WorldWideScience

Sample records for food exchange units

  1. Food exchange list based on 80-kilocalorie rice unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C T

    1989-06-01

    The conventional food exchange list which has been used in most hospitals and nutrition related institutes in Taiwan is derived from that published by a Joint Committee of the American Diabetes Association, American Dietetic Association, and the Diabetes Section, U.S. Public Health Services in 1950. There are several disadvantages of using this conventional table as an educational tool for Chinese patients in Taiwan. Those disadvantages include ignorance of macronutrients, nonnutritional classification of food and variance in calories between food categories. Our food exchange list aimed to classify food items into carbohydrate, protein and fat-rich food groups isocalorically. First of all, a "rice-unit" is defined as a 1/4 bowl of cooked rice, which contains approximately 80 kcal. Second, 80 kcal derived from the "rice unit" was used as a basic calorie unit in this study for definition of carbohydrate-rich, protein-rich, and fat-rich food items. All of the following items contain approximately 80 kcal: 1/2 bowl of gruel, a small banana, two medium sized oranges, a slice of bread (carbohydrate-rich items), an egg, 38g of pork (protein-rich items) and two teaspoons of soybean oil (a fat-rich item). There are several benefits of using this recommended food exchange list: (1) Rice is the most important staple in the Chinese family. The recommended food exchange list is derived from rice to enhance practicality and compliance of the Chinese people in Taiwan. Moreover, the theory of a high carbohydrate, high-fiber diet recommended by the ADA in 1987 has been stressed in this study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  3. A Survey of Diabetic Educators and Patients for the Revision of Korean Food Exchange Lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Cho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFood exchange lists are one of the main methods of nutritional education. However, Korean food exchange lists have not been revised since 1994. Therefore, we surveyed the opinions of diabetes educators and patients with diabetes regarding the need for revision of the current food exchange lists.MethodsFor two weeks beginning on 10 March 2008, a 12-item questionnaire regarding the opinion and need for revision of the current food exchange lists was e-mailed to diabetes educators nationwide. Another 15-question survey was administered to patients with diabetes in 13 hospitals located in the Seoul and Gyeonggi regions of Korea.ResultsWe obtained survey responses from 101 diabetes educators and 209 patients; 65 (64.3% of the educators answered that the current food exchange lists should be revised. The items that needed revision were the glycemic index, addition of new foods and reaffirmation of exchange standard amounts. The patients demanded specific education about choosing appropriate foods, a balanced meal plan, proper snacks, and dining intake.ConclusionOur survey results demonstrate the need to revise the Korean food exchange lists. This process should focus on glycemic index, the addition of new foods and reconfirmation of one exchange reference unit.

  4. Development of a Malian food exchange system based on local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on local foods and dishes for the assessment of nutrient and food ... To develop exchange lists for the assessment of food and nutrient intakes for people with diabetes in Mali. ..... ways that are difficult for low-literacy patients to understand and.

  5. Foods and Nutrition Resource Unit. Entertaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Sara

    This resource unit, a supplement to the foods and nutrition curriculum guide (see related note), was designed to help secondary education home economics teachers provide students with additional food study and plan for learning experiences in the art of entertaining. The unit covers four principle topics regarding the art of entertaining in a…

  6. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  7. Exchange Rings Generated by Their Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Yin CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Let R be an exchange ring with primitive factors artinian. We prove that there exists a u ∈ U(R) such that 1R ± u ∈ U(R), if and only if for any a ∈ R, there exists a u ∈ U(R) such that a ± u ∈ U(R). Furthermore, we prove that, for any A ∈ Mn(R)(n ≥ 2), there exists a U ∈ GLn(R) such that A ± U ∈ GLn(R).

  8. Wasted Food, Wasted Energy: The Embedded Energy in Food Waste in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Michael E. Webber

    2010-01-01

    This work estimates the energy embedded in wasted food annually in the United States. We calculated the energy intensity of food production from agriculture, transportation, processing, food sales, storage, and preparation for 2007 as 8080 ± 760 trillion BTU. In 1995 approximately 27% of edible food was wasted. Synthesizing these food loss figures with our estimate of energy consumption for different food categories and food production steps, while normalizing for different production volumes...

  9. The honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae: transmissible via food exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Smith

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097. Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%. Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

  10. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  11. Food consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today’s industrial food system has created a food supply that is more plentiful and inexpensive than at any time in history. Nearly a fifth of the U.S. workforce is engaged in producing, manufacturing, distributing, preparing, or selling this food. Food is at the nexus of some of the most signific...

  12. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  13. United States/Mexico electricity exchanges. [History, incentives, and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    As a result of the agreement between the respective presidents, a joint study was undertaken to analyze the possibilities of increasing the international electricity exchange between the two countries. Responsibility for this undertaking was assigned to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and to the Direccion de Energia de Mexico (DEM) through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Representatives from Mexico and the US were chosen from the regional utilities along the border between the two countries and made up working groups that particiated in the study. With the support of both governments, and a high degree of cooperation between the two countries, work on the study was completed within fourteen months The completion of the study has been a major step in broadening the base of bilateral energy relations. the study highlights the opportunities for increased electricity exchanges, which could increase cooperation along the common border. Expansion of electricity interchange could offer substantial economic benefit to both countries, both directly and indirectly. Direct benefits include increased reliability of electric power and cost savings through economies of scale and diversity of peak demand patterns. Indirect benefits include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. This report provides background on the history of past exchanges and the characteristics of the US and Mexico electric systems, a summary of opportunities and incentives, and suggestions for procedures to remove obstacles and constraints.

  14. Ion exchange at TNX using the SKID unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.; Bibler, J.P.

    1993-10-21

    An ion exchange unit has been manufactured for WSRC by British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. This unit consists of three columns, ancillary valving, pumps, lines, and computer controls. It has been delivered to TNX for use in testing a cesium-specific ion exchange resin, developed at WSRC as a potential second generation process for the decontamination of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) supernate. This resin also has Department of Energy applications at both Oak Ridge and Hanford. Oak Ridge is interested in decontaminating the Melton Valley storage tank supernate, while Hanford is interested in decontaminating the 101-AW and 101-SY supernate streams. Another potential developmental interest is the Savannah River Site (SRS) DWPF recycle stream. The three primary waste streams of interest are the Oak Ridge, Hanford, and SRS, SWPF supernate streams. For these three waste streams, the cesium decontamination factor (DF) will be measured for a non-radioactive, simulated, high-level waste solution. The test objectives, process outlines, and broad characterization of the waste streams are described.

  15. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Per Engelseth

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Finding...

  16. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Jim; Grant, K A; Little, C L

    2006-12-01

    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption. The disease is rare in the United Kingdom, and only 62 cases have been recognized between 1922 and 2005. This report provides a brief review of C. botulinum and food-borne botulism as well as descriptions of the six episodes (33 cases with three deaths) of this disease that occurred in the United Kingdom between 1989 and 2005. The six incidents illustrate the importance of the risk factors of poor processing or storage of commercially prepared foods, improper home preservation of foods and travel to countries where botulism is much more common than in the United Kingdom. Even small outbreaks of food-borne botulism can precipitate a national emergency and inundate public health and acute care provision. This report provides a reminder to public health professions of the occurrence, diagnosis, treatment and control of this rare but serious food-borne disease.

  17. Policies Supporting Local Food in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. Martinez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Local food has been the subject of federal, state, and local government policies in recent years throughout the United States as consumer demand has grown. Local foods have been linked to several government priorities—including enhancing the rural economy, the environment, and supporting agricultural producers. This article provides an overview of U.S. Federal, State and regional policies designed to support local food systems. It details the latest economic information on policy, relying on findings from several national surveys and a synthesis of recent literature. Federal policies related to local food systems were greatly expanded by the 2008 Farm Bill, and are further expanded in the Agricultural Act of 2014. United States policies address several barriers to the further expansion of local food markets, including scaling up output of small farms to address the needs of larger commercial outlets, lack of infrastructure for increasing local food sales, ability to trace product source, and producer education regarding local food expansion.

  18. Unit Operations for the Food Industry: Equilibrium Processes & Mechanical Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Unit operations are an area of engineering that is at the same time very fascinating and most essential for the industry in general and the food industry in particular. This book was prepared in a way to achieve simultaneously the academic and practical perspectives. It is organized into two parts: the unit operations based on equilibrium processes and the mechanical operations. Each topic starts with a presentation of the fundamental concepts and principles, followed by a discussion of ...

  19. Harmonised information exchange between decentralised food composition database systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, Heikki; Christensen, Tue; Martínez de Victoria, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Access Protocol, Web Service Description Language and Extensible Markup Language (XML). A specifically constructed EuroFIR search facility (eSearch) was designed for end users. The EuroFIR eSearch facility compiles queries using a specifically designed Food Data Query Language and sends a request...

  20. Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

  1. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  2. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Ethnic Heritage Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Theresia

    Designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines, this teaching guide focuses on ethnic foods and their influence on and contributions to America's eating habits. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to develop a knowledge and an appreciation of the food…

  3. CONCEPT OF A SUSTAINABLE FOOD-GROWING UNIT ON MARS

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Mariia

    2016-01-01

    Present thesis relies on sustainable approach and the Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design. Concept development of a food-growing unit on Mars is a part of a challenge named “Sustainable Human Habitation of Mars” stated by NASA’s Epic Challenge Joensuu educational program. The thesis is a result of my collaboration with BioMars team that represents our vision on a food-growing system, which should be able to function independently beyond the Earth. The project at hand was carried out ...

  4. Unwanted childbearing and household food insecurity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani A; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-04-01

    Household food insecurity is a population health concern disproportionately affecting families with children in the United States. Unwanted childbearing may place unanticipated strain on families to meet basic needs, heightening the risk for household food insecurity. We investigated the association between mother's and father's report of unwanted childbearing and exposure to household food insecurity among children residing in two-parent households in the United States. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort, a nationally representative cohort of US children (n ∼ 6150), were used to estimate the odds of household food insecurity when children were aged 9 months and 2 years, separately, based on parental report of unwanted childbearing. The majority of children were reported as wanted by both parents (74.4%). Of the sample, report of unwanted childbearing by father-only was 20.0%, mother-only was 3.4% and joint mother and father was 2.2%. Household food insecurity was higher when children were 9 months compared with 2 years. In adjusted models accounting for confounders, children born to mothers and fathers who jointly reported unwanted childbearing were at higher odds of exposure to household food insecurity at 9 months [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.97, 5.57] and 2 years (AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.68). In two-parent households, we found that children raised by parents reporting unwanted childbearing were more likely to be exposed to food insecurity and potentially related stressors. Further studies that prospectively measure wantedness before the child's birth will aid in confirming the direction of this association.

  5. Acculturation Experiences of Taiwanese Students during Exchanges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie (Ya-Ping); Bei, Lienti; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the acculturation experience of Taiwanese students who attended universities in the United States as exchange students. Hofstede's four dimensions of culture provided a framework for developing questions. Eight exchange students were interviewed. Taiwanese students realized there was a lower power distance…

  6. Acculturation Experiences of Taiwanese Students during Exchanges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie (Ya-Ping); Bei, Lienti; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the acculturation experience of Taiwanese students who attended universities in the United States as exchange students. Hofstede's four dimensions of culture provided a framework for developing questions. Eight exchange students were interviewed. Taiwanese students realized there was a lower power distance…

  7. A Bayesian analysis of the unit root in real exchange rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Schotman (Peter); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a posterior odds analysis of the hypothesis of a unit root in real exchange rates. From a Bayesian viewpoint the random walk hypothesis for real exchange rates is a posteriori as probable as a stationary AR(1) process for four out of eight time series investigated. The French

  8. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established.

  9. Cation exchange at the secondary building units of metal–organic frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Brozek, Carl Kavanaugh; Dinca, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Cation exchange is an emerging synthetic route for modifying the secondary building units (SBUs) of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). This technique has been used extensively to enhance the properties of nanocrystals and molecules, but the extent of its applications for MOFs is still expanding. To harness cation exchange as a rational tool, we need to elucidate its governing factors. Not nearly enough experimental observations exist for drawing these conclusions, so we provide a conceptual fra...

  10. Cassia Cinnamon as a source of Coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamon is one of the most popular flavoring agents in the United States. Some cinnamon varieties and cinnamon flavored food sold in US could be potential sources of coumarin. Coumarin is banned from food in the United States due to its potential adverse side effects. An ultra-performance liquid ch...

  11. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  12. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  13. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAWADI, Hiba A.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.; TAYYEM, Reema F.; MEKARY, Rania; TUURI, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients’ weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). Results Significant correlations (P < 0.001) were found between macronutrient content obtained from proximate analysis and those obtained from ESHA. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.92 for carbohydrate, 0.86 for protein, and 0.86 for fat. Strong correlations were also detected between proximate analysis FCT for carbohydrate (r=0.91, P<0.001) and protein (r=0.81; P<0.001) contents. However, this significant correlation was not found as strong, yet significant for fat (r=0. 62, P<0.001). Conclusion A valid exchange system for traditional desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World. PMID:21841913

  14. Cockroaches that exchange respiratory gases discontinuously survive food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic rate and respiratory gas exchange patterns vary significantly both between and within species, even after a number of biotic and abiotic factors are taken into account. This suggests that such variation is of evolutionary importance, but the life history implications of this variation remain relatively poorly characterized. In the present study, we examine the effect of metabolic variation on starvation and desiccation resistance in the speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. We also compare the starvation and desiccation resistance of individuals that exchange respiratory gases continuously with those that breathe discontinuously. We show that metabolic rate has no effect on survival during food and water restriction, but cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) live longer than those that do not and those provisioned with water lived longer than those that were not. This finding represents the first demonstration that DGCs confer a fitness benefit, and supports the oldest hypothesis for the evolution of DGCs (which suggests that DGCs arose or are maintained to reduce respiratory water loss) as we also reveal reduced water loss (both respiratory and total) in cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. (ed.)

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  16. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  17. COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS OF UNCONVENTIONAL CHP UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durcansky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An unconventional CHP unit with a hot air engine is designed as the primary energy source with fuel in the form of biomass. The heat source is a furnace designed for combustion of biomass, whether in the form of wood logs or pellets. The transport of energy generated by the biomass combustion to the working medium of a hot-air engine is ensured by a special heat exchanger connected to this resource. The correct operation of the hot-air engine is largely dependent on an appropriate design of the exchanger. The paper deals with the calculation of the heat exchanger for the applicationsmentioned, using criterion equations, and based on CFD simulations.

  18. Food Banks, United States, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent facilities that recover wasted food to feed people across theUS. Food bank information was collected in 2015...

  19. Food and Nutrition. Volume II. Units VI-VIII: Fruit, Fats, Vegetables, Legumes, Grains, Meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honse, Elizabeth Linsenbardt

    These instructional materials are intended as a guide for the instructor of a secondary home economics course in food and nutrition. Topics covered in the three units are time, energy, and resource management; selection, care, preparation, and storage of food (seven lessons on dairy foods; fats and oils; cereals and breads; fruits and vegetables;…

  20. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Liu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.

  1. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Liu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.

  2. Food, not nutrients, is the fundamental unit in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David R; Tapsell, Linda C

    2007-10-01

    The identification of nutrients and the study of their bioactivity were significant developments in the evolution of contemporary nutrition science. This review argues for shifting the focus towards food in order to better understand the nutrition-health interface. It begins by introducing the concept of food synergy (a perspective that more information can be obtained by looking at foods than at single food components) to denote the action of the food matrix (the composite of naturally occurring food components) on human biological systems. A proposal is then made for the means by which food-focused research might build the knowledge base for etiologic discovery and appropriate dietary advice. The diet-heart disease dilemma is put forward as an example of where a nutrient-based approach has limitations, and a summary of studies targeting food composition strengthens the case for a food-based approach. Finally, the argument is made that evidence from interventions points back to the central position of food in the relationship between nutrition and health, a position that begs for more whole food-based research.

  3. Difficulty in the food environment and the experience of food insecurity among refugees resettled in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Patil, Crystal L; Nahayo, Djona

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in 281 refugees resettled in the United States. Participants were recruited through a resettlement center and word of mouth. In addition to measures of socioeconomic status, education, time in the U.S., and food insecurity, we also measured individual difficulty in navigating the food environment using a food difficulty scale. Only 23% of the sample did not endorse any of the food insecurity items. Nearly half of the sample also noted difficulty in navigating the food environment. Food insecurity scores above the median were predicted by both income and non-income variables. In a multivariable logistic model, income and having more than one year of education were associated with lower food insecurity (p food environment" was associated with high food insecurity (p < .01). Results suggest that income is an important constraint but that non-income variables may also be important determinants of food insecurity.

  4. Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning from a military unit lunch party - United States, July 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    On July 30, 2012, the emergency department at a military hospital was visited by 13 persons seeking care for gastrointestinal illness with onset 2-3 hours after a work lunch party. The hospital responded by opening up temporary evaluation and treatment capacity in primary-care clinics and a progressive-care unit and by diverting one patient to a local civilian hospital. An immediate outbreak investigation was conducted by local military public health personnel with assistance from CDC. Initial epidemiologic analysis implicated "perlo" (a chicken, sausage, and rice dish) and bacterial intoxication as the outbreak mechanism. This enabled public health personnel to 1) recommend no further consumption of perlo and 2) reassure appropriate authorities that no additional ill persons likely would be seeking care and advise that nothing more than supportive care of ill persons likely would be required. After interviewing party attendees, investigators found nine additional persons who met their case definition. Subsequent CDC laboratory analysis of a sample of perlo detected staphylococcal enterotoxin A, supporting the epidemiologic findings. Improper food handling and preparation measures were identified and addressed by the appropriate authorities, who provided additional detailed education on food preparation safety for the persons who prepared the meal.

  5. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household fo...

  6. “Indigenizing” Food Sovereignty. Revitalizing Indigenous Food Practices and Ecological Knowledges in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Coté

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food sovereignty movement initiated in 1996 by a transnational organization of peasants, La Via Campesina, representing 148 organizations from 69 countries, became central to self-determination and decolonial mobilization embodied by Indigenous peoples throughout the world. Utilizing the framework of decolonization and sustainable self-determination, this article analyzes the concept of food sovereignty to articulate an understanding of its potential for action in revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledge in the United States and Canada. The food sovereignty movement challenged the hegemony of the globalized, neoliberal, industrial, capital-intensive, corporate-led model of agriculture that created destructive economic policies that marginalized small-scale farmers, removed them from their land, and forced them into the global market economy as wage laborers. Framed within a larger rights discourse, the food sovereignty movement called for the right of all peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the right to define their own food and agricultural systems. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty moves beyond a rights based discourse by emphasizing the cultural responsibilities and relationships Indigenous peoples have with their environment and the efforts being made by Indigenous communities to restore these relationships through the revitalization of Indigenous foods and ecological knowledge systems as they assert control over their own foods and practices.

  7. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  8. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.

  9. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  10. Design of Heat Exchanger Network for VCM Distillation Unit Using Pinch Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHAL G. BOKAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In process industries, heat exchanger networks represent an important part of the plant structure. The purpose of the networks is to maximize heat recovery, thereby lowering the overall plant costs. In process industries, during operation of any heat exchanger network (HEN, the major aim is to focus on the best performance of the network As in present condition of fuel crises is one of the major problem faced by many country & industrial utility is majorly depend on this. There is technique called process integration which is used for integrate heat within loop so optimize the given process and minimize the heating load and cooling load .In the present study of heat integration on VCM (vinyl chloride monomer distillation unit, Heat exchanger network (HEN is designed by using Aspen energy analyzer V8.0 software. This software implements a methodology for HEN synthesis with the use of pinch technology. Several heat integration networks are designed with different ΔT min and total annualized cost compared to obtain the optimal design. The network with a ΔT min of 90C is the most optimal where the largest energy savings are obtained with the appropriate use of utilities (Save 15.3764% for hot utilities and 47.52% for cold utilities compared with the current plant configuration. Percentage reduction in total operating cost is 18.333%. From calculation Payback Period for new design is 3.15 year. This save could be done through a plant revamp, with the addition of two heat exchangers. This improvement are done in the process associated with this technique are not due to the use of advance unit operation, but to the generation of heat integration scheme. The Pinch Design Method can be employed to give good designs in rapid time and with minimum data.

  11. Genetic variation and exchange in Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a multiclonal parasite with high levels of genetic diversity and broad host and geographic ranges. Molecular characterization of South American isolates of T. cruzi has demonstrated homologous recombination and nuclear hybridization, as well as the presence of 6 main genetic clusters or "discrete typing units" (DTUs. Few studies have extensively investigated such exchange events and genetic diversity in North American isolates. In the current study, we genetically characterized over 50 US isolates from wildlife reservoirs (e.g., raccoons, opossums, armadillos, skunks, domestic dogs, humans, nonhuman primates, and reduviid vectors from nine states (TX, CA, OK, SC, FL, GA, MD, LA, TN using a multilocus sequencing method. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in sequences of the mismatch-repair class 2 (MSH2 and Tc52 genes. Typing based on the two genes often paralleled genotyping by classic methodologies using mini-exon and 18S and 24Sα rRNA genes. Evidence for genetic exchange was obtained by comparing sequence phylogenies of nuclear and mitochondrial gene targets, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS and the cytochrome oxidase subunit II- NADH dehydrogenase subunit I region (COII-ND1, respectively. We observed genetic exchange in several US isolates as demonstrated by incongruent mitochondrial and nuclear genes phylogenies, which confirms a previous finding of a single genetic exchange event in a Florida isolate. The presence of SNPs and evidence of genetic exchange illustrates that strains from the US are genetically diverse, even though only two phylogenetic lineages have been identified in this region.

  12. Genetic variation and exchange in Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Savage, Mason Y; Fujita, A Wendy; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Steurer, Frank J; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a multiclonal parasite with high levels of genetic diversity and broad host and geographic ranges. Molecular characterization of South American isolates of T. cruzi has demonstrated homologous recombination and nuclear hybridization, as well as the presence of 6 main genetic clusters or "discrete typing units" (DTUs). Few studies have extensively investigated such exchange events and genetic diversity in North American isolates. In the current study, we genetically characterized over 50 US isolates from wildlife reservoirs (e.g., raccoons, opossums, armadillos, skunks), domestic dogs, humans, nonhuman primates, and reduviid vectors from nine states (TX, CA, OK, SC, FL, GA, MD, LA, TN) using a multilocus sequencing method. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in sequences of the mismatch-repair class 2 (MSH2) and Tc52 genes. Typing based on the two genes often paralleled genotyping by classic methodologies using mini-exon and 18S and 24Sα rRNA genes. Evidence for genetic exchange was obtained by comparing sequence phylogenies of nuclear and mitochondrial gene targets, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and the cytochrome oxidase subunit II- NADH dehydrogenase subunit I region (COII-ND1), respectively. We observed genetic exchange in several US isolates as demonstrated by incongruent mitochondrial and nuclear genes phylogenies, which confirms a previous finding of a single genetic exchange event in a Florida isolate. The presence of SNPs and evidence of genetic exchange illustrates that strains from the US are genetically diverse, even though only two phylogenetic lineages have been identified in this region.

  13. The Climate Change and Economic Impacts of Food Waste in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Venkat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This study analyzes the climate change and economic impacts of food waste in the United States. Using loss-adjusted national food availability data for 134 food commodities, it calculates the greenhouse gas emissions due to wasted food using life cycle assessment and the economic cost of the waste using retail prices. The analysis shows that avoidable food waste in the US exceeds 55 million metric tonnes per year, nearly 29% of annual production. This waste produces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of at least 113 million metric tonnes of CO2e annually, equivalent to 2% of national emissions, and costs $198 billion.

  14. China's new problems of food security revealed by the Food Equivalent Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong LIN,Ruichao LI,Cangyu JIN,Chong WANG,Maohong WEI,Jizhou REN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available China's food security has a great influence on the world, and has always been the top priority in China. In recent years, as the concept of food security is evolving into one of nutrition security and the importance of food diversity is increasing, research based on nutrition security and broad food systems are increasingly needed in today's China. Thus, not only grain for human consumption, but also animal foods have been integrated into the Food Equivalent, which is used to analyze China's current agriculture system and reveal the water resource distribution. The results indicated that the average animal food consumption has risen by 78.6%, and now China's daily supply of animal food per capita has reached about 50% of that in the USA and 80% of that in the South Korea. So there exist an obvious disparity in animal food supply between China and these two countries. It is impossible for the China's current agricultural system to achieve the level in the USA. Under China's current agricultural system, the consumption proportion of feed grain had surpassed the consumption of food grain, increased sharply from 33% in 1992 to 67% in 2011. However, the growth potential of total grain output is approaching an upper limit, so the continued growth of feed grain demand exerts great pressure on the China's food supply. The discordance of the spatial distribution of water resource and virtual water revealed that China's current agriculture system had a low efficiency in being able to achieve food and nutrition security. China's current "grain farming" cannot meet the demand of increasing nutrition and appropriate resource utilization. The implementation of grassland agriculture appears feasible and necessary for saving feed grain, providing a large number of high-quality animal foods and appropriate water resource utilization.

  15. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common.

  16. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  17. An enzymatic method for the determination of fructans in foods and food products - Comparison of the results by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperemetric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Sørensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    effects than the fructanase reported as normally used. The method is tested on ten standard substances and five fructan products, and nine foods and food products are also analysed. The enzymatic measurement of the released sugars is confirmed by measurements done by high performance anion exchange......We report a new and non-equipment demanding method of measuring the content of fructans as well as the contents of free glucose, free fructose and sucrose in foods and food products enzymatically. This method comprises hydrolysis of fructans into D-glucose and D-fructose enzymatically...... and measurement of the released sugars enzymatically. Sucrose is hydrolysed by alpha-glucosidase instead of beta-fructosidase, which is normally used. In addition, sucrose is measured in the form of D-fructose instead of the typical D-glucose form, and the fructanase used to hydrolyse the fructans has fewer side...

  18. Exploring the Consumption of Organic Foods in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan A. A. Al-Taie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of organic food consumption in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, examine the consumers’ perceptions of the effects of organic foods on human health and the environment, and investigate the factors that limit the consumption of organic foods. Five hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed to communities in the UAE from October to December 2013, and 266 questionnaires were completed and returned giving us a response rate of 53%. Our findings indicated that organic food is more recognized among the youth. Furthermore, organic fish, fruits, and chocolates are consumed more than other types of organic foods. Health and environmental awareness are the main reasons that people consume organic foods. Moreover, the development of society, an individual’s social level and peers, and advertisements encourage people to buy organic foods by presenting the consumption of organic foods as a new trendy lifestyle that generates a type of prestige. Conversely, cost, availability, shelf life, taste, and a lack of knowledge are the main factors that limit the consumption of organic foods. We recommend that organic foods should be highlighted more through research, media, lectures, and health campaigns to enhance the public’s knowledge of organic foods. Moreover, we believe that the cost of organic foods could be reduced by increasing the number of standard local organic food farms throughout the UAE.

  19. The Senegal Project: A Cultural Foods Unit for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Senegal Project is the culminating project in a unit on cultural foods in an 8th grade family and consumer sciences (FCS) course. Initially, students take a quick world tour by studying and cooking foods from Mexico, Italy, China, and India followed by a "more depth and less breadth" study of Senegal, a country with a culture vastly…

  20. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Organic Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Reid; Zakhour, Christine M; Gould, L Hannah

    2016-11-01

    Consumer demand for organically produced foods is increasing in the United States as well as globally. Consumer perception often credits organic foods as being safer than conventionally produced foods, although organic standards do not directly address safety issues such as microbial or chemical hazards. We reviewed outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System where the implicated food was reported to be organic. Information collected for each outbreak included the year, state, number of illnesses, pathogen, and implicated food. We identified 18 outbreaks caused by organic foods from 1992 to 2014, resulting in 779 illnesses, 258 hospitalizations, and 3 deaths; 56% of outbreaks occurred from 2010 to 2014. Nine outbreaks occurred in a single state, and nine outbreaks were multistate. Salmonella sp. (44% of outbreaks) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (33%) were the most commonly occurring pathogens. Eight of the outbreaks were attributed to produce items, four to unpasteurized dairy products, two to eggs, two to nut and seed products, and two to multi-ingredient foods. Fifteen (83%) outbreaks were associated with foods that were definitely or likely U.S. Department of Agriculture certified. More foodborne outbreaks associated with organic foods in the United States have been reported in recent years, in parallel with increases in organic food production and consumption. We are unable to assess risk of outbreaks due to organic foods compared with conventional foods because foodborne outbreak surveillance does not systematically collect food production method. Food safety requires focused attention by consumers, regardless of whether foods are produced organically or conventionally. Consumers should be aware of the risk of milk and produce consumed raw, including organic.

  1. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities... agreement offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA... voluntary program. Warehouse operators that apply for USWA licensing agree to be licensed, comply with...

  2. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States ] Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... licenses for agricultural products include grain, cotton, nuts, cottonseed, and dry beans....

  3. Hepatitis A Infections Among Food Handlers in the United States, 1993–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Umid M.; Kentenyants, Karine; Groeger, Justina; Roberts, Henry; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed news reports of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handlers in the United States from 1993 to 2011 using the LexisNexis® search engine. Using U.S. news reports, we identified 192 HAV-infected food handlers who worked while infectious; of these HAV-infected individuals, 34 (18%) transmitted HAV to restaurant patrons. News reports of HAV-infected food handlers declined from 1993 to 2011. This analysis suggests that universal childhood vaccination contributed to the decrease in reports of HAV-infected food handlers, but mandatory vaccination of this group is unlikely to be cost-effective. PMID:26843666

  4. Hepatitis A Infections Among Food Handlers in the United States, 1993-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Umid M; Kentenyants, Karine; Groeger, Justina; Roberts, Henry; Holmberg, Scott D; Collier, Melissa G

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed news reports of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handlers in the United States from 1993 to 2011 using the LexisNexis® search engine. Using U.S. news reports, we identified 192 HAV-infected food handlers who worked while infectious; of these HAV-infected individuals, 34 (18%) transmitted HAV to restaurant patrons. News reports of HAV-infected food handlers declined from 1993 to 2011. This analysis suggests that universal childhood vaccination contributed to the decrease in reports of HAV-infected food handlers, but mandatory vaccination of this group is unlikely to be cost-effective.

  5. Fast food perceptions: a pilot study of college students in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rachel; Dundes, Lauren

    2008-09-01

    Comparing survey data of college students from Spain and the United States provides insight into how perceptions about fast food are culture and gender-specific. More American college males (61%) considered value (amount of food for the money) to be a priority than did other respondents (35%) and relatively few American college males (29%) cited nutritional status as important (versus 60% of other college respondents). Convenience of fast food is more important to Americans (69%) than Spaniards (48%) while more Spanish college students (49%) than Americans (18%) objected to the proliferation of fast food establishments in their own countries.

  6. Food costs, diet quality and energy balance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andrea; Frazão, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    The high obesity rates and poor diet quality in the United States, particularly among low income populations, are often attributed to low income, low food access, and high food prices of healthy foods. This paper discusses these associations and questions some of the metrics used to measure food prices. The paper argues that 1. On average, Americans consume diets that need improvement and there is only a very limited relationship between income and diet quality; 2. The way the food price is measured makes a difference in the perception of how expensive healthy and less healthy food is; 3. The way Americans allocate their food budgets between healthy and less healthy foods is not in line with healthy diets; and 4. At any food spending level there are households that purchase healthy (and unhealthy) diets, including budgets at or below the maximum allotment for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which provides a means for low-income households to purchase food. Our key finding is that healthy foods and diets are affordable, but policy makers, nutrition educators, researchers and the media need to focus on promoting this message, and providing additional guidance on making the changes for Americans to switch to a healthy and affordable diet.

