WorldWideScience

Sample records for food flavors ingredients

  1. GRAS Flavoring Substances 25. The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on reent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Fukushima, S.; Gooderham, N.J.; Hecht, S.S.; Marnett, L.J.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; McGowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.

  2. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... quality or flavor of the finished product. In the case of bulky flavoring ingredients such as pimento, the...

  3. A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: Essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.; Hall, R.L.; Higley, N.A.; Lucas-Gavin, C.; Adams, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    A scientifically based guide has been developed to evaluate the safety of naturally occurring mixtures, particularly essential oils, for their intended use as flavor ingredients. The approach relies on the complete chemical characterization of the essential oil and the variability of the composition

  4. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  5. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Improve Taste, Texture and Appearance: Spices, natural and artificial flavors, and sweeteners are added to enhance the taste of food. ... Q What is the difference between natural and artificial ingredients? Is a naturally ... low-calorie sweeteners cause adverse reactions? Q How do they add ...

  6. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Bagrow, James P; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

  7. The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; McGowen, M M; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Portoghese, P S; Rietjens, I M C M; Smith, R L

    2011-10-01

    This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2600 substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-01-01

    Foods contain a wide range of food ingredients that serve numerous technical functions. Per capita consumer exposure to most of these food ingredients is rather low with a few notable exceptions such as sugar and starch. Some food ingredients including edible oils, hydrolyzed proteins, lecithin, starch, lactose, flavors and gelatin may, at least in some products, be derived from sources commonly involved in IgE-mediated food allergies. These ingredients should be avoided by consumers with allergies to the source material if the ingredient contains detectable protein residues. Other food ingredients, including starch, malt, alcohol and vinegar, may be derived in some cases from wheat, rye or barley, the grains that are implicated in the causation of celiac disease. If these ingredients contain gluten residues, then they should be avoided by celiac sufferers. A few food ingredients are capable of eliciting allergic sensitization, although these ingredients would be classified as rarely allergenic. These ingredients include carmine, cochineal extract, annatto, tragacanth gum and papain. Food manufacturers should declare the presence of allergenic food ingredients in the ingredient listings on product labels so that allergic consumers can know to avoid these potentially hazardous products.

  9. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  10. The FEMA GRAS assessment of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; Taylor, S V; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Goodman, J; Rietjens, I M C M; Marnett, L J; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L

    2008-09-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix.

  11. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that do not contain dietary ingredients, such as excipients, fillers, artificial colors, artificial sweeteners, flavors, or binders, shall be included in the ingredient list. (h) The common or usual name...

  12. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M

    2010-11-01

    Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.

  13. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Guengerich, F Peter; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Valerio, Luis G; Taylor, Sean V

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of intended use. Re-evaluation of GRAS status for flavorings is based on updated considerations of exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology and includes a comprehensive review of the scientific information on the flavorings and structurally related substances. Of the 12 substituted thiophenes reviewed here, 11 were reaffirmed as GRAS based on their rapid absorption, metabolism and excretion in humans and animals; the low estimated dietary exposure from flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels; and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. For one of the substituted thiophenes, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene, it was concluded that more detailed exposure information, comparative metabolism studies and comprehensive toxicity data, including an in-depth evaluation of the mechanism of action for any adverse effects observed, are required for continuation of its FEMA GRAS™ status. In the absence of these data, the compound was removed from the FEMA GRAS list. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  15. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was interview

  16. How can Early Life Flavor Experiences Affect Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences with food flavors lead up to children’s food preferences and develop long-lasting flavor preferences and healthy eating habits. The process of flavor learning begins during pregnancy by the foods eaten by mothers which pass to the amniotic fluid. Some flavors coming from the mother’s diet that pass to the amniotic fluid are detected by the fetus. This flavor learning continues after birth with breastfeeding, since the human milk is composed of flavors which reflect the foods consumed by the mother. Flavor composition in human milk which changes during the course of lactation due to the transmission of flavors into human milk enables the baby to get used to new flavors. Therefore, breastfed infants are likely to accept flavor changes and novel flavors more than formula fed infants. Flavor learning continues with starting complementary foods and eating the foods directly. Exposure to a specific flavor and repeated exposures in different times may facilitate the acceptance of this flavor. Furthermore, infants exposed to a variety of foods accept new flavors than infants following a monotonous diet. This underlines the importance of promoting the access to a variety of foods in early childhood. In conclusion, pregnant and lactating women should have variety of healthy foods in their diets with a variety of flavors and they should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies. In addition, starting complementary foods and early repeated exposure to a wide variety of healthy foods, the infants should get familiar with the flavor of healthy and various food. These factors may influence the development of healthy food preferences and healthy eating habits in later periods.

  17. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  18. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed.

  19. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  20. Development of non-sweet, flavored food cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Food cubes exhibit flavor and quality stability for periods of four weeks in 100 deg F environment. They are suitable for field rations, emergency rations or snacks and should interest the food processing industry.

  1. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  2. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not.

  3. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J.

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not. PMID:28210216

  4. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  5. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  6. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to coun

  7. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to

  8. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Bioactive foods and ingredients for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M

    2014-05-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound-single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas.

  10. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  11. Sonic ingredients in television food programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rørdam Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this article is the use, significance, and role of sound in food and food travel programmes, exemplified by cooking programmes broadcast on Danish television – public service and commercial channels. The aim is to demonstrate how sound and music in this kind of programme plays an important part mediating both the cooking and the kitchen as wellordered and well organized. The use of music represents flow, but refers also to locality, globality and identity, and is often linked to the notions of nostalgia, tradition and authenticity, and contributes to an aesthetization of food programmes as it forms part of the performance and presentation of meals. The early kitchen programmes emphasized on information, as a kind of living cooking books as the idea was to enlighten the housewives and their practices by challenging their common sense choices introducing a more French inspired kitchen. In relation to such kitchen programmes todays cooking programmes seem to appeal to a broader sensibility as they present us to the possibilities of modern life, and the chefs’ multisensuorious performances underlines this – often induced by the sound. It is through the sounds in food programmes that an authentic experience of taste and smell is mediated to the viewer: both through the lustful, approving sounds made by presenters and through the cooks’ handling of raw materials. What looks delicious, also smells and tastes delicious – mediated through sound.

  12. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  13. Techniques for nanoencapsulation of food ingredients

    CERN Document Server

    Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation has the potential to improve human health through its capacity to both protect bioactive compounds and release them at a specific time and location into various substances, including food. Numerous nanoencapsulation technologies have emerged in recent years, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The goal of this Brief is to discuss the various nanoencapsulation technologies, such as emulsification, coacervation, inclusion encapsulation, anti-solvent precipitation, nanoprecipitation, freeze drying, and spray drying, including their limitations. Recent safety and regulatory issues concerning the various nanoencapsulation technologies will also be covered.

  14. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program (``SMPs'') need nutrition information...

  15. Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Charles; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of

  16. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific common ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific ...

  17. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (<50 μg/kg). This is the first large surveillance of AA content in snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  18. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  19. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  20. Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2009-01-01

    Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.

  1. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins.

  2. Effects of added glutamate on liking for novel food flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John

    2004-04-01

    Adding glutamate to foods increases their umami quality, their acceptability and their consumption. The functional significance of this palatability is unclear. Other highly palatable substances, e.g. sugar and fats, also increase liking for novel flavors with which they are repeatedly paired, especially when ingested. This is thought to reflect the rewarding effects of sugar and fat energy, post-ingestion. To determine if a liking for novel flavors can also be conditioned using glutamate, 44 subjects rated 10 ml samples of three novel soups for liking and familiarity, both before and after seven daily exposures to each of two soup flavors-one with added monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) (0.5% w/w; MSG+) and one without (MSG-). During exposure, subjects received either a 250 ml bowl of soup (Consume group) or a 10 ml sample (Taste group). There were no significant differences as a function of samples or groups, despite some trends for changes in liking to be higher in the consumed MSG+ condition. In a second experiment, 69 subjects were divided into three groups (Consume MSG+; Consume MSG-; Taste MSG+) in which they received nine exposures to one novel soup flavor. The Consume MSG+ group showed a significantly greater increase in liking than either the Consume MSG- or the Taste MSG+ groups, which did not differ. Changes in familiarity ratings reflected amount consumed, not MSG content. Pairing glutamate with a novel flavor can condition liking for that flavor. While post-ingestive effects of glutamate may be rewarding, flavor conditioning cannot be ruled out.

  3. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more-and-more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  5. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Eric

    2013-03-15

    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products.

  7. The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Lucas Gavin, C.; McGowen, M.M.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Smith, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions o

  8. The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of int

  9. The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  10. The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the eighth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of in

  11. The Application of Local Wisdom for Production of Condiment Isan' Food Ingredient into Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitchapanrawee Phengphol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of the research derives from a lack of study and understanding about the production of condiment Isan food and ingredients being introduced into commercial, even though Isan food is popular among consumers widespread both inside and outside the country. The government introduced a policy to expand trade to create an export value of Isan products. The purpose of the research is to study the local wisdom in the field of the application of the ingredients used in Isan food. In addition, the purpose is to study about the problems of applying local wisdom to produce Isan food for consumption into commercial. Approach: The fields of study are Kalasin, Khon kaen, Maha Sarakham and Roi-Et. These are the places of Isan food local culture and original application of Isan food that have been producing to the present and also popular among the consumers widespread. There are 5 types of food that are chosen to be the proposition; Kaeng Wai (Curry Wai, Kai Yang (Roasting chicken, Tom Kai Ban (Boiled chicken, Mok Lab Pla Thong (Grilled Lab Pla Thong and Om Pla (Fish soup from 9 restaurants. Using Qualitative Research for data gathering from the concerning document, the data will be collected from fieldwork, survey, observation, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 71 informants, presenting the result by using analytical descriptive. Results: The local wisdom of application of Isan food ingredients is a herb that is easy to find in the local area. It is used for the deodorizing of meat and as a garnish to give taste and flavor to the consumer. Isan food is highlighted as spicy and salty. A Spicy taste is from hot chili and dried chili. A Salty taste can be regarded as an important deliciousness that is an identity of Isan food from pickled fish and salt. A Sour test derives from tamarinds. Ya Nang (Tiliacora triandra is used in order to reduce uric acid of Wai (Calamus caesius Blume. Adding ginger, Kha

  12. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  13. Assessing the impact of seasonality on the adjustment foods ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the important approach to the possibility of the formation of qualitative and quantitative assessments in the interim analysis of foods quality. A specific feature of the food production is the work under the conditions of information gaps and incomplete source data. Analysis of such information requires special methods, which constitute one of the areas of econometrics. The central problem of econometrics is the formation of an econometric model and identifying opportunities of its use for describing, analyzing and forecast of real economic processes. The objective of this work is the formation of multiple regression model of nutritional and biological value of foods and conducting of subsequent analysis of both the model and its behavior under different initial data, including changes in the composition of the ingredients and their mineral and vitamin value depending on the manufacturing season of these products and possible use of advanced processing means. Changing the composition of the mineral-vitamin ingredients and, therefore, their relative amounts of selected food products over time allows us to apply a dynamic segment approach to such a problem.

  14. Microextraction techniques in the analysis of food flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz

    2012-08-13

    Food flavor compounds due to the complexity of food as a matrix, and usually their very low concentrations in a product, as well as their low odor thresholds, create a challenge in their extraction, separation and quantitation. Food flavor volatiles represent compounds of different polarity, volatility and chemical character, which determine method of extraction for their isolation from food. Microextraction techniques, mainly SPME and SBSE have been used for food flavor compounds analysis for two decades. Microextraction methods other than SPME and SBSE are seldom used despite their analytical potential. The review discusses the nature of food flavor compounds, and different approaches to food flavor analysis. It summarizes the use of microextraction methods in food flavor compounds analysis based on papers published in the last 5years, and discusses the potential of microextraction methods in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2009-12-01

    Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.

  16. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market.

  17. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  18. Identification of flavor compounds and enhancement of flavor characteristics in space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Yun, Hyejeong; Jung, Samooel; Jung, Yeonkook; Lee, Hyeonjeong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To minimize the deterioration of sensorial quality of irradiated bulgogi and dakgalbi, the microbial safety and volatiles were examined. The total aerobic bacterial population of dakgalbi was eliminated by 40 kGy of irradiation, But, the lipid oxidation and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen were significantly increased by 40 kGy of irradiation, and off-flavor was significantly higher in irradiated sample. The amount of volatile compounds was increased by irradiation including hexane, heptane, propanal, hexanal, pentanal, and nonanal Totally 7 natural materials and red wine were added into ground beef for manufacturing bulgogi and evaluated the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. When garlic, onion, or red wine were added into the ground beef with concentrations 1 to 5%, the RRS increased significantly. Also, garlic or onion used as ingredient of dakalbi significantly increased RRS against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytohenes garlic or red wine were selected to increase of RRS and combined with charcoal packaging to reduce the off-odor of ground beef by irradiation. The combination treatment of garlic or red wine with charcoal packaging reduced the total volatile compounds. Sensory evaluation confirmed that the use of combination treatment of natural materials with charcoal packaging enhance the sensorial quality of ground beef. As the result, it is possible to reduce the required irradiation dose by increasing RRS, which can minimize sensory deterioration of the products. And, charcoal packaging can reduce sensory deterioration

  19. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the potential of marine environment and produce value-added food for all.

  20. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  1. Cassia Cinnamon as a source of Coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamon is one of the most popular flavoring agents in the United States. Some cinnamon varieties and cinnamon flavored food sold in US could be potential sources of coumarin. Coumarin is banned from food in the United States due to its potential adverse side effects. An ultra-performance liquid ch...

  2. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  3. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  4. 新型食品配料成份%The Ingredient of the New Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱行

    2005-01-01

    The food scientist is engaging in the development of the food ingredients which have both nutritive value and prophylaxis function. The development focuses on conjugated linoleic acid, lycopene, oat fiber, soybean educt and choline in recent years.

  5. Food product models developed to evaluate starch as a food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Three highly reproducible food models have been developed to evaluate rheological and functional properties of starches. The food models are dutch vla, dressing, and white sauce, and they vary in pH, serving temperature, oil content, and content of other functional ingredients than starch (milk...... was performed. The rheological data for the three food models were analysed by use of a principal component analysis (PCA), which enabled an evaluation of the functionality of the models and visualisation of the correlation to the concentration of starch. The rheological parameters all varied significantly...

  6. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 131 Flavored Milk; Petition... allow optional characterizing flavoring ingredients used in milk (e.g., chocolate flavoring added to... lower-calorie flavored milk would particularly benefit school children who, according to IDFA and NMPF...

  7. Design of natural food antioxidant ingredients through a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola, Jose A; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Señoráns, F Javier; Reglero, Guillermo; Capodicasa, Alessandro; Nazzaro, Filomena; Sada, Alfonso; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2010-01-27

    In the present work, an environmentally friendly extraction process using subcritical conditions has been tested to obtain potential natural food ingredients from natural sources such as plants, fruits, spirulina, propolis, and tuber, with the scope of substituting synthetic antioxidants, which are subject to regulation restrictions and might be harmful for human health. A full characterization has been undertaken from the chemical and biochemical point of view to be able to understand their mechanism of action. Thus, an analytical method for profiling the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity has been used, allowing the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in a single run. This information has been integrated and analyzed using a chemometrical approach to correlate the bioactive compounds profile with the antioxidant activity and thus to be able to predict antioxidant activities of complex formulations. As a further step, a simplex centroid mixture design has been tested to find the optimal formulation and to calculate the effect of the interaction among individual extracts in the mixture.

  8. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.

  9. The use of diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) and related flavoring substances as flavorings added to foods-Workplace safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallagan, John B

    2017-08-01

    In 2001, staff of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) as a "marker" of exposure in a microwave popcorn manufacturing facility in which workers developed severe respiratory illness. Subsequent investigations identified additional workers in food and flavor manufacturing facilities also with severe respiratory illness. The flavor industry, NIOSH, and federal and state regulators conducted significant programs to address workplace safety concerns related to the manufacture of flavors and foods containing added flavors. These programs, initiated in 2001, continue today. Key to the success of these programs is understanding what flavors added to foods are and how they are manufactured, how they are incorporated into foods, the specific characteristics of diacetyl and related flavoring substances, and what actions may be taken to assure the safest workplaces possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10(6) PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10(6) PFU/g) concentrations significantly (P foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10(7) PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  11. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...

  12. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  13. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor.

  14. Applications of Liquid Smoke Powder as Flavor and Food Preservative (Case Study : Sponge Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid smoke is converted into powder will provide ease of mobilization and storage. At this time should be developed as an application of liquid smoke powder as flavor and food preservative. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding liquid smoke powder to the flavor and shelf life of food. Samples of food used is a sponge cake. The method used to observe the shelf life is the ESS (Extended Storage Studies. Observations flavor food with organoleptic test was used to respondents. Addition of liquid smoke powder treatment performed at the level of 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of the weight of flour. The addition of liquid smoke powder to give effect to flavor foods and can increase shelf life. Liquid smoke contains phenolic compounds which in addition to contributing smoke flavor, also has antioxidant and bactericidal action on food. Optimal conditions of manufacture liquid smoke powder by using a spray dryer is on the treatment concentration of 5% and a inlet temperature of 160 °C. The addition of optimum is at the level of 2% which can increase the shelf life of food to 8 days and the flavor is still received  by respondents.

  15. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...... jam, dried raspberries and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labelling which was in agreement with the almost equal...

  16. Flavor misattribution: A novel approach to improving compliance and blinding in food-based clinical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne E. Bierwirth

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Effective beverages worked by invoking “flavor misattribution”, wherein a food (broccoli extract with an objectionable sensory characteristic was paired with a vector in which that characteristic was an acceptable component of the vector’s flavor profile. Further development of this concept with an unlimited palate could be used to develop optimal carriers for food product development and/or to refine the approach for clinical trials based upon local taste preferences.

  17. Flavor change and food deprivation are not critical for post-oral glucose appetition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    When mice trained to consume a CS- flavored solution paired with intragastric (IG) water self-infusion are given a new CS+ flavor paired with IG glucose self-infusion, their intake is stimulated within minutes in the first CS+ test. They also display a preference for the CS+ over the CS- in two-bottle tests. These indicators of post-oral appetite stimulation (appetition) have been studied in food-restricted mice, with novel CS+ and CS- flavors. Two experiments tested whether deprivation and flavor novelty are needed for stimulation of intake. Exp. 1 compared food-restricted and ad libitum fed C57BL/6 mice trained for 1h/day: 3 sessions with CS- flavor and IG water followed by 3 sessions with a novel CS+ flavor and IG 16% glucose. Ad libitum (AL) fed mice licked less overall, but like the food-restricted (FR) group they increased licking in the first session. In the choice test, FR mice displayed a significant CS+ preference (73%) whereas AL mice had a weaker preference (64%). In Exp. 2, food-restricted mice were trained with a flavor and IG water, and then the Same or a New flavor paired with IG 8% glucose. The glucose infusion rapidly stimulated intakes in the first and subsequent sessions and to the same degree in the two groups. Both groups also showed similar reductions in licking in extinction tests with IG water infusions. These data show that mice need not be explicitly food deprived or given a novel flavor cue to increase ongoing ingestion in response to post-oral glucose stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of high-pressure CO2 processing on flavor, texture, and color of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Xiufang; Xu, Zenghui; Yang, Yingjie; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure CO2 (HPCD) is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganism and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa without exposing foods to adverse effects of heat. Thermal pasteurization can impart undesirable changes on organoleptic and nutritional quality of the foods, which can reduce sensory perception and consumer acceptance of the foods. As a novel nonthermal processing technique, HPCD does avoid drawbacks such as loss of flavor, denaturation of nutrients, production of side toxic reactions, as well as changes in physical, mechanical, and optical properties of the food materials involved in the processing. This review gives a survey and analysis of recent publications regarding the effects of HPCD on the flavor, texture and color of processed foods, and possible mechanisms explaining HPCD technique on the flavor, texture, and color of the foods were discussed.

  19. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  20. Food product models developed to evaluate starch as a food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Three highly reproducible food models have been developed to evaluate rheological and functional properties of starches. The food models are dutch vla, dressing, and white sauce, and they vary in pH, serving temperature, oil content, and content of other functional ingredients than starch (milk...... proteins, whole egg, carrageenan). The viscous properties were calculated in a controlled stress rheometer, and the power law index, n, and the consistency index, K, was calculated. The viscoelastic properties at small deformations were measured by oscillating viscometry. Also a spreadability analysis...... was performed. The rheological data for the three food models were analysed by use of a principal component analysis (PCA), which enabled an evaluation of the functionality of the models and visualisation of the correlation to the concentration of starch. The rheological parameters all varied significantly...

  1. Food product models developed to evaluate starch as a food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Three highly reproducible food models have been developed to evaluate rheological and functional properties of starches. The food models are dutch vla, dressing, and white sauce, and they vary in pH, serving temperature, oil content, and content of other functional ingredients than starch (milk...... was performed. The rheological data for the three food models were analysed by use of a principal component analysis (PCA), which enabled an evaluation of the functionality of the models and visualisation of the correlation to the concentration of starch. The rheological parameters all varied significantly...... with starch concentration in dutch vla. In dressing and white sauce most of the rheological parameters depended on the starch concentration. In addition, it was found that results from the empirical rheological method (USDA consistometer) correlate well with fundamental rheological parameters. Syneresis...

  2. A review on the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Wen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan. The top 10 items on the list of registered health food products up to 2014 in Taiwan are described, including monocolin K, ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, β-glucans, inulin, catechins, oligosaccharides, resistant maltodextrin, amino acids, medium chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Some analytical methods for the analysis of ingredients with health care effects are announced to the public on the website of health food section of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for the application and the postmarket surveillance of health food. Each application of health food should include the appropriate analytical method for the analysis of the ingredient or specific compound that has the health care effect, for the sake of quality assurance. Self-management of each applicant is required for regulation, the reputation of its own, and social responsibility to the consumers.

  3. Are salty liquid food flavorings in vitro antitumor substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Francisco R S; Moura, Antonio G; Rodrigues, Gardenia F; Nunes, Narcia M F; Lima, Daisy J B; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Marcilia P; Ferreira, Paulo M P; Peron, Ana Paula

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. The antiproliferative potential (2.9-1500 µg/mL) was assessed by MTT assay after 72h using the human tumor lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian), HCT-116 (colon) and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and primary cultures of murine Sarcoma 180 (S180) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to growing respective doses (1 mL and 2 mL). Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116) to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8). Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on PBMC (136.3 µg/mL) and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index but did not cause cellular aberrations. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities, such as anaphase and telophase bridges, micronucleated cells, conchicine-metaphases and amplifications. So, Butter, Onion and/or Cheddar flavorings caused significant changes in the division of meristematic cells of A. cepa and presented cytotoxic action even on decontrolled proliferating human tumor cells.

  4. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P whey samples were also different (P whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  5. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  6. Consumers’ Attitude toward Sustainable Food Products: Ingredients vs. Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Soyoung Seo; Hee-Kyung Ahn; Jaeseok Jeong; Junghoon Moon

    2016-01-01

    The availability of and preference for eco-friendly products have increased; however, understanding of sustainable products is still insufficient because most studies have been focused only on organic products. The availability and understanding of organic products are high, but not complete. With regards to environmental protection, it is important to focus not only on the eco-friendly ingredients but also on the eco-friendly packaging because packaging has recently been found to be a primar...

  7. Consumers’ Attitude toward Sustainable Food Products: Ingredients vs. Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Soyoung Seo; Hee-Kyung Ahn; Jaeseok Jeong; Junghoon Moon

    2016-01-01

    The availability of and preference for eco-friendly products have increased; however, understanding of sustainable products is still insufficient because most studies have been focused only on organic products. The availability and understanding of organic products are high, but not complete. With regards to environmental protection, it is important to focus not only on the eco-friendly ingredients but also on the eco-friendly packaging because packaging has recently been found to be a primar...

  8. Consumers’ response to genetically modified ingredients in processed food in an emerging economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    with their willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. Moreover, a higher risk perception of GM food is negatively associated with the probability to purchase and consume such foods. However, our results indicate that risk perceptions of GM food seem to be relatively low in comparison to other...... studies with 41.5% of Tajik respondents connecting no risks with GM food. This result is surprising given the existing knowledge about post–Soviet Union consumers who are usually assumed to reject GM food due to their strong focus on naturalness.......Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...

  9. Natural Ingredients and Foods: A Practical Approach for Qualification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.L.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Hübner, F.; Wassink, G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “natural” in food labelling is increasingly used by producers to indicate that their products are “natural”. The use of this term is not well regulated in many countries, leading to confusion among consumers as well as food producers and legislators and to a lack of guidance for food produc

  10. The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of int

  11. The FEMA GRAS assessment of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; McGowen, M.M.; Williams, M.C.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    This publication is the 11th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of inte

  12. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  13. Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of a functional food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    Objectives: The consumer part of the EU project NOFORISK compares laypeople and experts' understanding of benefits and risks associated with the functional food ingredient Phytosterol. The Council of the European Union has recently authorised the marketing of Phytosterol-enriched rye bread...... as a novel food under Regulation (EC) No 258/97....

