WorldWideScience

Sample records for food distribution rations

  1. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  2. Feeling food: The rationality of perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory bodies tend to treat people¿s emotional responses towards foods as a nuisance for rational opinion-formation and decision-making. This position is thought to be supported by such evidence as: (1) people showing negative emotional responses to the idea of eating meat products from

  3. A Theory of Rational Junk-Food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2002-01-01

    An expected lifetime-utility maximizing diet of junk and health food is analyzed. The stationary junk-food consumption level is equal to the ratio of the recovery capacity of a perfectly healthy person to the sensitivity of her health to junk food. The greater the difference between the relative taste and the stationary relative price of junk food, rate of time preference, and elasticity of satisfaction from food, the better the stationary health of the rational junk-food consumer. The greate...

  4. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    intestine, but passes into the colon where fermentation of the remaining lactose occurs. The symptoms that result include flatulence, bloating, diarrhoea...without dairy products, available calcium would be even more limited. Soy derivatives are commonly used in food processing as thickeners, protein

  5. Junk Food, Health and Productivity: Taste, Price, Risk and Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analyzed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximizing framework in which the probability of living and productivity rise with health and health deteriorate with the consumption of junkfood. So long that the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, the rational diet deviates from the physiologically optimal and renders the levels of health and productivity lower than the maximal. Taxing junk-food can eliminate this discrepa...

  6. Regularities of food stuffs and ration contamination with radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Modelling of the process of contamination of food stuffs and rations as a whole in the case of aerial and soil ways of administration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs long-living radionuclides is presented. A modified formula which takes into account radionuclide content in the soil in the previous year and levels of precipitation for 2 years is given. A modified equation of 137 Cs content in soils and fallouts expressed through the value of the initial stratospheric reservoir is given. It is shown that since 1972 137 Cs has come in the ration as a whole and in milk primarily through the aerial way, while 137 Cs has come in bread and bakery products by a soil way in a practically equal amount. The data presented are mean values in the country. 137 Cs contamination in recent years occurs mainly by the soil way

  7. Minimax rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate rational approximations of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are a useful component in many numerical algorithms for electronic structure calculations. The best known approximations use O(log(βΔ)log(ɛ-1)) poles to achieve an error tolerance ɛ at temperature β-1 over an energy interval Δ. We apply minimax approximation to reduce the number of poles by a factor of four and replace Δ with Δocc, the occupied energy interval. This is particularly beneficial when Δ ≫ Δocc, such as in electronic structure calculations that use a large basis set.

  8. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 2. Radioactive cesium in daily food rations of selected population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibniewska, K.; Smoczynski, S.S.; Wisniewska, I.

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium isotopes emitting beta radiation was studied in daily food rations analysed in diets of working-class and non-working-class families from food products from the regions of Olsztyn, Poznan, Lublin, Warsaw and Wroclaw in 1987 and 1988. In 1987 the highest level of radioactive cesium was found in the food rations in Olsztyn, and lowest in the rations in Poznan (3.32 and 0.65 Bq/kg respectively). In 1988 higher radiocesium content was found in rations composed according to the data on the diet consumed daily in non-working-class families. In that case the highest content was in the daily food rations composed in Warsaw - 2.35 Bq/kg and lowest in Poznan - 1.19 Bq/kg in the daily food rations of working-class families about one half of that value was found. The calculated means values of both analysed rations were: 1.35 for Olsztyn, 0.89 for Poznan, and 1.86 Bq/kg for Warsaw. The calculated mean value of the contamination with radioactive cesium was in 1988 0.93 Bq/kg for the rations in working-class families (in 1987 it was 1.80 Bq/kg). (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  9. Impact of microbial distributions on food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassett, J.; Jackson, T.; Jewell, K.; Jongenburger, I.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses mechanisms impacting on physical distributions of microorganisms in foods, characteristics and suitability of frequency distributions employed to model microbial distributions, and the impact of both physical and frequency distributions on illness risk and food safety