  7. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  8. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  9. Anticipation of future notifications to EFSA of microbial taxonomic units intentionally introduced into the food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available EFSA requested the preparation and prioritisation of a list of microorganism species likely to be notified to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the future in the regulatory context of food and feed additives, food enzymes and food flavourings by consulting the following EFSA scientific Units (Food Ingredients and Packaging (FIP, FEED, Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMO, Pesticides. This list is intended to be considered for the annual updates and reviews of the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS recommended list of biological agents. EFSA’s QPS assessment has entered EU law only recently with the publication of a new Commission Implementing Regulation No 562/2012 regarding specific data required for risk assessment of food enzymes having regard to Regulation (EC No 1331/2008 establishing a common authorising procedure for food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings and to the EFSA guidance on data requirements for the evaluation of food enzyme applications. An EFSA internal working group (WG prepared a list of microorganism species that maybe likely to be notified to EFSA in the near future based on available information relevant in the legal framework. A high number of application dossiers for risk assessment of enzymes are expected to be submitted until March 2015 in the context of enzyme safety evaluation to the FIP Unit and Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel. It is therefore recommended to consider the list as soon as possible by the annual QPS WG of the Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel to avoid where possible any unnecessary toxicity testing for taxonomic units which would potentially receive a QPS recommendation.

  10. Survey of care and evaluation of East African burn unit feasibility: an academic burn center exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Giiti, Geofrey; Gallagher, James J

    2013-01-01

    Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, partnered with Weill Bugando Medical College and Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital, in Mwanza, Tanzania, to consider the development of a burn unit there. This institutional partnership provided a unique opportunity to promote sustainable academic exchange and build burn care capacity in the East African region. A Weill Cornell burn surgeon and burn fellow collaborated with the Sekou Toure department of surgery to assess its current burn care capabilities and potential for burn unit development. All aspects of interdisciplinary burn care were reviewed and institutional infrastructure evaluated. Sekou Toure is a 375-bed regional referral center and teaching hospital of Weill Bugando Medical College. In 2010-2011, it admitted 5244 pediatric patients in total; 100 of these patients were burn-injured children (2% of admissions). There was no specific data kept on percentage of body surface burned, degree of burn, length of stay, or complications. No adult, operative, or outpatient burn data were available. There are two operating theaters. Patient's families perform wound care with nursing supervision. Rehabilitation therapists consult as needed. Meals are provided three times daily by a central kitchen. Public health outreach is possible through village-based communication networks. Infrastructure to support the development of a burn care unit exists at Sekou Toure, but needs increased clinical focus, human resource capacity building, and record-keeping to track accurate patient numbers. A multidisciplinary center could improve record-keeping and outcomes, encourage referrals, and facilitate outreach through villages.

  11. Revisiting the Unit Root Hypothesis and Structural Break: Asia and Emerging Economies Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the stationary of ten Asian and for emerging Foreign Exchange (FX rates during the 1990s. The paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF unit root test to the following FX rates: Hong Kong Dollar (HKD Japanese Yen (JPY, South Korean won (KRW new Taiwan dollar (TWN, Chinese Renminbl (CHR, Indonesia Rupiah (IDR, Malaysian Ringgit (MYR, Singapore Dollar (SGD, Thai Bhat (THB, Philippines Peso (PHP, Argentine Peso (AGP, the Brazilian Real (BRR, Mexican Peso (MXP and Russian Rouble (RUR. Structural break is taken into account for series found to be non-stationary using the[1] test. The results show that exchange rate series were found to be non-stationary except for the Chinese Renminbi, Mexican and Argentina pesos. Furthermore, the robustness test indicates that the ADF test is robust across different data frequencies for most series we examined finally; we find the choice of structural break data is crucial in testing that stationary for most series examined.

  12. Efficient branch-and-bound algorithms for the synthesis of minimum-unit heat exchanger networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocsny, D.; Govind, R. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (US))

    1988-01-01

    Several recent schemes have been advanced in the literature for formulating the synthesis of minimum-unit heat exchanger networks as mixed-integer linear programming problems. Until now, no special-purpose algorithms have been proposed for solving the resulting models. In this work, a branch-and-bound algorithm is described, which uses Balinski's relaxation to generate a succession of linear programs, along with the transportation simplex algorithm to solve each subproblem. Careful attention is given to the structuring of constraints to take maximum advantage of the information represented by the process pinch and the problem table residuals. Computational examples are presented which show a substantial performance improvement over currently available general-purpose branch-and-bound codes. The effects of varying the branch selection rules are described.

  13. Poultry: the most common food in outbreaks with known pathogens, United States, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, S J; Cole, D; Nisler, A; Mahon, B E

    2017-01-01

    As poultry consumption continues to increase worldwide, and as the United States accounts for about one-third of all poultry exports globally, understanding factors leading to poultry-associated foodborne outbreaks in the United States has important implications for food safety. We analysed outbreaks reported to the United States' Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System from 1998 to 2012 in which the implicated food or ingredient could be assigned to one food category. Of 1114 outbreaks, poultry was associated with 279 (25%), accounting for the highest number of outbreaks, illnesses, and hospitalizations, and the second highest number of deaths. Of the 149 poultry-associated outbreaks caused by a confirmed pathogen, Salmonella enterica (43%) and Clostridium perfringens (26%) were the most common pathogens. Restaurants were the most commonly reported location of food preparation (37% of poultry-associated outbreaks), followed by private homes (25%), and catering facilities (13%). The most commonly reported factors contributing to poultry-associated outbreaks were food-handling errors (64%) and inadequate cooking (53%). Effective measures to reduce poultry contamination, promote safe food-handling practices, and ensure food handlers do not work while ill could reduce poultry-associated outbreaks and illnesses.

  14. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McLean

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the work of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and describes its interest in the application of distance learning strategies pertinent to the challenges of food security and rural development around the world. The article briefly reviews pertinent examples of distance learning, both from the experience of FAO and elsewhere, and summarises a complex debate about the potential of distance learning in developing countries. The paper elaborates five practical suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development. The purpose of publishing this article is both to disseminate our ideas about distance learning to interested professional and scholarly audiences around the world, and to seek feedback from those audiences.

  15. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  16. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K.C.; Shirley Wasswa-Kintu; Haytowitz, David B; Marlon Daniel; Robin Thomas; Bethany Showell; Melissa Nickle; Roseland, Janet M.; Janelle Gunn; Mary Cogswell; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide baseline estimates of sodium levels in 125 popular, sodium-contributing, commercially processed and restaurant foods in the U.S., to assess future changes as manufacturers reformulate foods. Methods: In 2010–2013, we obtained ~5200 sample units from up to 12 locations and analyzed 1654 composites for sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar), as part of the U.S. Department of Agr...

  17. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...

  18. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ study, Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/9/2013.

  19. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in close collaboration with U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention is monitoring the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. The main purpose of this manuscript is to prov...

  20. Non-Linear Advanced Control of the LHC Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Test Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Viñuela, E; De Prada-Moraga, C; Cristea, S

    2002-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include eight interaction region final focus magnet systems, the so-called "Inner Triplet", one on each side of the four beam collision points. The Inner Triplets will be cooled in a static bath of pressurized He II nominally at 1.9 K. This temperature is a control parameter and has very severe constraints in order to avoid the transition from the superconducting to normal resistive state. The main difference in these special zones with respect to a regular LHC cell is higher dynamic heat load unevenly distributed which modifies largely the process characteristics and hence the controller performance. Several control strategies have already been tested at CERN in a pilot plant (LHC String Test) which reproduced a LHC half-cell. In order to validate a common control structure along the whole LHC ring, a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has been developed and implemented in the Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Unit (IT-HXTU) at CERN. Automation of the Inn...

  1. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  2. United States-Chile binational exchange for volcanic risk reduction, 2015—Activities and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Lara Pulgar, Luis E.; Ramos Amigo, Álvaro

    2017-07-25

    In 2015, representatives from the United States and Chile exchanged visits to discuss and share their expertise and experiences dealing with volcano hazards. Communities in both countries are at risk from various volcano hazards. Risks to lives and property posed by these hazards are a function not only of the type and size of future eruptions but also of distances from volcanoes, structural integrity of volcanic edifices, landscape changes imposed by recent past eruptions, exposure of people and resources to harm, and any mitigative measures taken (or not taken) to reduce risk. Thus, effective risk-reduction efforts require the knowledge and consideration of many factors, and firsthand experience with past volcano crises provides a tremendous advantage for this work. However, most scientists monitoring volcanoes and most officials delegated with the responsibility for emergency response and management in volcanic areas have little or no firsthand experience with eruptions or volcano hazards. The reality is that eruptions are infrequent in most regions, and individual volcanoes may have dormant periods lasting hundreds to thousands of years. Knowledge may be lacking about how to best plan for and manage future volcanic crises, and much can be learned from the sharing of insights and experiences among counterpart specialists who have had direct, recent, or different experiences in dealing with restless volcanoes and threatened populations. The sharing of information and best practices can help all volcano scientists and officials to better prepare for future eruptions or noneruptive volcano hazards, such as large volcanic mudflows (lahars), which could affect their communities.

  3. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes treated with sodium metabisulfite, a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencüzogullari, E; Ila, H B; Kayraldiz, A; Topaktaş, M

    2001-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) which is used as an antimicrobial substance in food, to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes. SMB-induced CAs and SCEs at all concentrations (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) and treatment periods (24 and 48h) dose-dependently. However, SMB decreased the replication index (RI) and the mitotic index (MI) at the concentrations of 150 and 300 microg/ml for 24 and 48h treatment periods. This decrease was dose-dependent as well.

  4. Separation of alditols of interest in food products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, C; Canali, G; Cogliandro, E; Nicoletti, I

    1997-12-12

    High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)-pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) employing a CarboPac MA 1 column was investigated with respect to mobile phase composition, linear response characteristics, repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity with different alditols used as sugar substitutes in food and confectionery products. The energy-reduced bulk sweeteners isomalt and maltitol were well resolved in less than 25 min by isocratic elution with 600 mM sodium hydroxide solution. HPAEC-PAD was also successfully applied to the determination of alditols in sugar-free products and a low-calorie sweetener containing sorbitol, mannitol and fructose at different levels.

  5. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  6. Misdescription of packaged foods: a case study from the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanandh, J; Sabbagh, Aman; Maruthamuthu, M

    2013-01-01

    Food misdescription has become of paramount importance as consumers come into contact daily with a great variety of foods. The controversies surrounding genetically modified organism (GMO) labelling and malpractices in the food chain have forced regulatory authorities to authenticate food from production to consumption. This paper reports the results of a surveillance programme conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) market to assess the status of food misdescription and authenticity. A DNA test was used to screen random samples of processed meat products bought from supermarkets in the UAE. A total of 246 samples were analysed from different geographical locations. The majority of samples showed a high standard of legal compliance, with over 95% confirmed for authenticity. However, 5% of samples were found to contain undeclared species. In conclusion, this study confirms the presence of undeclared food in the UAE market. Regular surveillance and monitoring programmes along with strict implementation of the Food and Adulteration Act may alleviate misdescription issues to a greater extent.

  7. The Food Store. Grade 1. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Coleen; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of business and sales, this unit entitled "The Food Store" is one of four grade one units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC)…

  8. Food waste in the United States: A contributing factor toward environmental instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHickey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The world’s population continues to increase at record rates along with corresponding nutritional needs and related agricultural consequences. In the United States, food waste levels serve as dominant components of land-fill masses, oil and freshwater waste, methane and CO2 emissions, damage to wildlife ecosystems, and substantial financial losses. Agricultural effects on the environment were investigated through various research studies, referenced in this document, and efforts made toward food waste recycling were discussed as noteworthy models concerning improvements in sustainable agricultural practices. Food waste levels in the United States can be traced as faults of consumers, agricultural businesses, as well as federal legislation and there is an evident need for reform to maintain consumer health, viable foreign affairs, and environmental sustainability. Present agricultural practices are intense and rapid, increasing the risk of soil infertility and commercial alterations in production yields; repercussions well documented in neighboring nations. Experts argue that food waste in developed countries damages food availability around the world and, based on current agricultural practices and production, there is debate conc

  9. Barriers over time to full implementation of health information exchange in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Regier, Verna; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2014-09-30

    Although health information exchanges (HIE) have existed since their introduction by President Bush in his 2004 State of the Union Address, and despite monetary incentives earmarked in 2009 by the health information technology for economic and clinical health (HITECH) Act, adoption of HIE has been sparse in the United States. Research has been conducted to explore the concept of HIE and its benefit to patients, but viable business plans for their existence are rare, and so far, no research has been conducted on the dynamic nature of barriers over time. The aim of this study is to map the barriers mentioned in the literature to illustrate the effect, if any, of barriers discussed with respect to the HITECH Act from 2009 to the early months of 2014. We conducted a systematic literature review from CINAHL, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The search criteria primarily focused on studies. Each article was read by at least two of the authors, and a final set was established for evaluation (n=28). The 28 articles identified 16 barriers. Cost and efficiency/workflow were identified 15% and 13% of all instances of barriers mentioned in literature, respectively. The years 2010 and 2011 were the most plentiful years when barriers were discussed, with 75% and 69% of all barriers listed, respectively. The frequency of barriers mentioned in literature demonstrates the mindfulness of users, developers, and both local and national government. The broad conclusion is that public policy masks the effects of some barriers, while revealing others. However, a deleterious effect can be inferred when the public funds are exhausted. Public policy will need to lever incentives to overcome many of the barriers such as cost and impediments to competition. Process improvement managers need to optimize the efficiency of current practices at the point of care. Developers will need to work with users to ensure tools that use HIE resources work into existing workflows.

  10. Problems encountered for food safety with polymer packages: chemical exchange, recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, J M

    1998-11-13

    When a polymer is in contact with a liquid, generally some matter transfers take place: the liquid enters the polymer, while some additives leave the polymer. This fact is responsible for a reduction in the properties of the polymer and pollution of the liquid food is obtained. However, it is sure that, on account of their outstanding properties, food packages are becoming more and more based on polymers. The process of mass transfers is controlled by transient diffusion, and these theoretical problems are so complex that only numerical models are able to resolve them. New difficult problems appear with the desire of recycling old food packages made of polymers by reusing them as new food packages. Of course, because of the potential contamination brought with this recycled polymer, the package is made of bi-layer or tri-layer films where the reused polymer is located between two virgin polymer layers. As it takes some time for the contaminant to diffuse through the virgin layer, this latter plays the role of a functional barrier to pollution. The various difficulties in the whole problem are considered in succession: the coextrusion of the films where a contaminant transfer already occurs; and the effect of the liquid food which may enhance the diffusion of the contaminant. Various master curves are drawn by using dimensionless numbers, so as to make the results quite general and of use from a practical point of view.

  11. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Calorie (kcal of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1°C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal. The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context.

  12. Rice consumption in the United States: recent evidence from food consumption surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Marquez, S Patricia; Jensen, Helen H; Upton, Julie

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about rice consumption, related food intake patterns, and the nutritional contribution that rice provides in the diets of Americans. To provide information about rice consumption in the United States and the diets of rice consumers. Data come from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2002). Respondents report 24-hour recall dietary intakes. The amount of rice available in foods is estimated using the Food Commodity Intake Database. Consumers are classified based on the amount of rice they consume in foods. The analysis includes information from adult individuals: 9,318 from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 4,744 from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weighted percentages and mean values show the food and nutrient intake amounts. Logistic regression analysis is used to examine relationships among economic, social, and demographic factors that affect rice consumption. Rice is consumed by a significant portion of the US adult population. Compared with others who did not consume rice, rice consumers consumed a smaller share of energy per day from fat and saturated fat; more iron and potassium; and more dietary fiber, meat, vegetables, and grains. Race/ethnicity and education are determinants of the probability of consuming rice, and more so than low-income status. Rice consumers choose a diet that includes more vegetables, a smaller share of energy from fat and saturated fat, more dietary fiber and more iron than those who do not consume rice; the differences have remained relatively stable over the last decade. Accounting for race/ethnicity and income levels is important for better understanding of factors that affect food choices and for effective design of dietary interventions.

  13. Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the United States: Evidence on their Mutual Interactions (in English)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stavárek

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationships among stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), and in the United States. Both the long- and short-term causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also endeavors to answer the question of whether the linkages between the analyzed economic variables...

  14. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  15. The Use and Exchange of Biological Control Agents for Food and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.van; Lenteren; M.J.W.Cock; J.Brodeur; B.Barratt; F.Bigler; K.Bolckmans; F.Haas; P.G.Mason; J.R.P.Parra

    2010-01-01

    The report sets out to summarize the past and current situation regarding the practice of biologicalcontrol inrelationtothe use and exchange of genetic resources relevant for BCAs.It considers the twomain categories of biological control:classical and augmentative.Allowing access to BCAs for use inanother country imposes no risk of liability to the source country.Local scientific knowledge abouthabitats,fauna andflora,can be helpful

  16. An outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland, United Kingdom, November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L M; Prempeh, H; Little, C; Houston, C; Grant, K; Cowden, J M

    2011-12-08

    An investigation is currently underway to explain an outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland. Three children in the same family were confirmed as having botulism following consumption of a meal made with a jar of korma sauce. Residual sauce from the jar, the jar lid and a remnant of the meal, all tested positive for Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The children are recovering, although two remain ventilated and in intensive care unit.

  17. Food waste in the United States: A contributing factor toward environmental instability

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eHickey; Gulnihal eOzbay

    2014-01-01

    The world's population continues to increase at record rates along with corresponding nutritional needs and related agricultural consequences. In the United States, food waste levels serve as dominant components of land-fill masses, oil and freshwater waste, methane and CO2 emissions, damage to wildlife ecosystems, and substantial financial losses. Agricultural effects on the environment were investigated through various research studies, referenced in this document, and efforts made toward f...

  18. Food packaging regulation in the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jerome H

    2005-06-01

    The regulation of food packaging has, indeed, become a global subject as the world's commercial channels have broadened since World War II. The first comprehensive regulatory statute governing the area was the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 in the United States, a modification of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Belgium began regulatory activity in the early 1960s and the European Community set in motion its own work in this direction beginning in 1976. Companies in the United States and the Europe have been struggling with each of the laws since then. The regulatory systems employed on the two continents are superficially similar but this is far from the truth in actual practice. Each has its own special history and set of exemptions; they vary tremendously. Each has its cadre of supporters as well but a considerable lack of understanding afflicts regulators and the regulated on both sides of the Atlantic. This three part report first discusses the history of the United States system and its characteristics; Book II covers the history of European Union regulations and their salient features; and Book III highlights the commonalities and differences in the systems, discusses their scientific basing points, and makes some recommendations as to how they can be brought closer together in the interests of harmonization and the removal of unnecessary trade barriers.

  19. Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.

    This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

  20. Nutritional implications of patient-provider interactions in hospital settings: evidence from a within-subject assessment of mealtime exchanges and food intake in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, L; Paquet, C; Ma, Z; McKenzie, D St-Arnaud; Kergoat, M-J; Ferland, G

    2007-05-01

    To examine the nutritional implications of the interactions taking place between patients and care providers during mealtimes in hospital settings. Specifically, we tested research propositions that the amount and nature of interpersonal behaviours exchanged between patients and providers impact patients' food intake. These propositions were derived from prior evidence of social influences on eating behaviour and a well-established framework that identifies two fundamental modalities of human interaction: striving for mastery and power (agency) and efforts to promote union with others (communion). In a within-subject naturalistic study, participants were observed on multiple meals (n=1477, 46.2 meals/participant on average), during which participants' and providers' agency- and communion-related behaviours and patients' protein and energy intake were recorded. Meal-level frequency and complementarity of patients' and providers' behaviours were computed to test research propositions. Dining room of a geriatric rehabilitation unit. Thirty-two elderly patients (21 females, mean age:78.8, 95% CI: 76.4, 81.1). Meal-level frequency of patient-provider exchanges (P=0.016) and patients' agency-related behaviours (P=0.029), as well as mutual reciprocation of patients' and providers' communion-related behaviours (P=0.015) on a given meal were positively linked to protein intake. Higher energy intake was found during meals where patients expressed more agency-related behaviours (P=0.029). Results present evidence that the amount and nature of patient-provider interpersonal exchanges on a given meal influence the nutritional quality of food intake in hospitalized elderly. They provide insights into how to improve the design and delivery of routine care to this malnutrition-prone population. This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Operating grant to Laurette Dubé, Doctoral Fellowship to Catherine Paquet) the Fonds de la Recherche en santé du Qu

  1. UHF-RFID solutions for logistics units management in the food supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of systems for automatic and simultaneous identification of several items belonging to a logistics unit during production, warehousing and delivering can improve supply chain management and speed traceability controls. Radio frequency identification (RFID is a powerful technique that potentially permits to reach this goal, but some aspects as, for instance, food product composition (e.g. moisture content, salt or sugar content and some peculiarities of the production environment (high moisture, high/low temperatures, metallic structures have prevented, so far, its application in food sector. In the food industry, composition and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable RF identifier for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags originates simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an extensive analysis of the reading performance of UHF RFID systems for multiple dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered singularly or arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate and reading zone of different factors, among which the type of product, the number and position of antennas, the field polarization, the reader RF power output, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were analysed and compared.

  2. Risk identification in food safety: Strategy and outcomes of the EFSA emerging risks exchange network (EREN), 2010-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M. C.; Goumperis, T.; Andersson, W.

    2017-01-01

    of illegal activity, new consumer consumption trends, biotoxins, new technologies and processes, allergens, animal health, environmental pollution, new analytical methods, new food packaging technology and unknown hazards were on the agenda. Based on the available evidence, EREN recommended whether an issue...... emerging issues that were presented and assessed using a standard template developed by the Emerging Risks unit of EFSA (EMRISK). Out of these signals, 39 originated from EFSA, 24 from MSs. The issues discussed were mainly microbiological and chemical hazards, but also food safety issues as result...... should be considered emerging or not, and if it merited further consideration, such as generating data on the issue, starting a full risk assessment and/or consultation of other bodies. According to the emerging risks identification process set in place at EFSA, the issues discussed and found...

  3. South Africa and United States stock prices and the Rand/Dollar exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ocran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the dynamic causal relations between the two major financial assets, stock prices of the US and South Africa and the rand/US$ exchange rate. The study uses a mixed bag of time series approaches such as cointegration, Granger causality, impulse response functions and forecasting error variance decompositions.  The paper identifies a bi-directional causality from the Standard & Poor’s 500 stock price index to the rand/US$ exchange rate in the Granger sense. It was also found that the Standard & Poor’s stock price index accounts for a significant portion of the variations in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange’s All Share index. Thus, while causality in the Granger sense could not be established for the relationship between the price indices of the two stock exchanges it can argued that there is some relationship between them. The results of the study have implications for both business and Government.

  4. Genetically modified foods in China and the United States: A primer of regulation and intellectual property protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Yuen-Ting Wong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a basic and personal necessity to human. Safety of food is a prime factor to consider apart from nutrition, quality and cost. Genetically modified (GM foods first came on the market in 1994. Yet safety, transparency and traceability of GM foods are still under hot debate. Nonetheless, the market of GM foods is huge and attractive. Regulatory affairs and intellectual property (IP are two critical factors affecting the development and commercial success of a food product. This article will take a look at the GM food technology and regulatory framework for GM foods in China and the United States. This article will also discuss the unique patent issues and non-patent IP tools for safeguarding the technology in these two countries.

  5. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  6. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  7. Ultra-processed food consumption in children from a Basic Health Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenberger, Karen; Friedrich, Roberta Roggia; Schiffner, Mariana Dihl; Schuch, Ilaine; Wagner, Mário Bernardes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of ultra-processed food (UPF) on the dietary consumption of children treated at a Basic Health Unit and the associated factors. Cross-sectional study carried out with a convenience sample of 204 children, aged 2-10 years old, in Southern Brazil. Children's food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Food items were classified as minimally processed, processed for culinary use, and ultra-processed. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to collect socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Overweight in children was classified using a Z score >2 for children younger than 5 and Z score >+1 for those aged between 5 and 10 years, using the body mass index for age. Overweight frequency was 34% (95% CI: 28-41%). Mean energy consumption was 1672.3 kcal/day, with 47% (95% CI: 45-49%) coming from ultra-processed food. In the multiple linear regression model, maternal education (r=0.23; p=0.001) and child age (r=0.40; pfactors associated with a greater percentage of UPF in the diet (r=0.42; pfactor for the consumption of such products. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of a validated food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella H; Sabate, Joan

    2014-07-08

    This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified 'Block Method' using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI) assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p vegans). This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities.

  9. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella H.; Sabate, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI) assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p vegans). This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities. PMID:25006856

  10. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dyett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p < 0.001 for all analyzed nutrients except calcium. Estimates, ranks, trends and higher-level participant percentile placements for Vitamin B12 were similar with both methods. Questionnaire intakes were higher than recalls for most other nutrients. Both methods demonstrated similar trends in DRI adequacy assessment (e.g., significantly inadequate vitamin D intake among vegans. This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities.

  11. Financial management skills are associated with food insecurity in a sample of households with children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig G; Garasky, Steven B

    2012-10-01

    Food insecurity is one of the leading public health challenges facing children in the United States today. Reducing food insecurity and its attendant consequences requires an understanding of the determinants of food insecurity. Although previous work has greatly advanced our understanding of these determinants, the role of one of the oft-speculated important determinants of food insecurity, household financial management skills, has not been considered. To address this research lacuna, we use a recently conducted survey, the Survey of Household Finances and Childhood Obesity, that has information on specific financial management practices, impressions of financial management skills, and households' food insecurity. The sample included 904 households with children. Within this sample, 19.3% were food insecure and, for our central financial management skill variable, the mean value was 3.55 on a 5-point scale. Probit regression models estimated the probability of a household being food insecure as conditional on financial management skills and other covariates. We found a large and significant inverse relationship between a respondent's use of specific financial management practices and food insecurity and between a respondent's confidence in his or her financial management skills and food insecurity. That is, households with greater financial management abilities are less likely to be food insecure. This finding also holds when the sample is restricted to households with incomes poverty line. These results suggest that improving households' financial management skills has the potential to reduce food insecurity in the United States.

  12. Perspectives of South Korean Undergraduate Exchange Students Attending a University in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lishu; Huang, Li-Ching; Hare, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This in-depth study examined the perspectives of 17 Korean undergraduate exchange students attending a U.S. southern university during the 2005-2006 school year. The struggles and frustrations they experienced; the difficulties they encountered socially, culturally, and academically; their contributions to the American academic community; and…

  13. Investigation of the Dynamic Melting Process in a Thermal Energy Storage Unit Using a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic melting process of the phase change material (PCM in a vertical cylindrical tube-in-tank thermal energy storage (TES unit was investigated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. To ensure good heat exchange performance, a concentric helical coil was inserted into the TES unit to pipe the heat transfer fluid (HTF. A numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach was developed based on the enthalpy-porosity method to simulate the unsteady melting process including temperature and liquid fraction variations. Temperature measurements using evenly spaced thermocouples were conducted, and the temperature variation at three locations inside the TES unit was recorded. The effects of the HTF inlet parameters were investigated by parametric studies with different temperatures and flow rate values. Reasonably good agreement was achieved between the numerical prediction and the temperature measurement, which confirmed the numerical simulation accuracy. The numerical results showed the significance of buoyancy effect for the dynamic melting process. The system TES performance was very sensitive to the HTF inlet temperature. By contrast, no apparent influences can be found when changing the HTF flow rates. This study provides a comprehensive solution to investigate the heat exchange process of the TES system using PCM.

  14. Food Insecurity: Its Relationship to Dietary Intake and Body Weight among Somali Refugee Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna M.; Croom, Jamar E.; Sady, Christine G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between food insecurity, dietary intake, and body mass index among Somali refugee women living in the United States. Methods: Cross-sectional study utilizing the snowball sampling method. Results: Most (67%) participants experienced some level of food insecurity, which was common among recent arrivals and…

  15. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  16. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Food Animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that T. gondii is one of three pathogens (along with Salmonella and Listeria), that together account for >70% of all deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Food animals are reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. Based on limited population-based data, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization estimated that approximately 22% of human T. gondii infections are meatborne. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to provide a precise estimation of T. gondii infection prevalence in food animals produced in the United States. Four databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Prevalence was estimated in six animal categories (confinement-raised market pigs, confinement-raised sows, non-confinement-raised pigs, lamb, goats, and non-confinement-raised chickens) by a quality-effects model. A wide variation in prevalence was observed in each animal category. Animals raised outdoors or that have outdoor access had a higher prevalence as compared with animals raised indoors. T. gondii prevalence in non-confinement-raised pigs ranked the highest (31.0%) followed by goats (30.7%), non-confinement-raised chickens (24.1%), lambs (22.0%), confinement-raised sows (16.7%), and confinement-raised market pigs (5.6%). These results indicate that T. gondii-infected animals are a food safety concern. The computed prevalence can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to further predict public health burden.

  17. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  18. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  19. An investigation of a compact heat exchanger unit using CFD with experimental support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peukert Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparison of a numerical simulation with a real experiment. In the measured and simulated device is located a heat exchanger with a centrifugal fan. Due to the fan and the geometrical arrangement the flow is relative uneven and so the heat transfer hard to predict. The simulation should be time and cost affordable, so a standard k-ϵ turbulence model and a relative simple mesh was used for the computations.

  20. An investigation of a compact heat exchanger unit using CFD with experimental support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Pavel; Kolář, Jan; Adámek, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The paper contains a comparison of a numerical simulation with a real experiment. In the measured and simulated device is located a heat exchanger with a centrifugal fan. Due to the fan and the geometrical arrangement the flow is relative uneven and so the heat transfer hard to predict. The simulation should be time and cost affordable, so a standard k-ɛ turbulence model and a relative simple mesh was used for the computations.

  1. Linkages between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stavarek

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationship between stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU-member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU-member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) and in the USA. Both the long-run and short run causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also tries to answer the question whether the linkages between analyzed economic variables are of the similar...

  2. LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Danielle I; Tierney, Audrey C; McCarthy, Sinead; Upritchard, Jane; Vermunt, Susan; Gulseth, Hanne L; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Karlström, Brita; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gallego, Raquel; López-Miranda, José; Siedlecka, Dominika; Malczewska-Malec, Małgorzata; Roche, Helen M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial.

  3. NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management. PMID:20126376

  4. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  5. North American networking activities on non-wood forest products by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Vantomme

    2001-01-01

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is the largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system dealing with agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related disciplines. FAO provides a neutral forum for policy dialogue, a source of information and knowledge, technical assistance, and advice to 180 member countries. Technical...

  6. Incentivizing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Results of a United States Pilot Study of the "Food Dudes" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, Heidi J.; Madden, Gregory J.; Aguilar, Sheryl S.; Smits, Rochelle R.; Jones, Brooke A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preliminary evaluation in the United States (US) of a school-based fruit and vegetable (F/V) intervention, known as the "Food Dudes" (FD) program, developed in the United Kingdom. Methods: Over 16 days (Phase 1), elementary-school children (n = 253) watched short videos featuring heroic peers (the FD) eating F/V and received a…

  7. Hydrometeorological Extremes and Food Security: Lessons from the 2011 and 2012 harvests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.; Roberts, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is both a major global producer of grain and a relatively variable production region. As such, it is an important driver of volatility in global food supply and food prices, which in turn affects food security in many regions. This fact was underscored by the 2012 season, in which a major drought caused production losses, which in turn led to international price increases. However, 2011 also was unusually hot and thus a good illustration of many of the issues surrounding climate change. This paper will discuss progress in modeling the impacts of extreme heat and drought on U.S. corn production, which comes from a combination of empirical and process-based approaches. One important lesson is that drought from the perspective of corn is different than traditional measures of drought, and in particular extreme heat plays a more direct role via effects on vapor pressure deficit. Implications for future impacts, interactions with carbon dioxide, and potential adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  8. FAMILY UNIT PRODUCTION AS ALTERNATIVE TO IMPROVE THE ETHNIC YAQUI FOOD SECURITY IN VICAM, SONORA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillermo Ramírez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The family production unit is a strategy that has Ethnicity Yaqui population for food production at low cost and thus achieve the food sovereignty. This work was carried out in Vicam, where 41 surveys were applied to household which were selected through cooperation of their occupants. The main results indicate that food sovereignty concept is unknow from daily life population in the region; partly, because food production in the region is reduced; besides weather, market and social factors that prevent it. In addition, the family production unit is not a common element among families. However, there are some homes with some spaces, although small ones, for food production and families obtain, in certain seasons, some grains and some vegetables.