  14. Study on Raman spectral imaging method for simultaneous estimation of ingredients concentration in food powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the potential of point scan Raman spectral imaging method for estimation of different ingredients and chemical contaminant concentration in food powder. Food powder sample was prepared by mixing sugar, vanillin, melamine and non-dairy cream at 5 different concentrations in a ...

  15. Consumers’ Attitude toward Sustainable Food Products: Ingredients vs. Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Seo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of and preference for eco-friendly products have increased; however, understanding of sustainable products is still insufficient because most studies have been focused only on organic products. The availability and understanding of organic products are high, but not complete. With regards to environmental protection, it is important to focus not only on the eco-friendly ingredients but also on the eco-friendly packaging because packaging has recently been found to be a primary cause of pollution. Through three studies, this article investigated the interaction between the effect of consumers’ willingness to buy (WTB, the price premium for eco-friendliness (internal: eco-friendly ingredients vs. external: eco-friendly packaging, and the product’s attributes. Three experimental studies were conducted to determine whether the consumers’ WTB and the price premium for sustainable products differ according to the eco-friendliness of the product and the product’s attributes. In Study 1 and Study 3, analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted; and, in Study 2, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was conducted. The results of Study 1 and Study 2 suggested that the consumers’ WTB for sustainable products can differ according to the product’s attribute. Moreover, results of Study 3 revealed that consumers’ WTB and satisfaction for sustainable products can differ according to level of packaging.

  16. Gras flavoring substances 24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; Mcgowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.; Williams, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) presented safety and usage data on 236 GRAS flavor ingredients in its 24th publication. The publication revealed that these 236 flavor ingredients were of Japanese origin that were granted GRAS status. It revealed that the G

  17. Nutraceuticals: possible future ingredients and food safety aspects. Chapter 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, V.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter defines nutraceuticals as bioactive compounds that are extracted from their original food matrix. The importance and role of basic nutrients in the growth, maintenance, and wellness of the body are well established. Food supplies energy, nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, proteins,

  18. Microbial lipase mediated by health beneficial modification of cholesterol and flavors in food products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Sharma, Nivedita

    2017-06-14

    The tremendous need of lipase in varied applications in biotechnological increases its economical value in food and allied industries. Lipase has an impressive number of applications viz. enhancements of flavor in food products (Cheese, butter, alcoholic beverages, milk chocolate and diet control food stuffs), detergent industry in removing oil, grease stain, organic chemical processing, textile industry, oleochemical industry, cosmetic industry and also as therapeutic agents in pharmaceutical industries. This communication extends the frontier of lipase catalyzed benefits to human body by lowering serum cholesterol and enhancement of flavor in different food products. Among all, multiple innovations going on in the field of lipase applications are widening its scope in food industries consistently. Therefore in the present work an effort has been made to explore the utilization of lipase in the field of food product enhancement. Supplementation of food products with lipase results in modification of its physical, chemical and biochemical properties by enhancing its therapeutic activity. Lipases are the most important enzymes used in food industries. They are utilized as industrial catalysts for lipid hydrolysis. Because of lipases hydrolysis nature it is widely exploited to catalyze lipids or fats in different food products and enhancement of food flavors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much...

  20. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  2. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  3. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  4. Exergy efficiency from staple food ingredients to body metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Illera, Marta; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the methods to evaluate the efficiency in the production of foods is using exergy, the share of useful energy, and exergy analysis. In this paper, we propose a link between exergy analysis and nutrition to account for the exergy efficiency (exergy of output per exergy of input) in the metabol

  5. Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Van Ba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 μg/g, 60 (15.75 μg/g, 49 (107.61 μg/ml and 50 (7.20 μg/g volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05. Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature. This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef.

  6. Background music genre can modulate flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Alexandra; Meullenet, Jean-François; Harrington, Robert J; Humble, Rachel; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to determine whether background music genre can alter food perception and acceptance, but also to determine how the effect of background music can vary as a function of type of food (emotional versus non-emotional foods) and source of music performer (single versus multiple performers). The music piece was edited into four genres: classical, jazz, hip-hop, and rock, by either a single or multiple performers. Following consumption of emotional (milk chocolate) or non-emotional food (bell peppers) with the four musical stimuli, participants were asked to rate sensory perception and impression of food stimuli. Participants liked food stimuli significantly more while listening to the jazz stimulus than the hip-hop stimulus. Further, the influence of background music on overall impression was present in the emotional food, but not in the non-emotional food. In addition, flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli differed between music genres arranged by a single performer, but not between those by multiple performers. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that music genre can alter flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli. Furthermore, the influence of music genre on food acceptance varies as a function of the type of served food and the source of music performer.

  7. Authenticity assessment: a permanent challenge in food flavor and essential oil analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosandl, A

    2004-09-01

    Both phenomena, enantioselectivity as well as isotope discrimination during biosynthesis, may serve as "endogenous" parameters, provided that suitable methods and comprehensive data from authentic sources are available. This review reports on enantioselective capillary gas chromatography and online methods of isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in the authentication of food flavor and essential oil compounds, referring to literature references published in the last decade.

  8. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper.

  9. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyejeong [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lacroix, Monique [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Science Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Qebec (Canada); Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10{sup 6} CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients. - Highlights: > Several food ingredients increased the efficiency of irradiation sterilization. > Different forms of food ingredients may affect the efficiency. > The increase of efficiency decreased the required irradiation dose, thereby avoiding sensory impairments of food.

  10. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of liquid synthetic food flavorings evaluated alone and in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleuvânia Santana Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food flavorings (Strawberry, Condensed Milk and Chocolate on Allium cepa meristematic root cells, with exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential were evaluated separately at doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml and in combination, in which for each dose, the same dose of one other flavoring was combined. The results were analyzed by the Chi-square test (p <0.05. The Strawberry flavor in both exposure times and the three studied doses, the Condensed Milk at 0.6 ml in the 48 hour exposure time, the Chocolate flavor at 0.4 ml, exposure time of 48 hours, and at 0.6 ml, in both exposure times and all treatments with combined doses, significantly reduced the cell division rate, proving to be cytotoxic. No treatment resulted in a significant number of cellular aberrations in A. cepa cells, therefore, the flavorings, under the conditions studied, were non- mutagenic.

  11. Placing on the market of novel foods or novel ingredients in Europe “novel food procedure”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Carole

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available « Novel Foods » concerned foods and food ingredients that have not been used for human consumption to a significant degree within the Community before 15 May 1997. Regulation (EC No 258/97 of 27 January 1997 lays out detailed rules for the authorisation of novel foods and novel food ingredients. In order to ensure the highest level of protection of human health, novel foods must undergo a safety assessment before being placed on the EU market. The application must be in accordance with Commission Recommendation 97/618/EC concerning the scientific information and the safety assessment. A proposal of the revision of this regulation of has been adopted in order to reflect the fact that genetically modified (GM food no longer falls under its scope, to create a more favourable legislative environment for innovation in the food industry, and to better facilitate foodstuffs trade between Europe and the rest of the world. The consumer would also benefit from a wider choice of safe novel foods.

  12. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  13. Flavonoid-mediated inhibition of intestinal ABC transporters may affect the oral bioavailability of drugs, food-borne toxic compounds and bioactive ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, W.; Schutte, M.E.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The transcellular transport of ingested food ingredients across the intestinal epithelial barrier is an important factor determining bioavailability upon oral intake. This transcellular transport of many chemicals, food ingredients, drugs or toxic compounds over the intestinal epithelium can be high

  14. Flavonoid-mediated inhibition of intestinal ABC transporters may affect the oral bioavailability of drugs, food-borne toxic compounds and bioactive ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, W.; Schutte, M.E.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The transcellular transport of ingested food ingredients across the intestinal epithelial barrier is an important factor determining bioavailability upon oral intake. This transcellular transport of many chemicals, food ingredients, drugs or toxic compounds over the intestinal epithelium can be high

  15. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  16. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  17. Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  18. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  19. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  20. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  1. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  3. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  4. Validation of quantitative and qualitative methods for detecting allergenic ingredients in processed foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-06-19

    A labeling system for food allergenic ingredients was established in Japan in April 2002. To monitor the labeling, the Japanese government announced official methods for detecting allergens in processed foods in November 2002. The official methods consist of quantitative screening tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and qualitative confirmation tests using Western blotting or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In addition, the Japanese government designated 10 μg protein/g food (the corresponding allergenic ingredient soluble protein weight/food weight), determined by ELISA, as the labeling threshold. To standardize the official methods, the criteria for the validation protocol were described in the official guidelines. This paper, which was presented at the Advances in Food Allergen Detection Symposium, ACS National Meeting and Expo, San Diego, CA, Spring 2012, describes the validation protocol outlined in the official Japanese guidelines, the results of interlaboratory studies for the quantitative detection method (ELISA for crustacean proteins) and the qualitative detection method (PCR for shrimp and crab DNAs), and the reliability of the detection methods.

  5. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

  6. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  7. Effect of fat nature and aroma compound hydrophobicity on flavor release from complex food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relkin, Perla; Fabre, Marjorie; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-10-06

    Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source.

  8. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario.

  9. [The feature and distribution of functional ingredients among health food in China during 1996 to 2007--nutrients and representing substance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuexin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xianren; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Hongjing

    2010-03-01

    To investigate systematically the application of functional ingredients among healthy food products during 1996 to 2007, which existed from the 10 years periods by government approved, to assess the character or condition of ingredients, and analyze the reasons of it's centralization and contribution. Data of functional/bioactive ingredients in functional/healthy food approved by government during 1996 to 2007 were recorded, and selected qualified products to built nutritional and functional ingredients database. Then, The profile map and contribution of each classified of the data was analyzed by statistics method and computer software. Total 9021 products were approved by gov. during 1996 to 2007, according the condition of samples, qualified 8645 products was as studied samples. The research had showed that Chinese herbs was the main port in ingredients, total 223-378 herbs were used. Nutritional and functional ingredients were second main ingredients, it was high numbers (280 more) among 8645 products. Flavonoids, Saponins and Polysaccharide are applied most widely, which is often to apply as the representing or symbolic substance when the product used a herb material as ingredient. Functional ingredients have a variegated appearance along with existent 27 function claims within regulation system. A representing substance was used as a feature that was a universality labeled to declare the characteristics or qualities of herb products. This should be individually reviewed in further and increase the technique on herb and claim.

  10. The search for compounds that stimulate thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharmaceuticals to functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G

    2011-10-01

    The concept of managing obesity through the stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. This paper first reviews the landmark discoveries that have fuelled the search for thermogenic anti-obesity products that range from single-target drugs to multi-target functional foods. It subsequently analyses the thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials of a wide array of bioactive food ingredients which are categorized under methylxanthines, polyphenols, capsaicinoids/capsinoids, minerals, proteins/amino acids, carbohydrates/sugars and fats/fatty acids. The main outcome of this analysis is that the compounds or combination of compounds with thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials are those that possess both sympathomimetic stimulatory activity and acetyl-coA carboxylase inhibitory property, and are capable of targeting both skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. The thermogenic potentials of products so far tested in humans range from marginal to modest, i.e. 2-5% above daily energy expenditure. With an increasing number of bioactive food ingredients awaiting screening in humans, there is hope that this thermogenic potential could be safely increased to 10-15% above daily energy expenditure - which would have clinically significant impact on weight management, particularly in the prevention of obesity and in improving the long-term prognosis of post-slimming weight maintenance. © 2011 The Author. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  12. Commercial processed food may have endocrine-disrupting potential: soy-based ingredients making the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Kabiersch, Grit; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Processed and packaged food items as well as ready-to-eat snacks are neglected and poorly characterised sources of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study we investigated the presence of xenoestrogens in commercially processed and packaged Finnish foods, arising from substances deliberately added or inadvertently contaminating the food, substances formed as a result of food processing, or substances leaching from food packaging materials. Samples were obtained in three separate batches of equivalent products from both a supermarket and a local representative of a global chain of hamburger restaurants and extracted by a solid-phase extraction method. Their endocrine-disrupting potential was determined by yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. In this test system, the majority of samples (both foodstuffs and wrappers) analysed proved negative. However, all batches of industrially prepared hamburgers (but not those obtained from a hamburger restaurant) as well as pepper salami significantly induced luciferase activity in the BMAEREluc/ERα yeast strain indicating the presence of xenoestrogens, with estradiol equivalents of these products ranging from 0.2 to 443 pg g(-1). All three products contained soy-based ingredients, which apparently accounted for, or at least contributed to, their high estrogenic activity, since no signal in the assay was observed with extracts of the packaging material, while two different soy sauces tested yielded an intense signal (28 and 54 pg ml(-1) estradiol-equivalent). These findings imply that by and large chemicals arising in the processing or packaging of foodstuffs in Finland constitute an insignificant source of xenoestrogens to consumers. However, soy-derived ingredients in certain food items might render the entire products highly estrogenic. The estrogenic activity of soy is attributed to isoflavones whose

  13. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1 to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion, meat inclusion (0 or 20%, and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2 to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15, and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15, whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  14. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lacroix, Monique; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10 6 CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients.

  15. Hypersensitivity to certain food and food ingredients in the function of age and employment of customers on a cruise ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been a tendency to use the word 'allergy' to describe all kinds of unexpected reactions to certain foods and food ingredients. The recent literature is plentiful and discusses food allergens and people who are hypersensitive to certain foods. The literature suggests the prevalence of food allergy to specific allergens to be changing with age. The aim of this empirical research was to examine the hypersensitivity to certain foods in relation to age and employment of the population consisting of customers on cruise ships. The study included 404 tourists on a cruise ship who voluntarily filled food sensitivity questionnaires and submitted them to the ship staff. These questionnaires were used to analyze the allergy trends and their connection to age and employment. The procedures of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to process the obtained data. The results of the research suggested that there was a statistically significant relationship between the persons who were hypersensitive to certain foods relative to employment and age.

  16. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-05-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population.

  17. The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Feitosa Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%, beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%, sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10% and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2% evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%, the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.

  18. The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.

  19. A Real-Time PCR Method Targeting Camel Ingredient for Food Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Yang, Yange; Wang, Bin; Liu, Mingchang; Han, Jianxun; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The special nutritious value of camel showed high potential for market exploitation. In this paper, a real-time PCR method targeting camel ingredient in camel meat and milk is reported as an approach to fight against adulteration. To understand the impact of processing procedures on the amplifiability of cytb gene, four kinds of processed camel meat were investigated, and the rate of DNA breakage was explored. The method was able to detect 5 fg/μL camel DNA and highly processed food containing 0.01% camel meat with a high confidence level.

  20. The prospects of Jerusalem artichoke in functional food ingredients and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linxi; He, Quan Sophia; Corscadden, Kenneth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2015-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke, a native plant to North America has recently been recognized as a promising biomass for bioeconomy development, with a number of advantages over conventional crops such as low input cultivation, high crop yield, wide adaptation to climatic and soil conditions and strong resistance to pests and plant diseases. A variety of bioproducts can be derived from Jerusalem artichoke, including inulin, fructose, natural fungicides, antioxidant and bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke, derivation of bioproducts and applicable production technologies, with an expectation to draw more attention on this valuable crop for its applications as biofuel, functional food and bioactive ingredient sources.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... of the proposed conditions of use. The available information does not give concerns as regards other undesirable substances in the NFI. Available animal studies provide only limited information on the safety of the NFI. Human studies that investigated different plant oils or fatty acid ethyl esters as sources...

  2. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China.

  3. Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements with botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    OpenAIRE

    Martena, Martijn J.; Grutters, Michiel; De Groot, Henk; Konings, Erik; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified 8 priority PAH (PAH8) or 4 of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aims to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. I...

  4. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  5. Statement on the safety of 'Cetyl Myristoleate Complex' as an ingredient in food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ (CMC as a novel food ingredient in the light of a new repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study in mice. In its previous opinion of 2010, the Panel concluded that based on the available data, the safety of CMC as an ingredient in food supplements has not been established. This conclusion was based on the considerations that in the absence of appropriate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, the provided toxicological data were insufficient. Whereas the applicant considers that the NOAEL of CMC in this new 90-day study was 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw, the highest dose tested, the Panel considers that this study and study report has many shortcomings to be a reliable source of information supporting the absence of adverse effects of the parent material CMC. The Panel concludes that the safety of 'Cetyl Myristoleate Complex' has not been established.

  6. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  7. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified b

  8. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient...

  9. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Refeeding after acute food restriction: differential reduction in preference for ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors in selectively bred rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D; Cousins, Laura A; Monroe, Derek C; Nguyen, Phuong

    2013-01-17

    Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol than do low-saccharin consuming counterparts (LoS). Three new experiments examined the effect of refeeding after an episode of food restriction on ethanol intake and on preference for ethanol-paired flavors in HiS and LoS rats. A 48-h episode of food restriction with wheel running reduced intake of and preference for 4% ethanol (Exp. 1a) and preference for an ethanol-paired flavor (Exp. 1b) during refeeding. Food restriction alone was sufficient to reduce the flavor preference (Exp. 2). Adding fat to the refeeding diet or extending the food restriction period exacerbated the effect (Exp. 3), yielding a frank aversion to ethanol-paired flavors in LoS rats. These studies indicate that rebound from negative energy balance shifts responses to ethanol-associated cues from preference toward aversion. Analyses of bodyweight changes and caloric intake during refeeding support this conclusion and further suggest that lower metabolic efficiency may be a marker for enhanced preference mutability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of adulterants in powdered foods and ingredients using line-scan Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    A newly developed line-scan Raman imaging system using a 785 nm line laser was used to authenticate powdered foods and ingredients. The system was used to collect hyperspectral Raman images in a wavenumber range of 102-2865 cm-1 from three representative food powders mixed with selected adulterants with a concentration of 0.5%, including milk and melamine, flour and benzoyl peroxide, and starch and maleic anhydride. An acoustic mixer was used to create food adulterant mixtures. All the mixed samples were placed in sample holders with a surface area of 50 mm×50 mm. Spectral and image processing algorithms were developed based on single-band images at unique Raman peaks of the individual adulterants. Chemical images were created to show identification, spatial distribution, and morphological features of the adulterant particles mixed in the food powders. The potential of estimating mass concentrations of the adulterants using the percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images was also demonstrated.

  12. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Dolan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control, 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermittent decreases in food efficiency (150 000 ppm males only that were not biologically relevant. All animals survived and no adverse clinical signs or functional changes were attributable to the test material. There were no toxicologically relevant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters or organ weights in rats ingesting pecan shell fiber. Any macroscopic or microscopic findings were incidental, of normal variation and/or of minimal magnitude for test substance association. Pecan shell fiber was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic in a mouse peripheral blood micronucleus test. Based on these results, pecan shell fiber has an oral subchronic (13-week no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL of 150 000 ppm in rats and is not genotoxic at the doses analyzed.

  13. Fingerprinting Food Supplements and Their Botanical Ingredients by Coupled UV/Vis/FTIR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Baciu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as ingredients for a large variety of herbal supplements. Their quality and safety versus efficacy, according to present legal requirements, need to meet the minimum quality criteria to support their use. Specific biomarkers to evaluate and screen their authenticity are phenolic derivatives, phtosterols, lipids or alkaloids. We report here the data obtained  for  two herbal food supplements (A and B obtained from  different mixtures of plants: Taraxacum officinalis, Cynara scolimus Silybum marianum as ingredients for product A  and Hypericum perforatum, Chelidonium majus and Lycopodium clavatum as ingredients for product B. The combination of UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry allowed a specific fingerprint of biomarkers in individual plants and derived supplements ( A and B, by discriminating the specific areas and peaks of individual plants and  mixtures, the significant differences between the methanolic and water extracts. The data were compared using chemometry ( PCA and Cluster analysis. Using Vis spectrometry combined with FTIR  peak intensities at 1732 cm-1 and calibration with gallic acid,  the total phenolics concentrations ranged from 5.31 to 9.58 mg gallic acid eq/ml methanol, with a positive and significant correlation between the two methods (R2= 0.979. The phenolics’ concentration were 2.5 to 4 times lower in water extracts comparing with methanol extracts of  products A and B.  Finally, we assume that herbal supplements can be adequately characterized for their quality and safety by combined UV-Vis spectrometry/FTIR spectrometry, with good, fast and cheap informations about the main biomarkers of authenticity.

  14. Experimental approaches to study the nutritional value of food ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Harmon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods that have been applied to study the nutrient value or quality of specific ingredients fed to dogs, cats and comparable species (i.e. foxes, minks, rats, etc.. Typically, the nutritional value or utilization of a specific ingredient is measured by total tract digestibility and has been expanded through the measurement of total nutrient balance (i.e. nitrogen or energy. However, to better understand digestion it is necessary to obtain a more accurate measurement of nutrients entering and leaving the small intestine. Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestion is crucial in dogs and cats because nutrient digestion and absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine. Measuring small intestinal digestibility requires access to digesta leaving the small intestine and can be obtained by placing a cannula at the terminal ileum. This approach also necessitates the use of markers (e.g. chromic oxide to monitor flow of digesta. Specifically, this approach has been used for the direct measurement of intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and amino acids. It also permits a separate measurement of large intestinal digestion which is particularly useful for the study of fiber fermentation. Passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract is also an important component of utilization and these methods are reviewed.

  15. [Obesity and functional foods: are the new ingredients and products effective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alvarez; Gómez-Candela, C; Villarino-Marín, A L

    2006-01-01

    According to WHO data, obesity and overweight have reached the level of a world-wide epidemic: more than one billion adults are overweight, and at least three hundred million of them are obese. Obesity is associated with the main chronic diseases of our time. Obesity can reduce the life expectancy by 10 years and in Spain it is calculated that the health care costs account for 7% of the total. In the Spanish adult population, 14.5% are obese, and 38.5% are overweight. In the fight against obesity, the food industry has been incorporating new ingredients intended to help consumers obtain a suitable weight. In this study, we review the scientific evidence about some products and ingredients, discussing the fact that the main problem is their scant scientific support. Advertisers make much of supposed benefits which often lack a scientific basis, as in the case of products with a supposed effect on thermogenesis, metabolism and oxidation of fats, products which make people feel full, products affecting fat absorption, diuretics, laxatived, sedatives and substances affecting the central nervous system.

  16. Hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates, fragrances and flavoring agents in foods, by microsomes of rat and human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Tamura, Yuki; Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-12-01

    Salicylates are used as fragrance and flavor ingredients for foods, as UV absorbers and as medicines. Here, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, and by human liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Both salicylates were readily hydrolyzed by tissue microsomes, predominantly in small intestine, followed by liver, although phenyl salicylate was much more rapidly hydrolyzed than benzyl salicylate. The liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activities were completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activity was co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by anion exchange column chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts of liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Expression of rat liver and small-intestinal isoforms of carboxylesterase, Ces1e and Ces2c (AB010632), in COS cells resulted in significant phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activities with the same specific activities as those of liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited higher hydrolyzing activity than liver microsomes towards these salicylates. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes expressed in COS cells both readily hydrolyzed phenyl salicylate, but the activity of CES2 was higher than that of CES1. These results indicate that significant amounts of salicylic acid might be formed by microsomal hydrolysis of phenyl and benzyl salicylates in vivo. The possible pharmacological and toxicological effects of salicylic acid released from salicylates present in commercial products should be considered.

  17. Analysis of food pairing in regional cuisines of India

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Anupam; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient ...

  18. Resveratrol, from experimental data to nutritional evidence: the emergence of a new food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raederstorff, Daniel; Kunz, Iris; Schwager, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol resveratrol is found notably in grapes and in a variety of medicinal plants. Recently, resveratrol has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects and to improve metabolic health by mimicking the effects of calorie restriction. Numerous animal and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol could improve cardiovascular and metabolic health in humans. In view of this compelling preclinical evidence, several human studies investigating the effects of resveratrol on vascular and metabolic health have been initiated. Collectively, the animal, human epidemiological, and first human intervention studies support a role of resveratrol in vascular and metabolic health. This has led to the introduction of the first supplement and food products containing resveratrol and its emergence as a promising new health ingredient. Thus, supplementation with resveratrol may be included in nutritional and lifestyle programs aiming to reduce the risk of vascular and obesity-related problems. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Combining metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry for efficient production of food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    chemistry can be used for synthesizing valuable food ingredients as well as for linking metabolic pathways to achieve redox balance and rescued growth. By comprehensive rerouting of metabolism, activation of respiration, and finally metal ion catalysis, we successfully managed to convert the homolactic......Biocompatible chemistry, that is non‐enzymatic chemical reactions compatible with living organisms, is gaining increasing attention because of its potential within biotechnology for expanding the repertoire of biological transformations carried out by enzymes. Here we demonstrate how biocompatible...... in efficient homo‐S‐BDO production with a titer of 74 mM (6.7 g/L) S‐BDO and a yield of 82%. The diacetyl and S‐BDO production rates and yields obtained are the highest ever reported, demonstrating the promising combination of metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry as well as the great potential...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “citicoline” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on citicoline as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The novel food ingredient (NFI), citicoline, is chol......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on citicoline as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The novel food ingredient (NFI), citicoline...

