exchange of coping strategies. For non-endemic leprosy settings with a very low rate of leprosy patients, a self-care group exclusively for (ex)leprosy patients is not likely to be feasible. A combined group with patients facing comparable morbidity would be more efficient than disease-specific self-care groups. Here, we studied the comparability in social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients. Moreover, we investigated if combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients would be desirable and acceptable for possible participants. Social participation was studied based on in-depth interviews and Participation Scale information collected from 41 diabetic patients and compared with the data of 31 ex-leprosy patients from a prior study. Moreover, we made an inventory of potential strengths and limitations and attitudes toward combined self-care groups for diabetic patients with neuropathy. The following themes emerged among diabetic patients: disease confrontation, dependency, conflict with partner or relatives, feelings of inferiority, stigma, abandoning social activities, fear of the future, lack of information, and hiding the disease. These themes were very similar to those voiced by the previously interviewed ex-leprosy patients. The latter more often mentioned stigma and disease ignorance among Dutch health care workers. Whereas ex-leprosy patients perceived stigma on multiple fronts, diabetic patients only mentioned feeling inferior. Diabetic patients experienced some form of participation restriction in 39% of the cases as opposed to 71% of the ex-leprosy patients. Diabetic patients did acknowledge the comparability with leprosy as far as

  6. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  7. Determination of six polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jing; Song, Ge; Ai, Lian-Feng; Li, Jian-Chen

    2016-04-01

    A new method using solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of six polyether antibiotics, including lasalocid, salinomycin, monensin, narasin, madubamycin and nigericin residues, in foods of animal origin. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified by ENVI-Carb SPE columns after comparing the impurity effect and maneuverability of several SPE cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were separated on a Hypersil Gold column (2.1×150mm, 5μm) and analyzed by MS/MS detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) for milk and chicken was 0.4μg/kg, and for chicken livers and eggs, it was 1μg/kg. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of >0.9995 at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100μg/L. The average recoveries of the analytes fortified at three levels ranged from 68.2 to 114.3%, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 12.1%. The method was suitable for quantitative analysis and confirmation of polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in an adolescent male with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: A clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Jonathan James; Anderson, Gail; Kennedy, Andrew; Kohn, Michael; Clarke, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a potentially lethal eating disorder. This case example of a male, G, aged 17 years with ARFID illustrates the multiplicity of health problems related to nutritional deficiencies which may develop in an adolescent of normal weight. Of particular concern was the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord and the real possibility that G may have irreversible damage to his spinal cord. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with SCD of the spinal cord due to ARFID. The adolescent was found to be deficient in Vitamin A, E, K, D, B12, and folate. Management required vitamin replacement, initial nasogastric feeding and the slow introduction of a varied diet. This patient will require long term rehabilitation. Medical practitioners need to be attuned to abnormal eating patterns in children and adolescents and refer for specialist care early. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215): Seven α,β-Unsaturated Cinnamyl Ketones from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of flavouring substances from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215). The Flavour Industry has...

  10. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  11. Feasibility of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, E; Amiano, P; Ege, M; Bower, E; Lioret, S; Brants, H; Kaic-Rak, A; de Boer, E J; Andersen, L F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) pc-program. A total of 75 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years old were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark, and 57 children aged 7-8 years and 47 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through schools in Spain. Each child with one parent completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a food-recording booklet (FRB) to be filled in by the child, a parent or other proxy persons for preparing the recalls. Feasibility was evaluated by questionnaires completed by parents, children and interviewers, and by selected data from the 24-HDRs. The face-to-face interviews with the child and a parent together are confirmed as feasible. The children participated actively in the interviews, the oldest children being most active. The children, parents and interviewers agreed that children needed help from the parents, and that parents were of help to the child. In both countries, other proxy persons, such as teachers or the school cafeteria staff, were involved before the interview, and the majority of the parents and children reported that the FRB had been a help for the child during the interview. Further results point at specific needed improvements of the tools. The evaluated method is shown feasible in two culturally diverse European populations. However, the feasibility study also points to specific improvements of tools and data collection protocol that are strongly recommended before implementation of the method in each country of a pan-European dietary survey.

  12. An agent-based simulation combined with group decision-making technique for improving the performance of an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousefi

    Full Text Available This study presents an agent-based simulation modeling in an emergency department. In a traditional approach, a supervisor (or a manager allocates the resources (receptionist, nurses, doctors, etc. to different sections based on personal experience or by using decision-support tools. In this study, each staff agent took part in the process of allocating resources based on their observation in their respective sections, which gave the system the advantage of utilizing all the available human resources during the workday by being allocated to a different section. In this simulation, unlike previous studies, all staff agents took part in the decision-making process to re-allocate the resources in the emergency department. The simulation modeled the behavior of patients, receptionists, triage nurses, emergency room nurses and doctors. Patients were able to decide whether to stay in the system or leave the department at any stage of treatment. In order to evaluate the performance of this approach, 6 different scenarios were introduced. In each scenario, various key performance indicators were investigated before and after applying the group decision-making. The outputs of each simulation were number of deaths, number of patients who leave the emergency department without being attended, length of stay, waiting time and total number of discharged patients from the emergency department. Applying the self-organizing approach in the simulation showed an average of 12.7 and 14.4% decrease in total waiting time and number of patients who left without being seen, respectively. The results showed an average increase of 11.5% in total number of discharged patients from emergency department.

  13. Group-based exercise combined with dual-task training improves gait but not vascular health in active older adults without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Fitzgerald, Clara; Hachinski, Vladimir; Shoemaker, Kevin; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Gait abnormalities and vascular disease risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment in aging. To determine the impact of group-based exercise and dual-task training on gait and vascular health, in active community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants [n=44, mean (SD) age: 73.5 (7.2) years, 68% female] were randomized to either intervention (exercise+dual-task; EDT) or control (exercise only; EO). Each week, for 26 weeks, both groups accumulated 50 or 75 min of aerobic exercise from group-based classes and 45 min of beginner-level square stepping exercise (SSE). Participants accumulating only 50 min of aerobic exercise were instructed to participate in an additional 25 min each week outside of class. The EDT group also answered cognitively challenging questions while performing SSE (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of the interventions on gait and vascular health was compared between groups using linear mixed effects models. At 26 weeks, the EDT group demonstrated increased dual-task (DT) gait velocity [difference between groups in mean change from baseline (95% CI): 0.29 m/s (0.16-0.43), pexercise