  9. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  10. Application of a Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program in critical care: the royal exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren E; Flanders, Sonya A

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the history of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) and how it is used to foster a culture of safety. CUSP involves interdisciplinary teamwork and empowers nurses at all levels to pioneer changes and develop leadership skills. A case study is presented to show how CUSP was used effectively in critical care to create a standardized handover of patients from the operating room to the intensive care unit.

  11. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  12. The minimal autoinhibited unit of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor intersectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Farid Ahmad

    Full Text Available Intersectin-1L is a member of the Dbl homology (DH domain guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF which control Rho-family GTPase signaling. Intersectin-1L is a GEF that is specific for Cdc42. It plays an important role in endocytosis, and is regulated by several partners including the actin regulator N-WASP. Intact intersectin-1L shows low Cdc42 exchange activity, although the isolated catalytic DH domain shows high activity. This finding suggests that the molecule is autoinhibited. To investigate the mechanism of autoinhibition we have constructed a series of domain deletions. We find that the five SH3 domains of intersectin are important for autoinhibition, with the fifth domain (SH3(E being sufficient for the bulk of the autoinhibitory effect. This SH3 domain appears to primarily interact with the DH domain. We have determined the crystal structure of the SH3(E-DH domain construct, which shows a domain swapped arrangement in which the SH3 from one monomer interacts with the DH domain of the other monomer. Analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration, however, show that under biochemical concentrations, the construct is fully monomeric. Thus we propose that the actual autoinhibited structure contains the related intramolecular SH3(E-DH interaction. We propose a model in which this intramolecular interaction may block or distort the GTPase binding region of the DH domain.

  13. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools.

  14. Performance Assessment of the Food Industry of Tehran Stock Exchange Based on Balanced Score Card (BSC Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Asadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Major objective of the present paper was to study the role of balanced score card regarding performance assessment of companies listed in food and beverage industry in the stock exchange. This survey is descriptive and is regarded as a quasi-experimental research plan (Ex-Post design. The statistical population included 200 managers and research sample consisted of 99 persons based on Cochran formula. Questionnaire was used for data collection. Frequency tables and appropriate diagrams were applied to describe data and inferential statistics methods such as student's t-test were used to confirm or reject hypotheses. Variance analysis and t-test for two independent samples were used to study the impact of personal characteristics on responding to the hypotheses. Ranking of improvement degree of indexes for realization of purposes and determining rank of each factor was studied using Friedman test. Results of testing hypotheses reveal it is necessary for organizations to emphasize internal processes more given that planning and implementing efficient and suitable processes in the organization is led to offering appropriate services. About growth and learning scope it is notable that since employees are major capitals of the organization, special attention must be paid to this sector in order to satisfy employees and provide long-term benefits of the organization.

  15. Studying the Relationship between Working Capital Management and Profitability at Tehran Stock Exchange: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Ahmadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the relationship between working capital management and profitability at companies of food industry group member at Tehran Stock Exchange. 33 companies were selected for a period of five years from 2006-2011 and the effect of various variables of working capital management including average accounts collection cycle, inventory turnover, medium-term debt payment and the cash conversion cycle on operational net profit of companies. Current ratio, debt ratio and the company size (which has been measured by natural logarithm of sale was considered as control group (control variable. For data analysis, correlation and regression was used. The results of the study showed that there is a reverse relationship between the variables of working capital management and profitability. It is found out that increasing collection cycle, debt payment period, inventory turnover and cash conversion cycle leads to decreasing profitability in the companies. According to the research findings, managers can create a positive value for stockholders by decreasing collection cycle, debt payment period, inventory turnover and cash conversion cycle to the lowest possible level.

  16. Evaluation of New Schemes Efficacy for Blatta Orientalis and Blattella Germanica Control in Food Units with HACCP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINELA REFUGJATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica are the most common pests in the food industry. The aim of this study is the evaluation of new treatment schemes effectiveness as well as the monetary cost, humans and environment toxicity against Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica. The study was carried out in 28 food units infested with Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis in Tirana. The duration of the study was 24 months. The treatment efficacy of 2.15% imidacloprid (in gel form is tested for 12 months, in thirteen units meanwhile one unit served as a control unit. The monetary cost of insecticide mentioned was calculated using the quantity and treatment duration of insecticide applied. For this reason, we calculated the quantity of gel baits used in seven food units as well as the quantity of insecticide in spray form used in seven others food units for a period of 12 months. Technical and safety data sheets were used to assess human and environment safety. Insect elimination was achieved by the end of the ninth week. This study found that in the units which used imidacloprid the short term cost was 21 Euro / unit, while in other units which used the classic method the cost was 8.3 Euro / unit. Our study identified that at the units which used imidacloprid the annual cost was 68 Euro while in the other category the cost was 78 Euro.Technical and safety data sheets detected that insecticides in gel form are safer for human and environment. As in analog studies conducted by foreign researchers, we found that the use of insecticides in gel form is the right choice for Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica control.

  17. Best practices for the use and exchange of invertebrate biological control genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is an important and environmentally preferred management option for invasive insect pests and weeds. Implementation of new international regulations governing exchange of genetic materials impacts the availability of candidate biocontrol agents, and exchange policies need to be ca...

  18. Sodium content of processed foods in the United Kingdom: analysis of 44,000 foods purchased by 21,000 households123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelin, Cathy; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Webster, Jacqueline L; Neal, Bruce C; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the United Kingdom, sodium reduction targets have been set for a large number of processed food categories. Assessment and monitoring are essential to evaluate progress. Objectives: Our aim was to determine whether household consumer panel food-purchasing data could be used to assess the sodium content of processed foods. Our further objectives were to estimate the mean sodium content of UK foods by category and undertake analyses weighted by food-purchasing volumes. Design: Data were obtained for 21,108 British households between October 2008 and September 2009. Purchasing data (product description, product weight, annual purchases) and sodium values (mg/100 g) were collated for all food categories known to be major contributors to sodium intake. Unweighted and weighted mean sodium values were calculated. Results: Data were available for 44,372 food products. The largest contributors to sodium purchases were table salt (23%), processed meat (18%), bread and bakery products (13%), dairy products (12%), and sauces and spreads (11%). More than one-third of sodium purchased (37%) was accounted for by 5 food categories: bacon, bread, milk, cheese, and sauces. For some food groups (bread and bakery, cereals and cereal products, processed meat), purchase-weighted means were 18–35% higher than unweighted means, suggesting that market leaders have higher sodium contents than the category mean. Conclusion: The targeting of sodium reduction in a small number of food categories and focusing on products sold in the highest volumes could lead to large decreases in sodium available for consumption and therefore to gains in public health. PMID:21191142

  19. Sodium content of processed foods in the United Kingdom: analysis of 44,000 foods purchased by 21,000 households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Capelin, Cathy; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Webster, Jacqueline L; Neal, Bruce C; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, sodium reduction targets have been set for a large number of processed food categories. Assessment and monitoring are essential to evaluate progress. Our aim was to determine whether household consumer panel food-purchasing data could be used to assess the sodium content of processed foods. Our further objectives were to estimate the mean sodium content of UK foods by category and undertake analyses weighted by food-purchasing volumes. Data were obtained for 21,108 British households between October 2008 and September 2009. Purchasing data (product description, product weight, annual purchases) and sodium values (mg/100 g) were collated for all food categories known to be major contributors to sodium intake. Unweighted and weighted mean sodium values were calculated. Data were available for 44,372 food products. The largest contributors to sodium purchases were table salt (23%), processed meat (18%), bread and bakery products (13%), dairy products (12%), and sauces and spreads (11%). More than one-third of sodium purchased (37%) was accounted for by 5 food categories: bacon, bread, milk, cheese, and sauces. For some food groups (bread and bakery, cereals and cereal products, processed meat), purchase-weighted means were 18-35% higher than unweighted means, suggesting that market leaders have higher sodium contents than the category mean. The targeting of sodium reduction in a small number of food categories and focusing on products sold in the highest volumes could lead to large decreases in sodium available for consumption and therefore to gains in public health.

  20. 77 FR 2492 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... for a food additive petition filed by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention requesting that the food additive regulations that incorporate by reference food-grade specifications from prior editions of...

  1. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry.

  2. THE IMPACT OF REDUCED AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USE ON FOOD: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FOR THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about food safety and environmental quality have increased in recent years. Consumers are particularly concerned about the health risks posed by pesticide residues in food and the environmental impact of agricultural chemicals. These concerns have stimulated a considerable amount of recent research to assess the effects of reduced agricultural chemical use. This paper focuses on the research in the United States which has examined the impact of reduced agricultural chemical use on fo...

  3. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  4. “A Shmita Manifesto”: a radical sabbatical approach to Jewish food reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Krone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolutionary movement recently cropped up with a vision to revitalize American Jewish environmentalism through food reform. This movement implemented shmita (sabbatical year practices, which Jewish law mandates only inside the land of Israel, in the United States during the shmita year that began in September 2014. This article offers a brief historical overview of shmita and then utilizes the main texts of the shmita movement to explore how the Shmita Project connects- the diverse worlds of Judaism, environmentalism, ethics, and food reform. The Shmita Project encapsulates a multivalent environmentalist strain of American Judaism that is deeply concerned with climate change, industrial agriculture, and food injustice. The unprecedented- observance- of an American shmita year, focused on land stewardship and food security, is emblematic- of this movement’s efforts towards sustainable agriculture, animal welfare, and repairing the American food system through practices that are inspired by Jewish tradition and values.

  5. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-12-22

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.

  6. Bidirectional genomic exchange between Helicobacter pylori strains from a family in Coventry, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebes, Juliane; Didelot, Xavier; Kennemann, Lynn; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is characterised by a high mutation rate and frequent recombination during mixed infection, which result in extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification. Mixed infections are believed to be much more common in regions with a high H. pylori prevalence than in industrialised countries. To better understand the genomic flexibility of H. pylori in a low prevalence region, we used 454 sequencing technology to investigate whole genome sequences of H. pylori strains isolated from members of three generations of a family living in Coventry, UK. The genomes of four H. pylori strains isolated from a grandfather, two of his sons and one grandson were sequenced. Three of these genomes showed a high overall sequence similarity, suggesting a recent common ancestor. The genomes differed by 316-336 SNPs, and recombination events (imports) resulted in 170-251 clusters of polymorphisms (CNPs). Imports were particularly frequent in genes encoding Helicobacter outer membrane proteins, suggesting an adaptation of the strains to their individual host. The fourth strain differed substantially from these three highly related strains but still shared long fragments of identical sequence, which most likely reflect imports from the highly related family variants. The data show extensive bidirectional exchange of DNA between the strains isolated from the family members, illustrating both the convergence and divergence effect that recombination can lead to. Detailed analysis of the distribution of SNPs and imports permits to draw up a complex scenario of the transmission history involving infection with at least two, and probably more separate strains. This complexity and the resulting high frequency of recombination were unexpected for an industrialised country where the prevalence of H. pylori infection has strongly declined in recent decades.

  7. Severity of Household Food Insecurity Is Positively Associated with Mental Disorders among Children and Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael P; Martini, Lauren H; Çayır, Ebru; Hartline-Grafton, Heather L; Meade, Randa L

    2016-10-01

    Household food insecurity and mental disorders are both prevalent conditions among children and adolescents (i.e., youth) in the United States. Although some research has examined the association between the 2 conditions, it is not known whether more severe food insecurity is differently associated with mental disorders in youth. We investigated the association between severity of household food insecurity and mental disorders among children (aged 4-11 y) and adolescents (aged 12-17 y) using valid and reliable measures of both household food security status and mental disorders. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 16,918 children and 14,143 adolescents whose families participated in the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey. The brief Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the 10-item USDA Household Food Security Survey Module were used to measure mental disorders and food security status, respectively. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to test the association between household food security status and mental disorders in youth. There was a significant linear trend in ORs, such that as severity of household food insecurity increased so did the odds of youth having a mental disorder (P food-secure households, youth in marginally food-secure households had higher odds of having a mental disorder with impairment [child OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.52); adolescent OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.68)]. In addition, compared with food-secure households, youth in very-low-food-secure households had higher odds of having a mental disorder with severe impairment [child OR: 2.55 (95% CI: 1.90, 3.43); adolescent OR: 3.44 (95% CI: 2.50, 4.75)]. The severity of household food insecurity is positively associated with mental disorders among both children and adolescents in the United States. These results suggest that improving household food security status has the potential to reduce mental disorders among US youth. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Preparing students for careers in food-supply veterinary medicine: a review of educational programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R

    2012-01-01

    The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.

  9. Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in United Arab Emirates and Kuwait based on local foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Salim

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ is one of the most commonly used tools in epidemiologic studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of a culture specific FFQ for Arab populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE and Kuwait. Methods We interviewed samples of Arab populations over 18 years old in UAE and Kuwait assessing their dietary intakes using 24-hour dietary recall. Based on the most commonly reported foods and portion sizes, we constructed a food list with the units of measurement. The food list was converted to a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ format following the basic pattern of SFFQ using usual reported portions. The long SFFQ was field-tested, shortened and developed into the final SFFQ. To estimate nutrients from mixed dishes we collected recipes of those mixed dishes that were commonly eaten, and estimated their nutritional content by using nutrient values of the ingredients that took into account method of preparation from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Composition Database. Results The SFFQs consist of 153 and 152 items for UAE and Kuwait, respectively. The participants reported average intakes over the past year. On average the participants reported eating 3.4 servings/d of fruits and 3.1 servings/d of vegetables in UAE versus 2.8 servings/d of fruits and 3.2 servings/d of vegetables in Kuwait. Participants reported eating cereals 4.8 times/d in UAE and 5.3 times/d in Kuwait. The mean intake of dairy products was 2.2/d in UAE and 3.4 among Kuwaiti. Conclusion We have developed SFFQs to measure diet in UAE and Kuwait that will serve the needs of public health researchers and clinicians and are currently validating those instruments.

  10. 75 FR 31450 - Memorandum of Understanding by and Between the United States Food and Drug Administration and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding by and Between the United States... memorandum of understanding (MOU) between FDA and the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS). The...

  11. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  12. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Goldman, Joseph; Rhodes, Donna G; Hoy, Mary Katherine; Moura Souza, Amanda de; Chester, Deirdra N; Martin, Carrie L; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Ahuja, Jaspreet K; Sichieri, Rosely; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2014-07-21

    International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population's total energy intake were compared between the countries. Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not consume a diet similar to Americans

  13. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V; Braden, Christopher R; Angulo, Frederick J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998-2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents.

  14. The food industry's current and future role in preventing microbial foodborne illness within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael P; Erickson, Marilyn C; Alali, Walid; Cannon, Jennifer; Deng, Xiangyu; Ortega, Ynes; Smith, Mary Alice; Zhao, Tong

    2015-07-15

    During the past century, the microbiological safety of the US food supply has improved; however, many foodborne illnesses and outbreaks occur annually. Hence, opportunities for the food industry to improve the safety of both domestic and imported food exist through the adoption of risk-based preventive measures. Challenging food safety issues that are on the horizon include demographic changes to a population whose immune system is more susceptible to foodborne and opportunistic pathogens, climate changes that will shift where food is produced, and consumers' preferences for raw and minimally processed foods. Increased environmental and product testing and anonymous data sharing by the food industry with the public health community would aid in identifying system weaknesses and enabling more targeted corrective and preventive actions. Clinicians will continue to play a major role in reducing foodborne illnesses by diagnosing and reporting cases and in helping to educate the consumer about food safety practices.

  15. Sensibility and resistance profiles to antibiotics of pathogens isolated in a hospital unit of food and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Marques Di Primio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensibility and resistance profiles to antibiotics of pathogens isolated in a hospital unit of food and nutrition. It was evaluated as sample spots, with repetitions, environmental samples, utensils, equipment, manipulators’ hands and usually diet that would be served to the hospitalized patients. In the evaluated samples, coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CPS and Gram negative bacillus were enumerated, and also, it was possible to isolate Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial of less efficiency for CPS was oxacillin and penicillin-G, and for Klebsiella spp ampicillin e cephalothin. It should be emphasized that it was found strains multiresistants of CPS, Klebsiella spp and E. coli. The hospital unit of food and nutrition was evaluated as microbiological inadequate in several points, and it was verified resistance profiles to antibiotics of pathogens isolated in this unit.

  16. Sodium Content in Packaged Foods by Census Division in the United States, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alexandra K.; Schieb, Linda J.; Yuan, Keming; Maalouf, Joyce; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sodium intake correlates positively with high blood pressure. Blood pressure varies by region, but whether sodium content of foods sold varies across regions is unknown. We combined nutrition and sales data from 2009 to assess the regional variation of sodium in packaged food products sold in 3 of the 9 US census divisions. Although sodium density and concentration differed little by region, fewer than half of selected food products met Food and Drug Administration sodium-per-serving c...

  17. High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography Coupled with Pulsed Electrochemical Detection as a Powerful Tool to Evaluate Carbohydrates of Food Interest: Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Corradini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific HPLC approaches are essential for carbohydrate characterization in food products. Carbohydrates are weak acids with pKa values in the range 12–14 and, consequently, at high pH can be transformed into oxyanions, and can be readily separated using highly efficient anion-exchange columns. Electrochemical detection in HPLC has been proven to be a powerful analytical technique for the determination of compounds containing electroactive groups; pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates is favourably performed by taking advantage of their electrocatalytic oxidation mechanism at a gold working electrode in a basic media. High-performance Anion Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC at high pH coupled with pulsed electrochemical detection (PED is one of the most useful techniques for carbohydrate determination either for routine monitoring or research application. This technique has been of a great impact on the analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides. The compatibility of electrochemical detection with gradient elution, coupled with the high selectivity of the anion-exchange stationary phases, allows mixtures of simple sugars, oligo- and polysaccharides to be separated with high resolution in a single run. A few reviews have been written on HPAEC-PED of carbohydrates of food interest in the last years. In this paper the recent developments in this field are examined.

  18. The issue of food genomics: about uncaring citizens and united experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.; Gutteling, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this collection of essays is sought to find applications of genomics technology and the different social contexts in which this is and will be taking place. In this way it will be possible to reflect on the social impacts of food genomics on food production and food consumption. To this end socia

  19. 75 FR 17418 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is providing notice of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the Food and Drug...

  20. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the dis

  1. Sodium content in packaged foods by census division in the United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra K; Schieb, Linda J; Yuan, Keming; Maalouf, Joyce; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-04-02

    Excess sodium intake correlates positively with high blood pressure. Blood pressure varies by region, but whether sodium content of foods sold varies across regions is unknown. We combined nutrition and sales data from 2009 to assess the regional variation of sodium in packaged food products sold in 3 of the 9 US census divisions. Although sodium density and concentration differed little by region, fewer than half of selected food products met Food and Drug Administration sodium-per-serving conditions for labeling as "healthy." Regional differences in hypertension were not reflected in differences in the sodium content of packaged foods from grocery stores.

  2. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings.

  3. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S

    2009-09-23

    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future.

  4. Exchange Transfusion in the Treatment of Neonatal Septic Shock: A Ten-Year Experience in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Pugni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septic shock, occurring in about 1% of neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, is a major cause of death in the neonatal period. In the 1980s and 90s, exchange transfusion (ET was reported by some authors to be effective in the treatment of neonatal sepsis and septic shock. The main aim of this retrospective study was to compare the mortality rate of neonates with septic shock treated only with standard care therapy (ScT group with the mortality rate of those treated with ScT and ET (ET group. All neonates with septic shock admitted to our NICU from 2005 to 2015 were included in the study. Overall, 101/9030 (1.1% neonates had septic shock. Fifty neonates out of 101 (49.5% received one or more ETs. The mortality rate was 36% in the ET group and 51% in the ScT group (p = 0.16. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors significantly associated with death (gestational age, serum lactate, inotropic drugs, oligoanuria, ET showed a marked protective effect (Odds Ratio 0.21, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.06–0.71; p = 0.01. The lack of observed adverse events should encourage the use of this procedure in the treatment of neonates with septic shock.

  5. Compact Design of 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Systems with Microcontroller Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiaokang Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel, oxidant supply and cooling systems with microcontroller units (MCU are developed in a compact design to fit two 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stacks. At the initial stage, the testing facility of the system has a large volume (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 1.5 m with a longer pipeline and excessive control sensors for safe testing. After recognizing the performance and stability of stack, the system is redesigned to fit in a limited space (0.4 m × 0.5 m × 0.8 m. Furthermore, the stack performance is studied under different hydrogen recycling modes. Then, two similar 5 kW stacks are directly coupled with diodes to obtain a higher power output and safe operation. The result shows that the efficiency of the 5 kW stack is 43.46% with a purge period of 2 min with hydrogen recycling and that the hydrogen utilization rate µf is 66.31%. In addition, the maximum power output of the twin-coupled module (a power module with two stacks in electrical cascade/parallel arrangement is 9.52 kW.

  6. Quantification of Food Waste Disposal in the United States: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyberg, Krista L; Tonjes, David J; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2015-12-15

    Food waste has major consequences for social, nutritional, economic, and environmental issues, and yet the amount of food waste disposed in the U.S. has not been accurately quantified. We introduce the transparent and repeatable methods of meta-analysis and systematic reviewing to determine how much food is discarded in the U.S., and to determine if specific factors drive increased disposal. The aggregate proportion of food waste in U.S. municipal solid waste from 1995 to 2013 was found to be 0.147 (95% CI 0.137-0.157) of total disposed waste, which is lower than that estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the same period (0.176). The proportion of food waste increased significantly with time, with the western U.S. region having consistently and significantly higher proportions of food waste than other regions. There were no significant differences in food waste between rural and urban samples, or between commercial/institutional and residential samples. The aggregate disposal rate for food waste was 0.615 pounds (0.279 kg) (95% CI 0.565-0.664) of food waste disposed per person per day, which equates to over 35.5 million tons (32.2 million tonnes) of food waste disposed annually in the U.S.

  7. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  8. Food-borne trematode infections of humans in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Bernard; Abruzzi, Amy

    2010-05-01

    This review examines the literature on imported (allochthonous) and local (autochthonous) cases of food-borne trematode (FBT) infections in the United States of America (USA) from 1890 to 2009. Most of the literature is concerned with imported cases of the opisthorchiids Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. These flukes cause serious pathology in the liver and biliary system of humans. Chronic cases may induce liver (hepatocarcinoma) and bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma) cancers in humans. Clonorchiasis and opithorchiasis are preventable diseases that can be avoided by eating properly cooked freshwater fish products. Several species of lung flukes in the genus Paragonimus are local or imported FBT in the USA. The endemic cycle occurs in the USA with various local snails and crustaceans serving as intermediate hosts. Paragonimids are acquired when humans eat raw or improperly cooked freshwater crustaceans containing metacercarial cysts. Infection can cause severe lung disease and the symptoms of paragonimiasis often mimic those of tuberculosis and other non-helminthic diseases. Paragonimiasis can be avoided by not eating raw or improperly cooked shellfish. The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica can be acquired by eating raw or uncooked vegetation. The cycle exists in the USA involving local snails and aquatic vegetation. Although some cases are local, most are imported by travelers or immigrants. Fascioliasis can cause serious liver and biliary diseases in humans and consumption of tainted vegetation should be avoided. Lesser known FBT have been reported in the USA including species of Alaria, echinostomids, heterophyids, troglotrematids, and a self-induced infection of Plagiorchis. Treatment of the FBT mentioned in this review consists of various regimens of praziquantel, except for F. hepatica where the drug of choice is triclabendazole.

  9. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  10. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations.

  11. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Griffin, Patricia M.; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A.; Chai, Shua J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998–2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana...

  12. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica serotypes and food Commodities, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R; Griffin, Patricia M; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A; Chai, Shua J

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.

  13. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status.

  14. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  15. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  16. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  17. Self-regulation and the response to concerns about food and beverage marketing to children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Parke

    2009-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine reported in 2005 that food and beverage marketing to children and youth is "out of balance with healthful diets". The dominant policy response in the United States has been to encourage self-regulation by the food, beverage, advertising, and media industries. From a nutrition perspective, this deference to the private sector may seem surprising. This article reviews current economic and legal perspectives on food marketing to children that are motivating the policy decision to attempt a period of self-regulation. The empirical literature on this topic has been reinvigorated by new data on marketing practices and expenditures. The article concludes by considering whether more directive policies are possible in the future.

  18. Practices And Opinions On In-Center Food Consumption Across 1,223 Facilities In The United States

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Benner; Marcia Davis; Maria Stasios; Mary Burgess

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the practices and opinions of healthcare providers regarding eating on dialysis are unknown. The purpose of this study was to understand healthcare provider opinions and in-center hemodialysis patient practices regarding eating while at the dialysis center. In June 2011, over 1200 registered dietitians within a large dialysis organization in the US were surveyed on current practices and opinions of patient food consumption during dialysis treatment using an online survey...

  19. 75 FR 17423 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug... Drug Administration (FDA) is providing notice of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the FDA, U...

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Food Guarding Behavior in Shelter Dogs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Slater

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an assessment, and then placed them into a home on a modification program. Food guarding behavior was identified as stiffening, gulping, growling, freezing, and/or biting a fake hand during the SAFER® food bowl assessment. Dogs that exhibited guarding behavior over toys were excluded. Follow-up was done at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months post adoption to measure all guarding behavior in the home. Six adopters reported at least one incident involving guarding in the first three weeks, of which only one was around the food bowl. By three months, those adopters reported no guarding behavior except one new occurrence of a dog guarding a rawhide was reported in the third month. For dog identified with food guarding, the return rate to the shelter was 5% and 9% for adult dogs not identified with guarding behavior. Adopters did not comply with at least one aspect of the program, so it is unclear why so little guarding was reported. The key finding is that dogs that guarded their food bowl in the shelter were not guarding their food in their new homes.

  1. The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Gibbons, Shannon; Koelliker, Yvonne; Civille, Gail V.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2017-01-01

    Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this rel

  2. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  3. The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Gibbons, Shannon; Koelliker, Yvonne; Civille, Gail V.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2017-01-01

    Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this

  4. A network analysis of food flows within the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaowen; Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan

    2014-05-20

    The world food system is globalized and interconnected, in which trade plays an increasingly important role in facilitating food availability. We present a novel application of network analysis to domestic food flows within the USA, a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. We find normal node degree distributions and Weibull node strength and betweenness centrality distributions. An unassortative network structure with high clustering coefficients exists. These network properties indicate that the USA food flow network is highly social and well-mixed. However, a power law relationship between node betweenness centrality and node degree indicates potential network vulnerability to the disturbance of key nodes. We perform an equality analysis which serves as a benchmark for global food trade, where the Gini coefficient = 0.579, Lorenz asymmetry coefficient = 0.966, and Hoover index = 0.442. These findings shed insight into trade network scaling and proxy free trade and equitable network architectures.

  5. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Beverly E. Law; Andrew D. Richardson; Jiquan Chen; Ram Oren; Gegory Starr; Asko Noormets; Siyan Ma; Sashi B. Verma; Sonia Wharton; Steven C. Wofsy; Paul V. Bolstad; Sean P. Burns; David R. Cook; Peter S. Curtis; Bert G. Drake; Matthias Falk; MArc L. Fischer; David R. Foster; Lianhong Gu; Julian L. Hadley; David Y. Hollinger; Gabriel G. Katul; Marcy Litvak; Timothy Martin; Roser Matamala; Steve McNulty; Tilden P. Meyers; Russell K. Monson; J. William Munger; Walter C. Oechel; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Hans Peter Schmid; Russell L. Scott; Ge Sun; Andrew E. Suyker; Margaret S. Torn

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents,...

  6. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  7. Public health consequences of use of antimicrobial agents in food animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alicia D; Nelson, Jennifer M; Rossiter, Shannon; Angulo, Frederick J

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in food animals has caused concern regarding the impact these uses have on human health. Use of antimicrobial agents in animals and humans results in the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria from food animals may be passed through the food chain to humans resulting in resistant infections. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents that are important in the treatment of human diseases, such as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, has significant public health implications. Efforts to mitigate the effects of increasing resistance require collaboration by several partners, including the farming, veterinary, medical, and public health communities.

  8. Food safety in the United States and abroad: an agriculturist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, James W

    2004-01-01

    The topic of food safety in the U.S. frequently is the lead story in the news media and continues to be an important issue for biological scientists of all disciplines. The emotional and sensational aspects of food safety often cloud the facts as reported by journalists. Because we increasingly depend on foreign countries for our food supply, and because of the commonly held belief in our society that foreign suppliers are not required to meet the safety criteria of U.S. regulatory agencies, it is important for agriculturalists with international expertise to offer objective views on the topic of food safety. This report contains the observations and views of one such scientist.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Food, Fuel, and Materials Metrics for Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Food, Fuel, and Materials...

  10. Food Insecurity and Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Vibha; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between food insecurity and utilization of four health services among older Americans: office visits, inpatient hospital nights, emergency department visits, and home health care. Nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used (N = 13,589). Nearly 83.0% of the sample had two or more office visits, 17.0% reported at least one hospital night, 23.0% had at least one emergency room visit, and 8.1% used home health care during the past 12 months. Adjusting for confounders, food-insecure older adults had higher odds of using more office visits, inpatient hospital nights, and emergency department visits than food-secure older adults, but similar odds of home health care utilization. The findings of this study suggest that programs and policies aimed at reducing food insecurity among older adults may have a potential to reduce utilization of health care services.

  11. Rural food insecurity in the United States as an overlooked site of struggle in health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadurai, Vandhana; Sharf, Barbara F; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    This article indicates the need for health communication scholars to attend to the growing national problem of rural food insecurity. A review of the health communication literature reveals that food insecurity and rural health overall are research issues that have been overlooked. Using the Culture-Centered Approach ( Dutta, 2008 ), while simultaneously searching for community assets as well as problems, we explore aspects of rural residents' food environments, culture, and institutional structures that empower and constrain their communities. Twelve focus groups (n = 86), segmented by race/ethnicity, were conducted in rural central Texas. Results were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Our findings outline problems and personal obstacles described by participants, as well as creative solutions and coping mechanisms illustrative of individual agency and social capital inherent in their rural culture. We conclude by providing suggestions for future research that will aid health communication scholars to further the conversation on rural food insecurity.

  12. 78 FR 57033 - United States Standards for Condition of Food Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ..., innovations in packaging technologies have provided an increasingly wide variety of acceptable new food..., Textile, Laminated Multi-Layer Pouch, Bag, etc.), and Table XI--Defects of Label, Marking, or Code to...

  13. Trends in food insecurity for adults with cardiometabolic disease in the United States: 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Berkowitz, Theodore S Z; Meigs, James B; Wexler, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity, the uncertain ability to access adequate food, can limit adherence to dietary measures needed to prevent and manage cardiometabolic conditions. However, little is known about temporal trends in food insecurity among those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions. We used data from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012, analyzed in 2015-2016, to calculate trends in age-standardized rates of food insecurity for those with and without the following diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and obesity. 21,196 NHANES participants were included from 4 waves (4,408 in 2005-2006, 5,607 in 2007-2008, 5,934 in 2009-2010, and 5,247 in 2011-2012). 56.2% had at least one cardiometabolic condition, 24.4% had 2 or more, and 8.5% had 3 or more. The overall age-standardized rate of food insecurity doubled during the study period, from 9.06% in 2005-2006 to 10.82% in 2007-2008 to 15.22% in 2009-2010 to 18.33% in 2011-2012 (p for trend food insecurity for those with a cardiometabolic condition during the study period was 13.0% (95% CI 7.5% to 18.6%), compared with 5.8% (95% CI 1.8% to 10.0%) for those without a cardiometabolic condition, (parallelism test p = .13). Comparing those with and without the condition, age-standardized rates of food insecurity were greater in participants with diabetes (19.5% vs. 11.5%, p Food insecurity doubled to historic highs from 2005-2012, particularly affecting those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions. Since adherence to specific dietary recommendations is a foundation of the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease, these results have important implications for clinical management and public health.