  1. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  2. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  3. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2004-01-01

    E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from......The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties...... of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin...

  4. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed.

  5. Study Techniques for Controlling Flavor Intensity in Compressed Foods. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Flavor -amel Results - Chi.! with Beans .. x ens:-- Dehvdrat d lehj°draGd Character Note Aroma Flavor Aroma flavcr ch-ili spice complex - 2-3 beef 1-2...Flavor Panel Results - Curried Chicken Intensity Dehydrated Rehydrated Character Note Aroma Flavor Aroma Flavor "VP T- 1-2 -~- 1 curry spice 2 2+ 1-2...with Beans Dehydrated Rehydrated Character Note Prototype Test Prototype Test Aroma - Spice Complex 1-2 1-2 1-2 2 Beef 1-2 1-2 1 1-2 Tomato Sour 1-2 1

  6. Special active ingredients and beauty-food%特种活性物及营养美容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了特种活性物及营养美容的理念。消费者目前对营养美容理念的兴趣越来越浓厚,使得营养美容产品逐渐成为市场营销的热点。配方师也热衷于将营养品与美容相结合,开发出营养美容产品,并将营养美容对身体的益处都囊括在产品配方中。介绍了几种最具潜力的营养美容成分以及特种活性物成分,并对其前景进行了展望。%The idea of special active ingredients and beauty-food are introduced briefly. Nowadays, the consumers become more and more interested in the concept of beauty-food, and the beauty-food product category has gradually become the hot topic of marketing. Formulators are eager to combine the benefits of nutrition with beauty in the formulations, and develop the beauty-food products. Some diet beauty ingredients with the greatest potential are introduced, and the future of the special active ingredients and the beauty-food are prospected here.

  7. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  8. In vitro safety assessment of food ingredients in canine renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koči, J; Jeffery, B; Riviere, J E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A

    2015-03-01

    In vitro models are useful tools to initially assess the toxicological safety hazards of food ingredients. Toxicities of cinnamaldehyde (CINA), cinnamon bark oil, lemongrass oil (LGO), thymol, thyme oil (TO), clove leaf oil, eugenol, ginger root extract (GRE), citric acid, guanosine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate and sorbose (SORB) were assessed in canine renal proximal tubule cells (CPTC) using viability assay and renal injury markers. At LC50, CINA was the most toxic (0.012mg/ml), while SORB the least toxic (>100mg/ml). Toxicities (LC50) of positive controls were as follows: 4-aminophenol (0.15mg/ml in CPTC and 0.083mg/ml in human PTC), neomycin (28.6mg/ml in CPTC and 27.1mg/ml in human PTC). XYL displayed lowest cytotoxic potency (LC50=82.7mg/ml in CPTC). In vivo renal injury markers in CPTC were not significantly different from controls. The LGO toxicity mechanism was analyzed using qPCR and electron microscopy. Out of 370 genes, 57 genes (15.4%) were significantly up (34, 9.1%) or down (23, 6.2%) regulated, with the most upregulated gene gsta3 (∼200-fold) and the most affected pathway being oxidative stress. LGO induced damage of mitochondria, phospholipid accumulation and lack of a brush border. Viability assays along with mechanistic studies in the CPTC model may serve as a valuable in vitro toxicity screening tool.

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies as Probes for the Detection of Porcine Blood-Derived Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2016-05-11

    The lack of effective methods to monitor the use of porcine blood-derived food ingredients (PBFIs) is a concern for the billions of individuals who avoid consuming blood. We therefore sought to develop a panel of porcine blood-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use as probes in immunoassays for the detection of PBFIs. Ten selected mAbs were identified that react with either a 60 or 90 kDa protein in the plasma fraction or a 12 kDa protein in the red blood cell fraction of porcine blood. Western blot analysis of commercially produced PBFIs revealed that these antigenic proteins are not affected by various manufacturing processes. The utility of these mAbs was demonstrated in a prototype sandwich ELISA developed for this study using mAbs 19C5-E10 and 16F9-C11. The new assay is porcine blood-specific and capable of detecting ≤0.03% (v/v) of PBFIs in cooked (100 °C for 15 min) ground meats or fish.

  10. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from chili bo, a Malaysian food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J J; Pot, B; Christensen, H; Rusul, G; Olsen, J E; Wee, B W; Muhamad, K; Ghazali, H M

    1999-02-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28 degreesC with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg-1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682.

  11. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets.

  12. Flavor Release Perception of Custard Desserts: Influence of Food Composition and Oral Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Uriarte, A.R.; Aprea, E.; Sheehan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of oral processing on in vivo flavor release and perception was evaluated for a firm and a soft custard which varied in carboxymethyl cellulose concentrations. The group of sensory assessors could be divided in two, one group rating higher odor/flavor scores for the firmer custard and

  13. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  14. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  15. Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey C; Spink, John; Lipp, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general media, organize into a database, and review and analyze the data to identify trends. The results summarized are a database that will be published in the US Pharmacopeial Convention's Food Chemicals Codex, 8th edition, and includes 1305 records, including 1000 records with analytical methods collected from 677 references. Olive oil, milk, honey, and saffron were the most common targets for adulteration reported in scholarly journals, and potentially harmful issues identified include spices diluted with lead chromate and lead tetraoxide, substitution of Chinese star anise with toxic Japanese star anise, and melamine adulteration of high protein content foods. High-performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were the most common analytical detection procedures, and chemometrics data analysis was used in a large number of reports. Future expansion of this database will include additional publically available articles published before 1980 and in other languages, as well as data outside the public domain. The authors recommend in-depth analyses of individual incidents. This report describes the development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud issues from publicly available references. The database provides baseline information and data useful to governments, agencies, and individual companies assessing the risks of specific products produced in specific regions as well as products distributed and sold in other regions. In addition, the report describes current analytical technologies for detecting food fraud and identifies trends and developments. © 2012 US Pharmacupia Journal of Food Science

  16. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride (TG in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β in liver tissue (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  17. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    ... for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh...

  18. Use of Poultry Collagen Coating and Antioxidants as Flavor Protection for Cat Foods Made with Rendered Poultry Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Donna Mechelle

    2003-01-01

    Poultry skins and rendered poultry fat are by-products produced in excess at rendering plants. The use of low value by-products such as poultry collagen, from poultry skins, and fat to improve flavor and quality in dry pet food could be economically attractive. This study examined a poultry collagen coating as a protective barrier against oxidation in dry cat food made with rendered poultry fat. Collagen was extracted from chicken skins, dissolved in an acidic solution, applied to dry cat foo...

  19. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the flavor...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ―Methyl Vinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer‖ (chewing gum base ingredient) as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of “methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (Gantrez SF)” as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC......) No 258/97. The novel food ingredient Gantrez SF is an anhydrous copolymer formed by the reaction of methyl vinyl ether (MVE) and maleic anhydride (MAN) under appropriate conditions. The Panel considers that the information provided on the specifications, stability and production process do not raise...

  1. Analysis of ingredient lists of commercially available gluten-free and gluten-containing food products using the text mining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Amanda Bagolin; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; Dos Anjos, Adilson; Teixeira, Evanilda

    2013-03-01

    Ingredients mentioned on the labels of commercially available packaged gluten-free and similar gluten-containing food products were analyzed and compared, using the text mining technique. A total of 324 products' labels were analyzed for content (162 from gluten-free products), and ingredient diversity in gluten-free products was 28% lower. Raw materials used as ingredients of gluten-free products were limited to five varieties: rice, cassava, corn, soy, and potato. Sugar was the most frequently mentioned ingredient on both types of products' labels. Salt and sodium also were among these ingredients. Presence of hydrocolloids, enzymes or raw materials of high nutritional content such as pseudocereals, suggested by academic studies as alternatives to improve nutritional and sensorial quality of gluten-free food products, was not identified in the present study. Nutritional quality of gluten-free diets and health of celiac patients may be compromised.

  2. [Food supplements on the domestic market in Hungary: nutritional assessment of the ingredients, risks and benefits, the role of food supplements in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2010-11-28

    Food supplements are foods that are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. Since joining to the European Union, the distribution of food supplements in Hungary has not been bound to pre-market authorisation; products can be placed to the market after a formal notification at the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science. Distribution, ingredients, and all information on the label are determined by numerous regulations but at the same time, the lack of harmonized legislation at Community level may cause a lot of problems. In the second part of the review authors introduce the evaluation process of components from the point of view of nutritional and physiological effects and the possible role of food supplements in human nutrition.

  3. Thermal resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from baby food ingredients of dairy origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and whey powders are commonly used ingredients in powdered infant formula (PIF) and follow-up formula (FUF). In this study, Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter dublinensis both of dairy origin and a reference strain, Cronobacter muytjensii ATCC 51329, were investigated for thermal inactivatio...

  4. Toxicity in food flavorings at the cellular level associated with each other at different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Iolanda Oliveira da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of synthetic flavorings, nature identical, Chocolate, Strawberry and Condensed Milk. This evaluation was performed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL, in combination, in which one of the three doses of a flavoring was combined with a different dose of one of the two other flavor additives studied. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and then analyzed, under light microscopy, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. All the treatments with combinations between the flavorings Chocolate/Strawberry and Strawberry/Condensed Milk reduced, in both exposure times considered, cell division of A. cepa roots, proving to be cytotoxic. In turn, the treatments with the association of Chocolate/Condensed Milk did not change significantly the mitotic index of the cells analyzed. The Strawberry flavoring was the most cytotoxic among the additives tested. None of the evaluated associations was genotoxic under the study conditions.

  5. Effect of the local microenvironment on survival and thermal inactivation of Salmonella in low- and intermediate-moisture multi-ingredient foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Fu, Xiaowen; Bima, Yige; Koontz, John; Megalis, Christina; Yang, Fei; Fleischman, Gregory; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Multi-ingredient foods having low- or intermediate-moisture characteristics may pose a special challenge to process design and validation. Ingredients of these foods can create local microenvironments that may have a distinct impact on pathogen survival and processing requirements. In this study, two model systems, each consisting of 80% commercial peanut butter (P) and 20% nonfat dry milk powder (M), were formulated to be identical in composition, but different in the source of the Salmonella contamination as originating in either the ingredient P or M. Immediately after inoculation, Salmonella showed a 2.0-log reduction when M was the contaminated ingredient compared with a 0.6-log reduction when P was the contaminated ingredient. This pattern of survival was consistent with the single-ingredient control containing only M (2.5-log reduction) or only P (0.7-log reduction), suggesting that the immediate proximity of cells is determined by the contaminated ingredient in the model system. After 5 weeks of storage, the survival rates of Salmonella in the two systems remained different, i.e.a 4- and 2-log reduction resulted in the system with M or P as the contaminated ingredient, respectively. Furthermore, thermal inactivation efficacies also differed significantly between the two systems. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the nonhomogeneous distribution of water, lipid, and protein, indicating that varied local microenvironments were present and likely affected the behavior of the pathogen. The impact of the microenvironment on inactivation and survival of Salmonella was further confirmed in a butter cookie formulation in which Salmonella was inoculated via four different ingredients. This study shows that the local microenvironment in low- and intermediate-moisture foods affects Salmonella survival and thermal inactivation. The ingredient source of the contamination should be taken into account for process design and validation to ensure the

  6. Sardine oil loaded vanillic acid grafted chitosan microparticles, a new functional food ingredient: attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyoblast cell lines (H9c2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, K V; Ajeesh Kumar, K K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Lekshmi, R G K; Sreerekha, P R; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-08-02

    Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil. The sardine oil loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles could be a potential functional food ingredient considering the numerous health benefits of fish oil, chitosan, and vanillic acid. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation was conducted using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. MTT assay revealed that effective cytoprotective effect was induced by a sample concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. Results of apoptosis by double fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide and caspase-3 evaluation by ELISA substantiated the above findings. Further, flow cytometric determination of membrane potential, relative expression of NF-κB by PCR, and ROS determination using DCFH-DA also confirmed the protective effect of encapsulated sardine oil against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. NF-κB expression was down-regulated nearly by 50% on cells treated with encapsulated sardine oil. Altogether, the results revealed that sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles demonstrated potential cell protection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Study Techniques for Controlling Flavor Intensity in Compressed Foods (Phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-10

    3 * strong t « increasing intensity level + a decreasing intensity level, a dissipating aroma , etc. a,b,c = sequence of individual aroma /flavor...and 3% (15% of the curry spice component) Specialty fat (Tern Wip). c. Beef with Onion Gravy The onion gravy for this item was prepared by our

  8. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Artificial flavor includes..., Coriander, Cumin seed, Dill seed, Fennel seed, Fenugreek, Ginger, Horseradish, Mace, Marjoram, Mustard flour... yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy...

  9. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...... with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception....

  10. Effects of estradiol on food intake and meal patterns for diets that differ in flavor and fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Peter C; Wojcik, Danielle M; Clough, Shannon J

    2010-01-12

    Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats presented with diets that differ in flavor and fat content. Female rats were given a cyclic regimen of estradiol benzoate treatment (5.0 or 20.0 microg) or the oil vehicle and were presented with the standard chow diet or a diet with a higher fat content and chocolate flavor. Food intake, meal size, and meal number were monitored three days after the first injection of estradiol or oil. Compared to the chow diet, food intake increased when animals had access to the chocolate/fat diet during the vehicle treatment condition. Both doses of estradiol significantly decreased food intake, meal size, and body weight gain when animals were presented with either the standard chow diet or the chocolate/fat diet. These findings indicate that estradiol does not stimulate the intake of a palatable diet in ovariectomized rats, and suggest that previous results showing that estradiol enhanced eating and weight gain stemmed from a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis when intact females received a large dose of exogenous estradiol.

  11. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 2. ESR analysis of mechanically recovered poultry meat and TL analysis of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocols EN 1786 and EN 1788 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) were not conceived for the detection of irradiated ingredients included in low concentration in nonirradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at

  12. Consumer wants and use of ingredient and nutrition information for alcoholic drinks: A cross-cultural study in six EU countries Food Quality and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...

  13. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 2. ESR analysis of mechanically recovered poultry meat and TL analysis of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocols EN 1786 and EN 1788 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) were not conceived for the detection of irradiated ingredients included in low concentration in nonirradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at

  14. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on processing quality and functional food ingredients in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Moustapha; Ahn, Taehyun; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    Even though several types of phosphorus fertilizers are used in crop production, the influence of phosphorus on produce quality is not well understood. Several quality attributes of tomato juice were analyzed in relation to phosphorus supplementation during a three-year field study (2000-2002). In addition to the recommended phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus supplementations, either through soil (low and high) or through foliar spray (hydrophos, seniphos), were tested. In general, soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation did not provide a statistically significant increase in yield. Tomato juice was evaluated for various quality characteristics including pH, titratable acidity, precipitate weight ratio, total solids, serum viscosity, Brookfield viscosity, color, lycopene levels, vitamin C, and flavor volatiles. Changes observed in several quality parameters were marginal, statistically insignificant and influenced by the season. Therefore, it appears that phosphorus supplementation may not significantly affect the processing quality parameters in tomato fruits.

  15. Catch The Fashion of Ingredients%国际食品市场的流行趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterLehamann

    2003-01-01

    The most important thing in flavor is to keep and improve the fragrant quality in the final products. Another is to bring a special character through ingredients. This may be a new scent, a new material, a new color, and a new package, even a new marketing mode. Cool feelings, chocolate chips, nut lets can always improve characters. Whatever, taste is the direct drive to foods. So, catching the fashion of ingredients is really important to manufacturers. Mr. Peter Lehman from Owada international flavors and fragrances (Guangzhou) limited will introduce the different fashion in soft drink, biscuits, cookies and ice creams.

  16. FDA'S food ingredient approval process: Safety assurance based on scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulis, Alan M; Levitt, Joseph A

    2009-02-01

    Fifty years ago, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began implementing new provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act aimed at assuring the safety of new food additives before they enter the marketplace. Today, the agency's procedures for premarket evaluation of food additive safety have evolved into a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system whose objective and independent evaluations by FDA scientists assure that new food additives are safe for their intended uses before they arrive on the consumer's plate. Although controversy often surrounds food additives in the popular media and culture, and science-based challenges to FDA's decisions do arise, the agency's original safety judgments successfully withstand these challenges time and again. This article reviews the basic components of the FDA's decision-making process for evaluating the safety of new food additives, and identifies characteristics of this process that are central to assuring that FDA's decisions are marked by scientific rigor and high integrity, and can continue to be relied on by consumers.

  17. Soybean and Processed Soy Foods Ingredients, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Soybeans contain various components with potential health benefits effects, but the impact of soy foods and processed soy foods on human health has gone progressively characterized. Soy foods are the traditional Asian diets; however because of their intended health benefits they have gone popular in Westerners, especially postmenopausal women. There are lots of biologically active soybean constituents that might lead to the possible health benefits of soy, and almost consideration has concentrated on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal activities. The various other constituents of soybeans (saponins, soy protein or peptides, lecithin, and flavonoids) have differing biological activities. These include hormonal, immunological, bacteriological and digestive effects. This review is the broad assessment of the literature comprehensive the health effects of soy constituents that are of superlative interest. The health benefits of soy foods on four diseases-cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and diabetes-are the focus of the review.

  18. Evaluation of Fructooligosaccharides and Inulins as Potentially Health Benefiting Food Ingredients by HPAEC-PED and MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Borromei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complementarity of high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS to evaluate commercial available fructans (fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulins, having different degrees of polymerization (DP which are usually employed by food industry as functional ingredients either for their prebiotic properties or as a fat replacer, giving a fat-like mouth feel and texture. The developed HPAEC-PED methods are able to analyze FOS (fructans with DP 3–10 and inulins (DP ranging from 3 to 80 with a good resolution and relatively short retention times to evaluate structural differences between fructooligosaccharide and inulins and the possible presence of inulooligosaccharides as well as of branching. To characterize FOS and inulin at different degrees of polymerization and to assure correct molecular assignment, MALDI-TOF MS analysis was also investigated. The 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,5-DHB was found to be the best matrix for FOS analysis as Actilight and Raftilose P95 products, while 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ seems to be the best matrix for inulin with higher DP. The applicability of the optimized methods to the identification and determination of FOS contained in a symbiotic milk as well as a type of inulin added as functional ingredient to a cooked ham is demonstrated.

  19. Study of the physicochemical composition of pumpkin seeds flour as a food ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flour from the presscake in the production of Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca seed virgin oil has features that make it interesting for use in baked goods and pasta production because of its characteristic green color, intense flavor and nutritional benefits. To determine the nutritional composition of this new product, elaborations of flour were made with seeds from Uruguay and Europe. They were analyzed for moisture, fat content, protein, ash, fiber, sodium, vitamin B1, vitamin E, fatty acid profile, sterols, amino acids and total carbohydrates. Physicochemical and microbiological stability have been studied for 12 months at ambient conditions with the flour packaged with a polyethylene, polyester and aluminum tri-laminate. The flour is characterized as a vegetable protein product (48,3 % and as an important source of fiber (11 %. It has 21,7 % of lipids of which 38 % are MUFA and 53,4 % are PUFA, highlighting the oleic and linoleic acid contents what makes it desirable from nutritional and culinary standpoints. It features 3,7 mg of vitamin E per 100 g and 2967 mg / kg of sterols. In flour from the presscake in the production of pumpkin seed virgin oil acidity and moisture remains stable, while the fungi and yeasts number decrease during 12 months in ambient conditions used in this study, with trilaminate polyethylene aluminized polyester.

  20. Study on safety risk of salty food flavor%咸味食用香精安全风险论述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国栋

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon and essence of food safety was illustrated, and we should understand food additive correctly and tried to reach consensus. The safety risk of salty food flavor was discussed. It could lead food processing industry to recognize and make use of salty food flavor and other additives correctly.%主要阐述食品安全问题现象和本质,正确认识食品添加剂,形成共识;论述了咸味食品用香精安全风险,引导食品加工业正确认识和使用咸味食品食用香精及其他食品添加剂。

  1. Use of fiber interface direct mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile flavor release from model food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springett, M B; Rozier, V; Bakker, J

    1999-03-01

    Described in this paper is a fiber interface direct headspace mass spectrometric system for the real-time measurement of flavor release. The system was optimized for the detection of the garlic aroma volatile, diallyl disulfide, from water. Parameters investigated included interface temperature, flow rate through the fiber, flow rate through the sample vessel, and sample stir rate. The delay time for detection of sample after introduction into the sample vessel was determined as 43 s. The system proved to be reliable and robust with no loss in sensitivity or contamination of the mass spectrometer over a 6 month period. The technique was applied to a homologous series of aliphatic alcohols from C(2) to C(7). Results showed that as polarity decreased with increasing chain length the release of volatile into the headspace was faster and gave a higher maximum intensity. Release of the garlic aroma volatile from different commercial mayonnaise products clearly showed a decrease in the release of diallyl disulfide as fat content increased. These results demonstrate the potential of using this technique as a tool for understanding the complex interactions that occur between flavor compounds and the bulk food matrix.

  2. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found...... with a higher dose. These results are interesting in regard to optimizing the value of animal by-products by converting such tissues into bioactive hydrolysates for potential use as natural ingredients in functional foods....

  3. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A. Mennella; Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences.

  4. A lacticin 3147 enriched food ingredient reduces Streptococcus mutans isolated from the human oral cavity in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, E B; O'Riordan, B; Morgan, S M; Whelton, H; O'Mullane, D M; Ross, R P; Hill, C

    2006-06-01

    To isolate and characterise Streptococcus mutans from Irish saliva samples and to assess their sensitivity to a food-grade preparation of the lantibiotic, lacticin 3147, produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC3147. Saliva samples collected from children with varying oral health status were screened on Mitis Salivarius agar for the presence of pathogenic streptococci. Following selective plating, 16S rDNA sequencing and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), 15 distinct strains of Strep. mutans were identified. These were grouped according to their relative sensitivity to lacticin 3147 which ranged from 0.78 to 6.25%; relative to a sensitive indicator strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis HP. Inhibition of indicator Strep. mutans strains from sensitive, intermediate and tolerant groupings were assessed in microtitre plate assays with increasing concentrations of lacticin 3147. The concentration of lacticin 3147 required to give 50% growth inhibition correlated with their relative sensitivities (as assayed by well diffusion methodology) and ranged from 1280 to 5120 AU ml(-1). Concentrated preparations of lacticin 3147 caused a rapid killing of Strep. mutans strains in broth. Moreover, in human saliva deliberately spiked with Strep. mutans, the pathogen was eliminated (initial inoculum of 10(5)) in the presence of 40,000 AU ml(-1) of lacticin 3147. Furthermore, a food-grade lacticin 3147 spray dried powder ingredient was assessed for the inhibition of Strep. mutans in human saliva, spiked with a strain of intermediate sensitivity, resulting in up to a 4-log reduction in counts after 20 min. A food grade preparation of lacticin 3147 was effective in the inhibition of oral Strep. mutans. The inhibition of oral streptococci by food grade preparations of lacticin 3147 may offer novel opportunities for the development of lacticin 3147 as an anti-cariogenic agent particularly in the area of functional foods for the improvement of oral health.

  5. Assessment of the efficacy of functional food ingredients-introducing the concept "kinetics of biomarkers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Hans; Coolen, Stefan; Duchateau, Guus; Hamer, Mark; Kyle, Janet; Rechner, Andreas

    2004-07-13

    Functional foods are "foods and beverages with claimed health benefits based on scientific evidence". Health claims need to be substantiated scientifically. The future of functional foods will heavily rely on proven efficacy in well-controlled intervention studies with human volunteers. In order to have the maximum output of human trials, improvements are needed with respect to study design and optimization of study protocols. Efficacy at realistic intake levels needs to be established in studies with humans via the use of suitable biomarkers, unless the endpoint can be measured directly. The human body is able to deal with chemical entities irrespective of their origin, and the pharmaceutical terms "absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion" have their equivalent when biomarkers are concerned. Whereas only "diurnal variation" or "circadian rhythm" is sometimes considered, little attention is paid to "kinetics of biomarkers". "Kinetics of biomarkers" comprises "formation, distribution, metabolism and excretion". However, this is at present neither an established science nor common practice in nutrition research on functional foods. As a consequence, sampling times and matrices, for example, are chosen on the basis of historical practice and convenience (for volunteers and scientists) but not on the basis of in depth insight. The concept of kinetics of biomarkers is illustrated by a variety of readily comprehensible examples, such as malaria, cholesterol, polyphenols, glutathione-S-transferase alpha, F2-isoprostanes, interleukin-6, and plasma triacylglycerides.

  6. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  7. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  8. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties, flavor characteristics, functional properties, shelf life) of the food shall be similar to those... achieve the technical effect of that ingredient in the food. (5) Water and fat analogs may be added to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for foods named by use of a...