  14. Systematic Evaluation of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Food Waste Management Strategies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Keith L; Levis, James W; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-08-16

    New regulations and targets limiting the disposal of food waste have been recently enacted in numerous jurisdictions. This analysis evaluated selected environmental implications of food waste management policies using life-cycle assessment. Scenarios were developed to evaluate management alternatives applicable to the waste discarded at facilities where food waste is a large component of the waste (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, and food processors). Options considered include anaerobic digestion (AD), aerobic composting, waste-to-energy combustion (WTE), and landfilling, and multiple performance levels were considered for each option. The global warming impact ranged from approximately -350 to -45 kg CO2e Mg(-1) of waste for scenarios using AD, -190 to 62 kg CO2e Mg(-1) for those using composting, -350 to -28 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was managed by WTE, and -260 to 260 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was landfilled. Landfill diversion was found to reduce emissions, and diverting food waste from WTE generally increased emissions. The analysis further found that when a 20 year GWP was used instead of a 100 year GWP, every scenario including WTE was preferable to every scenario including landfill. Jurisdictions seeking to enact food waste disposal regulations should consider regional factors and material properties before duplicating existing statutes.

  15. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis.

  16. Learning from Listservs: Collaboration, Knowledge Exchange, and the Formation of Distributed Leadership for Farmers' Markets and the Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Maclovia; Morales, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Computer-mediated communications, in particular listservs, can be powerful tools for creating social change--namely, shifting our food system to a more healthy, just, and localised model. They do this by creating the conditions--collaborations, interaction, self-reflection, and personal empowerment--that cultivate distributed leadership. In this…

  17. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Obesity and diabetes, the built environment, and the 'local' food economy in the United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasingly attributed to environmental factors, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of the 'local' food economy. This paper examines the association of measures relating to the built environment and 'local' agriculture with U.S. county-level prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Key indicators of the 'local' food economy include the density of farmers' markets and the presence of farms with direct sales. This paper employs a robust regression estimator to account for non-normality of the data and to accommodate outliers. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes and a strong local' food economy may play an important role in prevention. Results imply considerable scope for community-level interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alchemy in eden: entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880–1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonier, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. In a manner akin to alchemy, the entrepreneurs behind these three firms recognized the inherent value of an agricultural Eden, then found ways to convert common, low-cost agricultural goods—oats, sugar, and cottonseed oil—into appealing, high-revenue branded food products. In the process, these ventures devised new demand-driven business models that exploited technology and communications advances, enabling them to tap a nascent consumer culture. Their pioneering efforts generated unprecedented profits, laid the foundation for iconic billion-dollar brands, and fundamentally changed how Americans make daily food choices.

  20. Sodium and sugar in complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P; Yuan, Keming; Park, Sohyun; Merritt, Robert

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the sodium and sugar content of US commercial infant and toddler foods. We used a 2012 nutrient database of 1074 US infant and toddler foods and drinks developed from a commercial database, manufacturer Web sites, and major grocery stores. Products were categorized on the basis of their main ingredients and the US Food and Drug Administration's reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion (RACC). Sodium and sugar contents and presence of added sugars were determined. All but 2 of the 657 infant vegetables, dinners, fruits, dry cereals, and ready-to-serve mixed grains and fruits were low sodium (≤140 mg/RACC). The majority of these foods did not contain added sugars; however, 41 of 79 infant mixed grains and fruits contained ≥1 added sugar, and 35 also contained >35% calories from sugar. Seventy-two percent of 72 toddler dinners were high in sodium content (>210 mg/RACC). Toddler dinners contained an average of 2295 mg of sodium per 1000 kcal (sodium 212 mg/100 g). Savory infant/toddler snacks (n = 34) contained an average of sodium 1382 mg/1000 kcal (sodium 486 mg/100 g); 1 was high sodium. Thirty-two percent of toddler dinners and the majority of toddler cereal bars/breakfast pastries, fruit, and infant/toddler snacks, desserts, and juices contained ≥1 added sugar. Commercial toddler foods and infant or toddler snacks, desserts, and juice drinks are of potential concern due to sodium or sugar content. Pediatricians should advise parents to look carefully at labels when selecting commercial toddler foods and to limit salty snacks, sweet desserts, and juice drinks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Location and timing of river-aquifer exchanges in six tributaries to the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThe flow of water between rivers and contiguous aquifers influences the quantity and quality of water resources, particularly in regions where precipitation and runoff are unevenly distributed through the year, such as the Columbia Basin (CB) in northwestern United States. Investigations of basin hydrogeology and gains and losses of streamflow for six rivers in the CB were reviewed to characterize general patterns in the timing and location of river-aquifer exchanges at a reach-scale (0.5-150 km) and to identify geologic and geomorphic features associated with the largest exchanges. Ground-water discharge to each river, or the gain in streamflow, was concentrated spatially: more than one-half of the total gains along each river segment were contributed from reaches that represented no more than 30% of the total segment length with the largest and most concentrated gains in rivers in volcanic terrains. Fluvial recharge of aquifers, or losses of streamflow, was largest in rivers in sedimentary basins where unconsolidated sediments form shallow aquifers. Three types of geologic or geomorphic features were associated with the largest exchanges: (1) changes in the thickness of unconsolidated aquifers; (2) contacts between lithologic units that represent contrasts in permeability; and (3) channel forms that increase the hydraulic gradient or cross-sectional area of flow paths between a river and shallow ground-water. The down-valley component of ground-water flow and its vertical convergence on or divergence from a riverbed account for large streamflow gains in some reaches and contrast with the common assumption of lateral ground-water discharge to a river that penetrates completely through the aquifer. Increased ground-water discharge was observed during high-flow periods in reaches of four rivers indicating that changes in ground-water levels can be more important than stage fluctuations in regulating the direction and magnitude of river-aquifer exchanges and

  2. Examining the Prevalence of Self-Reported Foodborne Illnesses and Food Safety Risks among International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonga, Agnes Ngale; Eighmy, Myron A.; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne illness and food safety risks pose health threats to everyone, including international college students who live in the United States and encounter new or unfamiliar foods. This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported foodborne illness among international college students by cultural regions and length of time in the United…

  3. Bias in the exchange of arguments: the case of scientists' evaluation of lay viewpoints on GM food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppen, Eefje; Hisschemøller, Matthijs; Midden, Cees

    2009-09-01

    Most perspectives on public participation share the notion that dialogues should be open, allowing participants to articulate and evaluate different views and knowledge claims. We hypothesize that participants' evaluation of claims may be biased because participants have a preference for a particular type or source of a claim. This would hamper an open dialogue. We tested the effect of three variables on scientists' evaluation of claims of the general public about GM food: the claim's favorability towards GM food, the phrasing, and the source of the claim. Results are based on a survey-experiment among 73 biotechnology-scientists. Biased processing occurred when scientists evaluated claims. Claims that were corresponding with the attitude of the scientists and that were phrased in a cognitive way were evaluated more positively than claims that were contrasting the attitude of the scientists and that were phrased in an affective way. Contrary to our expectation, scientists evaluated claims of the public more positively than claims of experts.

  4. Online Resources for Teaching Units on: Ecological Footprint of Human Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Aldo T.

    2011-01-01

    The modern food system involves high consumption of natural resources and other forms of environmental degradation. This paper is a presentation of internet resources such as scientific contributions, graphics, tables, images, animations and interactive atlases that can help to teach this subject. The discussion contains some subjects considered…

  5. Benthic and pelagic pathways of methylmercury bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs of the northeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Celia Y; Borsuk, Mark E; Bugge, Deenie M; Hollweg, Terill; Balcom, Prentiss H; Ward, Darren M; Williams, Jason; Mason, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine). MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides). Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column.

  6. Benthic and pelagic pathways of methylmercury bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs of the northeast United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Y Chen

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine. MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides. Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column.

  7. Rethinking Food: How United States Agriculture Production Affects Security Policy and Global Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    businesses. In 1978, USAID introduced Policy Directive 71, which affected palm oil , citrus and sugar projects, and related products. This internal...Economic Coordination and Development PD Policy Directive PL-480 Public Law 480 SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Talks RTAA Reciprocal Trade Agreement...field agents that assist in implementing broad US policy statements or legislation (Becker 2014). PL-480– Public Law 480, or Food for Peace. This law

  8. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample.

  9. Recent trends in the use of food additives in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Mike

    2015-03-15

    The E number system for food additives was introduced in the 1960s and the E was intended to reassure consumers that permitted additives were safe. In the 1980s full ingredient declarations had to be provided on food products for the first time and manufacturers were permitted to use either the name or the number of the additive on the ingredient list. This paper outlines some of the trends in the sourcing, use and labelling of additives since the introduction of full ingredient listing. Generally, sourcing has become more global with a large number of suppliers being based in China. From an initial use of E numbers in ingredient lists, manufacturers are increasingly using the names of additives. This trend is being extended to avoid the use of anything the consumer might consider an additive, particularly in connection with colours and preservatives. Specifically, the colours used in the Southampton study on the impact of food colours on hyperactivity in children have largely been replaced by colouring foodstuffs, and the preservative used in the study, sodium benzoate, has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks.

  10. Land-Use Analysis of Croplands for Sustainable Food and Energy Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumkehr, Andrew Lee

    Energy security and environmental sustainability are major concerns to many in the U.S. Energy from biomass has been proposed as a strategy to help meet future energy needs; however, widespread cultivation for biofuels could have significant impacts on food security and the environment. One solution to minimizing the impacts of biofuel cultivation is to limit production to abandoned croplands where competition from food crops and environmental degradation will be minimized. Here I estimate the spatial distribution of historical U.S. cropland areas from 1850 to 2000 and subsequently calculate abandoned cropland areas for the year 2000. From this data I estimate the potential biomass energy that could be obtained from abandoned croplands. I also estimate the potential for biomass energy to contribute to a renewable energy system consisting of wind and solar power by meeting seasonal energy storage needs that are a result of the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. Lastly, I use the historical cropland areas result to estimate the ability of U.S. croplands to supply food to local populations at the county level.

  11. Development of a food-exchange model to replace saturated fat with MUFAs and n-6 PUFAs in adults at moderate cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech, Michelle; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Hasaj, Marinela; Todd, Susan; Yaqoob, Parveen; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2014-06-01

    The recommendation to reduce saturated fatty acid (SFA) consumption to ≤10% of total energy (%TE) is a key public health target aimed at lowering cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Replacement of SFA with unsaturated fats may provide greater benefit than replacement with carbohydrates, yet the optimal type of fat is unclear. The aim of the DIVAS (Dietary Intervention and Vascular Function) study was to develop a flexible food-exchange model to investigate the effects of substituting SFAs with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on CVD risk factors. In this parallel study, UK adults aged 21-60 y with moderate CVD risk (50% greater than the population mean) were identified using a risk assessment tool (n = 195; 56% females). Three 16-wk isoenergetic diets of specific fatty acid (FA) composition (%TE SFA:%TE MUFA:%TE n-6 PUFA) were designed using spreads, oils, dairy products, and snacks as follows: 1) SFA-rich diet (17:11:4; n = 65); 2) MUFA-rich diet (9:19:4; n = 64); and 3) n-6 PUFA-rich diet (9:13:10; n = 66). Each diet provided 36%TE total fat. Dietary targets were broadly met for all intervention groups, reaching 17.6 ± 0.4%TE SFA, 18.5 ± 0.3%TE MUFA, and 10.4 ± 0.3%TE n-6 PUFA in the respective diets, with significant overall diet effects for the changes in SFAs, MUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs between groups (P fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol intake or anthropometric measures between groups. Plasma phospholipid FA composition showed changes from baseline in the proportions of total SFAs, MUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs for each diet group, with the changes in SFAs and MUFAs differing between the groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, successful implementation of the food-exchange model broadly achieved the dietary target intakes for the exchange of SFAs with MUFAs or n-6 PUFAs with minimal disruption to the overall diet in a free-living population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01478958. © 2014

  12. Teaching Methods and Tools Used In Food Safety Extension Education Programs in the North Central Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to ensure food safety is to educate thepublic. Of the organizations providing food safety educationin the United States (U.S., the Cooperative Extension System(CES is one of the most reliable. The effectiveness CESprograms depends not only on what is being taught but also onhow it is taught. Both a needs-based curriculum and how thatcurriculum is delivered are equally important. This descriptivecross-sectional study using a disproportional stratified randomsample identified the teaching methods and tools being used byfood safety extension educators of the CES of North CentralRegion (NCR. A Likert-type scale administered to extensioneducators revealed that they were adopting a balanced use ofteaching methods and tools, and using learner-centered teachingmethods in their programs. However, distance education, casestudies and podcasts, which are commonly used in educationprograms, were not being used extensively. We recommend thatfood safety extension educators of NCR should increase the useof these two teaching methods and tool while continuing to usethe current ones. This study has implications for improving foodsafety education delivery to clients in the NCR and for designinginservice education for food safety extension educators

  13. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and "Regulatory Scaffolding": Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Reeve, Belinda

    2015-06-30

    Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or "responsive" approach that introduces regulatory "scaffolds" to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry's willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.

  14. Assessment of land use change in the coterminous United States and Alaska for global assessment of forest loss conducted by the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushree Biswas; Mike Walterman; Paul Maus; Kevin A. Megown; Sean P. Healey; Kenneth. Brewer

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations conducted a global assessment for forest change in 2010 using satellite imagery from 1990, 2000, and 2005. The U.S. Forest Service was responsible for assessing forest change in the United States. A polygon-based, stratified sampling design developed by FAO was used to assess change in forest area...

  15. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  16. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  17. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Berto, Alessandra; Martelli, Francesca; Grierson, Sylvia; Banks, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We investigated contamination by hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in the United Kingdom. We detected HEV in pig liver samples in a slaughterhouse, in surface samples from a processing plant, and in pork sausages and surface samples at point of sale. Our findings provide evidence for possible foodborne transmission of HEV during pork production.

  18. Hepatitis E virus in pork food chain, United Kingdom, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Alessandra; Martelli, Francesca; Grierson, Sylvia; Banks, Malcolm

    2012-08-01

    We investigated contamination by hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in the United Kingdom. We detected HEV in pig liver samples in a slaughterhouse, in surface samples from a processing plant, and in pork sausages and surface samples at point of sale. Our findings provide evidence for possible foodborne transmission of HEV during pork production.

  19. Risk perception of genetically modified foods: a comparison between Russia and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkhovskaya, M. [Central European University, Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Frewer, L. [Institute of Food Research, Reading (United Kingdom); Urge-Vorsatz, D. [Central European University, Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-07-01

    The appearance of genetically modified products on the shelves of Western supermarkets has given rise to a number of questions regarding food safety, nutrition, environmental manipulation as well as ethical concerns. Public perception of gene technology has been shown to be an important factor influencing its future development. Many studies have been carried out to assess public attitudes to genetic engineering in the UK, while in Russia this research is in its embryonic stage yet. The study seeks to compare public concerns in the UK and Russia. Students studying Food Sciences and Biotechnology were surveyed with the use of standardised questionnaire. The results indicated that the views of students were in many ways similar to each other and the differences found were likely to be caused by the differences in economic, social and cultural contexts. The data analysis showed that students' attitudes and the Russians' in particular have not been shaped yet and can be characterised as 'positively neutral'. The lack of knowledge and discrepancy between the necessity to trust in regulators and the real trust pointed to the need of risk-benefit communication. Additionally, student-groups were compared with the general English public to determine the impact of knowledge and education on public perception of risks and benefits related to modem biotechnology. The general public was found to perceive gene technology as more risky and lower in benefits than the students. On the whole all English respondents were more concerned about the risk than the surveyed Russians. This research can serve a starting point for further development in the field of studying public perception of 'novel' food in Russia. (authors)

  20. Effect of Family Ownership towards Tax Aggressiveness on Food and Beverages Industrial Company Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objectives of this research were to learn the effects of family ownership, return on assets, leverage, property plant, and equipment with tax aggressiveness, either simultaneously or partially. This research used quantitative method with secondary data collected by purposive sampling from foods and beverages industrial companies group listed in IDX and preceding journals of scientific articles research. This research used simple regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously with F test and t test for testing the partial hypothesis. Results of this research show that family ownership, return on assets, leverage, and property, plat, and equipment have affected tax aggressiveness simultaneously and significantly. The family ownership and property, plant and equipment have significant effects to tax aggressiveness, but the return on assets and leverage do not have significant effects to tax aggressiveness.

  1. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  2. Prevalence of mcr-1 in the Cecal Contents of Food Animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinersmann, Richard J; Ladely, Scott R; Plumblee, Jodie R; Cook, Kimberly L; Thacker, Eileen

    2017-02-01

    A survey of 2,003 cecal content samples from chickens, turkeys, cattle, and swine at slaughter facilities in the United States was conducted to estimate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin in Enterobacteriaceae Two cecal samples from swine had Escherichia coli with IncI2 plasmids bearing the mcr-1 gene. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Prohibited or regulated? LSD psychotherapy and the United States Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Over the 1950s and early 1960s, the use of the hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to facilitate psychotherapy was a promising field of psychiatric research in the USA. However, during the 1960s, research began to decline, before coming to a complete halt in the mid-1970s. This has commonly been explained through the increase in prohibitive federal regulations during the 1960s that aimed to curb the growing recreational use of the drug. However, closely examining the Food and Drug Administration's regulation of LSD research in the 1960s will reveal that not only was LSD research never prohibited, but that the administration supported research to a greater degree than has been recognized. Instead, the decline in research reflected more complex changes in the regulation of pharmaceutical research and development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Comparison of the Evolution of Genetically Modified Food Safety Policies between the United States and the European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina SHE; Yaqiong ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Yangying JIA; Wenting XU; Shiqing XIE; Qian LIANG

    2012-01-01

    With the research on and development of Genetically Modified Food (GMF), people's attitude toward GMF may fall into two divergent categories, typical- ly represented by the United States(US) and the European Union(EU), respectively. The former follows a "sound science principle" and firmly objects to the precautionary principle, namely a permissive policy of positive support of and voluntary labelling on GMF; while the latter adopts a cautiously precautionary principle, requiring mandatory labelling and traceability. From the standpoint of regulatory principles, together with corresponding supervisory measures and relevant provisions, this paper compared the execution of directives and provisions on GMF from the initial policies enacted by the US and EU to current situation combined with the track and analysis of latest polic ies issued.

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption and food values: National patterns in the United States by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and cooking frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-07-01

    More frequent cooking at home may help improve diet quality and be associated with food values, particularly for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). To examine patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption and food values among adults (aged 20 and older) in the United States, by SNAP participation and household cooking frequency. Analysis of cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9560). A lower percentage of SNAP participants consumed fruit (total: 35% vs. 46%, p=0.001; fresh: 30% vs. 41%, p6times/week was associated with greater vegetable consumption compared to cooking food keeps (medium cookers: 57% vs. 45%, pconsumption in the United States is low regardless of cooking frequency. Efforts to improve diet quality should consider values on which food purchases are based. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. STRUCTURAL BREAKS AND BILATERAL EXCHANGE RATE PASS-THROUGH: AN EMPIRICAL CASE OF INDONESIA–UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arintoko Arintoko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the exchange rate pass-through into domestic prices in Indonesia in the two-stage approach. The study focuses on first step pass-through, i.e. ERPT into import prices and second step pass-through, i.e. into consumer prices, using cointegration and error-correction mechanism (ECM model. This research uses a Zivot-Andrews technique to test for structural breaks and Gregory-Hansen models to tests. The results show that the long run ERPT to import prices with structural breaks is relatively low compared to the results without them. The absolut error correction term values resulted from cointegration are decreased and the error-correction models need period lagged longer than one-period if the estimation included the estimated structural breaks. The main finding is that allowing for possible breaks around the crises in Indonesia, and a shift of the exchange rate management from managed to free floating in 1997 helps to restore a long run cointegration relationship estimation.

  7. The background to the proposition that plankton be used as food in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P G

    2011-01-01

    Food shortages, particularly of proteins, in Britain during the Second World War led to the suggestion re-surfacing that marine plankton might be harvested on an industrial scale first as human food, then turning to its potential use as a supplement to stock and poultry feed. The notion emanated in the United Kingdom from Sir John Graham Kerr, at Glasgow University. He encouraged Alister Hardy, at Hull, to develop the idea and the natural testing ground was the Clyde Sea Area (given the extensive history of plankton research at Millport). Unpublished documents from the archives of the Scottish Association for Marine Science shed new light on the interactions behind the scenes of this project between Kerr, Hardy and the Millport Marine Station's then director, Richard Elmhirst. Elmhirst, who was sceptical about the feasibility of the plan from the outset, went along with it; not least as a way of attracting welcome research funding during lean times but also, doubtless, regarding it as his patriotic duty in case the proposal proved worthwhile.

  8. The debate over food biotechnology in the United States: is a societal consensus achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, E

    2001-07-01

    Unless the public comes to agree that the benefits of food biotechnology are desirable and the associated risks are acceptable, our society may fail to realize much of the potential benefits. Three historical cases of major technological innovations whose benefits and risks were the subject of heated public controversy are examined, in search of lessons that may suggest a path toward consensus in the biotechnology debate. In each of the cases--water fluoridation, nuclear power and pesticides--proponents of the technology gathered scientific evidence that they believed established that the innovations were safe. In each case, the federal government was heavily involved in oversight, safety regulation, and in the first two cases, active promotion of the technology. Supporters of the technologies employed a variety of communications strategies, ranging from massive "educational" campaigns (e.g. "Our Friend The Atom") to vituperative ad hominem attacks on leading opponents. None of these strategies succeeded in achieving broad societal acceptance of the technologies. Fluoridation today is opposed as vigorously by activist groups as it was when first introduced around 1950; it has not been universally adopted even in the U.S., and it has been rejected in most other countries. The American nuclear power industry is moribund, and the public has essentially rejected the technology. The pesticide industry is thriving, with new generations of products succeeding older more hazardous chemicals in a constant cycle. However, strong regulation has failed to prevent adverse health and ecological effects, which have been empirically associated with pesticide uses after the chemicals were dispersed in the environment. Debate over whether risks of such effects are acceptable has been heated for four decades, with scientists and the public divided.

  9. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    with a view towards cross-national comparisons, consists of 69 items measuring 23 dimensions. 1000 respondents each were interviewed in Denmark, Fran Germany, and the United Kingdom. A test of the cross-cultural validity of the data obtained using a confirmatory factor analysis approach showed that the data...... aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by ho employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been developed especially...... have at least weak cross-cultural comparability. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were named the uninvolved, the careless, the rational, the conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. A comparison of the segment...

  10. Growing season variability in carbon dioxide exchange of irrigated and rainfed soybean in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of carbon dynamics of soybean (Glycine max L.) ecosystems outside Corn Belt of the United States (U.S.) is lacking. This study reports carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a rainfed soybean field in El Reno, Oklahoma and an irrigated soybean field in Stoneville, Mississippi during the 2016 g...

  11. Along the Silk Road: People, Interaction, and Cultural Exchange. A Social Studies Unit Recommended for Grades 6-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This curriculum unit introduces students to the travelers and traders from the early part of the Han-Roman times up to the 14th century who took great risks in pursuit of silk. A variety of activities explore the development of the Silk Road trade routes, including journal writing, small group reading and writing activities, role play and…

  12. Gas exchanges in the United States - a model for Europe?; Gasboersen in den USA - Uebertragung auf Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensing, I.

    1994-12-31

    When on 31 May 1991 the European Union - at the time still under the name of EC - specified its plans for restructuring competition in the European gas markets by issuing a Directive on the Transit of Natural Gas Via Large Networks it met with vehement opposition from the gas industry, especially in Germany. These plans have ever since been a focal topic of intense scientific and politics-economic discussions. Some of the changes demanded by the EU have already become practice in the US gas trade, where they lend themselves to an assessment for their transferability to the situation in Europe. The following paper deals with the specifics of natural gas and the question whether the US can serve as a model for Euorpe. Regarding its mode of operation and significance, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) forms the hub of American gas price formation. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] Als die europaeische Union am 31. Mai 1991 - damals noch als EG - ihre Vorstellungen ueber eine Neustrukturierung des Wettbewerbs auf den europaeischen Gasmaerkten in Form der `Richtlinie ueber den Transit von Erdgas ueber grosse Netze` praezisierte, stiess sie auf starken Widerstand der Gasindustrie, speziell in Deutschland. Dieses Vorhaben ist seitdem Gegenstand sowohl einer intensiven wissenschaftlichen als auch wirtschaftspolitischen Diskussion gewesen. Einige der von der EU geforderten Veraenderungen sind schon im Gashandel der USA zu beobachten. Sie koennen daher bezueglich einer moeglichen Uebertragbarkeit auf die europaeischen Verhaeltnisse bewertet werden. Der folgende Vortrag setzt sich zunaechst mit den Spezifika von Erdgas und der moeglichen `Vorbildfunktion USA` auseinander. Danach steht die New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) in ihrer Funktionsweise und Bedeutung fuer die amerikanische Gaspreisbildung im Mittelpunkt. Die Frage nach den Perspektiven einer europaeischen Gasboerse und eine diesbezuegliche Wertung runden das Referat ab. (orig./UA)

  13. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Law, Beverly E.; Litvak, Marcy; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Starr, Gregory; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Paw, Kyaw; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-10-01

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a modified regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using eddy flux NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE well (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day interval in 2005 using spatially explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE as determined from measurements and the literature. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets over large areas.

  14. Estimation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange for the Conterminous UnitedStates by Combining MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Law, Beverly E.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Chen, Jiquan; Oren, Ram; Starr, Gregory; Noormets, Asko; Ma, Siyan; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Litvak, Marcy; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2009-03-06

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board NASA's Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE reasonably well at the site level. We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day period in 2005 using spatially-explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets for large areas.

  15. Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Methods Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. Results For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ≤ .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (β range, −0.1 to −5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (β range, 0.6–10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (β range, −4.1 to −24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (β range, 1.9–29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages. PMID:25551184

  16. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements.

  17. Ethical Leadership, Leader-Member Exchange and Feedback Seeking: A Double-Moderated Mediation Model of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Unit Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Bin; Han, Zhuo; Song, Baihe

    2017-01-01

    This research elucidates the role of ethical leadership in employee feedback seeking by examining how and when ethical leadership may exert a positive influence on feedback seeking. Using matched reports from 64 supervisors and 265 of their immediate employees from a hotel group located in a major city in China, we proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that examines leader-member exchange (LMX) as the mediator and emotional intelligence as well as work-unit structure as double moderators in the relationships between ethical leadership and followers’ feedback-seeking behavior from supervisors and coworkers. Our findings indicated that (1) LMX mediated the positive relationship between ethical leadership and feedback seeking from both ethical leaders and coworkers, and (2) emotional intelligence and work-unit structure served as joint moderators on the mediated positive relationship in such a way that the relationship was strongest when the emotional intelligence was high and work-unit structure was more of an organic structure rather than a mechanistic structure. PMID:28744251

  18. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  19. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C......The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...

  20. 3D simulation on the unit duct in the shell side of the ROD baffle heat exchanger%杆支撑换热器壳侧单元流道的三维模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金星; 董其伍; 刘敏珊; 魏新利

    2006-01-01

    The ROD baffle heat exchanger can slightly enhance the shell side heat transfer coefficient with the significant reduction of pressure loss due to the shell side fluid flowing longitudinally through tube bundle, which leads to the reduction of the manufacture and running cost and in some cases to the dimensions reduction of the heat exchangers. Because of the complexities of fluid dynamics equations and the structure of heat exchangers, few theoretical researches have been accomplished to specify the shell side characteristics of the ROD baffle heat exchanger. A unit duct model in the shell side of the longitudinal flow type heat exchanger has been developed based on suitable simplification. A numerical analysis on shell side of the ROD baffle heat exchanger has been carried out at constant wall temperature to obtain the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop. The numerical results show that the ROD baffles placed vertically and horizontally in the unit duct continue to shear and comminute the streamline flow when the fluid crosses over the ROD-baffles, and change the fluid flow directions, and then the continuity and stability of the fluid are destroyed. The effect of disturbing flow can promote fluid turbulent intensity and effectively enhance heat transfer. The numerical analyses can provide the theoretical bases for optimizing the structure of ROD baffle heat exchanger and improving its performance.

  1. Consumer risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection, and food demand: the case of milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Lydia; Douthitt, Robin; You, So-Ye

    2003-10-01

    This study is an econometric systems approach to modeling the factors and linkages affecting risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection actions, and food demand. This model is applied to milk in the United States, but it can be adapted to other products as well as other categories of risk perceptions. The contribution of this formulation is the ability to examine how explanatory factors influence risk perceptions and whether they translate into behavior and ultimately what impact this has on aggregate markets. Hadden's outrage factors on heightening risk perceptions are among the factors examined. In particular, the article examines the role of labeling as a means of permitting informed consent to mitigate outrage factors. The effects of attitudinal, economic, and demographic factors on risk perceptions are also explored, as well as the linkage between risk perceptions, consumer behavior, and food demand. Because risk perceptions and self-protection actions are categorical variables and demand is a continuous variable, the model is estimated as a two-stage mixed system with a covariance correction procedure suggested by Amemiya. The findings indicate that it is the availability of labeling, not the price difference, between that labeled milk and milk produced with recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST) that significantly affects consumer's selection of rbST-free milk. The results indicate that greater availability of labeled milk would not only significantly increase the proportion of consumers who purchased labeled milk, its availability would also reduce the perception of risk associated with rbST, whether consumers purchase it or not. In other words, availability of rbST-free milk translates into lower risk perceptions toward milk produced with rbST.

  2. Food Assistance: Efforts To Control Fraud and Abuse in the Child and Adult Care Food Program Should Be Strengthened. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Child and Adult Care Food Program provides over $1.5 billion in benefits annually to children and adults in day care. In order to address the longstanding problems of fraud and abuse present in the program, state agencies have been charged with the responsibility for implementing Food and Nutrition Service's (FNS) regulations to prevent and…

  3. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  4. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc-fortified micronutrient powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Shabina; Krebs, Nancy F; Soofi, Sajid; Westcott, Jamie; Bhatti, Zaid; Tabassum, Farhana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around 6 mo of age. Simple and cost-effective strategies are needed at the population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP+Zn) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large, prospective, cluster randomized trial, 6-mo-old infants were randomly assigned to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ∼3 and 9 mo of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies and 14 and 17 infants in the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively, completed the follow-up studies. AZs were (mean ± SD) 0.1 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (P MNP group (3.7 ± 0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5 ± 1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed and after 1 y of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00705445.

  5. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  6. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  7. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  8. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jelena S; Weisberg, Peter J; Pillai, Rekha; Ericksen, Jody A; Kuiken, Todd; Lindberg, Steve E; Zhang, Hong; Rytuba, James J; Gustin, Mae S

    2009-07-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impacted by geologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg.

  9. Pizza: Teaching US History through Food and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael P.; Crocco, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Pizza serves as a powerful example of historical themes such as immigration, cultural exchange and urbanization. In the post-WWII United States, Trenton, NJ, and other cities were gradually being transformed by suburbanization, the rise of fast food, and changes in family living related to women's entry in large numbers into the paid workforce.…

  10. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of R134a, R1234yf and R1234ze in a plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ji; Desideri, Adriano; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2017-01-01

    . This paper is aimed at obtaining flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a plate heat exchanger under the working conditions prevailing in the evaporator of organic Rankine cycle units. Two hydrofluoroolefins R1234yf and R1234ze, and one hydrofluorocarbon R134a, were selected...