  9. Influence of type of microorganism, food ingredients and food properties on high-pressure carbon dioxide inactivation of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Geeraerd, A H; Elst, K; Van Ginneken, L; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-02-28

    High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment is currently considered as an attractive non-thermal process for preserving food. Industrial application of this technique requires, among others, systematic (quantitative) data on the inactivation of food relevant pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and in-depth information on the effect that the composition and the properties of a food matrix have on the inactivation efficacy. The first objective of this study, therefore, is to evaluate and compare the HPCD susceptibility of several food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms under the same treatment conditions. In the second part, the influence of different food components (NaCl, oil, starch, whey protein and emulsifier) and food properties (pH, fluid viscosity and water activity) on the inactivation efficacy of HPCD was determined. For the first aim, a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and spores were treated with pressurized CO(2) at 10.5 MPa and 35 degrees C during 20 min. Bacterial susceptibility towards HPCD treatments followed the sequence Gram-negative approximately Gram-positive>yeasts>spores and appeared to be related to the acid resistance of the organisms. To study the effect of different food compounds on HPCD inactivation, the reduction degree of Pseudomonas fluorescens was determined in media with and without these components at 10.5 MPa and 35 degrees C after 5 or 20 min, depending on the tested component. NaCl and the emulsifiers Tween 80 and sucrose stearate enhanced bacterial reduction, while oil reduced the bactericidal efficacy of HPCD. Starch and whey proteins did not influence inactivation. Finally, the influence of pH, fluid viscosity and water activity was investigated by determining the reduction of P. fluorescens at 10.5 MPa and 35 degrees C in suspensions from which the pH, viscosity and water activity were adjusted with respectively NaOH or HCl, gelatin or polyethylene glycol, and sucrose, NaCl or glycerol

  10. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and Their Ingredients: Positioning Options for Innovations at the Borderline Between Foods and Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer acceptance is pivotal for the market success of new functional food products. Thereby, the acceptance is mainly influenced by three factors: consumer characteristics, purchasing situation and products characteristics. The study at hand analyses these influence factors using the example of j

  11. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  12. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  13. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . S tatement on the safety of ' Cetyl Myristoleate Complex ' as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of „Cetyl Myristoleate Complex‟ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of a new repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study in mice. In its p...

  15. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients : model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activ

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety of cranberry extract powder as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    products. Considering the composition, manufacturing process, intake, history of consumption of the source and human data, the Panel considers that the data provided do not give reasons for safety concerns. The Panel concludes that the cranberry extract powder is safe as a food ingredient at the proposed...

  17. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Potential Health Benefits as a Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention since the 1980s for its various biological activities. CLA consists mainly of two isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, and the mixture of these two (CLA mix or 50:50) has been approved for food as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) in the United States since 2008. Along with its original discovery as an anticancer component, CLA has been shown to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, reduce body fat while improving lean body mass, and modulate immune and/or inflammatory responses. This review summarizes the clinical trials involving CLA since 2012; additional uses of CLA for age-associated health issues are discussed; and CLA's potential health concerns, including glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and milk-fat depression, are examined. With ongoing applications to food products, CLA consumption is expected to rise and close monitoring of not only its efficacy but also its known and unknown consequences are required to ensure proper applications of CLA.

  19. Aloesin as a medical food ingredient for systemic oxidative stress of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires a long term management where oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in disease progression and intensifying secondary complications. In spite of all the research on diabetes and recent advances in diabetes treatments, the reality is that there is no cure for diabetes and its devastating complications. While currently available anti-diabetic therapies are effective in reducing blood glucose level, they are not without associated side effects when they are used for a long term applications. As a result, physicians and patients are inclining more towards to a safer therapy with less serious side effects in the form of medicinal foods and botanical alternatives that are suitable for chronic usage. Aloesin, an Aloe chromone, has previously been formulated with an aloe polysaccharide to give a composition called Loesyn, where it showed significant impact in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and plasma insulin level in humans. Radical scavenging activities of chromones and polysaccharides from Aloe have also been reported. Here we rationalize the relevance of use of Aloesin alone or in a standardized blend with Aloe polysaccharides, as a potential medical food to manage systemic oxidative stress and/or high blood glucose of diabetes. PMID:26265996

  20. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  1. Spices form the basis of food pairing in Indian cuisine

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Anupam; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Culinary practices are influenced by climate, culture, history and geography. Molecular composition of recipes in a cuisine reveals patterns in food preferences. Indian cuisine encompasses a number of diverse sub-cuisines separated by geographies, climates and cultures. Its culinary system has a long history of health-centric dietary practices focused on disease prevention and promotion of health. We study food pairing in recipes of Indian cuisine to show that, in contrast to positive food pairing reported in some Western cuisines, Indian cuisine has a strong signature of negative food pairing; more the extent of flavor sharing between any two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence. This feature is independent of recipe size and is not explained by ingredient category-based recipe constitution alone. Ingredient frequency emerged as the dominant factor specifying the characteristic flavor sharing pattern of the cuisine. Spices, individually and as a category, form the basis of ingredient composition in Indian...

  2. Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.; Siebelink, E.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Taste and smell losses occur with aging. These changes may decrease the enjoyment of food and may subsequently reduce food consumption and negatively influence the nutritional status of elderly persons, especially those who are frail. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of

  3. Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.; Siebelink, E.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Taste and smell losses occur with aging. These changes may decrease the enjoyment of food and may subsequently reduce food consumption and negatively influence the nutritional status of elderly persons, especially those who are frail. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of f

  4. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  5. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ADDITIVES AND INGREDIENTS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Drozdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we focus on the features of the collagen structure. In particular, we report the correlation between the amount of proline and hydroxyproline and the temperature of denaturation, as well as the changes of collagen structure after thermal treatment. After cooling, denaturated collagen forms dense jellies which may absorb a large amount of water. The influence of pH on the denaturalion temperature, solubility andthe strength characteristics of collagen-containing proteins are described. The review also describes the data on the influence of various food additives and chemicals (acids, alkalis, salts i.a. phosphates, hydrocolloids on the collagen protein structure and technological properties. The effect of acids, alkalis, salts on the properties of collagen dependson the nature and strength of the ions and their affinity for the collagen ions. The interactions between the collagen proteins and hydrocolloids result in the synergetic effect. Phosphates and collagen form solid structures.

  6. Aloesin as a medical food ingredient for systemic oxidativestress of diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires a long termmanagement where oxidative stress plays a pivotalrole in disease progression and intensifying secondarycomplications. In spite of all the research on diabetesand recent advances in diabetes treatments, the realityis that there is no cure for diabetes and its devastatingcomplications. While currently available anti-diabetictherapies are effective in reducing blood glucose level,they are not without associated side effects whenthey are used for a long term applications. As a result,physicians and patients are inclining more towards to asafer therapy with less serious side effects in the formof medicinal foods and botanical alternatives that aresuitable for chronic usage. Aloesin, an Aloe chromone,has previously been formulated with an aloe polysaccharideto give a composition called Loesyn, whereit showed significant impact in reducing glycosylatedhemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine andplasma insulin level in humans. Radical scavengingactivities of chromones and polysaccharides fromAloe have also been reported. Here we rationalize therelevance of use of Aloesin alone or in a standardizedblend with Aloe polysaccharides, as a potential medicalfood to manage systemic oxidative stress and/or highblood glucose of diabetes.

  7. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  8. Heavy Metal In Food Ingredients In Oil Refi nery Industrial Area, Dumai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial waste generally contains a lot of heavy metals such as Plumbum (Pb, Arsenic (As, Cadmium(Cd and Mercury (Hg, which can contaminate the surrounding environment and cause health problems. Bioaccumulation ofheavy metals from the environment can occur in foodstuffs. The study aims to determine levels of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Asand Hg in foodstuffs in the oil refi nery industry. Methods: The analytical method used Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(AAS. Samples were taken from two locations, namely: the exposed area and non exposed area. The sample consisted ofcassava, papaya leaves, fern leaves, cassava leaves, guava, papaya and catfi sh. Results: The analysis showed levels ofmetals As in all samples at exposed locations is below the maximum limit of SNI, the location is not exposed only in catfi shlevels of As (2.042 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Cd levels of both locations are not detected. Pb levels in catfi sh in exposedlocations (1,109 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Hg levels in leaves of papaya, cassava leaves, fern leaves, cassava and fruitpapaya exceed SNI. Conclusion: There has been a heavy metal contamination in foodstuffs. Recommendation: Thelocal people are advised to be careful when consuming food stuffs from oil refi nery industrial area.

  9. Study of production and pyrolysis characteristics of sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Zhu, Yalun

    2014-05-25

    Flavor plays an important role and has been widely used in foods. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the flavor. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. This work focused on the study of production of a sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complex, and investigated the combination of flavor and β-CD by thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the flavor-β-CD inclusion complex were determined. The results showed that the flavor-β-CD inclusion complexes can form large aggregates in water. During thermal degradation of blank β-CD and flavor-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. The thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 250°C, while the TG curve of flavor-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h. PMID:26904539

  11. Solvent-free lipase catalysed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVazquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short and medium chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its re-synthesis in the enterocyte and its metabolism and absorption by the enterocyte are limited in comparison with the TAG, reducing chylomicron formation. In this work these two effects were combined to synthesize short and medium chain 1,3 diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase catalysed transesterification reactions were performed between short and medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the conversion intopercentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica, other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei with 52% and 60.7% of DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8% and 20.9%, respectively and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp. (35.9% and 19.3%, respectively. By adding 1% (w/w of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7% to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  12. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional healthy Mediterranean diet: estrogenic activity of plants used as food and flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agradi, Elisabetta; Vegeto, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Andrea; Fico, Gelsomina; Regondi, Simona; Tomè, Franca

    2006-08-01

    The Italian-style Mediterranean diet has been defined as healthy by epidemiologists and nutritionists. Besides being low fat, the Mediterranean diet is rich in biologically active minor compounds. Among these, phytoestrogens seem to have an impact on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. It is important to understand how this occurs. The in vitro estrogenic activity of crude extracts from typical Mediterranean foods was tested using a yeast estrogen screen (YES), containing human estrogen receptor. Species belonging to Leguminosae, Apiaceae, Graminaceae, Iridaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cruciferae and Solanaceae showed the greatest number of positive responses. These species include some foods which are traditionally widely consumed, such as beans and other legumes, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots and some cereals. The highest activity was found in the more polar extracts (aqueous, methanol and chloroform: methanol) indicating that polar compounds are mainly responsible for the estrogenic activity. This is also supported by the traditional cooking practices. According to data from in vitro tests, the estrogenic activity is present in numerous plants which are commonly used as food in the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable foods rich in phytoestrogens, as in the Mediterranean tradition, may contribute to the maintenance of health status.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Statement on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    opinion of 2010, the Panel concluded that the safety of CMC as an ingredient in food supplements at an intake of 3.3 g per day has not been established. This conclusion was based on the considerations that in the absence of appropriate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of additional information submitted by the applicant. In its previous...... 90-day study cannot serve as a reliable source of information supporting the absence of adverse effects of CMC. The dossier of this new mandate contains three new references which were not submitted and hence not considered in the previous assessments. The Panel notes that two references do...

  15. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties.

  16. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  17. Study on Puffed Food Seasoning with Black Pepper Steak Flavor%黑椒牛排风味膨化食品调味料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌文; 荆晓艳; 纵伟

    2014-01-01

    黑椒牛排风味调味料是近年来产生的一种新型的膨化食品外撒调味料,产品风味独特,口味浓厚。研究了黑胡椒粉、牛肉精粉、食盐、I+G的添加量对膨化食品风味的影响,并利用正交实验对黑椒牛排风味膨化食品调味料的配方进行优化,确定了最佳配比为黑胡椒粉0.3%,食盐1.2%,牛肉精粉0.3%, I+G 0.15%,白砂糖粉1.0%,辣椒粉0.2%。%Black pepper steak flavor seasoning is a new puffed food seasoning with unique flavor and strong taste.Mainly study the effects of addition amount of black pepper powder,beef extract pow-der,salt and I+G on the flavor of puffed food,and optimize the formula of puffed food seasoning with black pepper steak flavor by orthogonal experiment.The results show that the best ratio is black pepper powder 0.3%,salt 1.2%,beef extract powder 0.3%,I+G 0.15%,sugar 1.0%,chili pow-der 0 .2%.

  18. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 1. Extraction and ESR analysis of bones from mechanically recovered poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-05-18

    Protocol EN 1786 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was not conceived for the detection of irradiated bone-containing ingredients included in low concentration in non-irradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at 55 degrees C, has been developed for the extraction of the bone fraction. When followed by a purification of the extracts by an aqueous solution of sodium polytungstate, this method made possible the detection of irradiated mechanically recovered poultry meat at very low inclusions (0.5%, wt/wt by ESR) in various meals (quenelles and precooked meals).

  19. Toxicological effects of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M T; Jeffery, B; Riviere, J E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A

    2016-02-01

    We developed an in vitro method to assess pet food ingredients safety. Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) were differentiated into enterocyte-like cells (ELC) to assess toxicity in cells representing similar patterns of exposure in vivo. The toxicological profile of clove leave oil, eugenol, guanosine monophosphate (GMP), GMP + inosine monophosphate, sorbose, ginger root extract, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, thyme oil, thymol and citric acid was assessed in BMSC and ELC. The LC50 for GMP + inosine monophosphate was 59.42 ± 0.90 and 56.7 ± 3.5 mg ml(-1) for BMSC and ELC; 56.84 ± 0.95 and 53.66 ± 1.36 mg ml(-1) for GMP; 0.02 ± 0.001 and 1.25 ± 0.47 mg ml(-1) for citric acid; 0.077 ± 0.002 and 0.037 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1) for cinnamaldehyde; 0.002 ± 0.0001 and 0.002 ± 0.0008 mg ml(-1) for thymol; 0.080 ± 0.003 and 0.059 ± 0.001 mg ml(-1) for thyme oil; 0.111 ± 0.002 and 0.054 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1) for cinnamon bark oil; 0.119 ± 0.0004 and 0.099 ± 0.011 mg ml(-1) for clove leave oil; 0.04 ± 0.001 and 0.028 ± 0.002 mg ml(-1) for eugenol; 2.80 ± 0.11 and 1.75 ± 0.51 mg ml(-1) for ginger root extract; > 200 and 116.78 ± 7.35 mg ml(-1) for sorbose. Lemon grass oil was evaluated at 0.003-0.9 in BMSC and .03-0.9 mg ml(-1) in ELC and its mechanistic effect was investigated. The gene toxicology studies showed regulation of 61% genes in CYP450 pathway, 37% in cholestasis and 33% in immunotoxicity pathways for BMSC. For ELC, 80% for heat shock response, 69% for beta-oxidation and 65% for mitochondrial energy metabolism. In conclusion, these studies provide a baseline against which differential toxicity of dietary feed ingredients can be assessed in vitro for direct effects on canine cells and demonstrate differential toxicity in differentiated cells that represent gastrointestinal epithelial cells

  20. The growing importance of staple foods and condiments used as ingredients in the food industry and implications for large-scale food fortification programs in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Larson, Melanie; Maurin, Clémence; Laillou, Arnaud; Capanzana, Mario; Garrett, Greg S

    2013-06-01

    Food fortification is a viable strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations. In Southeast Asia, recent growth and consolidation of the food industry provides an opportunity to explore whether certain widely consumed processed foods could contribute to micronutrient status if they are made with adequately fortified staples and condiments. To estimate the potential contribution certain processed foods can make to micronutrient intake in Southeast Asia if they are made with fortified staples and condiments; e.g., via the inclusion of iodized salt in various processed foods in the Philippines, fortified wheat flour in instant noodles in Indonesia, and fortified vegetable oil in biscuits in Vietnam. For Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, a review of consumption trends, relevant policies, and industry practices was conducted using publicly available sources,food industry market data and research reports, and oral communication. These informed the estimates of the proportion of the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) that could be delivered via select processed foods. In the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the processed food industry is not always required to use fortified staples and condiments. In the Philippines, dried salted fish with iodized salt would provide 64% to 85% of the iodine RNI for women of reproductive age and 107% to 141% of the iodine RNI for children 1 to 6 years of age. In Indonesia, a 75-g pack of instant noodles (a highly consumed product) with fortified wheat flour would provide 45% to 51% of the iron RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 10% to 11% of the iron RNI for women of reproductive age. In Vietnam, biscuits containing vegetable oil are increasingly popular. One 35-g biscuit serving with fortified vegetable oil would provide 13% to 18% of the vitamin A RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 12% to 17% of the vitamin A RNI for women of reproductive age. Ensuring that fortified staples and condiments such as flour

  1. Innovations in food technology for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2007-01-01

    Modern nutritional science is providing ever more information on the functions and mechanisms of specific food components in health promotion and/or disease prevention. In response to demands from increasingly health conscious consumers, the global trend is for food industries to translate nutritional information into consumer reality by developing food products that provide not only superior sensory appeal but also nutritional and health benefits. Today's busy life styles are also driving the development of healthy convenience foods. Recent innovations in food technologies have led to the use of many traditional technologies, such as fermentation, extraction, encapsulation, fat replacement, and enzyme technology, to produce new health food ingredients, reduce or remove undesirable food components, add specific nutrient or functional ingredients, modify food compositions, mask undesirable flavors or stabilize ingredients. Modern biotechnology has even revolutionized the way foods are created. Recent discoveries in gene science are making it possible to manipulate the components in natural foods. In combination with biofermentation, desirable natural compounds can now be produced in large amounts at a low cost and with little environmental impact. Nanotechnology is also beginning to find potential applications in the area of food and agriculture. Although the use of new technologies in the production of health foods is often a cause for concern, the possibility that innovative food technology will allow us to produce a wide variety of food with enhanced flavor and texture, while at the same time conferring multiple health benefits on the consumer, is very exciting.

  2. Real-time PCR for the Detection Papaya Ingredients in Food%食品中木瓜成分实时荧光PCR检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富威; 张舒亚; 叶军; 谌鸿超; 郭云霞; 印丽萍

    2013-01-01

      A real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was established for the detection of papaya ingredients in foods and beverages. The results showed that the primers and probe are specific , The detecting method for papaya ingredients is sensitive , fast ,and simple. And it can be applied for the detection of papaya ingredients in foods and beverages.%  研究建立了食品中木瓜成分的实时荧光PCR检测方法。采用TaqMan探针实时荧光PCR方法,对木瓜成分特异性、灵敏度进行检测和进行实际应用。实验表明探针和引物对木瓜有很强的特异性,建立的检测方法具有灵敏度高、快速、简便的特点。通过对市售样品的检测,检测方法能够用于食品中木瓜成分的鉴别。

  3. QSAR Study on the Flavor Intensity of Flavor Compositions in Foods by Electronegativity Distance Vector and Quantum Chemical Parameters%食品香味化合物香味强度的构效关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸣建; 冯长君

    2012-01-01

    基于电性距离矢量(Mk)、量化参数(Qi)及最佳变量子集回归建立了12种食品香味分子的4类克拉克值(C)的三元数学模型,这些模型均通过VIF及F检验,具有良好的稳健性.结果表明,分子内的—CH3、CH、—OH、—O—等基团及分子的Ehomo、ΔE对食品香味化合物的克拉克值具有很大影响。%Based on the revision of the electronegativity distance vector(Mk),the quantum chemical parameters(Qi),and the leaps-and-bounds regression,three-parameter mathematics models with four types crockors of twelve flavor molecules in food have been built.These models are robust after they are verified by using VIF test and F test.Results show that the functional groups,such as —CH3,CH,—OH and —O—,and Ehomo,ΔE of a molecule produce great influence on the crockors of the flavor compounds.

  4. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  5. 27 CFR 20.114 - Tobacco flavor general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco flavor general-use... Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.114 Tobacco flavor general-use formula. Tobacco flavor...— (a) Contains sufficient flavors, (b) May contain other ingredients, and (c) Is packaged, labeled, and...

  6. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anupam; N K, Rakhi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  7. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jain

    Full Text Available Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  8. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  9. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago

  10. Flavor Pairing in Medieval European Cuisine: A Study in Cooking with Dirty Data

    CERN Document Server

    Varshney, Kush R; Wang, Jun; Myers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important part of cooking with computers is using statistical methods to create new, flavorful ingredient combinations. The flavor pairing hypothesis states that culinary ingredients with common chemical flavor components combine well to produce pleasant dishes. It has been recently shown that this design principle is a basis for modern Western cuisine and is reversed for Asian cuisine. Such data-driven analysis compares the chemistry of ingredients to ingredient sets found in recipes. However, analytics-based generation of novel flavor profiles can only be as good as the underlying chemical and recipe data. Incomplete, inaccurate, and irrelevant data may degrade flavor pairing inferences. Chemical data on flavor compounds is incomplete due to the nature of the experiments that must be conducted to obtain it. Recipe data may have issues due to text parsing errors, imprecision in textual descriptions of ingredients, and the fact that the same ingredient may be known by different names in different recipes. ...

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ coriander seed oil ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on “coriander seed oil (CSO)” as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Petroselinic acid (PA) is the ......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on “coriander seed oil (CSO)” as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Petroselinic acid (PA......) is the major fatty acid in CSO. Conventional edible oil technologies are used to manufacture the NFI. The NFI is intended to be marketed as a food supplement for healthy adults, at a maximum level of 600 mg per day (i.e. 8.6 mg/kg bw per day for a 70 kg person), which would lead to significantly higher intakes...

  12. Systematic mining of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavor chemicals for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Peppard, Terry L; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Yongye, Austin B; Medina-Franco, José L

    2013-08-07

    Bioactive food compounds can be both therapeutically and nutritionally relevant. Screening strategies are widely employed to identify bioactive compounds from edible plants. Flavor additives contained in the so-called FEMA GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list of approved flavoring ingredients is an additional source of potentially bioactive compounds. This work used the principles of molecular similarity to identify compounds with potential mood-modulating properties. The ability of certain GRAS molecules to inhibit histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), proposed as an important player in mood modulation, was assayed. Two GRAS chemicals were identified as HDAC1 inhibitors in the micromolar range, results similar to what was observed for the structurally related mood prescription drug valproic acid. Additional studies on bioavailability, toxicity at higher concentrations, and off-target effects are warranted. The methodology described in this work could be employed to identify potentially bioactive flavor chemicals present in the FEMA GRAS list.

  13. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  14. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  15. The role of the concept of "history of safe use" in the safety assessment of novel foods and novel food ingredients. Opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (DFG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Karl-Heinz; Vogel, Rudi F; Knorr, Dietrich; Habermeyer, Michael; Kochte-Clemens, Barbara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2011-06-01

    The Council of the European Union has proposed a revision on the EU regulation on novel foods and novel food ingredients concerning safety assessment of traditional foods from non-EU countries and their introduction onto the EU market. The proposal stipulates that such foods may be placed on the EU market if their history of safe use in the country of origin is appropriately documented. The present statement of the SKLM gives an overview on current discussions on practical implementation of the "history of safe use" concept as well as examples of its application. The SKLM, in principle, agrees with these concepts, underscores, however, in connection with convincing evidence for a "history of safe use" the need for a range of additional information to achieve a comprehensive risk assessment. In the opinion of the SKLM such information must comprise compositional data as well as experience on adverse effects. A list of questions considered essential is presented. The following opinion was adopted on December 23rd 2010.

  16. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  17. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  18. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  19. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot.

  20. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Food-Bridging: A New Network Construction to Unveil the Principles of Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Simas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we propose, analyze, and discuss a possible new principle behind traditional cuisine: the Food-bridging hypothesis and its comparison with the food-pairing hypothesis using the same dataset and graphical models employed in the food-pairing study by Ahn et al. (2011. The Food-bridging hypothesis assumes that if two ingredients do not share a strong molecular or empirical affinity, they may become affine through a chain of pairwise affinities. That is, in a graphical model as employed by Ahn et al., a chain represents a path that joints the two ingredients, the shortest path represents the strongest pairwise chain of affinities between the two ingredients. Food-pairing and Food-bridging are different hypotheses that may describe possible mechanisms behind the recipes of traditional cuisines. Food-pairing intensifies flavor by mixing ingredients in a recipe with similar chemical compounds, and food-bridging smoothes contrast between ingredients. Both food-pairing and food-bridging are observed in traditional cuisines, as shown in this work. We observed four classes of cuisines according to food-pairing and food-bridging: (1 East Asian cuisines, at one extreme, tend to avoid food-pairing as well as food-bridging; and (4 Latin American cuisines, at the other extreme, follow both principles. For the two middle classes: (2 Southeastern Asian cuisines, avoid food-pairing and follow food-bridging; and (3 Western cuisines, follow food-pairing and avoid food-bridging.

  2. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  3. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  4. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  5. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PA

  6. 游离脂肪酸在几种常见食品风味形成中的作用%The role of free fatty acid in the flavor of several common foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文辉; 赵燕; 李建科; 涂勇刚; 马晓娟

    2012-01-01

    Free fatty acid plays an extremely important role in the flavor of many kinds of foods. On one hand,it plays role as flavor compounds on the other hand,free fatty acid act as flavor precursors,it makes great contribution to forming the unique flavor of food. However,the role of free fatty acid is different for various foods. The change of free fatty acid during the process of several common foods such as bacon,sausage, ham,cheese,tea and beer was discussed,the role of these changes in the flavour formation of these foods was summarized.%游离脂肪酸在许多食品的风味形成中起着十分重要的作用,一方面是直接作为风味化合物起作用;另一方面游离脂肪酸作为风味前体物,对食品特有风味的形成做出贡献。但是,在不同的食品风味形成的过程中,游离脂肪酸的作用是不同的。文章综合论述了它在腊肉、香肠、火腿、奶酪、茶叶及啤酒等常见食品的风味形成过程中的作用。

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacillus thermoamylovorans Strains Isolated from Milk and Acacia Gum, a Food Ingredient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Antonina O; Berendsen, Erwin M; Eijlander, Robyn T; de Jong, Anne; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus thermoamylovorans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can contaminate food products, leading to their spoilage. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. thermoamylovorans strains, isolated from milk and acacia gum.

  8. Protein Quality, Growth, and Malnutrition: Advances in Science and the Role of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett-Morrow, Dacia; LaGrange, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This article is the introduction to our formal proceedings of the symposium titled "Protein Quality, Growth and Malnutrition: Latest Scientific Findings and the Role of Dairy in Food Aid," held during the Experimental Biology 2015 annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.

  9. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO, chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS or duodenum secretions (DS at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm as compared to the larger (2.5 mm ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides used in the development of functional foods.

  10. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions (DS) at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm) as compared to the larger (2.5 mm) ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides) used in the development of functional foods.

  11. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Kralik; Zlata Kralik; Manuela Grčević; Zoran Škrtić

    2012-01-01

    Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as f...

  12. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., leaf or any other edible portions of a plant, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose primary function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional. Natural flavors include the natural essence or extractives obtained from plants listed in 21 CFR 182.10,...

  13. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  14. Tracer aroma compound transfer from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix packed in treated papers or plastic packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury-Brun, Cécile; Lequin, Sonia; Chalier, Pascale; Desobry, Stéphane; Voilley, Andrée

    2007-02-21

    The objective of this work was to study the transfer of four aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexenol, and benzaldehyde) from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix (sponge cake) toward and through packaging films placed in indirect contact during storage in accelerated aging conditions (38 degrees C and 86% relative humidity gradient). The efficiency of treated papers relative to that of standard paper and plastic as barrier was tested. Before storage, aroma compound volatility in the sponge cake was measured, and similar values were found between aroma compounds, due to the fat content of the sponge cake. Whatever the aroma compound, permeability values during storage were similar for the same packaging film. The plastic film was the highest barrier, whereas calendering and coating treatments applied to treated papers decreased effectively their permeability. An opposite trend was observed for aroma compound sorption into packaging films during storage.

  15. 78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to remove sodium benzoate, sodium... poultry products. New uses of these substances in meat or poultry products will continue to be approved by...

  16. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  17. 食品中的呈味肽及其呈味机理研究进展%Research Progress in Flavor Peptides in Foods and Corresponding Taste Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅秀; 王锡昌; 刘源

    2012-01-01

    呈昧肽因其不同链长度和结构序列具有不同的滋味特征,包括甜味、苦味、酸味、咸味和鲜味。目前国内对于呈味肽的研究主要集中在其种类和数量的发掘阶段,关于呈昧肽与味觉感受器相互作用而呈味的机理还不是十分清晰;而国外对于呈味肽的降血压、降血糖等生物活性功能以及5类呈味肽的相应呈味机理研究有相关新报道。本文阐述了食品中的呈味肽以及其在食品中的作用,并综述了其呈味机理的研究新进展,以期为食品风味研究及调味品的开发提供参考依据。%Flavor peptides with various structures and lengths can reveal unique taste properties including sweet, bitter, umami, sour and salty properties. It has been proposed that the structures and amino acid sequences of flavor peptides can also affect their taste properties. Flavor peptides not only serve as unique precursors of aromas but also affect food taste. Current studies mainly focus on the types and amounts of flavor peptides; however, the mechanisms of their interactions with taste receptors remain unclear. In foreign countries, several investigations have reported that flavor peptides have impact on blood pressure and other physiological functions. Moreover, the mechanisms of interaction between flavor peptides and taste receptors have been reported rarely. In this article, the effects of flavor peptides on food flavor and corresponding taste mechanisms are reviewed, which will provide a theoretical basis for further research and development of flavor foods and seasonings.

  18. Probing flavor structure in unified theory with scalar spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Yoshioka, K; Inoue, Kenzo; Kojima, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. A key ingredient is the generation dependence of scalar mass non-degeneracy. The observed non-degeneracy in low-energy regime is shown to provide a direct imprint of flavor structure in high-energy fundamental theory. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  19. CORN FLAVOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  20. Sensory and rheological properties of transgenically and chemically modified starch ingredients as evaluated in a food product model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmt, T.; Wischmann, Bente; Blennow, A.

    2004-01-01

    Starches derived from five genetically modified potato lines, two chemically modified potato starches and two native starches from potato and maize were subjected to physical and chemical analyses and their functionality evaluated in a milk-based food product model. The transgenic starches were...... gels with a higher tendency to retrograde and a low freeze/thaw stability as compared to starches with shorter amylopectin chains and lower phosphorous content. The textural properties of the food product model prepared from genetically and chemically modified starches were characterised by sensory...... and rheological analyses. To clearly visualise the effects of the modifications, data was evaluated by radar plots and multiple regression analysis (chemometrics). Genetically modified potato starches with longer amylopectin chains and increased phosphorous content gave a more gelled and a shorter texture...

  1. 食品高压处理后组分变化及关键技术分析%Changes of Food Ingredients by Treatment of High Pressure and Analyses of the Key Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小红

    2011-01-01

    食品加工过程中组分会发生变化,而高压处理是近年来食品科学与工程技术领域的研究热点之一.本文介绍了食品高压处理后蛋白质、脂类、糖类等组分变化,并对其关键技术需求与前景进行了分析.%Food ingredients can change during food processing. The treatment of high pressure is one of the focuses in the food science and technology fields. Therefore, the change of food ingredients including protein, lipid and sugar by treatment of high pressure was briefly summarized in the paper. Here, the key technologies and prospect were also analyzed.

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ r apeseed protein isolate ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of a “rapeseed protein isolate” (Isolexx™) as a novel food ingredient (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NF...

  3. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed.

  4. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  5. The nutritional role of free sialic acid, a human milk monosaccharide, and its application as a functional food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Christoph H; Choi, Sharon S H; Baldwin, Nigel

    2017-03-24

    N-Acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NANA), more commonly known by its trivial name sialic acid, is an endogenous human and ubiquitous nutritional monosaccharide. As a bound sugar at the terminal positions of glycans NANA is known to play important roles in many biological events. The data that exist on the occurrence of the free monosaccharide in breast milk and nutrition, however, are less commonly discussed. In most foods of animal origin, sialic acid occurs as a mixture of NANA and N-glycolyl-d-neuraminic acid (NGNA), a hydroxylated derivative of NANA that is not found in humans. The dietary intake of NGNA has been identified as a risk factor for long-term adverse health effects. Therefore, we present summaries on the biochemistry, metabolism, bioavailability, and the data on NANA and NGNA levels that occur in diverse foods. Finally, we discuss the emerging data demonstrating that free NANA is linked to positive nutritional effects including pronounced antioxidative properties. These data and the extremely high safety profile of NANA justify dietary enrichment at levels that correspond to the dietary intake of NANA in infants through breast milk.

  6. Fruitflow(®): the first European Food Safety Authority-approved natural cardio-protective functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kennedy, Niamh; Raederstorff, Daniel; Duttaroy, Asim K

    2017-03-01

    Hyperactive platelets, in addition to their roles in thrombosis, are also important mediators of atherogenesis. Antiplatelet drugs are not suitable for use where risk of a cardiovascular event is relatively low. It is therefore important to find alternative safe antiplatelet inhibitors for the vulnerable population who has hyperactive platelets in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Potent antiplatelet factors were identified in water-soluble tomato extract (Fruitflow(®)), which significantly inhibited platelet aggregation. Human volunteer studies demonstrated the potency and bioavailability of active compounds in Fruitflow(®). Fruitflow(®) became the first product in Europe to obtain an approved, proprietary health claim under Article 13(5) of the European Health Claims Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Fruitflow(®) is now commercially available in different countries worldwide. In addition to its reduction in platelet reactivity, Fruitflow(®) contains anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme and anti-inflammatory factors, making it an effective and natural cardio-protective functional food.

  7. Indirect determination of the flavor enhancer maltol in foods and beverages through flame atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound assisted-cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Orhan, Ulaş

    2017-11-15

    A simple ultrasound assisted-cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) method was developed and combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for pre-concentration and indirect determination of the flavor enhancer maltol in foods and beverages. The method is based on reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by maltol at pH 6.5, and subsequent selective interaction of Cu(I) with bathocuproine (BCP) to form a ternary complex in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration of a 35mL sample solution allowed detection of 1.24µgL(-1) maltol in a linear range of 4-230µgL(-1). The method was validated by intra- and inter-day precision studies ranging from 2.1 to 3.4%, and recoveries ranged from 93.3% to 104.4% using standard addition method. After pretreatment with two different sample preparation steps assisted by ultrasound energy, the proposed method was applied successfully for determination of maltol in selected foods and beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFECTS OF ESTRADIOL ON FOOD INTAKE AND MEAL PATTERNS FOR DIETS THAT DIFFER IN FLAVOR AND FAT CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Butera, Peter C.; Wojcik, Danielle M.; Clough, Shannon J.

    2010-01-01

    Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding b...

  9. Approximate flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Rašin, Andrija

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  10. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  11. Alimento para fins especiais: ingredientes, elaboração e aglomeração Food for special needs: ingredients, development and agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Azevedo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta enteral nutricionalmente completa, com condições ajustadas de aglomeração, visando contemplar as características físicas e químicas desejadas para esse alimento especial. MÉTODOS: Como ingredientes foram utilizados maltodextrina, óleo de canola, triglicerídios de cadeia média, goma acácia, inulina e frutooligossacarídeos, proteínas do soro de leite, isolado proteico de soja, vitaminas e minerais. Após os ajustes das quantidades e proporções dos ingredientes, a formulação foi aglomerada e submetida às análises de composição centesimal, molhabilidade, densidade aparente, atividade de água, viscosidade e cor. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se uma fórmula contendo 1kcal.mL-1, normoproteica (3,9g.100mL-1 e normolipídica (3,9g.100mL-1. Após a aglomeração da dieta, observaram-se os seguintes resultados: molhabilidade de 0,262g.s-1, densidade aparente de 0,317g.cm-3e atividade de água de 0,393. A análise de cor indicou redução da luminosidade e aumento dos parâmetros de cor a*e b*, apresentando leve variação para o vermelho e forte presença do amarelo. CONCLUSÃO: Os ingredientes empregados, e suas respectivas proporções, bem como o processo de aglomeração, possibilitaram a obtenção de um alimento para fins especiais com propriedades bioativas. O processo de aglomeração possibilitou uma dieta de fácil reconstituição e utilização através de sondas, facilitando a infusão e, consequentemente, a diminuição de intercorrências.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a nutritionally complete enteral diet, with adjusted agglomeration conditions, and determine the physical and chemical characteristics required by this special food. METHODS: The ingredients were maltodextrin, canola oil, medium-chain triglycerides, acacia gum, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, milk whey protein, soy protein isolate, vitamins and minerals. After the quantities and proportions of the ingredients were adjusted

  12. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  13. Gauged Flavor, Supersymmetry and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    2012-01-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group $SU(5)_L\\times SU(5)_R$ which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  14. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroni Alice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF. The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  15. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  16. Characterization and storage stability of astaxanthin esters, fatty acid profile and α-tocopherol of lipid extract from shrimp (L. vannamei) waste with potential applications as food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, J; Calvo, M M; Álvarez-Acero, I; Montero, P; Gómez-Guillén, M C

    2017-02-01

    In this work a lipid extract from shrimp waste was obtained and characterized. The most abundant fatty acids found were C16:0, C18:2n6c, C18:1n9c, C22:6n3, and C20:5n3. The extract contained all-trans-astaxanthin, two cis-astaxanthin isomers, 5 astaxanthin monoesters, and 10 astaxanthin diesters (7±1mg astaxanthin/g). C22:6n3 and C20:5n3 were the most frequent fatty acids in the esterified forms. Appreciable amounts of α-tocopherol and cholesterol were also found (126±11mg/g and 65±1mg/g, respectively). Little lipid oxidation was observed after 120days of storage at room temperature, revealed by a slight reduction of ω-3 fatty acids, but neither accumulation of TBARS nor formation of oxidized cholesterol forms was found. This is attributed to the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin and α-tocopherol, as their concentrations decreased as storage continued. The lipid extract obtained has interesting applications as food ingredient, owing to the coloring capacity and the presence of healthy components.

  17. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice; Zannini, Emanuele

    2011-08-30

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  18. A single acute dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient decreases hyperglycaemia and circulating insulin levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Peris, Jose E; Monzó, Nuria; Jover, Ana; Bellod, Lorena; Victor, Victor M; Rocha, Milagros

    2013-11-15

    A limited amount of research suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) positively influences glucose tolerance in humans. This study assessed the effects of different doses of pinitol supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and plasma pinitol concentrations. Thirty healthy subjects underwent two one-day trials in which they consumed a nutritive beverage (Fruit Up®) containing 2.5, 4.0 or 6.0g of pinitol and a corresponding placebo equivalent in both energy and carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min test period. The pinitol-enriched beverage reduced serum glucose and insulin at 45 and 60min, but only at a dose of 6.0g. Plasma pinitol concentrations, maximum concentration and AUC increased according to the dose administered. The results show that a single dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient at the highest dose administered acutely influences indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects.

  19. A review of mammalian carcinogenicity study design and potential effects of alternate test procedures on the safety evaluation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A W; Dayan, A D; Hall, W C; Kodell, R L; Williams, G M; Waddell, W D; Slesinski, R S; Kruger, C L

    2011-06-01

    of test procedures, dose selection, histopathology procedures, application of historical control data, statistical evaluations and whether statistical extrapolations are supported by, or are beyond the limits of, the data generated. Without due consideration, there can be result conflicting data interpretations and uncertainty about the relevance of a study's results to human risk. This paper discusses the critical elements of rodent (rat) carcinogenicity studies, particularly with respect to the study of food ingredients. It also highlights study practices and procedures that can detract from the appropriate evaluation of human relevance of results, indicating the importance of adherence to international consensus protocols, such as those detailed by OECD.

  20. Research and application of risk-benefit assessment in food and food ingredients%风险-受益评估技术在食物及其成分方面的应用和研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佩; 马宁; 刘兆平; 徐海滨

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification of food,the benefit of food is nutrition,while it also brings risk.Risk-benefit assessment in food and food ingredients is a new area in food safety.In recent years,risk-benefit assessment were used in clinical,microbiological,environmental and ecological research,but undeveloped in food area.In this review,the existing international risk-benefit assessment is reviewed,and the application in China is prospected.%随着食物种类的多样化发展,食物给人类提供营养的同时也随之带来了风险,对食物和食物成分进行风险-受益评估是食品安全领域的一个新的发展方向.近年来,国际上有关风险-受益评估的研究主要应用于临床、微生物、环境及生态等研究领域,而基于食物和食物中某种成分的风险-受益评估研究则起步较晚.本文就国际上现有的食物及其成分的风险-受益评估技术和研究进展进行综述,并对我国风险-受益评估技术的应用进行了展望.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific opinion on the Safety of lacto-N-neotetraose as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on lacto-N-neotetraose as a novel food ingredient (NFI) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council......, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) is a synthetic tetrasaccharide, which is intended to be used in infant and follow-on formulae, foods for special medical purposes for infants and young children and other foods...

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific opinion on the safety of 2'-O-fucosyllactose as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on 2'-O-fucosyllactose as a novel food ingredient (NFI) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council......, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. 2'-O-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is a synthetic trisaccharide, which is intended to be used in infant and follow-on formulae, foods for special medical purposes for infants and young children, and other foods...

  3. Second Order Kinetic Modeling of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction of Flavors Released from Selected Food Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME has been widely used in various fields as a simple and versatile method, yet challenging in quantification. In order to improve the reproducibility in quantification, a mathematical model with its root in psychological modeling and chemical reactor modeling was developed, describing the kinetic behavior of aroma active compounds extracted by SPME from two different food model systems, i.e., a semi-solid food and a liquid food. The model accounted for both adsorption and release of the analytes from SPME fiber, which occurred simultaneously but were counter-directed. The model had four parameters and their estimated values were found to be more reproducible than the direct measurement of the compounds themselves by instrumental analysis. With the relative standard deviations (RSD of each parameter less than 5% and root mean square error (RMSE less than 0.15, the model was proved to be a robust one in estimating the release of a wide range of low molecular weight acetates at three environmental temperatures i.e., 30, 40 and 60 °C. More insights of SPME behavior regarding the small molecule analytes were also obtained through the kinetic parameters and the model itself.

  4. Flavor-Nutrient Learning is Less Rapid with Fat than with Carbohydrate in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Revelle, Christina Humphries; Warwick, Zoe S.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor-nutrient learning occurs when the post-ingestive consequences of a food are associated with its flavor. As a signal of the food's energy density, flavor-nutrient associations have the potential to contribute to the regulation of meal size. While all calorie sources (fat, carbohydrate, protein, ethanol) can support flavor-nutrient learning, prior research has found that flavor-nutrient associations based on fat may require higher nutrient concentrations and more rigorous experimental pr...

  5. The Flavor World of Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, derive in large part from poor food choices, dictated in part by flavor preferences. Against the advice and recommendations of health authorities worldwide, people eat too much salt, fat, and simple sugars and too few fruits and vegetables, even and especially among children. How can we account for patterns of food choice that are antithetical to health, and why is it so difficult to develo...

  6. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  7. 7 CFR 65.185 - Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.185 Ingredient. Ingredient means a component either in part or in full, of a finished retail food product. ...

  8. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  9. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  10. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  11. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults Influência da cor na aceitação e identificação do sabor dos alimentos por adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.As características sensoriais cor e sabor dos alimentos desempenham papel importante não somente na seleção, como também na determinação do consumo, ingestão e saciedade. Objetivando determinar e avaliar a influência da cor na aceitação e identificação do sabor dos alimentos por adultos, foram realizados testes de análise sensorial com gelatinas por provadores não treinados, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 18 e 60 anos (1750 provas. No teste

  12. Detecção e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos e ingredientes alimentares Detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms in food and food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O cumprimento da legislação que regulamenta a comercialização de alimentos e ingredientes contendo Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGMs é totalmente dependente da sensibilidade e confiabilidade dos métodos de detecção e quantificação de OGMs. Na presente revisão, foram discutidos os métodos mais relevantes para tais fins, especialmente aqueles que se baseiam na detecção da proteína ou do DNA recombinante, destacando as suas principais propriedades, limitações e vantagens. A regulamentação e algumas sugestões de métodos alternativos para a detecção de OGMs também são abordadas.The enforcement of legislation that regulates the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food and food ingredients is totally dependent on the sensitivity and reliability of the GMO testing methods. In this review, the most relevant methods such as recombinant proteins or DNA-based methods were discussed, emphasizing their main properties, limitations and advantages. The regulamentation and some suggestions of alternative methods for the detection of GMOs were also discussed.

  13. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  14. Neutrino Flavor Oscillations without Flavor Mixing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Dienes, Keith R.; Sarcevic, Ina

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that sizable neutrino flavor oscillations can be generated in a model with large extra spacetime dimensions even if the physics on the brane is flavor-diagonal, the bulk neutrino theory is flavor-neutral, and the brane/bulk couplings are flavor-blind. We also discuss several phenomenological aspects of the ``bulk-mediated'' neutrino oscillations inherent in this model. [Based on talks given at Neutrino 2000 (Sudbury, Canada, June 2000), the Aspen Workshop on Neutrinos with Mass (Aspen, Colorado, July 2000), and DARK 2000 (Heidelberg, Germany, July 2000).

  15. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  16. Inhibition of 5α-Reductase, IL-6 Secretion, and Oxidation Process of Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Extract as Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantida Chaiyana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of Equisetum debile extracts, including 5α-reductase inhibition, interleukin-6 (IL-6 secretion reduction, and anti-oxidation. E. debile extracts were obtained by maceration in various solvents. Crude extract (CE was obtained by maceration in 95% ethanol. Chlorophyll-free extract (CF was the CE which of the chlorophyll has been removed by electrocoagulation. Hexane extract (HE, ethyl acetate extract (EA, and ethanolic extract (ET were fraction extracts obtained from maceration in hexane, ethyl acetate, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The extracts were investigated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase and IL-6 secretion. Total phenolic contents (TPC were investigated and antioxidant activities were determined by means of 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on dermal papilla cells and irritation test by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay were also investigated. All extracts could inhibit 5α-reductase and decrease IL-6 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. The antioxidant activity of E. debile extracts was directly related to their TPC. ET which contained the highest TPC (68.8 ± 6.7 mg GA/g showed the highest equivalent concentration (EC1 of 289.1 ± 26.4 mM FeSO4/g, TEAC of 156.6 ± 34.6 mM Trolox/g, and 20.0 ± 6.0% DPPH inhibition. However, EA exhibited the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation (57.2 ± 0.4%. In addition, EA showed no cytotoxicity on dermal papilla cell line and no irritation on chorioallantoic membrane of hen’s eggs. In conclusion, EA was suggested as the most attractive ingredients for functional food and nutraceuticals because of the high inhibitory activity against 5

  17. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  18. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  19. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ13 and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ13 is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  20. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  1. Effects of food gums on volatile flavor compounds of dried duck meat slice during storage%食用胶对鸭肉脯保藏期间挥发性风味物质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 任志伟; 张静; 吴巧

    2012-01-01

    Along with the extending of storage time, the volatile flavor compounds of dried duck meat slice will disappear gradually and causes poor quality of dried duck meat slice. Therefore, maintaining the stability of the volatile flavor substances is discussed in this papeT. The effects of Xanthan gum, Carrageenan, Arabic gum, Konjac gum on the quality changes were studied. HS - SPEM - GC - MS was appllied to extract and analyze the volatile flavor compounds in dried duck meat during the storage. The study showed that food gums could slow down the volatile speed of the flavor and retained flavor component nonanal and estragole better. Thus, stability of the volatile flavor was kept and shelf life of the products was extended.%随着保藏时间的延长鸭肉脯中的挥发性风味物质会逐渐挥发,造成鸭肉脯的风味减淡,影响鸭肉脯的品质,因此在加工的过程中需要采取措施以保持鸭肉脯在保藏过程中的挥发性风味物质的稳定性,以鸭肉为原料,研究了鸭肉脯在加工过程中添加黄原胶、卡拉胶、阿拉伯胶和魔芋胶对鸭肉脯保藏期间挥发性风味物质变化规律的影响.采用顶空固相微萃取技术和气相色谱质谱联用检测方( HS - SPEM - GC - MS)对鸭肉脯的挥发性风味物质进行萃取和检测,研究结果表明,添加食用胶后可以减缓鸭肉脯挥发性风味物质总含量的挥发速度,有效的保持了鸭肉脯的挥发性风味物质,同时添加食用胶对鸭肉脯中主要挥发性风味物质中的壬醛、草蒿脑等起到较好的保持作用,从而有利于延长鸭肉脯的保藏时间风味稳定性.

  2. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  3. Chemoinformatic analysis of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe flavor chemicals and natural products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Medina-Franco

    Full Text Available Food materials designated as "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS are attracting the attention of researchers in their attempts to systematically identify compounds with putative health-related benefits. In particular, there is currently a great deal of interest in exploring possible secondary benefits of flavor ingredients, such as those relating to health and wellness. One step in this direction is the comprehensive characterization of the chemical structures contained in databases of flavoring substances. Herein, we report a comprehensive analysis of the recently updated FEMA GRAS list of flavoring substances (discrete chemical entities only. Databases of natural products, approved drugs and a large set of commercial molecules were used as references. Remarkably, natural products continue to be an important source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and nutraceutical purposes. The comparison of five collections of compounds of interest was performed using molecular properties, rings, atom counts and structural fingerprints. It was found that the molecular size of the GRAS flavoring substances is, in general, smaller cf. members of the other databases analyzed. The lipophilicity profile of the GRAS database, a key property to predict human bioavailability, is similar to approved drugs. Several GRAS chemicals overlap to a broad region of the property space occupied by drugs. The GRAS list analyzed in this work has high structural diversity, comparable to approved drugs, natural products and libraries of screening compounds. This study represents one step towards the use of the distinctive features of the flavoring chemicals contained in the GRAS list and natural products to systematically search for compounds with potential health-related benefits.