  11. 加氢裂化换热器阻垢剂的研制%Research and development of a new fouling inhibitor for heat exchangers in hydrocracking unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    么佳耀

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of gradual decrease of heat transfer efficiency of heat exchangers in hydrocracking unit, a new high-temperature resistant fouling inhibitor RIPP-7051 has been successfully developed through the study of fouling causes and the fouling formation mechanisms in heat exchanger of a hydro-cracking unit. IR spectra has found that the absorption peaks of the fouling from heating of the feedstock are at 3 352 cm-1 and 1 448 cm-1, When the RIPP-7051 fouling inhibitor was injected to the feedstock at a dosage of 200 mg/kg, these peaks almost completely disappeared, and a new peak at 570 cm-1 was observed. This indicates that the fouling may be the polymers containing active hydrogen, and the addition of RIPP-7051 can effectively inhibit their formation. The laboratory static and dynamic analysis of the feedstock with certain amount of fouling inhibitor shows that the fouling inhibition is obvious. The fouling inhibition rate increases with increased fouling inhibitor dosage. The commercial application also proves its good inhibition performance.%为解决加氢裂化装置换热器换热效率下降而影响装置正常运转这一问题,通过对其结垢原因和机理分析,针对性地研制出了一种耐高温阻垢剂RIPP-7051.通过红外光谱测定发现,未注入阻垢剂时原料经加热产生的烷基和芳基的吸收峰主要在3 352和1 448 cm-1处;同样条件下注入阻垢剂200 μg/g,上述吸收峰几乎消失,新产生的吸收峰在570 cm-1附近.说明积垢可能是含有活泼氢的聚合物,阻垢剂的注入抑制了这类物质的生成.对加入一定量的阻垢剂的原油,通过实验室静态和动态评定方法进行实验,均有明显的效果;阻垢效率随着阻垢剂用量的增加而提高.工业实验表明,阻垢效果显著.

  12. Food innovation and entrepreneurship in higher education: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana C. Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food innovation and entrepreneurship are important topics in graduate food studies. Students should be challenged to promote an innovative attitude towards their future career in the food industry sector, as professionals working in a small and medium-sized enterprise, or in a large multinational company, or even as entrepreneurs with their own working projects. The present case study shows a curricular unit of a master course that intends to integrate the knowledge on new and sustainable technologies and products, based on seminars of experts on hot topics, on visits to food industry enterprises and market expositions and on the development of a state-of-the-art report about an emergent or novel food technology or product with oral presentation. Hot topic seminars included edible coatings, bioprocessing, allying tradition and innovation in food products, new convenience foods, challenging tests, and new clean and sustainable processes. Entrepreneur alumni lectures were also promoted allowing exchange of experiences. Visits included a high pressure technology unit of a food industry, an innovation and development department of a food industry, an entrepreneurship centre and a food exhibition. A satisfaction survey was made, through the response of a questionnaire by the students, proving the effectiveness and success of this unit course framework. A SWOT analysis was carried out to gain a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in the curricular unit objectives.

  13. Food innovation and entrepreneurship in higher education: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana C. Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food innovation and entrepreneurship are important topics in graduate food studies. Students should be challenged to promote an innovative attitude towards their future career in the food industry sector, as professionals working in a small and medium-sized enterprise, or in a large multinational company, or even as entrepreneurs with their own working projects. The present case study shows a curricular unit of a master course that intends to integrate the knowledge on new and sustainable technologies and products, based on seminars of experts on hot topics, on visits to food industry enterprises and market expositions and on the development of a state-of-the-art report about an emergent or novel food technology or product with oral presentation. Hot topic seminars included edible coatings, bioprocessing, allying tradition and innovation in food products, new convenience foods, challenging tests, and new clean and sustainable processes. Entrepreneur alumni lectures were also promoted allowing exchange of experiences. Visits included a high pressure technology unit of a food industry, an innovation and development department of a food industry, an entrepreneurship centre and a food exhibition. A satisfaction survey was made, through the response of a questionnaire by the students, proving the effectiveness and success of this unit course framework. A SWOT analysis was carried out to gain a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in the curricular unit objectives.

  14. Assessment of vitamin D and vitamin A intake by female students at the United Arab Emirates University based on self-reported dietary and selected fortified food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleye, Louis C; Kerkadi, Abdel Hamid; Wasesa, Abdulkadar Ah; Rao, Madduri V; Aboubacar, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many adolescent girls and women (especially the UAE citizens) are not adequately exposed to sunlight and their dietary intake of vitamin D is insufficient to fulfill the required recommended daily allowance of the vitamin. In the present study, the problem of vitamin D and vitamin A insufficiency in female students of UAE University was investigated through a dietary intake assessment of the vitamins. Results indicated that over 70% of female students constituting the survey population did not consume enough milk and other vitamin-D-rich foods, and many showed poor food habits. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the population studied indicated that 37% of the total population was considered vitamin D insufficient and 40% of the female students residing in the hostels also had vitamin D insufficiency ( food consumption.

  15. SSH2S: Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides for an auxiliary power unit based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricco, Marcello; Bang, Mads; Fichtner, Maximilian; Hauback, Bjorn; Linder, Marc; Luetto, Carlo; Moretto, Pietro; Sgroi, Mauro

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the SSH2S (Fuel Cell Coupled Solid State Hydrogen Storage Tank) project was to develop a solid state hydrogen storage tank based on complex hydrides and to fully integrate it with a High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack. A mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was used as the main storage material for the tank, due to its high gravimetric storage capacity and relatively low hydrogen desorption temperature. The mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was coupled with a standard intermetallic compound to take advantage of its capability to release hydrogen at ambient temperature and to ensure a fast start-up of the system. The hydrogen storage tank was designed to feed a 1 kW HT-PEM stack for 2 h to be used for an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). A full thermal integration was possible thanks to the high operation temperature of the fuel cell and to the relative low temperature (170 °C) for hydrogen release from the mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system.

  16. Use of an Esophageal Heat Exchanger to Maintain Core Temperature during Burn Excisions and to Attenuate Pyrexia on the Burns Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burns patients are vulnerable to hyperthermia due to sepsis and SIRS and to hypothermia due to heat loss during excision surgery. Both states are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We describe the first use of a novel esophageal heat exchange device in combination with a heater/cooler unit to manage perioperative hypothermia and postoperative pyrexia. Material and Methods. The device was used in three patients with full thickness burns of 51%, 49%, and 45% body surface area to reduce perioperative hypothermia during surgeries of >6 h duration and subsequently to control hyperthermia in one of the patients who developed pyrexia of 40°C on the 22nd postoperative day due to E. coli/Candida septicaemia which was unresponsive to conventional cooling strategies. Results. Perioperative core temperature was maintained at 37°C for all three patients, and it was possible to reduce ambient temperature to 26°C to increase comfort levels for the operating team. The core temperature of the pyrexial patient was reduced to 38.5°C within 2.5 h of instituting the device and maintained around this value thereafter. Conclusion. The device was easy to use with no adverse incidents and helped maintain normothermia in all cases.

  17. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Newspaper Journalists in Metropolitan Markets in the United States Regarding Food Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Tom A.; Briers, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 88 journalists from metropolitan newspapers found a low level of knowledge about food biotechnology. Most considered genetic modification of plants acceptable, of animals somewhat acceptable. They trusted university scientists as sources and believed farmers would accept food biotechnology sooner than consumers would. (Contains 31…

  18. Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Balkwill, A; Spencer, E A; Roddam, A W; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Key, T J; Beral, V; Pirie, K

    2014-04-29

    Organically produced foods are less likely than conventionally produced foods to contain pesticide residues. We examined the hypothesis that eating organic food may reduce the risk of soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other common cancers in a large prospective study of 623 080 middle-aged UK women. Women reported their consumption of organic food and were followed for cancer incidence over the next 9.3 years. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks for cancer incidence by the reported frequency of consumption of organic foods. At baseline, 30%, 63% and 7% of women reported never, sometimes, or usually/always eating organic food, respectively. Consumption of organic food was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of all cancer (n=53 769 cases in total) (RR for usually/always vs never=1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.07), soft tissue sarcoma (RR=1.37, 95% CI: 0.82-2.27), or breast cancer (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15), but was associated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.96). In this large prospective study there was little or no decrease in the incidence of cancer associated with consumption of organic food, except possibly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  19. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of

  20. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient

  1. 全焊板式热交换器在热电联产机组中的应用%Application of All-Welded Plate Type Heat Exchanger in Cogeneration Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正风

    2016-01-01

    The heat exchanger is the most important auxiliary engine equipment system in cogeneration units. Introduction was made to the struc-tural features of all-welded plate heat exchangers, the heat diffusion principle and its application in cogeneration units. This paper compared and ana-lyzed it with traditional shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The analysis results show that the all-welded plate heat exchanger has advantages of both new type removable heat exchanger and traditional shell-and-tube heat exchanger, possesses distinguished heat transfer property under the heat diffusion working conditions of high temperature and high pressure medium, and can replace the shell-and-tube heat exchanger sufifciently under multiple working conditions.%热交换器设备是热电联产机组中最重要的辅机设备体系,介绍了全焊板式热交换器的结构特点、传热原理及其在热电联产机组中的应用,并将其与传统管壳式热交换器进行了对比分析。分析结果表明,全焊板式热交换器兼备新型可拆板式热交换器和传统管壳式热交换器两者的优点,在高温高压介质传热工况下拥有卓越的传热性能,可在多个工况中充分替代管壳式热交换器。

  2. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in selected retail ready-to-eat foods in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Sagoo, S K; Gillespie, I A; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2009-09-01

    Although listeriosis is a rare cause of human disease in the United Kingdom, an increase in the number of cases has been observed since 2001, almost exclusively in persons older than 60 years. This increase prompted this study on the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, which included those types potentially linked to cases of listeriosis. Between May 2006 and April 2007, 6,984 RTE foods were sampled (2,168 sliced meats, 1,242 hard cheese, 1,088 sandwiches, 878 butter, 725 spreadable cheese, 515 confectionery products containing cream, and 368 probiotic drinks). The food types with the highest prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes were sandwiches (7.0%) and sliced meats (3.7% within shelf life, 4.2% end of shelf life). L. monocytogenes at > 100 CFU/g (exceeding the European Commission's food safety criteria limit) only occurred in sandwiches (0.4%) and sliced meats (0.7% within shelf life, 1.0% end of shelf life). Contamination with L. monocytogenes at >100 CFU/g was more frequent in meats that were prepacked and/or of pack size > or = 300 g and in sandwiches that were supplied prepacked that contained salad vegetables as an ingredient. Satisfactory microbiological quality was associated with premises on which the management was trained in food hygiene and those that complied with hazard analysis and critical control point principles. This study provides important information about the microbiological safety of RTE foods and demonstrates that the control of L. monocytogenes in such foods, and in particular sandwiches and sliced meats, is essential in order to minimize the risk of this bacterium being present at levels hazardous to health at the point of consumption.

  3. Trans, saturated, and unsaturated fat in foods in the united states prior to mandatory trans-fat labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Oles, Carolyn J; Spease, Carol J; Brandt, Mary M; Yurawecz, Martin P; Rader, Jeanne I

    2004-01-01

    On July 11, 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published a final rule amending its food-labeling regulations to require that trans FA be declared in the nutrition label of conventional foods and dietary supplements. The effective date of this final rule is January 1, 2006. This places some urgency on increasing the number and types of currently available foods for which there are trans-fat data. Compositional databases on trans fat content of food are currently limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the trans-fat content of a wide range of foods prior to the effective date of the new regulation. AOAC Official Method of Analysis 996.01 was modified for the analysis of trans fat in noncereal products. Food products for analysis were selected on the basis of market share and data from the USDA's 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Foods were purchased from local supermarkets, weighed, hydrolyzed, converted to FAME, and analyzed by GC. The results showed that trans fat (g/100 g fat) ranged from 0.0 to 48.8 in bread, cake, and related products; from 14.9 to 27.7 in margarines; from 7.7 to 35.3 in cookies and crackers; from 24.7 to 38.2 in frozen potatoes; from 0.0 to 17.1 in salty snacks; from 0.0 to 13.2 in vegetable oils and shortenings; from 0.0 to 2.2 in salad dressings and mayonnaises; and from 0.0 to 2.0 in dry breakfast cereals. Serving sizes for the foods included in this survey ranged from 12 to 161 g, and trans-fat levels ranged from 0.0 to 7.2 g/serving. The significant differences in trans-fat content in products within each food category are due to differences in the type of fats and oils used in the manufacturing processes.

  4. Studies of the nutritional quality of commercial ‘ready to eat‘ infant foods in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Zand Fard, Nazanin

    2011-01-01

    Infancy is a time of rapid physiological (e.g. anthropometric, immunological and neurological) development. Hence, during this period of life nutritional requirements are at their highest in relation to body mass. There is a paucity of data with respect to the nutritional quality of complementary foods manufactured in the UK for infants and young children. The primary objective of this study was to examine the nutritional value of ‘ready to feed‘ complementary infant foods on the UK market in...

  5. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  6. BVH all-welded plate type heat exchanger in the application of the cogeneration unit%BVH型全焊板式热交换器在热电联产机组中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了BVH型全焊板式热交换器的特点及其在热电联产机组中的应用。将其与传统管壳式热交换器进行对比分析。结果表明,BVH型全焊板式热交换器是一种新型结构紧凑高效的热交换器,可在多个工况中替代管壳式热交换器,在热电联产机组中有着广泛的应用优势和市场。%This paper introduces the characteristic of BVH all-welded plate type heat exchanger and its application in cogeneration units. Comparison and analyses of the shell-and-tube exchanger. The results show that the BVH all-welded plate type heat exchanger is a new type compact structure and high efficiency heat exchanger, it can replace the shell-and-tube exchanger, and it will be widely used in the cogeneration unitfor the distinct advantages.

  7. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  8. EXCHANGE RATE - REGIMES AND POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Lučić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate of one currency is the price of the currency expressed in units of other currency. It is formed by the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Given that the exchange rate has a direct impact on the competitiveness of a country in terms of features of its exports and imports, in its balance of payments, and indirectly the overall economic and social development, in addition to acting in market principles - supply and demand in the formation of the equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rate is subject to different, stronger or weaker, more or less, forms of intervention. In the search for the optimal exchange rate policy of the national currency, the monetary authorities are positioned between the two extremes - the complete abandonment of the exchange rate to the market laws of supply and demand, or fixing the exchange rate for any of the selected anchor currency.

  9. Food Assistance: Financial Information on WIC Nutrition Services and Administrative Costs. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded nutrition assistance program administered by the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). Responding to Congressional requests for information regarding program costs, this report provides information on: (1) funding…

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil.

  11. Official control through AUDIT: implementation and responses in food industries falling within a Local Health Unit of Turin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Civera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports the results of audit activity on a number of food processing plants pertaining to ASLTO5. The activities, undertaken between 2008 and 2010, are related to an audit programme planning, implemented with 2 official controls for each plant, in 48 premises recognized under the Regulation (CE 854/2004, among those, 34 processing plants (cutting and processing of food of animal origin and 14 abattoirs. Data included in audit reports have been analyzed with Excel software, classifying detected non compliances (n.c. in 8 categories linked to specific food safety risk factors (structure, operative hygiene, personnel hygiene, pest control, temperature control, management of by-products, traceability, HACCP/records. By the time of the audit 83% of the inspected premises showed structural n.c.; structural aspects are the most critical point (121 n.c. out of 264, followed by operative hygiene (25% of total n.c. and pest control (13.6%. By the time of the second audit series, however, occurred a significant reduction of n.c. in both processing plants and abattoirs, falling from 264 to152, with a reduction of n.c. detection of more than 40%. The best response capacity among operators is related to pest control and HACCP plan/records. The audit procedure implemented, a part from providing a comprehensive and objective evaluation method of the food safety management system put in place by the operators, allowed, if compared to former procedures, a more objective and comprehensive evaluation of the n.c. trend and therefore of the food safety risk factors, estimating the efficacy of the control activity.

  12. Determination of the operating point and the enthalpy per unit surface of a cold battery with icy water and a double heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dieng1 ,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cold battery is a heat exchanger between two fluids, air (secondary fluid and iced water (primary fluid.The cold battery is composed of two heat exchangers in series, one of which is made up of flat-plate in galvanized steel serving as a reservoir for the iced water and the other one a copper shelland-tube exchanger with aluminum cooling blades. The two heat exchangers are connected to a pipe of the same diameter. These pipes will permit the transit of the icy water coming from the flat-plate heat exchanger by gravitation towards the tubes of the second exchanger [1]. The good operation of this cold battery depends on the knowledge of its operating point. We are proposing a technique of determination of the operating point by using one of the two fluids (water or air and the efficiencies [2, 3].The Knowledge of that operating point will enable us, through experimental means, determine the mean surface temperatureand then determine the mean surface enthalpy from the specific heat capacity at saturation obtained from the linearization of the entrance and exit air temperatures on the saturation curves.

  13. 76 FR 68210 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... is entitled to deference in crafting its antitrust settlements.\\2\\ See generally United States v... Defendants have contracts executed for the required investments at the time Court enters the Judgment, the...

  14. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  15. Improving retrospective characterization of the food environment for a large region in the United States during a historic time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2012-11-01

    Access to healthy foods has received increasing attention due to growing prevalence of obesity and diet-related health conditions yet there are major obstacles in characterizing the local food environment. This study developed a method to retrospectively characterize supermarkets for a single historic year, 2005, in 19 counties in 6 states in the USA using a supermarket chain-name list and two business databases. Data preparation, merging, overlaps, added-value amongst various approaches and differences by census tract area-level socio-demographic characteristics are described. Agreement between two food store databases was modest: 63%. Only 55% of the final list of supermarkets were identified by a single business database and selection criteria that included industry classification codes and sales revenue ≥$2 million. The added-value of using a supermarket chain-name list and second business database was identification of an additional 14% and 30% of supermarkets, respectively. These methods are particularly useful to retrospectively characterize access to supermarkets during a historic period and when field observations are not feasible and business databases are used.

  16. The evolution of the School Food and Farm to School Movement in the United States: connecting childhood health, farms, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Gail; Ohmart, Jeri

    2012-08-01

    This article provides an historical review of the evolution of the Farm to School movement within the larger context of school food in the United States. The Farm to School movement emerged amidst the growing public concern about childhood health and obesity, as well as increasing awareness about environmental and economic challenges in our food and agricultural system. It offered America’s small and midsized farmers an alternative market while potentially improving student health and public awareness of healthy eating. We discuss the role of key stakeholders in contributing to innovative strategies, programs, and policies related to School Food and Farm to School. The growing involvement of larger school districts has helped focus attention and efforts on the persistent challenges related to procurement and distribution. As the Farm to School movement has matured and moved onto the national arena, policy, research, and evaluation have helped define and shape new directions. Finally, we reflect on what it will take to strengthen Farm to School so that it can better contribute to human and community health.

  17. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and “Regulatory Scaffolding”: Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Magnusson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or “responsive” approach that introduces regulatory “scaffolds” to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry’s willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.

  18. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and “Regulatory Scaffolding”: Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Reeve, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or “responsive” approach that introduces regulatory “scaffolds” to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry’s willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry. PMID:26133973

  19. Currency Exchange Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  20. Practices And Opinions On In-Center Food Consumption Across 1,223 Facilities In The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Benner

    2012-06-01

    The top reasons for facility practices that allowed eating during dialysis were: prevention of hypoglycemia on dialysis, improved kcal intake on dialysis days, and the opportunity to provide counseling on food products currently chosen by the patient. The top reasons for facility practices not permitting eating during dialysis included: potential adverse events associated with hypotension, GI symptoms, choking, infection, pest control, and spills. Further analyses are warranted to determine whether there is a correlation between allowing patients to eat during dialysis treatment and an improvement in the nutritional status of the patients.

  1. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of ...

  2. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  3. Change in Obesity Prevalence across the United States Is Influenced by Recreational and Healthcare Contexts, Food Environments, and Hispanic Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Myers

    Full Text Available To examine change in county-level adult obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2009 and identify associated community characteristics.Change in county-level adult (≥20 years obesity prevalence was calculated for a 5-year period (2004-2009. Community measures of economic, healthcare, recreational, food environment, population structure, and education contexts were also calculated. Regression analysis was used to assess community characteristics associated (p<0.01 with change in adult obesity prevalence.Mean±SD change in obesity prevalence was 5.1±2.4%. Obesity prevalence decreased in 1.4% (n = 44 and increased in 98% (n = 3,060 of counties from 2004-2009. Results showed that both baseline levels and increases in physically inactive adults were associated with greater increases in obesity prevalence, while baseline levels of and increases in physician density and grocery store/supercenter density were related to smaller increases in obesity rates. Baseline levels of the Hispanic population share were negatively linked to changing obesity levels, while places with greater Hispanic population growth saw greater increases in obesity.Most counties in the U.S. experienced increases in adult obesity prevalence from 2004 to 2009. Findings suggest that community-based interventions targeting adult obesity need to incorporate a range of community factors, such as levels of physical inactivity, access to physicians, availability of food outlets, and ethnic/racial population composition.

  4. Food Exchange Portion of Law Application in Liver Source Sex Diabetes Diet Guidance%食物交换份法在肝源性糖尿病饮食指导中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金燕; 钱湘云; 申海燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the method of food exchange portion in liver source sex application value in diabetes diet guidance. Methods Based on our hospital from January 2014- June 2014 admitted during the period of the clinical data of 87 cases of liver source sex with diabetes, according to the different way of dietary guidance, the 87 patients were randomly divided into observation group (45 cases) and control group (42 cases) and observation group patients' diet food exchange portion method guidance, give control group routine diet instruction, compare two groups of patients with the clinical effect of dietary guidance, complications and patient satisfaction situation of clinical medical work. Results The observation group of patients with clinical dietary guidance 80.00% total effective 80.00%obvious higher than control group (P0.05), do not have statistical significance, clinical guidance, observation group of pa-tients the total evaluation of clinical medical work obviously higher than that of control group (P0.05),临床饮食指导之后,观察组患者对临床医疗工作的总评价明显的高于对照组(P<0.05),且与临床饮食指导之前相比,其上升幅度明显的高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论在肝源性糖尿病饮食指导中加强食物交换份法的应用,能够有效的降低并发症发生率,提升患者对临床医疗工作的满意度,改善患者的生活质量,值得推荐。

  5. Modeling number of bacteria per food unit in comparison to bacterial concentration in quantitative risk assessment: impact on risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Chen, Yuhuan; Hoelzer, Karin

    2015-02-01

    When developing quantitative risk assessment models, a fundamental consideration for risk assessors is to decide whether to evaluate changes in bacterial levels in terms of concentrations or in terms of bacterial numbers. Although modeling bacteria in terms of integer numbers may be regarded as a more intuitive and rigorous choice, modeling bacterial concentrations is more popular as it is generally less mathematically complex. We tested three different modeling approaches in a simulation study. The first approach considered bacterial concentrations; the second considered the number of bacteria in contaminated units, and the third considered the expected number of bacteria in contaminated units. Simulation results indicate that modeling concentrations tends to overestimate risk compared to modeling the number of bacteria. A sensitivity analysis using a regression tree suggests that processes which include drastic scenarios consisting of combinations of large bacterial inactivation followed by large bacterial growth frequently lead to a >10-fold overestimation of the average risk when modeling concentrations as opposed to bacterial numbers. Alternatively, the approach of modeling the expected number of bacteria in positive units generates results similar to the second method and is easier to use, thus potentially representing a promising compromise.

  6. Experimental Study on Anti Fouling Deposition of Crude Oil Heat Exchangers at Xing-9 Crude Oil Stabilization Unit%杏九原稳装置原油换热器防沉积现场试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小东

    2016-01-01

    杏九原稳装置原油稳定率低,其中三元复合驱技术应用比重大是造成换热器堵塞的主要影响因素。根据换热器堵塞机理,采取了改变换热器折流板间距和管束材质两项技术改造措施,并在杏九原稳进行了防沉积效果的现场试验,连续运行4个月后,碳钢管束传热系数下降19.76%,不锈钢传热系数下降12.75%。检修期抽芯子观察,沉积堵塞好于其他换热器,同时原油稳定率明显提高。试验表明,提高原油流速有较好的防沉积堵塞效果,应用性能良好的管束材质也能减缓换热器的沉积堵塞。%Xing-9 crude oil stabilization unit has a rather lower ratio of stabilized crude oil. The survey and research shows that the reason is its larger ratio of oil produced by alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding in its feed oil. Based on fouling deposition mechanisms of its crude oil heat exchangers, two technology reformation methods: changing baffles’ space and changing tubes’material,are taken on exchangers and made field test.After 4 months con-tinuous running, the heat transfer coefficient of modified exchangers drops 12.75%, which drops 19.76% in unmodified exchangers. Contrasted with other heat exchangers, the modi-fied exchangers have a better anti fouling deposition property while observed during over-haul, which distinctively increase ratio of stabilized crude oil. This experiment shows that, for crude oil heat exchangers, increase of velocity of crude oil achieves a better anti fouling deposition effect and changes in tubes’material can retard fouling deposition.

  7. How to spend a token? Trade-offs between food variety and food preference in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Mancini, Alessandra; Crescimbene, Lara; Ariely, Dan; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Humans and non-human animals often choose among different alternatives by seeking variety. Here we assessed whether variety-seeking, i.e. the tendency to look for diversity in services and goods, occurs in capuchin monkeys--South-American primates which--as humans--are omnivorous and susceptible to food monotony. Capuchins chose between a Variety-token, that allowed to select one among 10 different foods (one more-preferred and nine less-preferred) and a Monotony-token, that--upon exchange with the experimenter--either allowed to select one among 10 units of the same more-preferred food or gave access to one unit of the more-preferred food. To examine how food preference affects variety-seeking, in the B-condition we presented nine moderately preferred foods, whereas in the C-condition we presented nine low-preferred foods. Overall, capuchins preferred the Variety-token over the Monotony-token and often selected one of the less-preferred foods. These results suggest that variety-seeking is rooted in our evolutionary history, and that it satisfies the need of experiencing stimulation from the environment; at the ultimate level, variety-seeking may allow the organism to exploit novel foods and obtain a correct nutritional intake. Finally, variety-seeking could have contributed to the transition from barter to money in many human cultures. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantification of Art v 1 and Act c 1 being major allergens of mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units by ion-exchange HPLC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanusa, Milan; Perovic, Iva; Popovic, Milica; Polovic, Natalija; Burazer, Lidija; Milovanovic, Mina; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Jankov, Ratko; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2007-10-01

    A simple ion-exchange HPLC-UV method was developed for determination of major allergens from mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units. The separation of Art v 1 and Act c 1 from other components in the extracts was achieved in one step. The extinction coefficients used in the study were theoretically determined and compared to the extinction coefficients determined by gravimetry. We also reported a close correlation of the major allergen contents with the overall allergenic potency of the extracts determined by inhibition ELISA. This method could be a useful tool for standardization of allergenic extracts for clinical use.

  9. Design and performance of low temperature heat exchanger in small-scale liquefied natural gas unit%小型天然气液化中低温换热装置设计及性能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆哲

    2015-01-01

    低温换热装置是天然气液化的关键部件,影响着整个小型天然气液化装置的性能。本文针对其设计及性能展开讨论分析。%Low temperature heat exchanger as the key equipment in a natural gas liquefier,influences the performance of the whole unit. The design and performance of it are presented in this paper.

  10. Adapting the brine unit for diaphragm electrolysis to suit ion-exchange membrane electrolysis%改隔膜生产系统盐水装置用于离子膜生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会君; 柴亚洲

    2013-01-01

    介绍德州实华化工有限公司利用闲置的隔膜生产系统盐水装置提高离子膜法烧碱生产系统一次盐水产能的改造经验。%The experience that Dezhou Shihua Chemical Industry Co ., Ltd.used the idle brine unit for diaphragm electrolysis to increase the capacity of primary brine for ion -exchange membrane electrolysis was introduced .

  11. Food irradiation in the United States: irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh fruits and vegetables and for the control of microorganisms in meat and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ralph T. E-mail: Ralph.T.Ross@usda.gov; Engeljohn, Dan

    2000-03-01

    Recently there has been a renewed focus on food irradiation in the United States (US) for the disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables to eliminate pests from imported agricultural commodities that could threaten the economic viability of American agriculture and for the control of bacterium E. coli 0157:H7 in beef, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the US domestic food supply. In January 1999 USDA/APHIS published in the Federal Register a rule which authorized irradiation as a guarantee treatment for papayas for movement from Hawaii to the US mainland. This treatment was never used for a number of reasons. However, in December, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final rule to terminate production and consumption of methyl bromide, the only remaining broad spectrum fumigant for disinfesting agricultural commodities for pests of quarantine significance on imported and exported commodities. With increased global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide as a fumigant for regulatory pests treatment made it imperative that practical treatment options be explored including irradiation. In May 1996, USDA/APHIS published a Notice of Policy which sets forth a policy statement that share positions and policies of USDA concerning the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. Subsequently in July, 1997, USDA/APHIS amended its Hawaiian regulation by increasing the dose required for papayas intended for interstate movement and by allowing carambolas and litchis also to move interstate as well. Fruits from Hawaii to the US mainland are currently being irradiated and distributed in commerce throughout the US Irradiation treatments now afford movement of many exotic fruits to the US mainland that could not be done earlier due to the lack of available treatment methods. To help combat this potential public health problem, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treating red meat products. This process has been

  12. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  13. Introducing the paradigm of organizational value creation effect on customer loyalty: A case study of Tehran province food industry unites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zarandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, organization cannot firmly survive without having a broad captive market. Rather, through value creation for customers and achieve their loyalty, we can maintain and increase the existing market share. Providing a specific product or service requires modern ideas and approaches to be applied in organizations. Resource limitations prevent organizations from being the best on all value creation contexts; so they must focus on some range of customer-centric values regarding the given customer groups; because customer needs will change as time goes by and it requires different kinds of values to be taken into consideration. In this research, organizational value creation effects on customer loyalty is studied by more recent and complete customer value model designed by Flint et al. (2010 [Flint et al. (2010. Customer value anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical examination. Industrial Marketing Management, 40, 219-230]. In this regard, some questionnaires are distributed among a statistical population including 90 customers of Tehran Food Industries. Results show that organizational value creation affects on customer loyalty. Among effective factors, product quality has the most effects on organizational value creation following by product price, marketing and after-sales services.

  14. Coping with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accurately predicted from the severity of past ones. Fast Facts About one in 20 children and one in every 25 adults in the United States has a food allergy. In the United States, the most common ...

  15. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, L.B.; Farma, A.J.

    1987-01-06

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger as used in a space heater, of the type in which hot exhaust gases transfer heat to water or the like flowing through a helical heat exchange coil. A significant improvement to the efficiency of the heat exchange occurring between the air and water is achieved by using a conduit for the water having external helical fluting such that the hot gases circulate along two paths, rather than only one. A preferred embodiment of such a heat exchanger includes a porous combustion element for producing radiant heat from a combustible gas, surrounded by a helical coil for effectively transferring the heat in the exhaust gas, flowing radially from the combustion element, to the water flowing through the coil. 4 figs.

  16. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  17. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  18. Finned Small Diameter Tube Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chaobin; Daiguji, Hirofumi; Hihara, Eiji; Tokunaga, Masahide

    The performance of fined small tube heat exchangers was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Inner diameters of tubes were 1.0mm, 2.1mm and 4.0mm. Exchanged heat and pressure drop obtained from numerical simulation agreed well with the experimental ones. Calculation results show that the volume of a 2.0mm tube heat exchanger can be reduced to 33% of that of a 4mm tube heat exchanger with the same capacity. In addition the distribution of two-phase flow in a branching unit was investigated by measuring downstream temperature distribution. The flow distribution in a branching unit strongly affects the exchanged heat.