  4. Chemoinformatic analysis of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) flavor chemicals and natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Franco, José L; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Peppard, Terry L; Del Rio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Food materials designated as "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS) are attracting the attention of researchers in their attempts to systematically identify compounds with putative health-related benefits. In particular, there is currently a great deal of interest in exploring possible secondary benefits of flavor ingredients, such as those relating to health and wellness. One step in this direction is the comprehensive characterization of the chemical structures contained in databases of flavoring substances. Herein, we report a comprehensive analysis of the recently updated FEMA GRAS list of flavoring substances (discrete chemical entities only). Databases of natural products, approved drugs and a large set of commercial molecules were used as references. Remarkably, natural products continue to be an important source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and nutraceutical purposes. The comparison of five collections of compounds of interest was performed using molecular properties, rings, atom counts and structural fingerprints. It was found that the molecular size of the GRAS flavoring substances is, in general, smaller cf. members of the other databases analyzed. The lipophilicity profile of the GRAS database, a key property to predict human bioavailability, is similar to approved drugs. Several GRAS chemicals overlap to a broad region of the property space occupied by drugs. The GRAS list analyzed in this work has high structural diversity, comparable to approved drugs, natural products and libraries of screening compounds. This study represents one step towards the use of the distinctive features of the flavoring chemicals contained in the GRAS list and natural products to systematically search for compounds with potential health-related benefits.

  5. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  6. FoodWiki: Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ontology-driven safe food consumption mobile system is considered. Over 3,000 compounds are being added to processed food, with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. According to World Health Organization, governments have lately focused on legislation to reduce such ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods as they may have side effects causing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, allergens, and obesity. By supervising what and how much to eat as well as what not to eat, we can maximize a patient’s life quality through avoidance of unhealthy ingredients. Smart e-health systems with powerful knowledge bases can provide suggestions of appropriate foods to individuals. Next-generation smart knowledgebase systems will not only include traditional syntactic-based search, which limits the utility of the search results, but will also provide semantics for rich searching. In this paper, performance of concept matching of food ingredients is semantic-based, meaning that it runs its own semantic based rule set to infer meaningful results through the proposed Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System (FoodWiki.

  7. FoodWiki: Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    An ontology-driven safe food consumption mobile system is considered. Over 3,000 compounds are being added to processed food, with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. According to World Health Organization, governments have lately focused on legislation to reduce such ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods as they may have side effects causing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, allergens, and obesity. By supervising what and how much to eat as well as what not to eat, we can maximize a patient's life quality through avoidance of unhealthy ingredients. Smart e-health systems with powerful knowledge bases can provide suggestions of appropriate foods to individuals. Next-generation smart knowledgebase systems will not only include traditional syntactic-based search, which limits the utility of the search results, but will also provide semantics for rich searching. In this paper, performance of concept matching of food ingredients is semantic-based, meaning that it runs its own semantic based rule set to infer meaningful results through the proposed Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System (FoodWiki).

  8. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  9. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  10. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  11. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  12. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Raymond; Champagne, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions ...

  13. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  14. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    ... and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages...

  15. A Search for CD36 Ligands from Flavor Volatiles in Foods with an Aldehyde Moiety: Identification of Saturated Aliphatic Aldehydes with 9-16 Carbon Atoms as Potential Ligands of the Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Kimoto, Yusaku; Inoue, Kazuo

    2017-08-09

    Volatile compounds with an aldehyde moiety such as (Z)-9-octadecenal are potential ligands for cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a transmembrane receptor that has recently been shown to play a role in mammalian olfaction. In this study, by performing an assay using a peptide mimic of human CD36, we aimed to discover additional ligands for the receptor from volatiles containing a single aldehyde group commonly found in human foods. Straight-chain, saturated aliphatic aldehydes with 9-16 carbons exhibited CD36 ligand activities, albeit to varying degrees. Notably, the activities of tridecanal and tetradecanal were higher than that of oleic acid, the most potent ligand among the fatty acids tested. Among the aldehydes other than aliphatic aldehydes, only phenylacetaldehyde showed a weak activity. These findings make a contribution to our knowledge of recognition mechanisms for flavor volatiles in foods with an aldehyde group.

  16. Fortification of foods with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important

  17. Flavored Orbifold GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-01-01

    Orbifold grand unified theories (GUTs) solve several problems in GUT model building. Therefore, it is intriguing to investigate similar constructions in the flavor context. In this letter, we propose that a flavor symmetry might emerge due to orbifold compactification and be simultaneously broken by boundary conditions of the orbifold. The combination of the orbifold parities in gauge and flavor space determines the zero modes. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10)\\times S_4 orbifold GUT model.

  18. Flavors Fragrance Delivery Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quellet, Christian; Schudel, Markus; Ringgenberg, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    This article focusses on the art of encapsulating flavors and fragrances into carrier materials, emphasizing the scientific challenges imposed by the particular nature of these essentially volatile encapsulants...

  19. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance th

  20. Flavor violation in supersymmetric theories with gauged flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nakano, Hiroaki; Terao, Haruhiko; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study flavor violation in supersymmetric models with gauged flavor symmetries. There are several sources of flavor violation in these theories. The dominant flavor violation is the tree-level $D$-term contribution to scalar masses generated by flavor symmetry breaking. We present a new approach for suppressing this phenomenologically dangerous effects by separating the flavor-breaking sector from supersymmetry-breaking one. The separation can be achieved in geometrical setups...

  1. Application of Natural Ingredients to Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Junko

    2017-01-01

     The super-aging society in Japan is currently experiencing growing demand for treatments that improve health and longevity. To develop new high-functional foods and search for pharmaceutical candidates among foods and natural products, it is necessary to promote organic collaboration among researchers in pharmacy, medicine, nutrition, and other fields to encourage joint utilization of their technologies. Recently, attempts have been made to use numerous foods and natural products to prevent or treat diseases based on scientific evidence. We have been endeavoring to develop preventive medicines from foods and natural ingredients by engaging in relevant activities such as screening these substances to determine the structures of their effective ingredients, verifying pharmacological activities, and conducting clinical trials. In this study, the effectiveness of Goishi tea (postfermented tea) and Flos Lonicerae (Japanese honeysuckle) for metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders, respectively, was explored. Multicomponent foods and natural ingredients have diverse effects produced by the actions of individual components as well as the interactions among different components. Additionally, when using natural ingredients and similar materials, it is necessary to consider the different extraction efficiencies of various methods and their absorption, deposition, metabolism, and excretion after consumption. The influence of intestinal bacteria and other factors is also critical. In our study, the administration of Goishi tea and Flos Lonicerae in animal models of disease demonstrated high functionality. Based on these findings, we plan to conduct further investigations, including clinical studies in human participants, focusing on the potential usefulness of Goishi tea and Flos Lonicerae as functional foods.

  2. Validation of a rapid method of analysis using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for nitrogen-rich adulterants in nutritional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draher, Jon; Pound, Vickie; Reddy, Todime M

    2014-12-19

    A method for the rapid quantification of 9 potential nitrogen-rich economic adulterants (dicyandiamide, urea, biuret, cyromazine, amidinourea, ammeline, amidinourea, melamine, and cyanuric acid) in five milk and soy derived nutritional ingredients, i.e. whole milk powder, nonfat dry milk, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and soy protein isolate has been developed and validated for routine use. The samples were diluted tenfold with water followed by treatment with 2% formic acid and acetonitrile to precipitate proteins. Sample extracts were analyzed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) under both positive and negative modes. Stable isotope labeled internal standards were used to ensure accurate quantification. In multi-day validation experiments, the average accuracies, relative standard deviations (RSD), and method detection limits (MDL) for all analytes in whole milk powder were 82-101%, 6-13%, and 0.1mg/kg-7 mg/kg, respectively. The retention times of the analytes in matrix spiked controls were within ± 0.06 min of the average retention times of the corresponding analytes in calibration standards. The validated method was proven to be rugged for routine use to quantify the presence of 9 nitrogen-rich compounds in milk and soy derived ingredients and to provide a defense from economically motivated adulteration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential hedonic, sensory and behavioral changes associated with flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-03-18

    Flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations can modify liking for a flavor CS, while flavor-flavor associations can also modify the sensory experience of the trained flavor. Less is known about how these associations modify behavioral responses to the trained CS. To test this, 60 participants classified as sweet likers were divided into five training conditions with a novel flavor CS. In the flavor-flavor only condition, participants consumed the target CS in a sweetened, low-energy form, with energy (maltodextrin) but no sweetness added in the flavor-nutrient only condition and both energy and sweetness (sucrose) in the combined flavor-flavor, flavor-nutrient condition. Comparison groups controlled for exposure to the CS, and repeat testing. Training was conducted in a hungry state on four non-consecutive days. To test for acquired changes in evaluation and intake, the flavor CS was processed into a low-energy sorbet, which was evaluated and consumed ad libitum on test days before and after training. Liking for the flavor CS increased only in the sucrose-sweetened condition, but intake increased significantly in both high-energy conditions. In contrast, rated sweetness of the sorbet increased in both sucrose-sweetened and aspartame-sweetened conditions. These findings suggest that liking changes were maximal when flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations co-occurred, but that behavioral changes were specific to flavor-nutrient associations.

  4. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH FLAVORINGS-RELATED LUNG DISEASE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Microwave popcorn plant and flavoring plant workers have ...

  5. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with...

  6. Dietary modeling shows that substitution of whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Rosen, Renee A; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len F

    2011-09-01

    Currently available whole-grain foods are not frequently consumed, and few children achieve the whole-grain intake recommendation. To investigate the influence on whole-grain consumption of substituting whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by children. Secondary cross-sectional analysis of publicly available food consumption data collected by the US Department of Agriculture. A nationally representative sample of US children aged 9 to 18 years (n=2,349) providing 24-hour dietary recall data in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Whole-grain intake was modeled by replacing varying proportions of refined flour contained in foods such as pizza crust, pasta, breads, and other baked goods with whole-wheat flour, and by replacing a proportion of white rice with brown rice. Replacement levels were based on the acceptability of whole-grain foods tested among children in elementary schools, and ranged from 15% to 50%; the majority were ≤25%. Sample-weighted mean premodeled and postmodeled whole-grain intake, standard errors, and statistical significance of differences between demographic subgroups were determined using SUDAAN (version 9.0.3, 2007, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC). Whole-grain intake increased 1.7 oz eq per day (from 0.5 to 2.2 oz eq/day). Premodeled and postmodeled whole-grain intakes were 6% and 28%, respectively, of total grain intake (7.7 oz eq/day). Major sources of postmodeled whole-grain intakes were breads/rolls (28.0%); pizza (14.2%); breakfast cereals (11.0%); rice/pasta (10.6%); quick breads such as tortillas, muffins, and waffles (10.8%); other baked goods (9.9%); and grain-based savory snacks other than popcorn (7.3%). Premodeled whole-grain intake differed by poverty level, but postmodeled whole-grain intake did not. The substitution of whole grain for a specific proportion of refined grain ingredients of commonly consumed foods increased whole-grain intake

  7. Multisensory Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace provides state-of-the-art coverage of the latest insights from the rapidly-expanding world of multisensory flavor research. The book highlights the various types of crossmodal interactions, such as sound and

  8. Theories of Leptonic Flavor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    I discuss different theories of leptonic flavor and their capability of describing the features of the lepton sector, namely charged lepton masses, neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles and leptonic (low and high energy) CP phases. In particular, I show examples of theories with an abelian flavor...

  9. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  10. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  11. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  12. IngredientApp

    OpenAIRE

    Sandín Estevan, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Aquest document descriu una aplicació per a dispositius Android. L'aplicació IngredientApp és un intent d'autocontrolar el que comprem, fem servir o mengem. Es tracta d'una aplicació a la qual s'hi defineixen unes preferències sobre els ingredients dels productes i, fent servir un smartphone, sense haver de mirar la llista d'ingredients, l'aplicatiu li advertirà si el producte compleix els seus criteris. Este documento describe una aplicación para dispositivos Android. La aplicación Ingred...

  13. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their...

  14. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, I W; Evan Miracle, R; Jervis, S M; Listiyani, M A D; Drake, M A

    2011-10-01

    The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application:  Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

  15. 实时荧光PCR技术快速检测食品中的牛源成分%Detection for bovine-derived ingredients in foods with real-time polymerase chain reaction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽丽; 李培; 丁洪流; 金萍; 傅春玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立基于实时荧光PCR技术的食品中牛源性成分快速检测方法.方法:以牛线粒体细胞色素b为目的基因,设计特异性引物和探针,通过特异性、灵敏性实验,及模拟混合肉样和市售肉制品检测,对该体系进行验证.结果:该牛源荧光PCR检测体系具有很好的特异性及灵敏性,可检测1pg牛源DNA的存在,对于各模拟肉类样品中掺杂的牛源性成分,其检测限低至0.5%,且经市售加工食品验证具有较好的应用能力.结论:所建立的牛引物探针体系具有特异性好、灵敏度高,快速高效等优点,可用于对食品中牛源性成分的掺假鉴别检测.%Objective:This study was aimed to establish a real-time PCR assay for detection of bovine-derived ingredients in food.Methods:Primers and Taqman probe of this assay were designed within bovine conservative regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b(cyt b) gene.The specificity had been evaluated with no amplification on DNA from other meats while the detection sensitivity tested with meat mixtures containing various beef content.The assay was further applied to detect commercially available meat food for verifying its adaptability.Results:The assay was highly specific showing no amplification with other meats and could detect 1pg of beef DNA.Applied to the DNA extracted from meat mixtures,it was possible to detect 0.5% beef spiked in other species.Conclusion:The system yields excellent results for identification of bovine derivatives in food products and it was a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for detection of bovine-derived ingredients in food.

  16. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  17. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  18. Test of Different Flavors Blending for the Pickled Tea Food%不同风味泡制型酸茶产品调配方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 张文杰; 黄友谊

    2016-01-01

    With fermented pickled tea as raw material for deep processing, five pickled tea food with different flavors, namely original, sweet spice powder, pungent and lobster sauce, were produced preliminary, which created a new way of developing and utilizing fresh summer and autumn tea leaves and, enriched the category of deep processed tea products.%以发酵成熟的泡制型酸茶为原料进行深加工,初步开发出了原味、甜味、五香味、酱香味、辣味5种不同风味的腌制类茶食品,为夏秋茶树鲜叶的开发利用提供新途径,同时丰富了茶叶深加工产品的种类。

  19. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Maijon Purba

    2014-01-01

    Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty), while removal of carbonyl c...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... provided by Member States to the European Commission. Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 consist of approximately 80 % of the two CLA isomers c-9,t-11 and t-10,c-12 (1:1). The applicants suggested a daily intake of CLA of 3 g (3.75 g Clarinol®) and 3.5 g (4.5 g Tonalin® TG 80), respectively. The Panel considers...

  1. Flavored Co-annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debtosh; Vempati, Sudhir K

    2011-01-01

    In minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) or CMSSM, one of the main co-annihilating partners of the neutralino is the right handed stau, $\\tilde{\\tau}_R$. In the presence of flavor violation in the right handed sector, the co-annihilating partner would be a flavor mixed state. The flavor effect is two fold: (a) It changes the mass of the $\\tilde{\\tau}_{1}$, thus modifying the parameter space of the co-annihilation and (b) flavor violating scatterings could now contribute to the cross-sections in the early universe. In fact, it is shown that for large enough $\\delta \\sim 0.2$, these processes would constitute the dominant channels in co-annihilation regions. The amount of flavor mixing permissible is constrained by flavor violating $\\tau \\to \\mu$ or $\\tau \\to e$ processes. For $\\Delta_{RR}$ mass insertions, the constraints from flavor violation are not strong enough in some regions of the parameter space due to partial cancellations in the amplitudes. In mSUGRA, the regions with cancelations within LFV amplitudes do no...

  2. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  3. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for the delivery of functional biomolecules and ingredients in cereal-based beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Mauch, Alexander; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we aim to describe the mechanisms by which LAB can fulfil the novel role of efficient cell factory for the production of functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of cereal-based beverages. LAB fermentation is a safe, economical, and traditional method of food preservation foremost, as well as having the additional benefits of flavor, texture, and nutrition amelioration. Additionally, LAB fermentation in known to render cereal-based foods and beverages safe, in a chemical-free, consumer-friendly manner, from an antinutrient and toxigenic perspective. Huge market opportunities and potential exist for food manufacturers who can provide the ideal functional beverage fulfilling consumer needs. Newly developed fermented cereal-based beverages must address markets globally including, high-nutrition markets (developing countries), lifestyle choice consumers (vegetarian, vegan, low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie), food-related non-communicable disease sufferers (cardiovascular disease, diabetes), and green label consumers (Western countries). To fulfil these recommendations, a suitable LAB starter culture and cereal-based raw materials must be developed. These strains would be suitable for the biopreservation of cereal beverages and, ideally, would be highly antifungal, anti-mycotoxigenic, mycotoxin-binding and proteolytic (neutralize toxic peptides and release flavor-contributing amino acids) with an ability to ferment cereals, whilst synthesizing oligosaccharides, thus presenting a major opportunity for the development of safe cereal-based prebiotic functional beverages to compete with and replace the existing dairy versions.

  4. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations.

  5. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet ... FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, ...

  6. Pre-packaged foods' nutritional ingredients analysis among 706 adult residents in cities in China%中国706名城市成年居民消费预包装食品营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄绯绯; 张继国; 王惠君; 翟凤英; 张兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the nutritional ingredients of daily consumed pre-packaged foods in Chinese adult residents.Methods From October to December 2013,the nutrition labels of pre-packaged foods consumed in continuous 7 days by 706 adult residents were collected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling in 18 communities with 360 households in 9 cities in China including Beijing,Shanghai,Chongqing,Shenyang,Haerbin,Jinan,Zhengzhou,Changsha and Nanning.The contents of energy,protein,fat,carbohydrate,sodium and the percentages of low-fat and low-sodium foods were compared among 7 different kinds of foods including baked foods,convenient foods,leisure foods,puffed foods,milk,beverages and seasonings.Results 871 kinds of pre-packaged foods were collected.The median (min,max) of energy contents of puffed foods,baked foods and leisure foods were 2 155(1 638-2 785) kJ/100 g,1 980 (582-2 639) kJ/100 g,l 575 (353-3 015) kJ/100 g respectively.The median (min,max) of fat contents of puffed foods,baked foods and leisure foods were 30.0 (5.0-40.9) g/100 g,20.5 (0.3-40.5) g/100 g,15.1 (0-71.4) g/100 g respectively.The contents of carbohydrate of baked foods,convenient foods and puffed foods were high relatively,the medians(min,max) of which were 58.1 (19.8-82.5),56.5 (0-90.7),and 56.1 (42.6-75.8)g/100 g respectively.The sodium content of seasoning was the highest,which was 2 177 (20-12 000) mg/100 g.The protein content of beverage was the lowest,which was 0.4(0-17.8) g/100 ml.Conclusion The energy and fat contents of puffed foods,baked foods and leisure foods were high.The carbohydrate contents of baked foods,convenient foods and puffed foods were high relatively.The sodium content of seasonings was high.The protein contents of beverages were low.%目的 了解我国城市成年居民日常消费的预包装食品的营养成分.方法 2013年10-12月期间,采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,收集北京、上海、重庆、沈阳、哈尔滨、济

  7. Starch and fiber fractions in selected food and feed ingredients affect their small intestinal digestibility and fermentability and their large bowel fermentability in vitro in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, G E; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    2001-02-01

    The digestion of legumes, cereal grains, cereal and potato flours and grain-based foods in dogs was studied using two in vitro model systems. The first simulated the stomach and small intestine through the additions of acid and enzymes and large bowel fermentation through use of fecal inocula from dogs, and the second simulated small intestinal fermentation using canine ileal chyme as the bacterial source. All substrates were analyzed for total dietary fiber (TDF) including insoluble and soluble components, and starch fractions: rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, resistant starch (RS) and total starch. Legumes had high TDF and RS concentrations (mean 36.5 and 24.7%, respectively), resulting in lower ileal digestible starch and total digestible starch concentrations (mean 21 and 31%, respectively). Seventy-four percent of the TS in the cereal grains group was rapidly digestible starch plus slowly digestible starch compared with the flour group, where the corresponding value was 95%. This related to the processing of cereals to flours, in which TDF and RS concentrations were reduced markedly. This increased ileal digestible starch concentrations in the flour group (65%) versus the cereal grains group (60%). Ileal digestion of starch in grain-based food products like macaroni and spaghetti was high (96 and 92%, expressed as a percentage of TS, respectively). Fermentation of substrates with ileal microflora was influenced by substrate chemical composition, with the flour group exhibiting the highest organic matter disappearance values. The legume group had a high total short-chain fatty acid concentration (7.8 mmol/g organic matter fermented), perhaps as a result of fermentation of TDF as well as starch components. A database such as this one provides information about utilization of foods and feeds in the dog and potentially in humans.

  8. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  9. A comparison of the BAX system method to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual and International Organization for Standardization reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of soy ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Tamrat; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Gensic, Joseph; Wallace, F Morgan

    2014-10-01

    The performances of two DuPont BAX System PCR assays for detecting Salmonella on a variety of low-moisture soy ingredients were evaluated against the U. S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) method or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6579 reference method. These evaluations were conducted as a single laboratory validation at an ISO 17025 accredited third-party laboratory. Validations were conducted on five soy ingredients: isolated soy protein (ISP), soy fiber, fluid soy lecithin, deoiled soy lecithin, and soy nuggets, using a paired-study design. The ISP was analyzed as both 25- and 375-g composite test portions, whereas all other sample matrices were analyzed as 375-g composite test portions. To evaluate 25-g test portions of ISP, the test material was inoculated using Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.1). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Tennessee (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.3) was used for all other trials. For each trial of the method comparison, 25 samples were analyzed for each matrix: 5 uninoculated controls and 20 samples inoculated at low levels (0.2 to 2 CFU per test portion) that were targeted to achieve fractionally positive results (25 to 75%). Using McNemar's chi-square analysis, no significant difference at P ≥ 0.05 (χ(2) ≤ 3.84) was observed between the number of positives obtained by the BAX System and the reference methods for all five test matrices evaluated. These studies indicate that the BAX System PCR assays, in combination with the single buffered peptone water primary enrichment and subsequent brain heart infusion regrowth step, demonstrate equivalent sensitivity and robustness compared with the FDA BAM and ISO reference methods for both 25- and 375-g composite samples. Moreover, there was no observed reduction of sensitivity in the larger 375-g composite samples for all five matrices.

  10. Effect of Power Ultrasound on Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungill; Feng, Hao

    Recent food processing technology innovations have been centered around producing foods with fresh-like attributes through minimal processing or nonthermal processing technologies. Instead of using thermal energy to secure food safety that is often accompanied by quality degradation in processed foods, the newly developed processing modalities utilize other types of physical energy such as high pressure, pulsed electric field or magnetic field, ultraviolet light, or acoustic energy to process foods. An improvement in food quality by the new processing methods has been widely reported. In comparison with its low-energy (high-frequency) counterpart which finds applications in food quality inspection, the use of high-intensity ultrasound, also called power ultrasound, in food processing is a relatively new endeavor. To understand the effect of high-intensity ultrasound treatment on food quality, it is important to understand the interactions between acoustic energy and food ingredients, which is covered in Chapter 10. In this chapter, the focus will be on changes in overall food quality attributes that are caused by ultrasound, such as texture, color, flavor, and nutrients.

  11. Scientific basis of use of fruits Coriandrum sativum L. In food technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Frolova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the world recognized the need for environmentally friendly products for a healthy food and quality life. Products with natural ingredients, including flavoring become very popular. Coriander is one of herbs that functions as both, spice as well as herbal medicine. Coriandrum sativum L. is a major aromatic crop in Ukraine. The plants of Coriandrum sativum contain the essential oils and other compounds in the seeds and leaves and have an important role as flavorings. The main objective was to investigate possibility effective utilization of coriander essential oil in national economy of Ukraine. It was necessary to study the chemical compounds of coriander fruits by instrumental analysis and odor by sensory analysis with following creating new aroma compositions. Search had been carried out throughout 2009 - 2014 years. The aerial parts of aromatic plants were harvested at the plots of National Botanical Garden of National Academy of the Sciences of Ukraine. Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation procedure in National University of food technology. Main and specific components of essential oils from seeds coriander were characterized. Qualitative structure of essential oils was determined by the gas-liquid chromatography method on the chromatograph Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass-spectrometric detector 5973. The run of components was done using Device of Fractional Distillation. Linalool, limonene, geranyl acetate, d-camphor, myrcene and geraniol were found as the major components. In the composition of essential oils each component has its own flavor, the combination of which determines the flavor of the oil. We investigated the possibility of target separation of essential oils of coriander fruits into fractions of different flavor. The article presents the results of research sequential processing fruits Coriandrum sativum to obtain a series of natural flavors. Principles and laws of the vacuum distillation were used for

  12. The Diacetyl-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Secretome: New Insights into Flavoring-Induced Airways Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, David M; Gwinn, William M; Valente, Ashlee M; Kelly, Francine L; Brinkley, Christie D; Nagler, Andrew E; Moseley, M Arthur; Morgan, Daniel L; Palmer, Scott M; Foster, Matthew W

    2017-06-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an increasingly important lung disease characterized by fibroproliferative airway lesions and decrements in lung function. Occupational exposure to the artificial food flavoring ingredient diacetyl, commonly used to impart a buttery flavor to microwave popcorn, has been associated with BO development. In the occupational setting, diacetyl vapor is first encountered by the airway epithelium. To better understand the effects of diacetyl vapor on the airway epithelium, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to characterize both the apical and basolateral secretomes of air-liquid interface cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells from four unique donors after exposure to an occupationally relevant concentration (∼1,100 ppm) of diacetyl vapor or phosphate-buffered saline as a control on alternating days. Basolateral and apical supernatants collected 48 h after the third exposure were analyzed using one-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Paired t tests adjusted for multiple comparisons were used to assess differential expression between diacetyl and phosphate-buffered saline exposure. Of the significantly differentially expressed proteins identified, 61 were unique to the apical secretome, 81 were unique to the basolateral secretome, and 11 were present in both. Pathway enrichment analysis using publicly available databases revealed that proteins associated with matrix remodeling, including degradation, assembly, and new matrix organization, were overrepresented in the data sets. Similarly, protein modifiers of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling were significantly altered. The ordered changes in protein expression suggest that the airway epithelial response to diacetyl may contribute to BO pathogenesis.

  13. Mixed feed and its ingredients electron beam decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu; Voronin, L. A.; Ites, Yu V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Leonov, S. V.; Leonova, M. A.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.; Yuskov, Yu G.

    2017-01-01

    Electron beam treatment is used for food processing for decades to prevent or minimize food losses and prolong storage time. This process is also named cold pasteurization. Mixed feed ingredients supplied in Russia regularly occur to be contaminated. To reduce contamination level the contaminated mixed feed ingredients samples were treated by electron beam with doses from 2 to 12 kGy. The contamination levels were decreased to the level that ensuring storage time up to 1 year.

  14. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  15. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying...

  16. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions § 131.25 Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. The unqualified name “whipped cream” should not be applied...

  17. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  18. Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  19. Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  20. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  1. 木酢液对2种类型蔬菜感官品质和质量安全的效应%Effects of Wood Vinegar on Flavor Quality and Food Safety of Vegetables in Two Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    塔娜; 姚志斌; 孙江; 戴伟; 马珣

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to study the effects of wood vinegar on flavor quality and food safety indicators of tomato and Chinese cabbage by designing different concentration of wood vinegar. The results showed that lycopene content, Vc content and sugar-acid ratio of tomato and contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein and Vc of Chinese cabbage were increased greatly under the low concentration treatment (P500).Lycopene content of tomato was obviously decreased and chlorophyll content of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased under the high concentration treatment (P300), while other indicators were not markedly changed. In addition, nitrite content of both vegetables were remarkably decreased under two wood vinegar treatments, while it seemed no conspicuous increase in the enrichment of heavy metals. Therefore, wood vinegar of suitable concentration can improve the flavor quality and effectively keep food safety of vegetables.%为了研究木酢液对蔬菜感官品质和质量安全的影响,对番茄和大白菜施用不同浓度的木酢液进行对照试验.结果表明:经低浓度500倍木酢液处理后,番茄体内番茄红素含量、Vc含量以及糖酸比均显著增加;大白菜体内可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白含量和Vc含量提高明显.而经高浓度300倍木酢液处理后,番茄中番茄红素含量减少,其他指标无显著变化;大白菜除叶绿素含量显著升高外,其他指标变化不显著或降低.此外,木酢液处理显著降低了番茄和大白菜的亚硝酸盐水平,并且没有明显增加重金属的富集程度.这说明适宜浓度的木酢液可以改善蔬菜品质,并能有效保障2类蔬菜的食品质量安全.

  2. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANORECTAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic,...

  3. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE EXTERNAL ANALGESIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesi...

  4. Charged-Lepton Mixing and Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for calculating charged-lepton mixing matrices. These matrices are an essential ingredient for predicting lepton flavor-violating rates in the lepton number nonuniversal models recently proposed to explain anomalies in B-meson decays. The model is based on work on "constrained flavor breaking" by Appelquist, Bai and Piai relating the charged-lepton mass matrix, M_l, to those for the up and down-type quarks, M_{u,d}. We use our recent model of lepton nonuniversality to illustrate the magnitudes of flavor-violating B-decay rates that might be expected. Decays with mu tau final states generally have the highest rates by far.

  5. Importance of functional ingredients in yak milk-derived food on health of Tibetan nomads living under high-altitude stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xusheng; Long, Ruijun; Kreuzer, Michael; Ding, Luming; Shang, Zhanhuan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Cui, Guangxin

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan nomads have lived since ancient times in the unique and harsh environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau with average altitudes over 4000 m. These people have been able to live and multiply healthily over numerous generations under the extreme stress of high-altitude environment, including cold, hypoxia, and strong ultraviolet radiation, and with a simple diet devoid of vegetables and fruits for most of the year. Their survival depends heavily on yak milk, and its products comprise the main portion of their daily diet. In this review, yak milk and its derived products are examined in detail and compared with milk from other ruminant species. Yak milk products seem to be particularly rich in functional and bioactive components, which may play a role in maintaining the health status of Tibetan nomads. This includes particular profiles of amino acids and fatty acids, and high levels of antioxidant vitamins, specific enzymes, and bacteria with probiotic activity (yoghurt is the main food). Based on that, it is proposed that the Tibetan nomads have developed a nutritional mechanism adapted to cope with the specific challenges posed by the environment of the world's highest plateau. Systematic studies are required to demonstrate this in a more mechanistic way.

  6. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  7. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  8. HPLC-UV Analysis Coupled with Chemometry to Identify Phenolic Biomarkers from Medicinal Plants, used as Ingredients in Two Food Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Maria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection is nowadays the reference method to identify and quantify the biomarkers of quality and authenticity of plants and food supplements. Seven medicinal plants were collected from wild flora: Taraxacum officinalis (1, Cynara scolimus (2, Silybum marianum (3, Hypericum perforatum (4,  Chelidonium majus (5, Lycopodium clavatum (6 and  Hippophae rhamnoides (7  leaves and fruits.  Two products (A and B were obtained by mixing individual plant powders. Therefore product A was obtained by mixing dandelion, artichoke and milk thistle, 1:1:1 while product B by mixing St John’s wort, Celandine and Wolf’s claw, 1:1:1. The methanolic extracts of individual plants as well as three different extracts of products A and B (using acidulated water, neutral water and acidulated methanol were analyzed using HPLC-UV for their phenolics’ fingerprint and composition. The qualitative (untargeted analysis and quantitative (targeted analysis results were further compared using Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to identify their specific biomarkers. Thus, quantitative evaluation of individual phenolics in case of individual plants and products A and B extracts, showed specific and significant differences of composition. Both products A and B contained elagic acid as major compound. For product A, good biomarkers were trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, as well silymarin and silibine originating from milk thistle. For product B, good biomarkers were quercetin and kaempherol, gallic and protocatecuic acids, this product being rich in flavonoids. In conclusion, HPLC-UV coupled with PCA analysis proved to be a rapid and useful way to identify the main biomarkers of plants’ authentication, as well of final products’ quality and safety.

  9. Short communication: The influence of solids concentration and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, M G; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of bleaching conditions and bleaching agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at bleaching significantly affected bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different bleaching agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and bleaching agent on the flavor and bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no bleaching, 50 °C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50 °C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy bleaching units/mL, 50 °C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different bleaching agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other bleaching agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that

  10. Flavor vs Energy Sensing in Brain Reward Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, Ivan E.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetness functions as a potent natural reinforcer in several species, from flies to rodents to primates including humans. The appreciation of flavored stimuli is greatly enhanced when sweetness is added, the obvious example being sugar-sweetened flavored beverages (the major source of excess added calories in US diets). Different sweet substances are nevertheless attributed greater incentive value than others, with glucose-containing sugars appearing as the uppermost sweet reward. Food choi...

  11. A Quick Multiplex PCR Method for the Identification of Four Meat Ingredients in Food Products%食品中4种肉类成分多重PCR的快速鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玮玲; 张驰; 杨静; 黄明; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]建立快速可靠的用于食品中4种肉类(猪肉、牛肉、羊肉和鸡肉)成分快速鉴别的通用引物多重PCR(universal primers-multiplex PCR,UP-M-PCR)方法.[方法]使用DNeasy试剂盒提取法、SDS-蛋-白酶K法和CTAB-蛋白酶K法分别提取肉类中总DNA,通过比较提取效率和纯度,确定提取肉类中总DNA的方法;基于动物线粒体细胞色素b基因的差异性位点,设计两组各5条长度不同的多重PCR引物,建立并优化多重PCR反应体系,通过电泳检测扩增产物分子量差异实现4种肉类的快速鉴别;应用优化的多重PCR方法对80份市售食品样本进行盲样检测,验证鉴别方法的准确性.[结果]SDS-蛋白酶K法与DNeasy试剂盒提取法的DNA效率显著优于CTAB-蛋白酶K法;在优化的反应条件下,选择特异性高、序列较长的多重PCR引物可有效地进行食品中猪、牛、羊和鸡源性成分的快速鉴定,检测灵敏度达到皮克级DNA,对市售食品样本的鉴别验证了方法的实用价值.[结论]多重PCR方法精确稳定,可用于食品中多种动物源性成分的快速鉴别.%[Objective] An accurate and reliable universal primers-multiplex PCR (UP-M-PCR) method was developed to identify 4 kinds of meat ingredient (chicken, beef, lamb, pork) in food products. [Method] Total DNA in meat samples were extracted using a commercial DNA extraction kit, a CTAB-Proteinase k method and a SDS-Proteinase k method, respectively. The concentration and purity of DNA were evaluated to select the optimal method. Two sets of UP-M-PCR primers in different lengths were designed based on the homologous and specific sites of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Each set was comprised of 5 primers: one general forward primer and four species-specific reverse primers. The UP-M-PCR system, followed by gel electrophoresis assay of speces-specific bands, was established for meat identification. The meat spices were identified according to different

  12. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  13. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  14. The mystery of flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccei, R. D.

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed.

  15. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  16. Gluino Meets Flavored Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizabl...

  17. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  18. Interactions between Food Additive Silica Nanoparticles and Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ran Go

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials. There have been a number of studies carried out to investigate possible adverse effects of NPs on the gastrointestinal tract. The interactions between NPs and surrounding food matrices should be also taken into account since the interactions can affect their bioavailability, efficacy, and toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between food additive silica NPs and food matrices, such as saccharides, proteins, lipids, and minerals. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine food component-NP corona using HPLC, fluorescence quenching, GC-MS, and ICP-AES. The results demonstrate that zeta potential and hydrodynamic radius of silica NPs changed in the presence of all food matrices, but their solubility was not affected. However, quantitative analysis on the interactions revealed that a small portion of food matrices interacted with silica NPs and the interactions were highly dependent on the type of food component. Moreover, minor nutrients could also affect the interactions, as evidenced by higher NP interaction with honey rather than with a simple sugar mixture containing an equivalent amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. These findings provide fundamental information to extend our understanding about the interactions between silica NPs and food components and to predict the interaction effect on the safety aspects of food

  19. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  20. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus...

  1. “香料皇后”——天然香兰素生物合成的研究进展%Biosynthesis of natural vanillin—the queen of food ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文文; 吴秋林; 唐鸿志; 许平

    2013-01-01

    香兰素是世界上最重要的香料之一,广泛应用在食品饮料、香精香料和医药工业等领域中,全球每年的需求量超过16 000 t.鉴于人们对纯天然绿色食品的追求日益增长,天然香兰素高效的生产方法也成为研究的热点.通过对各种香兰素生产方法的比较,明确提出微生物合成方法的主导地位,综述了香兰素的生物合成途径以及合成关键基因和酶等方面的研究进展,分析探讨了不同生物合成途径的优劣之处,并展望了利用微生物高产天然香兰素存在的瓶颈以及有潜力的发展方向.%Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring compounds,and it is widely used in the food industry,spice fragrance,and medicine industry,etc.The annual worldwide consumption is estimated over 16 000 tons.Due to people's increasing concern for natural food,the production of natural vanillin has become the major point of scientific research.By comparing different production methods of vanillin,we concluded that the microbial transformation to vanillin is the most promising method.Research developments on different biosynthetic pathways for vanillin,as well as the genes and enzymes involved,were discussed.In addition,the advantages and disadvantages of each pathway were compared and explained.Finally,the existing bottlenecks in biosynthesis of high-yield natural vanillin with the help of genetic and metabolic engineering,and the potential development direction in this field were elucidated.

  2. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  3. Sterile particles from the flavor gauge model of masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Our motivation is to study a dynamics which has the ambition to underlie models of the electroweak symmetry breaking via the condensation of known fermions. The right-handed neutrinos and the seesaw mechanism are necessary ingredients for viability of this scenario. The existence of right-handed neutrinos follows from theoretical consistence of a model based on dynamical flavor gauge symmetry breaking. The model is defined by a particular flavor representation setting of electroweakly charged fermions. Only finite number of versions of the model exists. They differ by the number and the flavor structure of the right-handed neutrino sector. We choose for inspection one of them, the non-minimal version with right-handed neutrinos in one sextet and four anti-triplet flavor representations. We show that a Majorana pairing of the sextet right-handed neutrinos is responsible for the flavor symmetry breaking and for the seesaw pattern of the neutrino mass matrix. The dynamically generated neutrino mass matrix spontaneously breaks the lepton number and the chiral sterility symmetry of the right-handed neutrino sector. As a result, a spectrum of majorons, neutrino composites, manifests. We study main characteristics of both massive sterile neutrinos and majorons.

  4. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, ...

  5. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  6. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Molly; Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy-two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  7. Flavor learning in utero and its implications for future obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Kimberly K; Wetzel-Effinger, Lisa

    2012-02-01

    The concept of prenatal flavor learning can be used to motivate women to eat healthy foods. The flavors of the foods in the maternal diet are found in the amniotic fluid swallowed by the fetus, with the fetus developing a preference for those flavors that is shown to persist in infancy. Furthermore, flavor preferences in infancy can persist into childhood and even into adulthood. Thus, the intrauterine environment may have a life-long influence on flavor preferences and healthy eating. This is an empowering concept for a pregnant woman: her baby will develop a preference for what she eats. However, education alone about this concept may not be sufficient to motivate behavior change. The evidence for health promotion strategies demonstrated to be effective in pregnancy is presented here, along with associated implications for prenatal flavor learning and the prevention of obesity and diabetes.

  8. Effect of fat content on flavor delivery during consumption: an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linforth, Rob; Cabannes, Magalie; Hewson, Louise; Yang, Nicole; Taylor, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Data from studies of the effect of fat on in vivo flavor release were modeled to generate a predictive model (R(2) = 0.71). The data included a range of values from the literature and 200 new data points giving a total data set of 345 values; of these, 310 values were used as a data set for model development, and the remaining 35 values were used as a test set for model validation. The model could be used to estimate the differences in flavor delivery for samples with two different fat contents. The hydrophobicity of the flavor compounds was represented in the model by including log P. The model may provide a tool to aid in flavor reformulation between samples with different fat contents. Sensory analysis showed that an orange flavor present in a high-fat food could be reformulated for a low-fat food, giving a more similar flavor experience than in the absence of any formulation changes.

  9. 韩国泡菜制作工艺及风味特征%Production Process and Flavor Characteristics of Korean Kimchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥睿

    2012-01-01

    Kimchi is characteristic of South Korean traditional food. With fresh vegetables as the main ingredi- ents and salt, garlic, ginger, spring onion, pepper powder, fish and shrimp as its seasoning, long-time mari- nated and fermented in low tempreture, Korean kimchi is with such flavor characteristics as appealing color, pleasant smell, pleasing flavor and crispy taste. Spicy cabbage is really typical among all the kinds of Korean kimchi which is representative in terms of seasoning, production process, key points and principles of process- ing, physiological function and flavor as well.%泡菜是韩国最具有代表性的传统食品。其用新鲜蔬菜为主辅料,加入盐、大蒜、生姜、大葱、辣椒粉、鱼虾酱等调味料,经过长时间低温腌制、发酵而成;具有诱人的色泽、怡人的香味、宜人的口味和爽脆的口感等风味特征。韩国泡菜中尤以“辣白菜”为典型,其配方、制作流程、工艺操作、加工要点、制作原理、食用的生理作用以及泡菜的风味特征等都极具代表性。

  10. Yeast diversity and native vigor for flavor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast used widely for beer, bread, cider, and wine production, is the most resourceful eukaryotic model used for genetic engineering. A typical concern about using engineered yeasts for food production might be negative consumer perception of genetically modified organisms. However, we believe the true pitfall of using genetically modified yeasts is their limited capacity to either refine or improve the sensory properties of fermented foods under real production conditions. Alternatively, yeast diversity screening to improve the aroma and flavors could offer groundbreaking opportunities in food biotechnology. We propose a 'Yeast Flavor Diversity Screening' strategy which integrates knowledge from sensory analysis and natural whole-genome evolution with information about flavor metabolic networks and their regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The supersymmetric flavor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, Savas; Sutter, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The supersymmetric SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1) theory with minimal particle content and general soft supersymmetry breaking terms has 110 physical parameters in its flavor sector: 30 masses, 39 real mixing angles and 41 phases. The absence of an experimental indication for the plethora of new parameters places severe constraints on theories posessing Planck or GUT-mass particles and suggests that theories of flavor conflict with naturalness. We illustrate the problem by studying the processes \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma and K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing which are very sensitive probes of Planckian physics: a single Planck mass particle coupled to the electron or the muon with a Yukawa coupling comparable to the gauge coupling typically leads to a rate for \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma exceeding the present experimental limits. A possible solution is that the messengers which transmit supersymmetry breaking to the ordinary particles are much lighter than M_{\\rm Planck}.

  12. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  13. The mystery of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peccei, R.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Learned flavor preferences: the variable potency of post-oral nutrient reinforcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ackroff, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The notion that preferences for flavors paired with various nutrients can be attributed simply to their energy content (“flavor-calorie learning”) is belied by variation in nutrient reinforcing potency. Fructose, fat and ethanol, all regarded as powerful contributors to food and fluid preferences, are less potent than glucose when their orosensory effects are bypassed. Conditioning studies in animals infused with nutrients as they consume target flavor solutions have shown that the weaker rei...

  15. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-87 for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape GT73 (with the exception of refined oil and food additives under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, OSR-GT73. OSR-GT73 contains a single insert consisting of the goxv247 and CP4 epsps expression cassettes. Both proteins confer tolerance against glyphosate-based-herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses of inserted DNA and flanking regions did not raise safety concerns. Levels of CP4 EPSPS and GOXv247 proteins in OSR-GT73 were analysed and the stability of the genetic modification was demonstrated. No biologically relevant differences were identified in the compositional/agronomic/phenotypic characteristics of OSR-GT73 compared with its conventional counterpart, except for the newly expressed proteins. No indication of potential concerns over the safety of the newly expressed CP4-EPSPS and GOXv247 proteins or the occurrence of unintended effects were identified in either OSR-GT73 pollen/pollen-containing dietary supplements or the adventitious presence of trace levels of seeds in human foods. An equivalent assessment with isolated seed protein could not be made because of the lack of availability of relevant consumption and safety data. There are no indications of increased establishment and spread of feral OSR-GT73 plants, or of hybridising wild relatives, unless exposed to glyphosate-based-herbicides. Potential interactions of feral plants with the biotic/abiotic environment do not raise concerns. Environmental risks of horizontal gene transfer into bacteria were not identified. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses. The environmental risk assessment of OSR-GT73 did not identify any safety concerns, in the context of its intended uses. While the Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of OSR pollen as such, it concludes that the genetic modification

  16. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  17. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  18. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-01-01

    Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate...

  19. Interpretation of Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The observation of a charged-lepton flavor violating process would be a definite sign for physics beyond the Standard Model, but would actually only prove that one particular linear combination of lepton numbers is violated. We categorize lepton-flavor-violating processes by their quantum numbers and show how their discovery can be interpreted model-independently, studying in particular which processes are required to establish that the entire flavor group is broken. We also comment on total lepton number, seeing as lepton number violation practically implies lepton flavor violation as well.

  20. An introduction to toothpaste - its purpose, history and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Toothpaste is a paste or gel to be used with a toothbrush to maintain and improve oral health and aesthetics. Since their introduction several thousand years ago, toothpaste formulations have evolved considerably - from suspensions of crushed egg shells or ashes to complex formulations with often more than 20 ingredients. Among these can be compounds to combat dental caries, gum disease, malodor, calculus, erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. Furthermore, toothpastes contain abrasives to clean and whiten teeth, flavors for the purpose of breath freshening and dyes for better visual appeal. Effective toothpastes are those that are formulated for maximum bioavailability of their actives. This, however, can be challenging as compromises will have to be made when several different actives are formulated in one phase. Toothpaste development is by no means complete as many challenges and especially the poor oral substantivity of most active ingredients are yet to overcome.

  1. Identification of SNPs, QTLs, and dominant markers associated with wheat flavor using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grain foods are well known to provide important nutrients in the human diet; however, consumer acceptance can be hindered by the flavor, aroma, and texture of whole wheat products. Flavor differences among wheat varieties have been observed, but are still little understood. A lab mouse model s...

  2. The Mystery of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Peccei, Roberto D

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher-dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. The twin roles that family symmetries and GUT's can have on the spectrum of quarks and leptons is emphasized, along with the dominant role that the top mass is likely to play in the dynamics of mass generation.

  3. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  4. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency $\\Delta m^2/2E$. However, even in the simple case of a $\

  5. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  6. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  7. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  8. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary O(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-...

  9. Microbial production of scent and flavor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Austin L; Desai, Shuchi H; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-02-01

    Scents and flavors like those of fresh oranges are no longer limited to just the natural product. Fruit, flower, and essential oil scents have found place in cosmetics, soaps, candles, and food amongst many common household products. With their increasing global demand and difficulty in extractation from the natural source, alternative methods of their production are being sought. One sustainable method is to employ microorganisms for the production of these high value compounds. With the tools of metabolic engineering, microorganisms can be modified to produce compounds such as esters, terpenoids, aldehydes, and methyl ketones. Approaches and challenges for the production of these compounds from microbial hosts are discussed in this review.

  10. Caffeine increases liking and consumption of novel-flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Leah M; Swoboda, Christine; Bendlin, Ashley; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine has been shown to increase preference for beverages with which it is paired; however, it is not known if caffeine alters liking for foods with which it is paired indirectly. The purpose of the current experiment was to test the hypothesis that a caffeinated beverage paired with a novel-flavored yogurt will increase preference for that yogurt compared to one paired with placebo. We also tested the hypothesis that liking would increase more when caffeine was paired with high energy density yogurt. Men and women (n = 62) were randomized to receive a beverage containing placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) and to consume a low (LED) or high energy density (HED), novel-flavored yogurt. Participants rated, ranked, and consumed seven novel-flavored yogurts and then had a target yogurt paired with either PLA or CAF over four consecutive days. In general, yogurt liking increased over time, the HED yogurt was liked more than the LED yogurt, and yogurt paired with caffeine was liked more than yogurt paired with placebo. Participants showed a significant increase in liking of LED yogurt paired with caffeine compared to those with LED yogurt paired with placebo. Caffeine administration may increase liking and consumption of novel-flavored foods, particularly if the food is not highly liked at baseline. This suggests that caffeine pairing may be a way to increase liking of LED foods, such as vegetables and fruit.

  11. Early flavor learning and its impact on later feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    In this review, we first outline the role and mechanisms of the chemical senses (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) in the perception of the flavor of a food or beverage. We then describe research findings, much of them from our laboratories, on the ontogeny of flavor perception and the interacting roles of innate responses and learning in the establishment of flavor preference of infants and children. Broadly, taste (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami, or savory) preferences have a strong innate component. Sweet, umami, and salty substances are innately preferred, whereas bitter and many sour substances are innately rejected. Nevertheless, these innate tendencies can be modified by pre- and postnatal experiences. Volatile components of flavor, detected by the olfactory system, are strongly influenced by early exposure and learning beginning in utero and continuing during early milk (breast milk or formula) feedings. These experiences set the stage for later food choices and are important in establishing life-long food habits. As many of the diseases plaguing developed and developing societies involve excess consumption of some foods, an understanding of factors that determine choice and ingestion, particularly an understanding of the early factors, is important in designing strategies to enhance the health of the infant, child, and adult.