  19. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  20. Separation of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) modified forms and aggregates in an industrial ion-exchange chromatography unit operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Alan K; Suda, Eric J; Herberg, John T; Thomas, Kristin E; Shell, Robert E; Gustafson, Mark E; Ho, Sa V

    2008-09-12

    We have shown how protein self-association impacts the ion-exchange separation of modified forms and aggregates for apolipoprotein A-I(Milano). It is well known that reversible self-association of a protein can lead to chromatographic band broadening, peak splitting, merging, fronting, and tailing. To mitigate these effects, urea or an organic modifier can be added to the chromatography buffers to shift the equilibrium distribution of the target molecule to the dissociated form. A first generation process that did not utilize urea resulted in low yield and low purity as it was not possible to separate protein aggregates. A second generation process run in the presence of 6M urea resulted in high purity and high yield, but throughput was limited due to low resin binding capacity when the protein was completely denatured. A third generation process achieved high purity, high yield, and high throughput by shifting the urea concentration during the process to continually operate in the optimal window for maximum loading and selectivity. Key to these systematic process improvements was the rational understanding of the interplay of urea concentration and ion-exchange chromatographic behavior. Results from pilot and industrial scale operations are presented, demonstrating the suitability of the techniques described in this work for the large scale manufacture of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

  1. Acquired hemoglobin variants and exposure to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient red blood cell units during exchange transfusion for sickle cell disease in a patient requiring antigen-matched blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, Patricia M; Francis, Richard O; Spitalnik, Patrice F; Schwartz, Joseph; Jhang, Jeffrey S

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) is frequently used in the management of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and acute chest syndrome or stroke, or to maintain target hemoglobin S (HbS) levels. In these settings, RBCEx is a category I or II recommendation according to guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis published by the American Society for Apheresis. Matching donor red blood cells (RBCs) to recipient phenotypes (e.g., C, E, K-antigen negative) can decrease the risk of alloimmunization in patients with multi-transfused SCD. However, this may select for donors with a higher prevalence of RBC disorders for which screening is not performed. This report describes a patient with SCD treated with RBCEx using five units negative for C, E, K, Fya, Fyb (prospectively matched), four of which were from donors with hemoglobin variants and/or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Pre-RBCEx HbS quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated 49.3% HbS and 2.8% hemoglobin C, presumably from transfusion of a hemoglobin C-containing RBC unit during a previous RBCEx. Post-RBCEx HPLC showed the appearance of hemoglobin G-Philadelphia. Two units were G6PD-deficient. The patient did well, but the consequences of transfusing RBC units that are G6PD-deficient and contain hemoglobin variants are unknown. Additional studies are needed to investigate effects on storage, in-vivo RBC recovery and survival, and physiological effects following transfusion of these units. Post-RBCEx HPLC can monitor RBCEx efficiency and detect the presence of abnormal transfused units.

  2. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (Pinsects were under the two physiological statuses (Prespiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight).

  3. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TURKISH FOOTBALL CLUB WEB SITES IN THE STOCK EXCHANGE IN ISTANBUL ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COMPETITIVE INVESTORS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih TEMİZEL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the development of financial liberalization and information technologies has increased the awareness of stakeholders of companies and has enabled investor relations to reach professional dimensions. In this study, it is aimed to contribute to the development of the management of the investor relations of football clubs and to the correct pricing of market values in Stock Exchange Istanbul. For this reason, information will be given about the areas that football clubs which are public offering in Borsa İstanbul and developed markets, distinguish between their web sites and their investor relations in their web sites. When the said websites are examined, the score cards prepared by the Association of Turkish Investor will be used for club activity reports, financial results explanations and website evaluations.

  5. Characteristics of patient portals developed in the context of health information exchanges: Early policy effects of incentives in the meaningful use program in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Otte-Trojel (Eva Terese); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); J.J. van de Klundert (Joris); T.G. Rundall (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in the United States launched the second stage of its Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, providing financial incentives to providers to meaningfully use their electronic health records to engage patients onl

  6. Characteristics of patient portals developed in the context of health information exchanges: Early policy effects of incentives in the meaningful use program in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Otte-Trojel (Eva Terese); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); J.J. van de Klundert (Joris); T.G. Rundall (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ In 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in the United States launched the second stage of its Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, providing financial incentives to providers to meaningfully use their electronic health records to engage

  7. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  8. Individualistic impact of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolade, Mathew K

    2016-05-01

    The individualistic effect of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products (moin-moin, akara, and gbegiri) was investigated. Four cowpea types (IT93K-452-1, IT95K-499s-35, IT97K-568-18, and market sample) were used for the study, whereas the three traditional food products were produced from each of the cowpea types, respectively. The results revealed that every unit operation involved in the production of moin-moin, akara or gbegiri contributed to the overall reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid (PA), and tannin; though at varying degrees. In the production of moin-moin, the major contributions to the overall reduction in TIA were from steaming (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The contributions to the overall reduction in PA were from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and steaming (7.8-14.0%), whereas that of tannin were from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), steaming (19.6-24.7%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). For akara production, the major contributions to TIA reduction were from deep frying (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The PA reduction was from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and deep frying (9.6-15.9%), whereas that of tannin reduction was from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), deep frying (20.7-25.3%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). In the production of gbegiri, the overall reduction in TIA was contributed from pressure cooking (79.0-84.8%), preliminary soaking (5.8-11.3%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The reduction in PA was contributed by dehulling (34.0-40.4%), pressure cooking (24.7-35.0%), and preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), whereas the overall reduction in tannin content was similarly contributed by dehulling (39.7-47.6%), pressure cooking (29.8-34.4%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%).

  9. Measurement of food colour in L*a*b* units from RGB digital image using least squares support vector machine regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM regression to develop an efficient method to measure the colour of food materials in L*a*b* units by means of a computer vision systems (CVS. A laboratory CVS, based on colour digital camera (CDC, was implemented and three LS-SVM models were trained and validated, one for each output variables (L*, a*, and b* required by this problem, using the RGB signals generated by the CDC as input variables to these models. The colour target-based approach was used to camera characterization and a standard reference target of 242 colour samples was acquired using the CVS and a colorimeter. This data set was split in two sets of equal sizes, for training and validating the LS-SVM models. An effective two-stage grid search process on the parameters space was performed in MATLAB to tune the regularization parameters γ and the kernel parameters σ2 of the three LS-SVM models. A 3-8-3 multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFNN, according to the research conducted by León et al. (2006, was also trained in order to compare its performance with those of LS-SVM models. The LS-SVM models developed in this research have been shown better generalization capability then the MFNN, allowed to obtain high correlations between L*a*b* data acquired using the colorimeter and the corresponding data obtained by transformation of the RGB data acquired by the CVS. In particular, for the validation set, R2 values equal to 0.9989, 0.9987, and 0.9994 for L*, a* and b* parameters were obtained. The root mean square error values were 0.6443, 0.3226, and 0.2702 for L*, a*, and b* respectively, and the average of colour differences ΔEab was 0.8232±0.5033 units. Thus, LS-SVM regression seems to be a useful tool to measurement of food colour using a low cost CVS.

  10. Approximate formulas of number of transfer unit of U shaped fin-tube heat exchangers%U型翅片管换热器传热单元数计算式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小舟; 赵加宁

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the formulas of number of transfer unit (NTU) of U shaped fin-tube heat exchangers, a U shaped fin-tube heat exchanger is taked as research object. Approximate NTU formulas of number of transfer unit are derived by establishing heat transfer model of U shaped fin-tube when the trend of two flows in fin-tube heat exchanger is counter and parallel, respectively. Subsequently, the heat transfer coefficients of fin-tube are com- pared and analyzed by effectiveness-number of transfer unit method (e-NTU method) and logarithm mean tem- perature difference method ( LMTD method) when inlet water temperature is from 45 ℃ to 60℃ and water flow rate is from 30 kg/h to 110 kg/h. The results show that, the differenbe of the heat transfer coefficients respectively calculated by 6-NTU method and LMTD method is so small that these NTU formulas are valid.%为了得到U型翅片管换热器传热单元数计算式,以U型翅片管换热器为研究对象,通过建立翅片管换热模型,推导出了逆流和顺流2种流体流动趋势的传热单元数计算式(NTU计算式).分别采用推导出的传热单元数计算式(F—NTU法)和前人推导出的平均温差关系式(LMTD法)计算U型翅片管传热系数,并进行对比分析.结果表明,当进水温度为45~60℃,热水流量为30~110kg/h时,由ε-NTU法和LMTD法计算出来的翅片管传热系数相差很小.所推导出来的U型翅片管换热器传热单元数计算式是合理的.

  11. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  12. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On April 1st,2014,CPAPD Deputy Secretary General Ms.Chen Huaifan met with Mr.Djudjuk Juyoto Suntani,President of the World Peace Committee,Indonesia,who headed the delegation,in the CPAPD office.The two sides exchanged views on issues of common concern including cooperation between the two organizations and the inheritance of Chinese culture.

  13. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  14. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products.

  15. Total and self-energies beyond LDA and GGA: exact-exchange, GW and MP2 united by numeric atom-centered orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Andrea; Ren, Xinguo; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Blum, Volker; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias [Fritz-Haber-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Rinke, Patrick [Fritz-Haber-Institut, Berlin (Germany); University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Well known deficiencies of present-day exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory (DFT) comprise the spurious self-interaction, the absence of non-local correlation (van der Waals, image interactions), and the absence of the derivative discontinuity with respect to changes in the electron number. We present a unified framework to overcome these deficiencies by many-body perturbation theory in the bare (Hartree-Fock,MP2) and the screened Coulomb interaction (Hedin's GW approximation). Using numeric atomic-centered orbitals as basis sets, the efficiency of our formulation relies on the representation of intermediate quantities like the polarizability, and bare and screened Coulomb potentials by a second, auxiliary set of atom-centered basis functions. For an extended set of finite systems spanning individual atoms, small molecules (water dimer, methane, silane, benzene), metal clusters (Na{sub n}), and biomolecules (alanine) we demonstrate that our implementation in the new DFT code FHI-aims is significantly more efficient than existing formulations based on traditional plane wave or Gaussian basis sets.

  16. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  17. An Analysis of the Food Safety Educational Processes in the Cooperative Extension System of the North Central Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Vikram Swaroop Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that food safety is a serious concern all over the world, and lack of it has huge health and economic implications to different stakeholders. The situation in the U.S. is also no different with most of the American public not much knowledgeable about agriculture and food safety. Therefore, food safety education assumes…

  18. An Analysis of the Food Safety Educational Processes in the Cooperative Extension System of the North Central Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Vikram Swaroop Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that food safety is a serious concern all over the world, and lack of it has huge health and economic implications to different stakeholders. The situation in the U.S. is also no different with most of the American public not much knowledgeable about agriculture and food safety. Therefore, food safety education assumes…

  19. Legislation and regulations of food additives in the United States and its inspiration%美国食品添加剂的安全监管及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筠筠; 杨嘉玮

    2014-01-01

    食品添加剂在食品行业中占有重要地位,它的使用直接关系着食品的性能与安全,因而食品添加剂安全监管体制在整个社会法制体系中占有重要的地位。美国联邦食品、药品和化妆品法规定,只有经过美国食品药品监督管理局评价和公布的食品添加剂才能生产和在食品中使用。本文综述了美国食品添加剂的法律法规及监管体系。美国十分重视对食品添加剂的法律法规体系建设,并形成了严格、规范、有效的监管,其中有些经验对我国完善食品添加剂管理法规和监管体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%Safety of food additives is an important issue related to food industry, so the use of the additives in food should be controlled by law. In the United States, the Congress has entrusted the Food and Drug Ad-ministration (FDA) with the responsibility to ensure that additives to be used in food are safe, thus a new food additive must be approved by FDA before it can be used in food. This paper reviewed the legislation and regu-lation system concerning food additives in the United States. The results showed that FDA had developed a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system to assure the safety of food additive. Management of food additives in the United States is also a helpful reference for our country.

  20. 40 CFR 63.104 - Heat exchange system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat exchange system or at locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers. (i) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of recirculating... manufacturing process units. (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or...

  1. Food security and cardiovascular disease risk among adults in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S

    2013-12-05

    Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.31). Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk.

  2. Food Security and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Results Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31–4.31). Conclusion Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24309090

  3. Rain pulse response of soil CO2 exchange by biological soil crusts and grasslands of the semiarid Colorado Plateau, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, D. R.; Grote, E. E.; Belnap, J.

    2011-09-01

    Biological activity in arid grasslands is strongly dependent on moisture. We examined gas exchange of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), the underlying soil biotic community, and the belowground respiratory activity of C3 and C4 grasses over 2 years in southeast Utah, USA. We used soil surface CO2 flux and the amount and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of soil CO2 as indicators of belowground and soil surface activity. Soil respiration was always below 2 μmol m-2 s-1 and highly responsive to soil moisture. When moisture was available, warm spring and summer temperature was associated with higher fluxes. Moisture pulses led to enhanced soil respiration lasting for a week or more. Biological response to rain was not simply dependent on the amount of rain, but also depended on antecedent conditions (prior moisture pulses). The short-term temperature sensitivity of respiration was very dynamic, showing enhancement within 1-2 days of rain, and diminishing each day afterward. Carbon uptake occurred by cyanobacterially dominated biocrusts following moisture pulses in fall and winter, with a maximal net carbon uptake of 0.5 μmol m-2 s-1, although typically the biocrusts were a net carbon source. No difference was detected in the seasonal activity of C3 and C4 grasses, contrasting with studies from other arid regions (where warm- versus cool-season activity is important), and highlighting the unique biophysical environment of this cold desert. Contrary to other studies, the δ13C of belowground respiration in the rooting zone of each photosynthetic type did not reflect the δ13C of C3 and C4 physiology.

  4. International fuel cycle and waste management technology exchange activities sponsored by the United States Department of Energy: FY 1982 evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1983-02-01

    In FY 1982, DOE and DOE contractor personnel attended 40 international symposia and conferences on fuel reprocessing and waste management subjects. The treatment of high-level waste was the topic most often covered in the visits, with geologic disposal and general waste management also being covered in numerous visits. Topics discussed less frequently inlcude TRU/LLW treatment, airborne waste treatment, D and D, spent fuel handling, and transportation. The benefits accuring to the US from technology exchange activities with other countries are both tangible, e.g., design of equipment, and intangible, e.g., improved foreign relations. New concepts initiated in other countries, particularly those with sizable nuclear programs, are beginning to appear in US efforts in growing numbers. The spent fuel dry storage concept originating in the FRG is being considered at numerous sites. Similarly, the German handling and draining concepts for the joule-heated ceramic melter used to vitrify wastes are being incorporated in US designs. Other foreigh technologies applicable in the US include the slagging incinerator (Belgium), the SYNROC waste form (Australia), the decontamination experience gained in decommissioning the Eurochemic reprocessing plant (Belgium), the engineered surface storage of low- and intermediate-level waste (Belgium, FRG, France), the air-cooled storage of vitrified high-level waste (France, UK), waste packaging (Canada, FRG, Sweden), disposal in salt (FRG), disposal in granite (Canada, Sweden), and sea dumping (UK, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland). These technologies did not necessarily originated or have been tried in the US but for various reasons are now being applied and extended in other countries. This growing nuclear technological base in other countires reduces the number of technology avenues the US need follow to develop a solid nuclear power program.

  5. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  6. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  7. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.

  8. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  9. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  10. Multiscale modeling in food engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Q.T.; Carmeliet, J.; Datta, A.K.; Defraeye, T.; Delele, M.A.; Herremans, E.; Opara, L.; Ramon, H.; Tijskens, E.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Liedekerke, Van P.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years food engineers have attempted to describe physical phenomena such as heat and mass transfer that occur in food during unit operations by means of mathematical models. Foods are hierarchically structured and have features that extend from the molecular scale to the food plant scale.

  11. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale....... The content of this textbook constitutes a foundation for more in-depth teaching in the field unit operations and food technology in general. The textbook is supplied along with a set of cases and assignments which should be solved concurrently. The textbook is constructed in a way that makes it possible......This textbook is made for you to use as a study book and as a source of reference and inspiration to work with problems related to food production. Most textbooks are focused on the separate unit operations used in a production. We have tried to put a few of these operations into the broader...

  12. Determination of chloride ion in dimethyl dicarbonate as food additives by ion exchange chromatography%离子色谱法检测食品添加剂焦碳酸二甲酯中的氯离子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦梅; 王敬花; 张习志

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立离子色谱法检测食品添加剂焦碳酸二甲酯(DMDC)中的杂质氯离子。方法:样品用水溶解超声定容后,采用SH-AC-1阴离子交换柱(25 cm×4.6 mm,7μm)分离,抑制电导法检测。分别选用碳酸钠,四硼酸钠为淋洗液。考察了淋洗液种类,浓度对氯离子与干扰离子的分离度的影响。最佳色谱条件为:采用0.005 mol/L的四硼酸钠水溶液作为淋洗液,流速1.0 mL/min。结果:在此条件下,样品中的氯离子可以和其他的干扰离子分离,而且分离度达3.0以上,峰形对称。在(0.1~ 5.0 mg/L)范围内,可获得良好的线性关系,线性相关系数大于0.999;氯离子检出限(S/N=3)达(0.007 mg/L),加标回收率达97.5%以上,重现性好。结论:该方法简便快速灵敏准确,可以用于食品添加剂DMDC中氯离子测定。%Objiective: To establish a method for the determination of chloride ion in DMDC (dimethyl dicarbonate) as food additives by ion exchange chromatography. Method: Sample was dissluted by water after ultrasonic, chromatographic separation was performed on a SH-AC-1 (25 cm×4.6 mm, 5μm) anion exchange column, Suppressed conductivity detection. Using sodium carbonate, sodium borate as the eluent, respectively. The effects of the types of eluent, eluent concentration on separation of chloride ion and interfering ion were investigated. The optimized chromatographic conditions for the determination of the chloride were as follows: 0.005 mol/L of sodium borate solution as eluent and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: Under these conditions, the chloride ions and other interfering ion can be completely separated in the sample, the resolution of peak attained 3.0 or more and the symmetry of peaks was better. The good linear calibration curve were obtained for the range of 0.1-5.0 mg/L with the linear relative coefficient more than 0.999, chloride ion detection limit(SIN:3) was 0.007 mg/L, The

  13. The acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States: A study of consumers' conjoint evaluations of the qualities of functional foods and perceptions of general health factors and cultural values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    , without them having to change their eating habits fundamentally. 2. Health is one of the most important choice criteria, when consumers purchase food products. The fact that most health consequences of food are long term and therefore inaccessible at the time of purchase, the evaluation has to be based...

  14. Friendly Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Chinese Vice President Li Yuanchao meeting with Gaston Flosse,President of the French Polynesian governing council,and his partyVice Premier Liu Yandong meeting with Rahm Emanuel,Mayor of Chicago of the United States

  15. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  16. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  17. Fundamentals and the Equilibrium of Real Exchange Rate of an Emerging Economy: Estimating the Exchange Rate Misalignment in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jauhari Dahalan; Mohammed Umar; Hussin Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on the suggestion of the weak exogeneity and unit vector analysis, the study estimates the equilibrium and sustainable equilibrium real exchange rate based on the behavioural equilibrium exchange rate (BEER...

  18. 蒸馏装置常顶热交换器腐蚀与防护探讨%Discussion of Corrosion and Protection for Atmospheric Tower Overhead Heat Exchangers in Distillation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 康强利; 张万虎; 马红杰

    2016-01-01

    针对蒸馏装置常顶热交换器经常发生腐蚀泄漏的问题,结合装置现场的实际腐蚀与防护情况,分析了目前国内蒸馏装置常顶热交换器的腐蚀泄漏现状,从工艺、设备、腐蚀监测等方面对常顶热交换器的腐蚀防护措施及存在的问题进行了分析。结果表明,目前常顶热交换器的腐蚀机理主要为露点腐蚀和铵盐垢下腐蚀。腐蚀防护的重点是工艺防腐,应加强原油中有机氯的分析和监测,做好原油电脱盐工作,在对常顶注剂的优选、加注方式以及加入量优化的基础上,配合材质升级及其表面处理、腐蚀监测,探索热交换器泄漏的预测方法,完善常顶热交换器腐蚀预测软件,确保常顶热交换器的长周期运行。%Considering frequent leakage of atmospheric tower overhead heat exchangers ,combi‐ning corrosion and protection measures in distillation unit ,leakage of heat exchangers and corro‐sion protection measures as well as the existing problems are analyzed from the view of process , equipment ,and corrosion monitoring .Results show ,the main corrosion mechanism is dew point corrosion and ammonium salt corrosion under the scale .Protection emphasis should be put on process corrosion protective measures ,strengthening organochlorine analysis and monitoring in crude oil ,operating electric desalting of crude oil well .In addition ,optimization of injection a‐gent category ,injection methods should be focused excepting materials quality upgrading and sur‐face treatment ,corrosion monitoring .At the same time ,exploration of the leakage forecasting method and improvement in corrosion prediction software can ensure long period operation of the heat exchangers .

  19. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by ho employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been developed especially...... have at least weak cross-cultural comparability. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were named the uninvolved, the careless, the rational, the conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. A comparison of the segment...... profiles across nations by MDS showed th segments group naturally. The results tend to indicate a rather strong tendency towards cross-national segments....

  20. Food security is related to adult type 2 diabetes control over time in a United States safety net primary care clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalowitz, M U; Eng, J S; McKinney, C O; Krohn, J; Lapin, B; Wang, C-H; Nodine, E

    2017-05-15

    Successful Type 2 diabetes management requires adopting a high nutrient-density diet made up of food items that both meet dietary needs and preferences and can be feasibly obtained on a regular basis. However, access to affordable, nutrient-dense foods often is lacking in poorer neighbourhoods. Therefore, low food security should directly impair glucose control, even when patients have full access to and utilize comprehensive medical management. The present study sought to determine whether food security is related longitudinally to glucose control, over-and-above ongoing medication management, among Type 2 diabetes patients receiving comprehensive care at a Midwestern multi-site federally qualified health centre (FQHC). In this longitudinal observational study, we completed a baseline assessment of patients' food security (using the US Household Food Security Module), demographics (via Census items), and diabetes history/management (using a structured clinical encounter form) when patients began receiving diabetes care at the health centre. We then recorded those patients' A1C levels several times during a 24-month follow-up period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients (56% with low food security) had a baseline A1c measurement; a subsample of 336 (median age=52 years; 56% female; 60% Hispanic, 27% African American, and 9% White) also had at least one follow-up A1c measurement. Patients with lower (vs higher) food security were more likely to be on insulin and have higher A1c levels at baseline. Moreover, the disparity in glucose control by food security status persisted throughout the next 2 years. Although results were based on one multi-site FQHC, potentially limiting their generalizability, they seem to suggest that among Type 2 diabetes patients, low food security directly impairs glucose control-even when patients receive full access to comprehensive medical management-thereby increasing their long-term risks of high morbidity, early mortality, and high

  1. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  2. Statistical Analysis Regarding the Evolutions of the Euro Exchange Rate and the Dollar Exchange Rate, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects a the statistical modeling of the values concerning the annual averages of the euro exchange rate, respectively the dollar exchange rate in Romania, through by means of the „Least Squares Method”. The exchange rate represents the price regardinga monetary unit from the currency which belongs to a country, expressed in the monetary unit of the another country. Also, the exchange rate takes into consideration the type of quotation which linking the two currencies involved at the exchange ratio. The exchange rates have been more volatile over time, then relative price levels and rates of inflation.

  3. A hand measurement study on treatment of diabetic patients with dietary food exchange%食物交换份手测量法在糖尿病患者膳食治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方跃伟; 任飞林; 段蒋文; 潘松涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the application of food hand measurement on the diet therapy and evaluate its rationality. Methods According to the method of stratified interception, 415 adults were chosen in Zhoushan City. Their height, weight, fist, hand palm and thumb size were measured. The cooked food volume measurement method was built by the daily dietary food exchange method of hand position measurement, the measured protein foods using the cube and vegetable or oil with common tableware. The cooked volume measurement method was compared with the weighing method applying to diabetic diet. Results The fist and hand palm volume in shorter people were (228.13-310.85) ml and (62.22-84.78) ml, those in the taller people were (250.00-388.95) ml, (68.18-106.08) ml, and those in taller people were (345.00-432.35) ml and (94.09-117.91) ml. In the same height group, when the one's weight was greater, the fist and hand palm volume were larger. When the weight was the same but the height was taller, the fist and hand palm volume were larger. The vegetable oil hand measurement was not appropriate by the measurement of hand position volume. The calories error of proteins and the staple food with hand measurements was larger than weighing method in the tall and obese people, that was not enough in the slim and short people. And the cooked volume measurement method that combined hand measurements with the cube and common tableware was appropriate to diabetic diet. Conclusion The hand measurement method combined with cube and common tableware box was suitable for diet therapy for diabetes. This method could be helpful to increase treatment compliance to balanced diet.%目的 探讨食物交换份手测量法在糖尿病膳食治疗中的应用,并评价其合理性.方法 按照分层拦截的方法,调查舟山市415名成人的身高、体重以及拳头、手前掌和拇指体积大小,建立手部位测量每日膳食食物交换份方法,结合立方体比对手部位测量蛋白

  4. Prevalence of E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio spp. in ready-to-eat foods: Pemba Island, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, A; Pellissier, N; Hamad, H J; Ame, S A; Pontello, M

    2007-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods in Pemba island. A total of 300 food samples have been analysed: 66 household preparations, 115 samples of raw cow milk, and 119 fried sea-foods. The thermotolerant coliforms have been detected in 34% sea-foods, 58% household meals, and 98% milk samples; the coliforms count is 5 x 10(2), 10(3), and 3 x 10(4) cfu/g, respectively. E. coli is the species most frequently isolated: 60 on 100 strains agglutinate one of the tested polyvalent antisera. Salmonella spp. have been found exclusively in cow milk (11%); in 15% sea-foods V. alginolyticus has been isolated. The prevalence of faecal contamination is extremely high in cow milk, a critical vehicle for the transmission of pathogens, probably for a lacking thermal treatment (pasteurization). Salmonella spp., V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus have not been isolated from boiled or fried foodstuffs, but in any case the cooked foods are faecally contaminated: their contamination occurs likely after preparation and before consumption. The identification of risk factors for the faecal contamination could be helpful to plan educational programmes involving food operators and may be an effective preventive measure, especially in settings where financial resources are lacking for the construction of adequate infrastructures.

  5. Trends in use of the only Food and Drug Administration-approved commercially available fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair device in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jessica P; Shue, Bing; Flahive, Julie M; Aiello, Francesco A; Steppacher, Robert C; Eaton, Elizabeth A; Messina, Louis M; Schanzer, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Fenestrated endografts are customized, patient-specific, endovascular devices with potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality of short-neck infrarenal and juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The Zenith fenestrated endovascular graft (ZFEN) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind), Food and Drug Administration-approved in 2012, remains the only fenestrated device available in the United States. This technology is among the most technically complex catheter-based procedures and, therefore, inherently associated with serious risk for device-related complications. We sought to define patterns of physician and hospital adoption of ZFEN. Deidentified datasets containing numbers of physicians trained, orders by physicians and hospitals, and designs (fenestration/scallop configuration) was provided for U.S. ZFEN devices ordered (April 2012-August 2015). We evaluated the number of physicians trained, the number of devices ordered, hospital characteristics, and fenestration/scallop design configurations. Cook Medical assembled the datasets but played no role in study design, analysis, or interpretation of data. Between April 2012 and August 2015, 553 physicians attended formal ZFEN training sessions, 388 (70%) of whom ordered a total of 2669 devices. An increase in orders per month (nine in June 2012 and 91 in August 2015, 911% growth; P 20 devices. For physicians contributing >6 months of data (n = 336), the average number of devices ordered per year was three (standard deviation, 4); 272 (81%) ordered ≤ 5 devices/year, 15 (4.5%) ordered 11-20 devices/year, and 3 (0.9%) ordered >20 devices/year. Of devices with design details available (2618 of 2669; 98%), most common designs were 2 small fenestrations/1 scallop (1443; 55%), 2 small fenestrations/1 large fenestration (568; 22%), 1 small fenestration/1 scallop (173, 6.6%), and 2 small fenestrations (169; 6.5%). The average number of target vessels incorporated in each

  6. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  7. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infection in humans linked to dry dog food in the United States and Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Maho; Rotstein, David S; Reimschuessel, Renate; Schwensohn, Colin A; Woody, Dillard H; Davis, Samuel W; Hunt, April D; Arends, Katherine D; Achen, Maya; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Denny, Lynn F; Phan, Quyen N; Joseph, Lavin A; Tuite, Carla C; Tataryn, Joanne R; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2014-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION--In April 2012, Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was detected in an unopened bag of dry dog food collected during routine retail surveillance. PulseNet, a national bacterial subtyping network, identified humans with Salmonella Infantis infection with the same genetic fingerprint as the dog food sample. CLINICAL FINDINGS--An outbreak investigation identified 53 ill humans infected with the outbreak strain during January 1 to July 5, 2012, in 21 states and 2 provinces in Canada; 20 (38%) were children ≤ 2 years old, and 12 of 37 (32%) were hospitalized. Of 21 ill people who remembered the dog food brand, 12 (57%) reported a brand produced at a plant in Gaston, SC. Traceback investigations also identified that plant. The outbreak strain was isolated from bags of dry dog food and fecal specimens obtained from dogs that lived with ill people and that ate the implicated dry dog food. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME--The plant was closed temporarily for cleaning and disinfection. Sixteen brands involving > 27,000 metric tons (> 30,000 tons) of dry dog and cat food were recalled. Thirty-one ill dogs linked to recalled products were reported through the FDA consumer complaint system. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-- A one-health collaborative effort on epidemiological, laboratory, and traceback investigations linked dry dog foods produced at a plant to illnesses in dogs and humans. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among pet owners, health-care professionals, and the pet food industry on the risk of illness in pets and their owners associated with dry pet foods and treats.

  8. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  9. 食物交换份法联合仿真食物模型在糖尿病患者饮食教育中的应用%The application of food exchange method combined with simulated food model in the diet education in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕红

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨食物交换份法联合仿真食物模型在糖尿病患者饮食教育中的应用效果。方法纳入100例于2013年6月至2014年12在我院接受糖尿病教育的2型糖尿病患者,并将其随机均等分为对照组和观察组各50例,对照组按传统健康教育方式进行,观察组在传统健康教育的基础上以仿真食物模型为教具,联合食物交换份法,利用多媒体集体授课、食物模型演示、个别指导及专家咨询,为患者的不同需求提供信息支持。比较患者在受教育前和接受教育后两组患者间的体重、血压、血脂、血糖等的变化情况。结果两组患者在接受教育后血甘油三脂、空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖和糖化血红蛋白均有下降,且均具有统计学意义(P<0.05),而实验组的空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖和糖化血红蛋白下降幅度均比对照组大,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论与传统的教育方式相比,食物交换份法联合仿真食物模型的教育形式,结合了理论和实践,避免理论知识的灌输,注重培训对饮食控制的具体操作技能,让患者有较多的体验和实践机会,更容易被患者理解、接受和应用于实际饮食,能够有效地改善患者的糖脂代谢。%Objective To investigate the application effect of food exchange method combined with simulated food model in the diet education in patients with diabetes mellitus .Methods A total of 100 cases of diabetes mellitus patients , who received diabetes education in our hospital from June 2013 to December 2014,were drawn into the study .And they were randomly divided into control group and experimental group , with 50 patients in each group .Control group was educated by traditional way .The observation group was educated by using food simulation model combined with food exchange method on the basis of the traditional health education , by using multimedia for collective

  10. Single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions in the cyano-bridged trimers MnIII2MIII(CN)6 (MIII = Co, Cr, Fe) species incorporating [Mn(5-Brsalen)]+ units: an inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Sheptyakov, Denis; Keller, Lukas;

    2009-01-01

    expectations based on the unquenched orbital angular momentum of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) anion, giving rise to an M(s) approximately +/-9/2 ground state, isolated by approximately 11.5 cm(-1) from the higher-lying levels. The reported INS and magnetic data should now serve as a benchmark against which theoretical......The electronic structures of the compounds K[(5-Brsalen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)-Mn(2)M(III)(CN)(6)].2H(2)O (M(III) = Co(III), Cr(III), Fe(III)) have been determined by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and magnetic susceptibility studies, revealing the manganese(III) single-ion anisotropy and exchange...... interactions that define the low-lying states of the Mn-M(III)-Mn trimeric units. Despite the presence of an antiferromagnetic intertrimer interaction, the experimental evidence supports the classification of both the Cr(III) and Fe(III) compounds as single-molecule magnets. The value of 17(2) cm(-1...