  12. Flavor-Nutrient Learning is Less Rapid with Fat than with Carbohydrate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Christina Humphries; Warwick, Zoe S.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor-nutrient learning occurs when the post-ingestive consequences of a food are associated with its flavor. As a signal of the food's energy density, flavor-nutrient associations have the potential to contribute to the regulation of meal size. While all calorie sources (fat, carbohydrate, protein, ethanol) can support flavor-nutrient learning, prior research has found that flavor-nutrient associations based on fat may require higher nutrient concentrations and more rigorous experimental protocols than are required to train carbohydrate (cho)-based associations. To further explore potential macronutrient-specific differences in flavor-nutrient learning, the present study compared the time course of acquisition of cho- and fat-based associations. Rats were trained to associate distinctive flavors with high-density (3.2kcal/mL) and low-density (0.2kcal/mL) orally-consumed solutions, either fat (corn oil emulsion) or carbohydrate (sucrose). For each nutrient, both within- and between-groups designs were used to assess (via two-bottle preference testing) whether flavor-nutrient learning had occurred after 2, 4, or 6 training trial pairs. Rats trained with carbohydrate demonstrated preferential intake of the low-density paired flavor after only 2 training pairs; in contrast, rats trained with fat required 6 training pairs. These findings demonstrate differential rapidity of acquisition flavor-nutrient associations. The longer time course of acquisition of fat-based flavor-nutrient associations may be yet another mechanism by which high-fat foods promote overeating. PMID:19303030

  13. Flavor-nutrient learning is less rapid with fat than with carbohydrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Christina Humphries; Warwick, Zoe S

    2009-06-22

    Flavor-nutrient learning occurs when the post-ingestive consequences of a food are associated with its flavor. As a signal of the food's energy density, flavor-nutrient associations have the potential to contribute to the regulation of meal size. While all calorie sources (fat, carbohydrate, protein, ethanol) can support flavor-nutrient learning, prior research has found that flavor-nutrient associations based on fat may require higher nutrient concentrations and more rigorous experimental protocols than are required to train carbohydrate (cho)-based associations. To further explore potential macronutrient-specific differences in flavor-nutrient learning, the present study compared the time course of acquisition of cho- and fat-based associations. Rats were trained to associate distinctive flavors with high-density (3.2 kcal/mL) and low-density (0.2 kcal/mL) orally-consumed solutions, either fat (corn oil emulsion) or carbohydrate (sucrose). For each nutrient, both within- and between-group designs were used to assess (via two-bottle preference testing) whether flavor-nutrient learning had occurred after 2, 4, or 6 training trial pairs. Rats trained with carbohydrate demonstrated preferential intake of the low-density paired flavor after only 2 training pairs; in contrast, rats trained with fat required 6 training pairs. These findings demonstrate differential rapidity of acquisition flavor-nutrient associations. The longer time course of acquisition of fat-based flavor-nutrient associations may be yet another mechanism by which high-fat foods promote overeating.

  14. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including... Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. (a) Vinyl chloride has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic aerosol products including hair...

  15. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  16. Recent patents in flavor controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward the preparation of flavoring materials specifically, flavor materials have been sought that provide greater flavor intensity coupled with controlled flavor release for long periods of time. Here, some recent patents related to controlled flavor release are reviewed from the angle of its application field, its mechanism and its determination method. It is found that controlled flavor release often depends not only on materials' chemical and physical properties, such as melting point, solution properties and so on, but also on flavors' chemical and physical properties, such as diffusion capacity, its stability in different media etc. Meanwhile, flavor release is also controlled by an electric reducing device according to the flavor generation condition. It might be also known that flavor release rate could be determined by using a purge-and-trap/gas chromatographic procedure. In future, it's necessary to use mathematical model to study the kinetic behavior of controlled flavor release.

  17. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  18. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  19. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  20. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  1. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a close look — beyond the promises — at the nutritional values, ingredients, and calorie counts in the food you ... generally eat. All of the information about the nutritional value of the food that is listed on the ...

  2. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  3. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You can view the new video in its ... two sites, comparing serving sizes, ingredients and overall food choices in this "Battle of the Dueling Dinner Parties". ...

  4. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate and limited understanding of contexts in which such contracts pay off. Our paper provides an extensive review of literature and research streams in ingredient branding, adding knowledge to theory and help for companies that need to establish and maintain a competitive advantage, by differentiating their offer on the markets they act on, in a globalized economy.

  5. Flavor Preferences in Animals: Role of Mouth and Gut Nutrient Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Sclafani

    2014-01-01

    Food appetite and preference are greatly influenced by taste, odor, and texture stimuli that are integrated in the brain as flavor sensations. One of the most potent flavor elements is the sweet taste of sugar. In mammals, sugar taste is detected primarily by two receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, that join together to form a sweet taste receptor that responds to a variety of sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners [1]. The flavor of fat is also a source of food pleasure, which includes a taste co...

  6. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  7. Flavor-diagonal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The focus of this brief review is on new physics (NP) sources of CP violation, especially related to the flavor-diagonal phenomena of electric dipole moments (EDMs) of elementary particles and atoms. Using weak scale supersymmetry as an example, we illustrate various aspects of the "new physics CP-problem". We also explore the interplay between flavor-changing and flavor-diagonal CP violation in the context of the recent hints from the Tevatron for new sources of CP violation in the B-meson systems.

  8. Flavor variability and flavor stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M A; Drake, M A; Gerard, P D

    2009-09-01

    Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P flavors were confirmed by increased levels (P flavor (R(2)= 0.38, P flavor (R(2)= 0.61, P flavor and flavor stability.

  9. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  10. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  11. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  12. Flavored and Nonflavored Smokeless Tobacco Products: Rate, Pattern of Use, and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Andrew J.; Jensen, Joni A.; Vogel, Rachel I.; Anderson, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The initiation and maintenance of tobacco use are influenced by several factors, but of equal and often overlooked importance, until recently, is the palatability of the product. Because of the role that flavor may play in the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use, the Food and Drug Administration has decided to ban the use of flavorings, other than menthol, from cigarettes. To date, little attention has been paid to the impact of flavoring in smokeless tobacco (ST) products. Methods: This study combined the data from 5 previously completed treatment or switching studies to examine the choice of brand flavor in the course of ST use, from initiation to regular use. Results: The analyses revealed that a majority of subjects’ first and current choice of product was flavored, specifically mint or wintergreen, and that a significant number of ST users switched to a flavored brand after already initiating ST use with a regular nonflavored product. In this population, however, flavored products did not appear to lead to greater dependence or increased exposure to nicotine or carcinogens. Conclusions: More treatment seeking ST users began by using mint-flavored product and switched to and were current users of mint-flavored products. It is possible that mint products play a role in the initiation and maintenance of ST use. PMID:22529222

  13. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  14. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains...

  15. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  16. Approximate Flavor Symmetry in Supersymmetric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the maximal approximate flavor symmetry in the framework of generic minimal supersymmetric standard model. We consider the low energy effective theory of the flavor physics with all the possible operators included. Spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking leads to the approximate flavor symmetry in Yukawa sector and the supersymmetry breaking sector. Fermion mass and mixing hierachies are the results of the hierachy of the flavor symmetry breaking. It is found that in this theory i...

  17. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang; Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects, will also be addressed.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF INDONESIAN HERBAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to aimed to evaluated and compare in vitro antioxidant activities of 2 Indonesian herbal ingredients (A and B), determined total phenol content., cytotoxic and apoptosis induction activities on HL-60 cells. These data were providing some useful information for people healthy dietary and the new potential application of natural antioxidant containing food materials in functional foods and also as new cancer therapeutics promising candidates. The parameters were total anti...

  19. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  20. Effect of enzymatic protein deamidation on protein solubility and flavor binding properties of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppavorasatit, Inthawoot; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    The effect of enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase (PG) on protein solubility and flavor binding potential of soymilk was studied. Treatment of soymilk with PG for 2 h (temperature of 44 °C and enzyme:substrate ratio (E/S) of 40 U/g protein) resulted in high degree of protein deamidation (66.4% DD) and relatively low degree of protein hydrolysis (4.25% DH). Deamidated (DSM) and control soymilks (CSM) did not differ with respect to aroma, but differed in taste characteristics by sensory evaluation. Protein solubility in DSM was enhanced at weakly acidic conditions (pH 5.0), but did not differ from non-deamidated soymilk at pH values of 3.0 and 7.0. Odor detection thresholds for the flavor compounds vanillin and maltol were approximately 5 and 3 fold lower, respectively, in DSM than in CSM. Dose-response curves (Fechner's law plots and n exponents from Stevens's power law) further demonstrated that DSM had a lower flavor binding potential than CSM. PG deamidation has the potential to reduce flavor binding problems encountered in high protein-containing foods and beverages. The findings of this study can help lead to the development of technology to produce protein-containing foods with improved functional properties, especially protein solubility, and potentially decreased flavor fade problems associated with flavor-protein interactions, especially with carbonyl containing flavor compounds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Extrinsic information influences taste and flavor perception: a review from psychological and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masako; Dan, Ippeita

    2013-03-01

    The perception of taste and flavor can be greatly biased by extrinsic cues, or the information about a food that comes from outside of the food itself, such as package designs, brands, prices, and so on. In order to understand taste/flavor experiences in a broader context, it is necessary to consider factors other than the food/tastants themselves. This review aims to summarize some of the relevant findings from psychological and neuroimaging studies, focusing on depicting how extrinsic cues exert their effect on taste and flavor. Currently, the most frequently considered psychological mediator for the effects of extrinsic cues is expectation. Depending on the gap between expectation and taste/flavor experience, four major models predict outcomes of expectation effects: (1) assimilation, (2) generalized-negativity, (3) contrast, and (4) assimilation-contrast. Among them, the most influential is the assimilation model proposing that taste/flavor experiences are modified toward what one expects. Thus far, all the neuroimaging studies examining the influence of extrinsic cues have dealt with assimilation effects. They suggest that when extrinsic cues influence taste/flavor perception, cortical representations of taste/flavor are also modulated. Collectively neuroimaging findings partly answer questions arising from psychological aspects: the influence of extrinsic cues is not due to superficial response bias but to truly changed perception. These findings, albeit limited to assimilation effects, suggest that combined understanding from both psychological and neuroimaging studies would help deepen our understanding of the taste experience. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Synthesis of 2-Methylbenzoxazole for Use as a Food Flavor Using Integrated Microwave-Ultrasonic Synthesizer/Extractor%微波及超声波辅助合成食用香料2-甲基苯骈噁唑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王石; 谢建春; 靳林溪; 段世欢; 孙宝国

    2011-01-01

    Under the combined assistance of microwave and ultrasonic,the synthesis of 2-methylbenzoxazole for use as a food flavor via the polyphosphoric acid-catalyzed reaction between 2-aminophenol and acetic acid was studied.Experimental investigations into the effects of catalyst type,2-aminophenol-to-acetic acid molar ratio,2-aminophenol-to-polyphosphoric acid(PPA) mass ratio,microwave power,ultrasonic power,microwave treatment alone,reaction temperature and reaction time on reaction yield of 2-methylbenzoxazole were carried out.The results showed that the optimal synthesis conditions of 2-methylbenzoxazole were microwave power of 800 W,ultrasonic power of 800 W,2-aminophenol-to-PPA ratio of 3:4,acetic acid-to-2-aminophenol ratio of 7.6:1,reaction time of 25 min,and reaction temperature of 115 ℃.This optimized reaction and subsequent vacuum distillation resulted in a 2-methylbenzoxazole yield of 78.20%.The structure of the synthesized 2-methylbenzoxazole was confirmed by IR,MS and 1H NMR.The established process for 2-methylbenzoxazole synthesis from the inexpensive and easily available materials had the advantages of short reaction time,high yield and easy operation resulting from the synergistic action of microwave and ultrasonic and allowed the formation of purely aromatic products.%以2-氨基苯酚、乙酸为原料,多聚磷酸为催化剂,微波及超声波辅助合成食用香料2-甲基苯骈噁唑。通过考察催化剂与原料物质的量之比、微波和超声波功率、只有微波无超声波、反应温度、反应时间等因素的影响,确定较佳工艺条件:微波和超声波功率均为800W,乙酸与2-氨基苯酚的物质的量之比为7.6:1,催化剂多聚磷酸用量4g,反应温度115℃,时间25min。经减压蒸馏处理后,产率为78.20%。2-甲基苯骈噁唑结构通过质谱、红外光谱和核磁共振进行了确认。本实验所得工艺,原料廉价易得,利用微波和超声波的协同效应,具有反应时间短

  3. Role of systemic endocannabinoid CB-1 receptor antagonism in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Patricia; Abayev, Yana; Kandova, Ester; Gerges, Meri; Styler, Esther; Wapniak, Rachel; Touzani, Khalid; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2008-09-01

    Rats learn to prefer a flavor mixed into a fructose-saccharin solution over a different flavor mixed into a saccharin-only solution which is considered to be a form of flavor-flavor conditioning. Fructose-conditioned flavor preferences are impaired by systemic dopamine D1 and to a lesser degree, D2 receptor antagonism as well as by NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonism. Given the emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in mediating hedonically-driven food intake, the present study examined whether systemic administration of the inverse CB-1 receptor agonist, AM-251 would alter fructose-conditioned flavor preferences. In Experiment 1, food-restricted rats were trained over 10 sessions (30 min/day) to drink a fructose-saccharin solution mixed with one flavor (CS+/Fs) and a less-preferred saccharin-only solution mixed with another flavor (CS-/s). Subsequent two-bottle tests with the two flavors in saccharin (CS+/s, CS-/s) occurred 15 min following counterbalanced pairs of AM-251 doses of 0, 0.1, 1 or 3 mg/kg. Preference for CS+/s over CS-/s following vehicle treatment (74%) was significantly reduced by the 0.1 (67%) and 1 (65%) AM-251 doses, whereas CS+/s, but not CS-/s intake was significantly reduced by the 1 and 3 mg/kg AM-251 doses. In Experiment 2, rats received systemic injections of AM-251 (1 mg/kg) or vehicle prior to the 10 CS+/Fs and CS-/s training sessions. In subsequent two-bottle tests (drug-free) the AM-251 and control groups displayed similar preferences for the CS+ flavor (66% vs. 69%). Experiment 3 demonstrated that AM-251 significantly decreased chow intake (24 h), and 1-h intakes of fructose-saccharin and saccharin-only solutions in ad libitum-fed rats. These data indicate that functional CB-1 receptor antagonism significantly reduces the expression, but not the acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences. The endogenous endocannabinoid system is therefore implicated in the maintenance of this form of learned flavor

  4. Tolerance Testing for Cooked Porridge made from a Sorghum Based Fortified Blended Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid

    2016-05-01

    Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor.

  5. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients.

  6. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... preservative or to recreate or improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during...

  7. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home eldery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700 mg flavor and/or 300 mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in

  8. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home eldery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700 mg flavor and/or 300 mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in

  9. 21 CFR 582.30 - Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural substances used in conjunction with spices... with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for...

  10. Contextual control of flavor neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, L G; Díaz, E

    2013-06-13

    The role of context in the retrieval of learned information has been widely analyzed in the associative learning domain. However, evidence about the effect of context on flavor memory retrieval is more limited. We have carried out four experiments with rats testing for possible interactions between neophobia habituation and the context in which flavors are presented, by manipulating prior experience with contexts. Our results point to the relevance of context familiarity for the establishment and recovery of a safe taste memory trace. More specifically, the use of the animals' home cages as experimental context favored neophobia habituation (Experiments 1A and 2), reduced dopamine levels induced by administration of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 disrupted neophobia habituation when tested in presence of a new context (Experiment 1B), and testing in the animal's home cage increases the amount of flavor consumed, even when such flavor had a previous history of aversive conditioning (Experiment 3). We propose that exploring context without aversive consequences generates a safe memory trace of such context that becomes in the basis of increased flavor consumption.

  11. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  12. Improving flavor metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mixed culture with Bacillus licheniformis for Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Wu, Qun; Wang, Li; Wang, Diqiang; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial interactions could impact the metabolic behavior of microbes involved in food fermentation, and therefore they are important for improving food quality. This study investigated the effect of Bacillus licheniformis, the dominant bacteria in the fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor, on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results indicated that S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis in all mixed culture systems and final viable cell count was lower than 20 cfu/mL. Although growth of S. cerevisiae was barely influenced by B. licheniformis, its metabolism was changed as initial inoculation ratio varied. The maximum ethanol productions were observed in S. cerevisiae and B. licheniformis at 10(6):10(7) and 10(6):10(8) ratios and have increased by 16.8 % compared with single culture of S. cerevisiae. According to flavor compounds, the culture ratio 10(6):10(6) showed the highest level of total concentrations of all different kinds of flavor compounds. Correlation analyses showed that 12 flavor compounds, including 4 fatty acids and their 2 corresponding esters, 1 terpene, and 5 aromatic compounds, that could only be produced by S. cerevisiae were significantly correlated with the initial inoculation amount of B. licheniformis. These metabolic changes in S. cerevisiae were not only a benefit for liquor aroma, but may also be related to its inhibition effect in mixed culture. This study could help to reveal the microbial interactions in Chinese liquor fermentation and provide guidance for optimal arrangement of mixed culture fermentation systems.

  13. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10 Section 338.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  14. Ghrelin signaling is not essential for sugar or fat conditioned flavor preferences in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Touzani, Khalid; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The oral and post-oral actions of sugar and fat stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in rodents through a process referred to as appetition. Ghrelin is implicated in food reward processing, and this study investigated its involvement in nutrient conditioning in mice. In Exp. 1 ghrelin receptor-null (GHSR-null) and C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice learned to prefer a flavor (CS+) mixed into 8% glucose over another flavor (CS-) mixed into a "sweeter" but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose+saccharin (S+S) solution. In Exp. 2 treating WT mice with a ghrelin receptor antagonist [(D-Lys3)-GHRP-6] during flavor training did not prevent them from learning to prefer the CS+ glucose over the CS-S+S flavor. GHSR-null and WT mice were trained in Exp. 3 to drink a CS+ paired with intragastric (IG) infusion of 16% glucose and a CS- paired with IG water. Both groups drank more CS+ than CS- in training and preferred the CS+ to CS- in a choice test. The same (Exp. 4) and new (Exp. 5) GHSR-null and WT mice learned to prefer a CS+ flavor paired with IG fat (Intralipid) over a CS- flavor paired with IG water. GHSR-null and WT mice also learned to prefer a CS+ flavor added to 8% fructose over a CS- added to water. Together, these results indicate that ghrelin receptor signaling is not required for flavor preferences conditioned by the oral or post-oral actions of sugar and fat. This contrasts with other findings implicating ghrelin signaling in food reward processing and food-conditioned place preferences.

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food ...

  16. Lepton-Flavor Violating Mediators

    CERN Document Server

    Galon, Iftah; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV $\\gamma$-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  17. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  18. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  19. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} = {radical}m{sub u}/m{sub c} and V{sub td}/V{sub ts} = {radical}m{sub d}/m{sub s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay {beta} {yields} s{gamma} constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan{Beta}, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  20. Consumer preferences for different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    . Furthermore, the research looks at the possible determinants of acceptance of various enrichments of these foods, mainly focusing on factors such as respondents' present and intended eating behaviour, lifestyle-related habits (i.e. smoking, exercising, drinking), and expected outcomes of consuming the food...... product/functional ingredient combinations. For this purpose, a survey with a random sample of Danish consumers (n=959) was carried out. Preliminary results show that respondents accept those enriched foods that have been available in the market for some time. Specifically, rye bread, which is available...

  1. Differences in the effect of bolus weight on flavor release into the breath between low-fat and high-fat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linforth, Rob S T; Blissett, Annie; Taylor, Andrew J

    2005-09-07

    The maximum intensity of flavor release increased as the weight of food introduced into the mouth (the bolus) was increased for a range of different foods. The relationship was not directly proportional (1:1) but followed a power law function. Low-fat (foods showed a different relationship than high-fat (> or = 5 g/100 g) foods, but all low-fat and all high-fat foods were broadly similar irrespective of food type or flavor molecule chemistry. For low-fat foods the intensity of flavor release increased with increasing bolus weight to a greater extent than high-fat foods. This may be associated with the capacity of fat to selectively adhere to the surfaces of the oral cavity, thereby changing the effective surface area for the release of lipophilic flavors.

  2. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet

  3. The Metabolic Changes of the Mixed Fruit Flavor Meal in the Arteriovenous Difference of Dairy Cow Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan-fen; WANG Li-fang; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionMilk favored by consumers because milk contain a large number of nutrients,such as protein,amino acids,fat,lactose,a variety of vitamins,immune activity factors,essential minerals and so on,and the proportion of the nutrients is very reasonable and those nutrients are easy to digest and absorb.So,milk is nearly a perfect food.But at present,the flavor milk is produced by adding fruit flavor meal or fruit juice into the milk,which results in fewer varieties of flavor milk products and accompanies some problems of quality and safety.The fruit-flavored milk produced by adding mixed fruit flavor meal into a diet of dairy cows could ensure the production of raw fruit-flavored milk with higher quality and security.

  4. Flavored axion-monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raymundo

    2016-10-01

    In this talk we consider the breaking of a flavor-symmetric potential as the origin of the pseudo-Goldstone bosons responsible for inflation. The breaking of flavor symmetry generates the fermion mass hierarchy while the breaking of accidental symmetries leads to pseudo-Goldstone bosons with an axion-monodromy potential appropriate for inflation. We deal with models where the inflaton is a linear combination of two fields. We will show that the mechanism by which inflation ends depends on the choice of parameters.

  5. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  6. Ghrelin signaling is not essential for sugar or fat conditioned flavor preferences in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sclafani, Anthony; Touzani, Khalid; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The oral and post-oral actions of sugar and fat stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in rodents through a process referred to as appetition. Ghrelin is implicated in food reward processing, and this study investigated its involvement in nutrient conditioning in mice. In Exp. 1 ghrelin receptor-null (GHSR-null) and C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice learned to prefer a flavor (CS+) mixed into 8% glucose over another flavor (CS−) mixed into a "sweeter" but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose + sa...

  7. Flavor issues in the Higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which the flavor structure of SUSY model induces, either radiatively or through mixing, new flavor-violating interactions in the Higgs sector. The radiative flavor mediation mechanism is illustrated using the minimal SUSY extension of the SM (MSSM) with generic trilinear A-terms, and applied to evaluate the corrections to Lepton Flavor-Violating (LFV) and Flavor-Conserving (LFC) Higgs vertices. Flavor mediation through mixing is discussed within the context of an $E_6$-inspired multi-Higgs model, suplemented with an abelian flavor symmetry. Tevatron and LHC can probe the flavor structure of these models through the detection of the LFV Higgs mode h->tau mu, while NLC can perform high-precision tests of the LFC mode h ->tau+ tau-.

  8. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.

  9. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  10. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  11. Flavor aversion learning induced by lithium chloride in reptiles but not in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Sébastien; Cabanac, Michel

    2004-07-30

    Flavor aversion learning occurs when digestive illness follows ingestion of a novel food. Such learning has been shown to exist in mammals and birds. In this experiment, we looked for flavor aversion learning in amphibians (Bufo paracnemis, Pachytriton breviceps) and reptiles (Basiliscus vitattus, B. basiliscus, Eumeces schneideri, Mabuya multifasciata). After intake of the novel food, the animals received i.p. injection of either lithium chloride (LiCl), an effective illness inducer, or a saline solution. A week later, the LiCl injection had not affected the food intake of the amphibians whereas in the lizards it had produced a strong aversion to the flavor of the novel food. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that specific mental capacities emerged with reptiles.

  12. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  13. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep......-lat

  14. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if

  15. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raidal, M.; van der Schaaf, A.; Bigi, I.; Mangano, M. L.; Semertzidis, Y.; Abel, S.; Albino, S.; Antusch, S.; Arganda, E.; Bajc, B.; Banerjee, S.; Biggio, C.; Blanke, M.; Bonivento, W.; Branco, G. C.; Bryman, D.; Buras, A. J.; Calibbi, L.; Ceccucci, A.; Chankowski, P. H.; Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A.; DeMille, D. P.; Deppisch, F.; Diaz, M. A.; Duling, B.; Felcini, M.; Fetscher, W.; Forti, F.; Ghosh, D. K.; Giffels, M.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giudice, G.; Goudzovskij, E.; Han, T.; Harris, P. G.; Herrero, M. J.; Hisano, J.; Holt, R. J.; Huitu, K.; Ibarra, A.; Igonkina, O.; Ilakovac, A.; Imazato, J.; Isidori, G.; Joaquim, F. R.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; King, S. F.; Kirch, K.; Kozlov, M. G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kress, T.; Lebedev, O.; Lusiani, A.; Ma, E.; Marchiori, G.; Masiero, A.; Masina, I.; Moreau, G.; Mori, T.; Muntel, M.; Neri, N.; Nesti, F.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Paradisi, P.; Petcov, S. T.; Picariello, M.; Porretti, V.; Poschenrieder, A.; Pospelov, M.; Rebane, L.; Rebelo, M. N.; Ritz, A.; Roberts, L.; Romanino, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A.; Rueckl, R.; Senjanovic, G.; Serra, N.; Shindou, T.; Takanishi, Y.; Tarantino, C.; Teixeira, A. M.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Turzynski, K. J.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Vempati, S. K.; Vives, O.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the report of the "Flavor in the era of the LHC" Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the ma

  16. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if th

  17. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  18. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  19. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  20. Flavor Release from French Fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with the MS-NOSE using both panelists and a mouth-model system. The identity of several volatiles measured with the MS-NOSE was verified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time and the effect of adding salt on I-max (maximum intensity of compounds) and on