  11. Report card on school snack food policies among the United States' largest school districts in 2004–2005: Room for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivara Frederick P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Federal nutritional guidelines apply to school foods provided through the national school lunch and breakfast programs, but few federal regulations apply to other foods and drinks sold in schools (labeled "competitive foods", which are often high in calories, fat and sugar. Competitive food policies among school districts are increasingly viewed as an important modifiable factor in the school nutrition environment, particularly to address rising rates of childhood overweight. Congress passed legislation in 2004 requiring all school districts to develop a Wellness Policy that includes nutrition guidelines for competitive foods starting in 2006–2007. In addition, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recently published recommendations for schools to address childhood obesity. Methods Representatives of school districts with the largest student enrollment in each state and D.C. (N = 51 were interviewed in October-November 2004 about each school district's nutrition policies on "competitive foods." District policies were examined and compared to the Institute of Medicine's recommendations for schools to address childhood obesity. Information about state competitive food policies was accessed via the Internet, and through state and district contacts. Results The 51 districts accounted for 5.9 million students, representing 11% of US students. Nineteen of the 51 districts (39% had competitive food policies beyond state or federal requirements. The majority of these district policies (79% were adopted since 2002. School district policies varied in scope and requirements. Ten districts (53% set different standards by grade level. Most district policies had criteria for food and beverage content (74% and prohibited the sale of soda in all schools (63%; fewer policies restricted portion size of foods (53% or beverages (47%. Restrictions more often applied to vending machines (95%, cafeteria à la carte (79%, and student stores (79% than

  12. Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D

    2015-04-01

    Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day.

  13. Applicating Situation and Prospect Analysis of the Technology about Fluorine Plastic Heat Exchanger in the Coal-fired Units%氟塑料换热器技术在燃煤电厂的应用现状及前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鑫; 胡清; 孙少鹏; 宁玉琴; 朱文中

    2015-01-01

    From the field of flue gas heat recovery and low temperature treatment for flue gas in the coal-fired units. This article pointed out that, comparing with the metal heat exchanger, the fluorine plastic heat exchanger have these char-acteristics, such as strong corrosion resistance, high coefficient of heat transfer, light weight. And the characteristics of fluo-rine plastic heat exchanger and its applicating situation in the coal fired units were elaborated, including:the deeply flue gas heat recovery system, media gas-gas heat exchanger system based on the fluorine plastic heat exchanger, the system of water recovery from the flue gas, the gas-gas heat exchanger system of fluorine plastic tube, the features of these routes were intro-duced,. In addition, the application prospect of the fluorine plastic heat exchanger was analysised.%文章从燃煤火力发电厂的烟气余热回收及低低温烟气处理出发,指出氟塑料换热器相比于金属换热器具有耐腐蚀、传热系数大、重量轻等特点,阐述了氟塑料换热器技术的特点及其在燃煤机组中的应用现状,包含:烟气余热深度回收系统、氟塑料MGGH系统、烟气中水回收系统、氟塑料管式GGH系统,对其各自的特点展开介绍,并对氟塑料换热器技术的应用前景进行了展望分析。

  14. Introduction to Innovative Food Processing and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...

  15. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  16. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  17. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  18. Survey on Food Safety and Nutrition Knowledge Among Food Employees in Certain Unit of Beijing%北京市某单位餐饮从业人员食品安全与营养知识现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅平; 德俊梅; 王占楼; 周日新

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the status of awareness in food safety and nutrition knowledge of food employees in a certain agen- cy to provide scientific basis for developing practical training plans and carrying out food safety and nutrition knowledge. [Method] Totally 99 food employees were surveyed by questionnaires designed by our inquirers. [Result] The average age of the sample was 33.42 ±11.31 and the average score for food safety and nutrition knowledge was 12. 64 ±3.01 . There were no significant differences in knowledge of food safety and nutrition knowledge in gender, educational level, working years, and positions (P 〉 0. 05 ) . It was shown that food employees wished to obtain food safety and nutrition knowledge mainly from other health departments and their own agency. [Conclusion] Food employees were lack in understanding knowledge of food safely and nutrition knowledge. Food department in charge should develop training plan, strengthen management and supervision.%目的:为了解某单位餐饮从业人员食品安全与营养知识的现状,对其开展食品安全与营养知识的培训工作,为制定切合实际的培训计划提供科学依据。方法:对99名餐饮从业人员采用自行设计的问卷进行调查。结果:调查对象的平均年龄为33.42±11.31岁,食品安全与营养知识平均得分为12.64±3.01;而不同性别和不同文化程度、不同从业年限及不同岗位的食品安全和营养知识得分均不具有统计学差异(P〉0.05);餐饮从业人员主要是希望通过卫生部门和本单位等途径获取食品安全与营养知识。结论:餐饮从业人员对食品安全与营养知识的了解、掌握较欠缺。餐饮主管部门应结合餐饮从业人员的具体情况,制定培训计划,加强管理和督查,纠正不安全的操作行为。

  19. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW, non-Hispanic blacks (NHB, and Mexican American (MA adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA, added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. Design: This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811, NHB (2,062, and MA (n=1,950 adults 19+ years. The 2003–2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1 dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Results: Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Conclusion: Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  20. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes in and on Ready-to-Eat Foods from Retail Establishments in the United States (2010 through 2013): Assessing Potential Changes of Pathogen Prevalence and Levels in a Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Chen, Yuhuan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Pouillot, Régis; Shoyer, Bradley A; Johnson-DeRycke, Rachel; Eblen, Denise R; Hoelzer, Karin; Shaw, William K; van Doren, Jane M; Catlin, Michelle; Lee, Jeehyun; Tikekar, Rohan; Gallagher, Daniel; Lindsay, James A; Dennis, Sherri

    2017-06-01

    A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L. monocytogenes , and the pathogen was isolated and confirmed for 102 samples. Among the 16 food categories, the proportion of positive samples (i.e., without considering clustering effects) based on recovery of a viable isolate of L. monocytogenes ranged from 0.00% (95% confidence interval: 0.00, 0.18) for the category of soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 1.07% (0.63, 1.68) for raw cut vegetables. Among the 571 samples that tested positive for Listeria-like organisms, the proportion of positive samples ranged from 0.79% (0.45, 1.28) for soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 4.76% (2.80, 7.51) for fresh crab meat or sushi. Across all 16 categories, L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly associated with the four states (P monocytogenes , levels ranged from monocytogenes prevalence ranged from 0.11% (0.03, 0.34) for sprouts (prepackaged) to 1.01% (0.58, 1.74) for raw cut vegetables (prepackaged).

  1. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  2. Radio frequency processing of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IFT 2016 food expo, which was home to 2,695 booths, was both exciting and educational for those who wished to learn more about food processing. From pumps to small-scale unit operations to commercial equipment, exhibitors highlighted both traditional and innovative food processing solutions for ...

  3. Handbook on heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhan, Pavel I.; Kanevets, Georgii E.; Seliverstov, Vladimir M.

    Essential data on heat exchange equipment used in ship, locomotive, automotive, and aircraft powerplants are presented in a systematic manner. The data cover the principal types and technical and performance characteristics of heat exchangers, fundamentals of the theory of heat exchange, calculation of heat transfer coefficients for different types of heat exchange apparatus, optimization of heat exchangers, computer-aided design of heat exchange equipment, testing techniques, and test result processing.

  4. Fortified food safety management in the United States and its implications to our country%美国强化食品的安全管理及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高媛媛; 生吉萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:全面分析美国近年来强化食品的发展情况,并借鉴其安全管理的成功经验措施,以期完善我国强化食品安全管理现状,促进强化食品市场健康良好地运行。方法通过研究美国近年来强化食品的发展状况,围绕政府、企业、消费者、生产技术等几个方面,分析其如何从政策、法律法规、标准的完善提高消费者接受水平,应用科学技术采取具体的措施,借鉴美国成功的经验来改善当前国内的管理现状。结果分析了美国强化食品安全管理措施,并分析了中国强化食品安全管理存在的问题和不足,给中国强化食品安全管理提供了操作性更强的建议。结论本研究对美国强化食品的现状及安全管理进行了系统地分析,并借鉴了其中有效的管理方法和经验,为今后中国强化食品安全管理的发展方向提供了有益的思路。%Objective To improve fortified food safety management status and promote the healthy operation of fortified foods market in China, comprehensive analysis over the development of fortified food recently in the United States has been done in this paper to draw lessons from the successful experience of its safety management measures.Methods The research on the developments of fortified food in the United States in recent years has been done to draw lessons from the successful experience to improve the current management status of our country, by focusing on the roles of the government, enterprises, consumers and production technology and analyzing how they take concrete measures to improve policy, laws and regulations, standards, and the level of consumers to accept and the application of science and technology.Results Fortified food safety management measures in the United States and the problems and insufficiency in China was analyzed, and more feasible suggestion over fortified food safety management was given as regard to China

  5. Environmental and individual determinants of core and non-core food and drink intake in preschool-aged children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L; Croker, H; Wardle, J; Cooke, L J

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to achieve healthier diets for children are likely to benefit from an understanding of the determinants. We examined environmental and individual predictors of children's intake of 'core' foods (fruit and vegetables) and 'non-core' foods (snacks and sweetened beverages). Predictors included parental intake, home availability, parental feeding styles (Encouragement and Monitoring) and children's food preferences. Based on research with older children, we expected intake of both food types to be associated with maternal intake, core foods to be more associated with children's preferences and non-core food intake more with the home environment. Primary caregivers (n=434) of children (2-5 years) from preschools and Children's Centres in London, UK, completed a self-report survey in 2008. Multiple regression analyses indicated children's fruit intake was associated with maternal fruit intake (B=0.29; P=0.000), children's liking for fruit (B=0.81; P=0.000) and a Monitoring style of parental feeding (B=0.13; P=0.021). Children's vegetable intake was similarly associated with maternal intake (B=0.39; P=0.000), children's liking for vegetables (B=0.77; P=0.000), Encouragement (B=0.19; P=0.021) and Monitoring (B=0.11; P=0.029). Non-core snack intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.25; P=0.029), Monitoring (B=-0.16; P=0.010), home availability (B=0.10; P=0.022) and television viewing (TV) (B=0.28; P=0.012). Non-core drink intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.32; P=0.000) and TV (B=0.20; P=0.019). Results indicate commonalities and differences in the predictors of core and non-core food intake, with only maternal intake being important across all types. Effective interventions to improve young children's diets may need to call on different strategies for different foods.

  6. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  7. Exchange frequency in replica exchange molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhikara, Daniel; Meng, Yilin; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the exchange-attempt frequency on sampling efficiency is studied in replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We show that sampling efficiency increases with increasing exchange-attempt frequency. This conclusion is contrary to a commonly expressed view in REMD. Five peptides (1-21 residues long) are studied with a spectrum of exchange-attempt rates. Convergence rates are gauged by comparing ensemble properties between fixed length test REMD simulations and longer reference simulations. To show the fundamental correlation between exchange frequency and convergence time, a simple model is designed and studied, displaying the same basic behavior of much more complex systems.

  8. Exergy-Economic Criteria for Evaluating Heat Exchanger Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shuangying; Li Yourong

    2001-01-01

    Based on the exergy-economic analysis of heat exchanger heat transfer and flow process, two new exergyeconomic criteria which are defined as the total costs per unit heat transfer rate ηt t for heat transfer exchanger and the net profit per unit heat recovery rate ηr for heat recovery exchanger respectively are put forward.Furthermore, the application of criteria is illustrated by the evaluation of down-flow, counter-flow and cross-flow heat exchangers performance. The methods employed and results presented in this paper can serve as a guide for the performance evaluation of heat exchangers.

  9. 直接空冷岛顺流基管管内冷凝的传热传质分析%Analysis for Heat and Mass Transfer of Condensation inside Down-Flow Unit Tube of Air Cooled Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓慧; 白焰; 李小缤; 党伟玮; 李欣欣

    2015-01-01

    顺流基管是火电厂直接空冷岛关键部件,分析基管管内传热传质机理,对优化基管传热和空冷岛安全运行有重要意义.考虑基管几何特征和安装倾角,建立模拟蒸汽在基管内壁上冷凝的三维坐标数学模型.求解模型数值解时,假设基管壁温未知,设计迭代算法估算壁温.通过对比蒸汽凝结率数值解与设计值,管内换热系数数值解与Nusselt经验公式值,验证了模型的有效性.对模型数值解进一步分析发现,膜厚偏微分方程能正确描述基管几何特征和倾角影响下的液膜特性,汽液两相分离位置的预测值与直接空冷岛运行实际相符,凝结水过冷度数值解不能完全匹配实际测量值.本文的研究成果,为设计高效换热基管和空冷岛冬季防冻,提供了理论依据.%The down-flow unit tube is a key component of air cooled heat exchanger (ACHE) in power plant. The study on the heat and mass transfer mechanism inside the unit tube is very important for heat-transfer efficiency optimization and safe operation of ACHE. In this paper, considering the geometry characteristics of tube, a 3D mathematical model was constructed to simulate the condensation of steam on the internal wall of unit tube. The temperature of tube wall was assumed to be unknown and an iterative algorithm was developed to evaluate this temperature. The numerical solution of steam condensate rate was compared with design value, and simultaneously, numerical solution of heat transfer coefficient was compared with Nusselt empirical formula value to verify the model validation. Further analysis on the model numerical solution shows that the partial differential equations of condensate film thickness can accurately describe the film characteristic which varies with geometry structure and declination of the tube. And the predicted value of vapour-liquid separation location agrees well with ACHE experimental operation. However, the numerical solution of

  10. Food Insecurity among Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the United States: Evidence from the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Debra L.; Nord, Derek

    2016-01-01

    People with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD) face higher levels of poverty than others, which can lead to concerns regarding areas of well-being, such as food security. Young adults with IDD who are, in many cases, transitioning from the system of educational, health care, and income supports of their youth into the adult world may…

  11. The relationship between interviewer-respondent race match and reporting of energy intake using food frequency questionnaires in the rural South United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the observational study was to determine whether interviewer race influences food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting accuracy in a Deep South, largely African American cohort. A secondary analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of interviewer race on energy reporting ...

  12. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  13. Dietary exposures for the safety assessment of seven emulsifiers commonly added to foods in the United States and implications for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Romina; Kolanos, Renata; DiNovi, Michael J; Mattia, Antonia; Kaneko, Kotaro J

    2017-06-01

    Dietary exposure assessment using food-consumption data and ingredient-use level is essential for assessing the safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared with safe intake levels, such as the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due to their putative adverse effects on gut microbiota. Because no published dietary exposure estimates for commonly used emulsifiers exist for the US population, the current investigation focused on the estimation of dietary exposure to seven emulsifiers: CMC, P80, lecithin, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), stearoyl lactylates, sucrose esters, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate. Using maximum-use levels obtained from publicly available sources, dietary exposures to these emulsifiers were estimated for the US population (aged 2 years and older) for two time periods (1999-2002 and 2003-10) using 1- and 2-day food-consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 10-14-day food-consumption data from NPD Group, Inc.'s National Eating Trends - Nutrient Intake Database. Our analyses indicated that among the emulsifiers assessed, lecithin and MDGs have the highest mean exposures at about 60 and about 80 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively, whereas the exposure to CMC is half to one-third that of lecithin or MDGs; and the exposure to P80 is approximately half that of CMC. The review of available safety information such as ADIs established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), in light of our updated dietary exposure estimates for these seven emulsifiers, did not raise safety concerns at the current specified levels of use. Additionally, by examining two time periods (1999-2002, 2003-10), it was concluded that

  14. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  15. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...

  16. Culture of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with zero water exchange and no food addition: an eco-friendly approach Cultivo de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 sin recambio de agua y sin adición de alimento formulado: un sistema amigable con el ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Audelo-Naranjo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles (3.5 ± 0.3 g of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were grown during 40 days with no water exchanges, no food addition and four initial densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 g m-3, corresponding to between 8 and 32 shrimp m-2, to determine growth rates, which could be achieved using the periphyton growing on artificial substrates as the only food source. The experimental culture units were 12 polyethylene 1 m³ cylindrical tanks with 4.8 m² of total submerged surface (bottom and walls, provided with 7.2 m² of artificial substrate (Aquamats™. There were no significant differences in the ammonia and nitrite concentrations determined in the four treatments (0.17-0.19 and 0.10-0.11 mg L-1, respectively, which remained below the respective levels of concern for shrimp cultures. Mean survival was similar, and ranged from close to 91 to 97%, whereas there were significant differences in mean individual weight, which ranged from 11.9-10.6 g shrimp-1 for the two low initial densities (25 y 50 g m-3, to 8.3-7.7 g shrimp-1 for the other treatments. However, because of the high survival and of the higher initial density, the best biomass yield was with 100 g m-3. The final nitrogen contents of sediment and water were lower than the initial values, and between 36 and 60% of the difference was converted into shrimp biomass.Durante 40 días se cultivaron juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei con un peso individual de 3,5 ± 0,3 g y biomasas iniciales de 25, 50, 75 y 100 g m-3 (equivalente a 8-32 ind m-2, sin cambios de agua y adición de alimento, para determinar la tasa de crecimiento usando como única fuente de alimentación el perifiton desarrollado en sustratos artificiales. Se utilizaron estanques cilíndricos de polietileno de 1 m³ con tres réplicas por tratamiento, con una superficie de 4,8 m² (paredes y fondo y 7,1 m² de sustrato artificial (Aquamats™. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones

  17. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text presents instructional materials for a unit of science within the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP), a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum aimed at preparing high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Lessons concentrate on…

  18. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content Per 1,000 Kilocalories: Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurants, United States, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants. Methods We analyzed the nutrient content of frequently ordered items from 3 US national fast-food chains: fried potatoes (large French fries), cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and a grilled chicken sandwich. We used an archival website to obtain data on sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content for these items from 2000 through 2013. The amount of each nutrient per 1,000 kcal was calculated to determine whether there were trends in product reformulation. Results Sodium content per 1,000 kcal differed widely among the 3 chains by food item, precluding generalizations across chains. During the 14-year period, sodium content per 1,000 kcal for large French fries remained high for all 3 chains, although the range narrowed from 316–2,000 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2000 to 700–1,420 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2013. Among the items assessed, cheeseburgers were the main contributor of saturated fat, and there was little change in content per 1,000 kcal for this item during the 14-year period. In contrast, there was a sharp decline in saturated and trans fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal. Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period. Conclusion With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat. PMID:25551183

  19. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  20. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  2. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  3. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  4. NKS FOOD Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway))

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of the workshop was to share national practice and experience on the use of different tools (handbooks, late phase models etc.) during a crisis with focus on operational implementation and use, interpretation and verification of results and production of decision basis. The main goal was to establish a common ground to better understand how these are used in the different countries, identify differences and exchange knowledge to increase competence. Second goal was to gather stakeholders and authorities with interest or responsibility for countermeasures against radioactive contamination of food products to share experience in different topics as: 1) Cooperation among stakeholders and organisations responsible for food safety in each country. 2) Adaptation of the Euranos handbook ''Countermeasures for the management of food production systems'' to national conditions and implementation of the handbook in each country. 3) Establishing a Nordic network for food authorities and radiation protection authorities responsible for food safety with respect to radioactivity. There were 23 participants representing all the Nordic countries. Some of the speakers present were Klas Rosen (SLU), Kasper Andersson (RISOE), representatives from the Nordic food authorities and Ministries, representatives from the radiation protection authorities and one speaker from the food industry. (Author)

  5. Research on application of the novel food exchange serving based on glycemic load in the diet education for type 2 diabetes%两种饮食干预方法对2型糖尿病疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金敬红; 吕探云; 王君俏; 白姣姣; 高键

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effectiveness of the novel food exchange serving based on glycemic load in the diet education for type 2 diabetes.Methods Seventy-two cases of type 2 diabetes were 1randomly divided into two groups to receive either a novel food exchange serving based on glycemic load (the test group) or a food exchange serving (the control group) education,by the forms of group education,individual education and DM patients′salon.The period lasted three months.Fasting blood glucose(FBG),2h postprandial blood glucose(2 hPBG), glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c),and blood lipids which include total cholesterol(TC),triglycerides(TG),body mass index(BMI), waist circumference (WC),blood pressure(BP) were assessed.Results FBG(P<0.05)、2hPBG(P<0.01)、HbA1c(P<0.05)、TC(P<0.05)and BMI(P<0.05)in the test education group were all significantly decreased than that of the control group.Conclusion The application of food exchange serving based on glycemic load in the diet education for type 2 diabetes is better than that of conventional food exchange serving,and worthy of further practice and popularization.%目的 探讨基于血糖负荷的食物交换份法用于2型糖尿病患者饮食教育的有效性.方法 随机抽取上海市某三级甲等医院糖尿病门诊2型糖尿病患者72例,随机分为实验组与对照组,每组各36例.实验组采用基于血糖负荷的食物交换份法,对照组采用传统的食物交换份法,通过多种方式实施3个月的饮食教育干预.于干预后3个月,随访3个月时进行干预效果的评价.结果 实验组与对照组餐后空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、总胆固醇水平和体质指数的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05及P<0.01).结论 基于血糖负荷的食物交换份法用于2型糖尿病患者的饮食教育较传统的食物交换份法更有效,值得应用与推广.

  6. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xuerui; Lai, Chun-Ta; Hollinger, David Y.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Xiao, Jingfeng; Munger, J. William; Owensby, Clenton; Ehleringer, James R.

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling approach builds on a mixed-layer model to infer monthly average net CO2 fluxes using high-precision mixing ratio measurements taken on flux towers. We compared BL model net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with estimates from two independent approaches. First, we compared modeled NEE with tower eddy covariance measurements. The second approach (EC-MOD) was a data-driven method that upscaled EC fluxes from towers to regions using MODIS data streams. Comparisons between modeled CO2 and tower NEE fluxes showed that modeled regional CO2 fluxes displayed interannual and intra-annual variations similar to the tower NEE fluxes at the Rannells Prairie and Wind River Forest sites, but model predictions were frequently different from NEE observations at the Harvard Forest and Howland Forest sites. At the Howland Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes showed a lag in the onset of growing season uptake by 2 months behind that of tower measurements. At the Harvard Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes agreed with the timing of growing season uptake but underestimated the magnitude of observed NEE seasonal fluctuation. This modeling inconsistency among sites can be partially attributed to the likely misrepresentation of atmospheric transport and/or CO2 gradients between ABL and the free troposphere in the idealized BL model. EC-MOD fluxes showed that spatial heterogeneity in land use and cover very likely explained the majority of the data-model inconsistency. We show a site-dependent atmospheric rectifier effect that appears to have had the largest impact on ABL CO2 inversion in the North American Great Plains. We conclude that a systematic BL modeling approach

  7. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  8. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  9. The ABCs of the FDA: A Primer on the Role of the United States Food and Drug Administration in Medical Device Approvals and IR Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, Ashley; Park, Susie; Siskin, Gary P; Englander, Meridith J; Mandato, Kenneth D; Herr, Allen; Keating, Lawrence J

    2015-09-01

    The role of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in medical device regulation is important to device-driven specialties such as interventional radiology. Whether it is through industry-sponsored trials during the approval process for new devices or investigator-initiated research prospectively evaluating the role of existing devices for new or established procedures, interaction with the FDA is an integral part of performing significant research in interventional radiology. This article reviews the potential areas of interface between the FDA and interventional radiology, as understanding these areas is necessary to continue the innovation that is the hallmark of this specialty.

  10. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  11. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  12. Fast Food in the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大龙

    2001-01-01

    The favorite food in the United States is the hamburger, a kind of round sandwich of cooked ground beef. The favorite place to buy a hamburger is a fast food restaurant. At fast food restaurants people order their food, wait a few minutes, and carry it to their tables themselves.

  13. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  14. Edge exchangeable models for network data

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Exchangeable models for vertex labeled graphs cannot replicate the large sample behaviors of sparsity and power law degree distributions observed in many network datasets. Out of this mathematical impossibility emerges the question of how network data can be modeled in a way that reflects known empirical behaviors and respects basic statistical principles. We address this question by observing that edges, not vertices, act as the statistical units in most network datasets, making a theory of edge labeled networks more natural for most applications. Within this context we introduce the new invariance principle of {\\em edge exchangeability}, which unlike its vertex exchangeable counterpart can produce networks with sparse and/or power law structure. We characterize the class of all edge exchangeable network models and identify a particular two parameter family of models with suitable theoretical properties for statistical inference. We discuss issues of estimation from edge exchangeable models and compare our a...

  15. A novel marketing mix and choice architecture framework to nudge restaurant customers toward healthy food environments to reduce obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Englund, T; Misyak, S; Serrano, E L

    2017-08-01

    This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted in three steps and presented as a narrative summary to demonstrate a proof of concept. Step 1 was a systematic review of nudge or choice architecture frameworks used to categorize strategies that cue healthy behaviours in microenvironments. We searched nine electronic databases between January 2000 and December 2016 and identified 1,244 records. Inclusion criteria led to the selection of five choice architecture frameworks, of which three were adapted and combined with marketing mix principles to highlight eight strategies (i.e. place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, prompting or priming and proximity). Step 2 involved conducting a comprehensive evidence review between January 2006 and December 2016 to identify U.S. recommendations for the restaurant sector organized by strategy. Step 3 entailed developing 12 performance metrics for the eight strategies. This framework should be tested to determine its value to assist restaurant owners to promote and socially normalize healthy food environments to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  16. 以营养当量评价食物营养价值的方法学研究%A NEW METHOD TO EVALUATE THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF FOODS WITH NUTRITION EQUIVALENT UNIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海泉; 卢士军; 周琳; 马冠生; 王小虎; 郭燕枝

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立一种以营养当量评价食物营养价值的方法。方法依据《中国食物成分表(第二版)》和《中国居民膳食营养素参考摄入量(2013版)》,选取能量及脂肪、碳水化合物、蛋白质、膳食纤维、维生素A、维生素B1、维生素B2、烟酸、维生素C、维生素E、钙、磷、钾、钠、镁、铁、锌、硒、铜、锰共21种指标营养素,以100g为计算单位,以18岁及以上轻体力活动成年男子膳食营养素平均需要量为参考摄入量标准,建立以营养当量进行食物营养价值评价的方法。结果同类食物中,营养当量越大其营养价值越大,对常见不同类别食物营养当量分析,蛋、奶、豆类食物营养当量最高0.179,水果类最低为0.051,畜禽肉类、粮谷类及蔬菜类分别为0.149、0.139、0.130。结论该评价方法简单易行,能够客观反映食物营养价值,适应对各类食物的营养价值评价。%Objective To establish a new method to evaluate the nutrition value of foods with nutrition equivalent unit. Methods According toChina Food Composition(2nd edition) andChinese Dietary Reference Intakes(2013), 21 kinds of evaluation index nutrients including energy, fat, carbohydrate, protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium , phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc, selenium, copper and manganese were chosen. A new evaluation method was developed on the basis of using 100g as calculation unit, taking the Estimated Average Requirement for adults≥18 years with light activity level as reference daily value.Results For different foods, the greater nutrition equivalent unit value the more nutrition value. The nutrition equivalent unit was the highest for the group of eggs, milk and legumes (0.179), the lowest for fruits (0.051), and 0.149, 0.139, 0.130 for poultry meat, cereals and vegetables, respectively.Conclusion This

  17. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  18. Growing or connecting? An urban food garden in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Chinemana, Frances; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Issues of food security are of particular importance in urban areas in Africa and government policy advises on the household growing of vegetables for nutrition. The Siyakhana project is a food garden in the centre of Johannesburg which was established by a University Health Promotion Unit with the support of other stakeholders including the City authorities and a permaculture organization. It was set up with the objective of providing food for children attending early-childhood development centres and for the beneficiaries of non-governmental organizations providing home-based care for people living with HIV/AIDS. One year after start-up, an evaluation was conducted, based on the measures of outcome identified as significant by those involved in the project. Its impact on health is not yet measurable, but as the amounts of fruits and vegetables available and consumed in South Africa are low compared with WHO recommendations, it is a useful addition to food security in an urban area. Mobilizing around the food garden supported bonding among homogenous but separate third-sector organizations, through increased opportunities for networking which built trust, reciprocity and resource exchange. The project also provides a model for a community-university partnership providing opportunities for service learning by students and for social investment by the university.

  19. Exchange of experience with like-minded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    in question are debated openly and unbiased - without handing out completed results. The themes have until now been related to project management and product development; formulation of a good product development strategy; idea generation; objective management control and use of consumer data in product...... development. For the companies, the product development forum is mostly about exchange of experience but also about building a close professional and personal network. MAPP benefits from the forum too. A close relationship between food companies and researchers can be useful in connection with future research......As an industry-oriented research center MAPP wishes to contribute to dialogue and exchange of experience in the food industry. The product development forum, a network consisting of product developers from a number of food companies is an important initiative in that direction. Demanding consumers...

  20. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  1. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  2. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... IgG4 » Clinical Cases: Food Allergy » CME P.I. Pro: Food Allergy » Food allergy: a practice parameter update ( ...

  3. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are popular ...

  4. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  5. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety Tips for College Students When students pack up ...

  6. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  7. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented......Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...

  8. Food Insecurity And Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2015-11-01

    Almost fifty million people are food insecure in the United States, which makes food insecurity one of the nation's leading health and nutrition issues. We examine recent research evidence of the health consequences of food insecurity for children, nonsenior adults, and seniors in the United States. For context, we first provide an overview of how food insecurity is measured in the country, followed by a presentation of recent trends in the prevalence of food insecurity. Then we present a survey of selected recent research that examined the association between food insecurity and health outcomes. We show that the literature has consistently found food insecurity to be negatively associated with health. For example, after confounding risk factors were controlled for, studies found that food-insecure children are at least twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health and at least 1.4 times more likely to have asthma, compared to food-secure children; and food-insecure seniors have limitations in activities of daily living comparable to those of food-secure seniors fourteen years older. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) substantially reduces the prevalence of food insecurity and thus is critical to reducing negative health outcomes.

  9. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  10. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  11. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Planning: Addressing 21st-Century Public Health Challenges Seasonal Food Safety Fact Sheets Keep your food safe - prepare now ...

  12. 76 FR 82339 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... issuer may either select its DMM unit directly or delegate authority to the Exchange to select its DMM... or delegates authority to the Exchange to select the DMM unit. Currently, Rule 103B(III)(A)(2... issuer has delegated authority to the Exchange to select the DMM unit, align the quiet period rule, and...

  13. Direct contact heat exchangers for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R. T.; Thayer, W. J.; Lo, V. C. H.; Sakins, K. M.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1985-06-01

    Direct contact heat exchanger concepts have been investigated for use in space, including droplet vortex heat exchangers, coflowing droplet heat exchangers, electrostatically driven heat exchangers, and belt and disk heat exchangers. These concepts are characterized by a low heat exchanger mass per unit of heat transferred, low pressure losses, high reliability, and compactness in design. Operation in zero-G poses unique problems for those direct contact heat exchangers which require separation of two fluid media after heat transfer is completed. Other problems include maintenance of good heat transfer coefficients in the absence of buoyant forces, exposure of heat transfer media to vacuum conditions for certain applications, and materials compatibility. A preliminary systems analysis indicates the potential for substantial weight reductions in turbine Brayton cycle space power systems for output powers above several MW(e). Based on the status of current technology and the results of this analysis, recommendations are made for the most attractive applications and the R&D required to ready a direct contact heat exchanger for use in space.

  14. Organic Ion Exchangers. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Organic ion exchangers in beads form are the most widely utilized materials in the purification, concentration and separation processes of inorganic and organic ions in many fields of science and industry[1,2]. Some original contributions in the preparation and characterization of porous organic ion exchangers will be summarized first. The main types of synthetic ion exchangers were obtained by polymer-analogous reactions performed on porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (S-DVB)[3,4] and porous acrylonitrile-DVB copolymers (AN-DVB) [5,6]. Porous S-DVB copolymers were used as substrate for the synthesis of weak and strong base anion exchangers by chloromethylation reaction followed by the reaction with secondary or tertiary amines.Different chloromethylation agents were employed. Weak base anion exchangers with tertiary or primary amine groups were prepared starting from AN-DVB copolymers by aminolyse-hydrolyse reaction with asymmetrical diamines or ethylenediamine (EDA), respectively. Strong base anion exchangers were obtained by quaternization reaction with alkyl halides of the tertiary amine groups. Chelating ion exchangers with iminodiacetic groups were prepared by the carboxymethylation reaction of the primary amine groups above mentioned and of those contained in a vinylamine-ethylacrylate-DVB copolymer, vinylamine units being generated by a Hofmann degradation reaction of the primary amide groups contained in the acrylamide-ethylacrylate-DVB copolymerp[7]. An amphoteric ion exchanger was prepared by the hydrolysis of the ester groups after the Hofmann degradation.

  15. The Impact of Talent Management System on the Enterprise Performance: a Study on a Sample of Workers in National Company of Juice and Canned-food Unit MANAA (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Megri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to see the theoretical and practical views of the impact of management talents on the company performance, and following a descriptive approach that helps to stimulate ideas and attract multidimensional interests. To achieve this goal, we focused on modern literature to address this issue through multiple angles, including: educational psychology, demographic changes, historical development of human resources, the location of TM in light of the knowledge economy, and what said the theorists and practitioners. Through the study on the impact of talent management system on the performance of the national company of juice and canned-food unit MANAA, we approved the hypothesis, which states the existence of a significant impact of the talent management system on company performance.

  16. Food masquerade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself.

  17. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  18. Climate change and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  19. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inns, T; Lane, C; Peters, T; Dallman, T; Chatt, C; McFarland, N; Crook, P; Bishop, T; Edge, J; Hawker, J; Elson, R; Neal, K; Adak, G K; Cleary, P

    2015-04-23

    We report an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b (PT14b) in the United Kingdom (UK) between May and September 2014 where Public Health England launched an investigation to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. During the same period, outbreaks caused by a Salmonella Enteritidis strain with a specific multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile occurred in other European Union Member States. Isolates from a number of persons affected by the UK outbreak, who had initially been tested by MLVA also shared this particular profile. Cases were defined as any person infected with S. Enteritidis PT14b, resident in England or Wales and without history of travel outside of this geographical area during the incubation period, reported from 1 June 2014 onwards, with a MLVA profile of 2–11–9-7–4-3–2-8–9 or a single locus variant thereof. In total, 287 cases met the definition. Food traceback investigations in the UK and other affected European countries linked the outbreaks to chicken eggs from a German company. We undertook whole genome sequencing of isolates from UK and European cases, implicated UK premises, and German eggs: isolates were highly similar. Combined with food traceback information, this confirmed that the UK outbreak was also linked to a German producer.

  20. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  1. Mediated cross-cultural learning through exchange in higher agricultural education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the long-term impact of an intensive European Union-Australia student exchange programme that took place in 2004 and 2005. The programme, Learning through Exchange about Agriculture, Food Systems and Environment (LEAFSE), was designed to facilitate exchange of post-graduate s

  2. Mediated cross-cultural learning through exchange in higher agricultural education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the long-term impact of an intensive European Union-Australia student exchange programme that took place in 2004 and 2005. The programme, Learning through Exchange about Agriculture, Food Systems and Environment (LEAFSE), was designed to facilitate exchange of post-graduate

  3. Mediated cross-cultural learning through exchange in higher agricultural education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the long-term impact of an intensive European Union-Australia student exchange programme that took place in 2004 and 2005. The programme, Learning through Exchange about Agriculture, Food Systems and Environment (LEAFSE), was designed to facilitate exchange of post-graduate s

  4. The effect of combined applying food exchange portion and glycemic index (GI) concept on blood sugar and complications of gestational diabetes pregnant women%食物交换份法与血糖生成指数联合运用对妊娠期糖尿病病人治疗效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江安; 廖念权; 唐雅宾

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察食物交换份法与血糖生成指数(GI)概念联合运用对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇孕期血糖及并发症的影响。方法:选取2012年2月~2013年1月在我院产科门诊确诊为GDM单胎孕妇80例,分为实验组42例和对照组38例。对照组采用传统的食物交换份法进行健康教育,实验组采用食物交换份与GI概念联合运用进行健康教育,制定个体化饮食计划,观察两组病人空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、妊娠期并发症。结果:两组空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、妊娠期并发症比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:联合运用食物交换份法与GI概念进行健康教育有助于控制孕期血糖与并发症的发生。%Objective To explore the effect of combined applying food exchange portion and glycemic index (GI) concept on blood sugar and complications of gestational diabetes pregnant women.Methods 80 cases of GDM patients with single fetus in our hospital during February, 2012 and January, 2013 were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. 42 cases were selected as experimental group and 38 cases were chosen as control group. Patients of control group were carried out health education by adopting traditional food exchange portion. However, patients of experimental group were given health education by applying combined food ex-change portion with GI concept. And individualized diet plans were worked out for them. Fasting blood sugar, postgrandial 2h glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and pregnancy complication were observed. Results There were statistical significant differences between two group cases in terms of fasting plasma glucose, postgrandial 2h glu-cose, glycosylated hemoglobin and pregnancy complications (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined applying food ex-change portion with GI concept to carry out health education may help to control blood sugar and complications for pregnancy

  5. Approximate strip exchanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swapnoneel; Thakur, Ashok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have been modelled by a variety of primitives such as reversals, transpositions, block moves and block interchanges. We consider such a genome rearrangement primitive Strip Exchanges. Given a permutation, the challenge is to sort it by using minimum number of strip exchanges. A strip exchanging move interchanges the positions of two chosen strips so that they merge with other strips. The strip exchange problem is to sort a permutation using minimum number of strip exchanges. We present here the first non-trivial 2-approximation algorithm to this problem. We also observe that sorting by strip-exchanges is fixed-parameter-tractable. Lastly we discuss the application of strip exchanges in a different area Optical Character Recognition (OCR) with an example.

  6. Shell-and-double concentric-tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougriou, Chérif; Baadache, Khireddine

    2010-03-01

    This study concerns a new type of heat exchangers, which is that of shell-and-double concentric-tube heat exchangers. These heat exchangers can be used in many specific applications such as air conditioning, waste heat recovery, chemical processing, pharmaceutical industries, power production, transport, distillation, food processing, cryogenics, etc. The case studies include both design calculations and performance calculations. It is demonstrated that the relative diameter sizes of the two tubes with respect to each other are the most important parameters that influence the heat exchanger size.

  7. Food Insecurity and Food Access in U.S. Metro Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    Household food insecurity in the United States has reached its highest levels to date. As public and private initiatives have emerged to help improve diets by fostering access to food, the availability of more food stores may result in lower levels of food insecurity. In this article, we assess the

  8. Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Obesity among Food Pantry Participants in Hartford, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Kate A.; Martin, Katie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examine relationships between food security, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI) among food pantry users. Methods: Convenience sample of 212 food pantry clients in Hartford, CT from June, 2010 to May, 2011. Main outcomes included food security (United States Department of Agriculture module), fruit and vegetable consumption (Block…

  9. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unsafe food can also spread foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis and Campylobacter (pronounced: kam-pye-low-BAK-tur) ... Why Should I Care About Germs? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Cooking Tips and Resources Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  11. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  12. "Oh God, save us from sugar": an ethnographic exploration of diabetes mellitus in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglar, Rosslyn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores diabetes mellitus in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with an analysis of gift exchange and hospitality revealing how rapid environmental and economic transformations have led to chronicities of physical activity, food, and stress; uniting at a critical point in time to produce chronicities of modernity that precipitate diabetes. The high value of commensality and the association between food (particularly sugar) and honor offers insight into the motives for both the quantity and quality of food consumed. Emirati understandings of self and disease confirm the anthropological adage that disease and illness are not the same and suggests there is the potential to stem the growth of diabetes in the UAE with greater attention to structural issues through an anthropological understanding of the sociocultural conditions in which it thrives.

  13. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  14. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  15. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    This textbook is made for you to use as a study book and as a source of reference and inspiration to work with problems related to food production. Most textbooks are focused on the separate unit operations used in a production. We have tried to put a few of these operations into the broader...... context of a production. Only a few operations are treated specifically (transport of fluids, heating and cooling) as these operations are universal in all food productions and link different parts of production. A food production plant might be overwhelming in its apparent complexity. The methods...... introduced make it possible to get an overview of processes. We have included a chapter on how to make block-dia¬grams and material balances. This should help in analysing a production and to isolate the most important processing steps. Most processes in a food production are of physical nature, thus we have...

  16. U.S. Food Insecurity Status: Toward a Refined Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Jensen, Alisha Judith

    2010-01-01

    United States Department of Agriculture defines food insecure as answering affirmatively to three or more food insecurity questions describing a household's ability to acquire enough food. Households indicating low levels of food insecurity (one or two affirmative responses) are considered food secure. This paper compares the characteristics of…

  17. Exchange Rings Satisfying the n-Stable Range Condition, Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyin Chen; Fu-an Li

    2003-01-01

    This is a continuation of the paper [14]. It is shown that any finite subdirect product of exchange rings satisfying the n-stable range condition is still an exchange ring satisfying the n-stable range condition. Furthermore, we give necessary and sufficient conditions on matrices over an exchange ring R, under which R satisfies the n-stable range condition. This generalizes the corresponding results for unit-regular rings and the stable range one condition.

  18. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  19. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist...... are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more...

  20. Analysis of a Flooded Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Aaron H.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Flooded heat exchangers are often used in industry to reduce the required heat-transfer area and the size of utility control valves. These units involve a condensing vapor on the hot side that accumulates as a liquid phase in the lower part of the vessel. The heat transfer occurs mostly in the vapor space, but the condensate becomes somewhat…

  1. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  2. Anti-freezing performance research of dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit%空气源热泵冷(热)水机组用干式壳管换热器防冻性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙爱; 陈忠杰; 王传华

    2012-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷(热)水机组运行中可能出现的干式壳管换热器冻裂问题,分析其被冻裂的主要因素,并且对壳管换热器冻裂的关键因素——蒸发压力过低的原因进行分析.基于分析结果,对壳管换热器的设计进行改进,同时对低流量保护点进行试验验证.%Aiming at the frost-cracking problem of the dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit, the main influencing factors are analyzed. The key reason of shell-tube heat exchanger frost-cracking is analyzed that is too low evaporating pressure. The design of shell-tube heat exchanger is improved based on the analysis results, and the limited flow rate for protection of flow switch is verified by the test.

  3. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal, ski

  4. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  5. Economic issues on food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Adinolfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work.

  6. Economic Issues on Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  7. Economic Issues on Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Felice; Di Pasquale, Jorgelina; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-18

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work.

  8. Usable optimistic fair exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Küpçü, Alptekin; Lysyanskaya, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fairly exchanging digital content is an everyday problem. It has been shown that fair exchange cannot be achieved without a trusted third party (called the Arbiter). Yet, even with a trusted party, it is still non-trivial to come up with an efficient solution, especially one that can be used in a p2p file sharing system with a high volume of data exchanged. We provide an efficient optimistic fair exchange mechanism for bartering digital files, where receiving a payment in return for a file (b...

  9. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  10. Building Bridges. Meeting Institutional Needs by Collaboration Through Interinstitutional Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukenge, Ida Rousseau

    Discusses the rationale, experiences, and outcomes of the Interinstitutional Exchange Program (IEP), sponsored jointly by the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) and the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). CIC made grants of up to $15,000 each to support exchanges of faculty and administrators between nine private historically black colleges and…

  11. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  12. Statistical Analysis of the Exchange Rate of Bitcoin: e0133678

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey Chu; Saralees Nadarajah; Stephen Chan

    2015-01-01

      Bitcoin, the first electronic payment system, is becoming a popular currency. We provide a statistical analysis of the log-returns of the exchange rate of Bitcoin versus the United States Dollar...

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Elliptical Tube Heat Exchanger in Indoor Unit of Air Conditioner on its Acoustic Field%椭圆管换热器对空调室内机声场影响的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周遊; 张新强; 汪双凤

    2016-01-01

    Elliptical tube heat exchanger has been widely used in heat exchange equipment due to its good flow and heat transfer charac⁃teristics. In this paper we use computational fluid dynamics method to simulate the flow field and sound field generated by the indoor unit of air conditioner with elliptical finned tube heat exchanger , and make comparison with circular tube heat exchanger. The results show that for the inside the cross-flow, the structure of tubes in heat exchangers has no effect on the location and size of the eccentric vortex;compared with the circular tube finned heat exchanger with the same cross-sectional area, the air conditioners using elliptical tubes work better on increasing the air volume, improving cooling effect and reducing noise especially low-frequency noise under the same condi⁃tions. Above all, the conditioner using elliptical tubes in which the ratio of the long axis and short axis is 2. 0 can reduce noise 4 dB.%椭圆管换热器由于良好的流动和换热特性,在换热设备中有广泛的应用。本文利用计算流体力学方法,对椭圆管翅片换热器应用于空调室内机的流场和声场进行数值模拟,并与圆管作对比。计算结果表明,换热管形状对贯流风机内部偏心涡的形成位置和大小没有影响;与采用相同截面积的圆管翅片换热器的室内机相比,相同条件下,采用椭圆管换热器对于室内机增加风量,改善制冷性能,降低噪声尤其是低频噪声方面有良好的效果。其中,长短轴之比为2的椭圆管可以降低室内机噪声4 dB。

  14. 一战后美国对中东欧的粮食外交%The United States" Food Diplomacy toward the Central and Eastern Europe after World War I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振伟

    2011-01-01

    一战后,美国在赫伯特·胡佛的领导下通过美国粮食署对中东欧国家开展了大规模的粮食外交,其针对的对象不仅包括战败国德国,也包括东欧新独立国家。美国推行的粮食外交一方面出于维护其在欧洲利益的需要,使欧洲建立代议制民主政体,从而抵制苏俄社会主义的影响和渗透,另一方面也出于经济和人道主义的考虑。美国的粮食外交部分地实现了自己的目标,也产生了深远的影响。%The United States conducted large - scale food diplomacy by WFP under the leadership of Herbert Hoover after World War I, which targeted not only the defeated Germany, but also the newly independent countries in the Eastern Eu- rope. The USA implemented the food diplomacy on the one hand for the maintenance of U. S. diplomatic interests in Eu- rope to make the establishment of regime of representative democracy in Europe, to resist the impact of the socialist Soviet Union, on the other hand for the economic and humanitarian reasons, which achieved their goals partially, also had a pro- found impact.

  15. Genetic Technology and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States and globally, producers cultivate millions of hectares of genetically modified crops. In the United States, the USDA, EPA, and FDA govern authorization of GMOs under federal laws and agency regulations. Because food produced from GMOs is not considered materially different from

  16. Application of ion-exchange cartridge clean-up in food analysis. VI. Determination of six penicillins in bovine tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Goto, Tomomi; Oka, Hisao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takeba, Kazue

    2004-07-09

    A multiresidue analytical method was developed for the quantification of benzylpenicillin (PCG), phenoxymethylpenicillin (PCV), oxacillin (MPIPC), cloxacillin (MCIPC), nafcillin (NFPC) and dicloxacillin (MDIPC) in bovine tissues using liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) with a multiple reaction monitoring technique. Using the deuterated PCG and NFPC as internal standard was effective for improvement of repeatability and accuracy. We chose [M-H-141]- as a monitor ion of MRM analysis and [M-H]- as a precursor ion for each penicillin. Combination of an ion-exchange cartridge clean-up and ion-pair LC enable us to determine the residual penicillins using the standard curves made from standard solutions without the influence of sample matrix on the MS. The average recoveries of PCG, PCV, MPIPC, MCIPC, NFPC and MDIPC from bovine liver, kidney and muscle at the same concentrations as the tolerance levels of PCG (50 microg/kg) ranged from 77 to 101% with the coefficients of variation ranging from 0.7 to 4.2% (n = 5). The limits of quantification for the six penicillins were 2-10 microg/kg in bovine muscle, liver and kidney (S/N ratio >10).

  17. Application of ion-exchange cartridge clean-up in food analysis III. Determination of benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethyl-penicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin and dicloxacillin in bovine liver and kidney by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Ikai, Y; Oka, H; Matsumoto, H; Kagami, T; Takeba, K

    2000-06-02

    A multiresidue analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin (PCG), phenoxymethylpenicillin (PCV), oxacillin (MPIPC), cloxacillin (MCIPC), nafcillin (NFPC) and dicloxacillin (MDIPC) in bovine liver and kidney. The method involves the use of an ion-exchange cartridge for sample clean-up followed by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The recoveries of PCG, PCV, MPIPC, MCIPC, NFPC and MDIPC from bovine liver spiked at levels of 0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg were in the range of 73-91% and 83-96% with coefficients of variation of 1.4-4.2% and 3.4-8.7%, respectively. For bovine kidney spiked at levels of 0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, the recoveries of these compounds were 79-92% and 82-92% with RSDs of 1.8-5.9% and 2.7-7.8%, respectively. The detection limits for the six penicillins were 0.02-0.05 mg/kg in bovine liver and kidney.

  18. Fornecimento de hortifrutigranjeiros para unidades de alimentação e nutrição hospitalares The supply of fruits and vegetables for food and nutrition hospitals units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Petter Schneider

    2006-06-01

    vegetables supply for the hospitals and to verify the efficiency of such process, according to the needs and requirements of hospital units. The methodology was a case-series study. The hospital situated in the City of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and a central of store and distribution of food and vegetables, as well as its suppliers were analysed. The results demonstrate that the hospitals have a great concern regarding the current supply method and, in addition, that they prefer a specialized one. In reference to suppliers, it was verified the non-observance of factors considered as indispensable by hospitals. These include, for instance, the control for use of pesticides, the hygiene and sanitary conditions, the origin and the transportation. In conclusion, it was verified that the current supply is not efficient, that it occurs in an inappropriate way and that it does not assist the most of the hospital supply requirements. It is suggested the implementation of the hazard analysis and critical control points, the good practice of manufacturing, the supply chain management, and a cooperative approach to optimize the food and vegetable supply.

  19. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  20. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  1. Does Asia's choice of exchange rate regime affect Europe's exposure to US shocks?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Markovic; L Povoledo

    2011-01-01

    .... This happens because, without nominal exchange rate flexibility, Asian firms react to the shocks originating in the United States by implementing significant price adjustments, which in turn affect...

  2. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  3. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  4. International Food Assistance: A U.S. Governmentwide Strategy Could Accelerate Progress Toward Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    Organization ( FAO ). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of food insecurity , with 1 out of every 3 people undernourished. Global... food security.1 This problem is especially severe in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where food insecurity is most prevalent with 1 out of every 3...estimates of the United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ). As the largest international donor, contributing over half of all food aid

  5. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  6. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  7. Regional food culture and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on

  8. 21 CFR 880.5700 - Neonatal phototherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal phototherapy unit. 880.5700 Section 880.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5700 Neonatal phototherapy unit. (a) Identification. A neonatal phototherapy unit is...

  9. Application of peer education in guiding community diabetic patients to adopt diet therapy using food exchange method%应用同伴教育法指导社区糖尿病患者采用食品交换份法行饮食治疗的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰; 丁静; 武琳; 李晶; 李世华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To use peer education to guide community diabetic patients to adopt diet therapy using food exchange method in order to explore effective method for diet therapy of diabetes mellitus. Meth-ods 91 diabetic patients were selected using simple sampling method and randomly divided into the peer ed-ucation(45 cases) and the common education group(46 cases), the two groups adopted food exchange method for diet therapy for 1 year. The blood glucose, blood lipid, glycosylated hemoglobin and body weight index were compared between the two groups using t test. Results The blood glucose, blood lipid, glycosylated hemoglobin and body weight index all decreased in the two groups after intervention, but the the decreased de-gree in the peer education group was more obvious. The fasting blood glucose, 2 hour postprandial blood glu-cose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglyceride, low-donordensity lipid protein and body weight index in the peer education were lower thanthose of the common education group, but HDL-C was higher. Conclusions Peer education is more effective in health education of food exchange method.%目的 利用同伴教育法指导社区糖尿病患者采用食品交换份法进行饮食治疗,探索社区糖尿病饮食治疗的有效方法 .方法 用便利取样的方法 抽取91例2型糖尿病患者,按年龄性别匹配后随机分为同伴教育组45例和普通教育组46例,采用食品交换份法进行为期1年的饮食干预,应用t检验比较2组患者干预前后血糖、血脂、糖化血红蛋白、体重指数等指标的变化情况.结果干预后2组患者的血糖、血脂、糖化血红蛋白、体重指数等指标均有显著降低,但同伴教育组改善程度更加显著.干预后同伴教育组的空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白和体重指数均显著低于普通健康教育组,HDL-C高于普通健康教育组.结论 利用同伴教育法对糖尿病患者采用食品交

  10. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  11. Consumption intention toward ethnic food: determinants of Dayak food choice by Malaysians

    OpenAIRE

    Hiram Ting; Sharon Rebecca Tan; Alexandra Nastassia John

    2017-01-01

    Background: The awareness and trying of ethnic cuisine have increased due to the developing exchange of trade, movement of ethnicities across the globe, and tourist traveling opportunities. More people consume ethnic food for the appreciation of the culture and taste. Although the Dayaks are the largest indigenous group in Malaysia, little is done to date to explicate why Malaysians consume Dayak food. The present study aims to investigate the Dayak food choice of non-Dayak Malaysians and to ...

  12. Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0035 Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project 140200 Steven Sembay UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER Final Report 10/28/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...To) 01 Sep 2014 to 31 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP) 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1...0200 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven Sembay 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.   WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  13. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  14. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no state

  15. Composite foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties

  16. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  17. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Federal Food Programs--1973. Part 2--Hunger in 1973. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 4, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The "Hunger-1973" committee report, details the continuing hunger problem in the country. The report shows that the administration and participation of the Food Stamp and Surplus Food Program vary widely across the country. It shows that the benefits available under both programs are being severely restricted by the current food cost crisis in the…

  18. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  19. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  20. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  1. Exchange Rate in Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China announced the reform of its decade-old RMB exchange rate regime last July, linking the RMB to a basket of currencies rather than the U.S. dollar alone, and allowing the RMB to appreciate 2 percent against the U.S. currency. Since then, different viewpoints on the new regime have been voiced. The People's Bank of China, the central bank, said in a statement in late March that it would further improve the system, broadening the foreign exchange market, increasing the flexibility of the RMB exchange r...

  2. Food selection for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkooper, L

    1992-09-01

    1) The body requires at least 40 nutrients that are classified into six groups: protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, and water. These nutrients cannot be made in the body and so they must be supplied from solid or liquid foods. 2) Fat, carbohydrate, and protein contain energy that is measured in units called kilocalories. Alcohol also contains kilocalories, but is not a recommended energy source for endurance exercise. 3) Foods in endurance sports training programs should provide adequate fluids to prevent dehydration; energy intake that is high in carbohydrate, low in fat, adequate in protein, and that maintains desirable body weight and desirable proportions of fat and lean weight; and sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals. 4) Six categories of food types form the fundamentals of good diets for endurance exercise training and include: fruits, vegetables, grains-legumes, lean meats, low-fat milk products, and fats-sweets. Vegetarian diets include all food type categories except meat and/or milk products. 5) Fat and carbohydrate content of foods in each food type category varies greatly because of how foods are prepared. 6) The Food Pyramid and Sports Food Swap are guides for selecting foods that provide recommended amounts of essential nutrients for endurance exercise. 7) Before, during, and after endurance exercise, food intake should include adequate amounts of easily digestible, high carbohydrate foods that are familiar and psychologically satisfying. 8) Easily digestible high carbohydrate liquid or solid foods should be eaten soon after exercise is stopped to maximize rates of glycogen replacement. 9) Dehydration can be prevented by adequate fluid intake before, during, and after exercise. 10) Any food plan should be tested before a competition to find out how well that plan works for an athlete.

  3. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  4. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  5. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  6. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  7. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  8. Emittance exchange results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller, R.P., III; /Brookhaven; Koeth, T.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2009-09-01

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  9. Emittance Exchange Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller III,R.; Koeth, T.

    2009-05-04

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  10. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  11. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  12. A Framework for Using Rural Markets to Analyze Local Food Shortage Resilience and Mitigation Potential in sub-Saharan Africa based on Evidence from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. J.; Baylis, K.; Evans, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to have negative impacts on agriculture and food security in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Regional and temporal climate variability will disburse these effects, creating opportunities to mitigate food shortages through well-studied international, regional, and national food flows and associated food prices. However, most food products consumed and traded by rural smallhold farmers rely on local market exchanges that take place outside the scope of prevalent regional and national market analysis. There is little empirical evidence on these rural markets outside of their potential for smallholder agribusiness. However, they offer an unopened window into local food supply and the nuances of food movements in rural areas. Our research explores how to analyze the cost and availability of food products in rural markets and their connection with each other, as well as with nearby households' food security. This new approach of using food markets as a unit of analysis necessitates a new framework that groups markets based on a hierarchy of variables relevant to their role as food movers and suppliers. In our research, we collected price and source data for 22 commodities bought and sold within 52 rural markets in 12 districts spatially distributed throughout Zambia. We continue to collect data via phone interviews with 206 traders and market managers within these markets each month. We used this data to develop a typology of stationary rural food markets based on their size in terms of traders and buyers, the diversity of commodities available year-round and seasonally, their price transmission with other markets, and their trading scheme and governance. The result is a dynamic framework with varying weights on each variable that classifies which characteristic of markets under which conditions increase their potential for local food shortage resilience and mitigation. We also allocate for commodity-specific scenarios to allow for modeling

  13. Compact, super heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat exchanger uses porous media to enhance heat transfer through walls of cooling channels, thereby lowering wall temperature. Porous media within cooling channel increases internal surface area from which heat can be transferred to coolant. Comparison data shows wall has lower temperature and coolant has higher temperature when porous medium is used within heat exchanger. Media can be sintered powedered metal, metal fibers, woven wire layers, or any porous metal having desired permeability and porosity.

  14. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  15. [ Food allergy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, W; Frosch, B

    1983-06-01

    Food allergies' following food incompatibilities, which are not caused immunologically. Mostly allergic symptoms are caused by cow's milk or chicken eggs. Allergic reactions are preceded by sensitizing events; certain characteristics of foodstuffs and conditions in the human body facilitate their development. Gastrointestinal symptoms very often are just accompanying signs. In differential diagnosis the so-called "pseudo-allergies' following food ingestion have to be separated. Most important diagnostic measures are clinical history, prick-/scratch test, RAST, gastrointestinal provocation and abstinence test. The therapeutic program consists of allergen abstinence, avoiding all allergy-arousing factors, oral desensitizing and pharmaceutical treatment.

  16. CALCULATION OF FOULING IN HIGH-PRESSURE HEAT EXCHANGER OF A HYDROGENATION UNIT FOR THE WHOLE OPERATION CYCLE AND APPLICATION EFFECT%加氢装置运行全周期高压换热器垢阻计算与应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚立松; 穆海涛

    2012-01-01

    With MATLAB software, the fouling of high-pressure heat exchanger in a gas oil hydro-genation unit was calculated throughout 3-year operation. The calculation results showed that the fouling rate of heat exchanger during operation was controllable; at the final stage of operation, the total resistance of scale was 1. 2×10-3(m2·K)/W. Based on the calculation results of fouling rate, the injection of scale inhibitor during operation was gradually reduced from 100 μg/g to 25-35 μg/g,so that in this single operation cycle, the cost saving of scale inhibitor reached 11. 59 MRMB. Besides, a fouling calculation method of heat exchanger based on ASPEN PLUS software and film coefficient theory was set up and the accuracy of this method was discussed as well.%采用MATLAB软件,跟踪计算某炼油厂蜡油加氢装置高压换热器运行3年来的垢阻.计算结果表明,运行期间高压换热器结垢速率可控,运行末期总垢阻为1.2×10-3(m2·K)/W.生产中根据结垢速率逐渐将阻垢剂加注浓度由100 μg/g下调至25~35 μg/g,单周期节约阻垢剂成本约1 159万元.此外,基于ASPEN软件的换热器模块计算理论,构造采用ASPEN软件计算换热器垢阻的方法.

  17. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  18. Private Health Insurance Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttorff, Christine; Nowak, Sarah; Syme, James; Eibner, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Private health insurance exchanges offer employer health insurance, combining online shopping, increased plan choice, benefit administration, and cost-containment strategies. This article examines how private exchanges function, how they may affect employers and employees, and the possible implications for the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Marketplaces. The authors found that private exchanges could encourage employees to select less-generous plans. This could expose employees to higher out-of-pocket costs, but premium contributions would drop substantially, so net spending would decrease. On the other hand, employee spending may increase if, in moving to private exchanges, employers decrease their health insurance contributions. Most employers can avoid the ACA's “Cadillac tax” by reducing the generosity of the plans they offer, regardless of whether they move to a private exchange. There is not yet enough evidence to determine whether the private exchanges will become prominent in the insurance market and how they will affect employers and their employees. PMID:28845340

  19. Food insecurity measurement and indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

    Full Text Available The United Nations define food security as "People having at all times, physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." There are five methods that are commonly applied in national surveys that can be used to assess food insecurity. Of these, four are indirect or derivative measures of food insecurity (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization method, household expenditure surveys, dietary intake assessment and anthropometry. The only method that represents a fundamental or direct measure of food insecurity is the one based on experience-based food insecurity scales. All the methods complement each other and the method of choice depends on the question being answered and the economic and logistical resources available to collect valid data. All the methods have serious measurement error issues that can be reduced by fully understanding the principles underlying them and the use of highly trained and standardized research field workers. As shown in Brazil, the use of experience-based food insecurity measurement scales for mapping, targeting, and understanding the determinants and consequences of food insecurity is very promising. Thus, we recommend the Latin American and Caribbean Region to work towards the adoption of a single regional module that can be adapted to the local contexts based on qualitative cognitive research followed by quantitative confirmation of the scale's psychometric properties. The Brazilian experience-based food insecurity measurement project is likely to provide useful insights to other countries in the region.

  20. Optimal design of the separate type heat pipe heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zi-tao; HU Ya-cai; CEN Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Separate type heat pipe heat exchangers are often used for large-scale heat exchanging. The arrangement of such a heat exchanger conveniently allows heat input to and output from the heat exchanger at remote locations. The traditional method of designing an ordinary HPHE (heat pipe heat exchanger) is commonly applied in the separate type exchanger design, but the calculations have to be carried out separately, which makes it very complicated. In this work, the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Units) method was applied for optimization analysis of single- or multi-level separate type heat pipe heat exchangers. An optimizing formula for single-level separate type heat pipe heat exchangers was obtained. The optimizing principles of effectiveness-NTU and heat transfer rate by the equal distribution method for multi-level separate type heat pipe heat exchanger are presented. The design of separate type heat pipe heat exchangers by the optimizing method is more convenient and faster than by the traditional method.