  10. Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillitzer, Natalie; Becker, Nicola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin and mineral content of bone and raw food rations fed to adult dogs in Germany. Pet owners completed a standardised feeding questionnaire. The composition of 95 rations was calculated from mean data for foodstuffs using nutrition balancing software. Typical ration ingredients were meats, fish, offal, dairy products, eggs, oil, nuts, cod liver oil and natural and commercial supplements. The supply of nutrients was compared with the recommended allowance (RA). Of the rations that were used, 10 % supplied vitamin D was below RA. About half of the rations supplied less iodine than the minimum requirement. Many of the rations had low Zn and Cu supply, and 25 % of the rations supplied only 70 % of RA for vitamin A or less. A total of 60 % of the rations had one or more of the above-mentioned imbalance. The remaining 40 % of rations either had minor problems like Ca excess from bones or they were balanced.

  11. Effects of predation stress and food ration on perch gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yinghua; Eiler, Alexander; Johansson, Frank; Svanbäck, Richard

    2018-02-06

    Gut microbiota provide functions of importance to influence hosts' food digestion, metabolism, and protection against pathogens. Factors that affect the composition and functions of gut microbial communities are well studied in humans and other animals; however, we have limited knowledge of how natural food web factors such as stress from predators and food resource rations could affect hosts' gut microbiota and how it interacts with host sex. In this study, we designed a two-factorial experiment exposing perch (Perca fluviatilis) to a predator (pike, Esox lucius), and different food ratios, to examine the compositional and functional changes of perch gut microbiota based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We also investigated if those changes are host sex dependent. We showed that overall gut microbiota composition among individual perch significantly responded to food ration and predator presence. We found that species richness decreased with predator presence, and we identified 23 taxa from a diverse set of phyla that were over-represented when a predator was present. For example, Fusobacteria increased both at the lowest food ration and at predation stress conditions, suggesting that Fusobacteria are favored by stressful situations for the host. In concordance, both food ration and predation stress seemed to influence the metabolic repertoire of the gut microbiota, such as biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, metabolism of cofactors, and vitamins. In addition, the identified interaction between food ration and sex emphasizes sex-specific responses to diet quantity in gut microbiota. Collectively, our findings emphasize an alternative state in gut microbiota with responses to changes in natural food webs depending on host sex. The obtained knowledge from this study provided us with an important perspective on gut microbiota in a food web context.

  12. A theoretical analysis of rational diet of healthy and junk foods

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2007-01-01

    Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analysed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximising framework in which longevity and productivity rise with health, and health deteriorates with the consumption of junk food. As long as the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, rational diets deviate from the physiologically optimal ones and generate lower than maximal levels of health and productivity. Taxing junk food can eliminate this discrepancy, but the outcome ...

  13. Risk, rationality, and regret: responding to the uncertainty of childhood food anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Kerridge, I; Kemp, A

    2005-06-01

    Risk and uncertainty are unavoidable in clinical medicine. In the case of childhood food allergy, the dysphoric experience of uncertainty is heightened by the perception of unpredictable danger to young children. Medicine has tended to respond to uncertainty with forms of rational decision making. Rationality cannot, however, resolve uncertainty and provides an insufficient account of risk. This paper compares the medical and parental accounts of two peanut allergic toddlers to highlight the value of emotions in decision making. One emotion in particular, regret, assists in explaining the actions taken to prevent allergic reactions, given the diffuse nature of responsibility for children. In this light, the assumption that doctors make rational judgments while patients have emotion led preferences is a false dichotomy. Reconciling medical and lay accounts requires acknowledgement of the interrelationship between the rational and the emotional, and may lead to more appropriate clinical decision making under conditions of uncertainty.

  14. USING COUPLING WEIGHTS AND RATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKE FORCES BETWEEN THE AXLES OF WHEELED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kholodov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the coefficient of coupling weight-axle vehicles under braking and a ra-tional distribution coefficient of braking force to the front axle on the condition of maximum coupling weight.

  15. Food availability and accessibility in the local food distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective was to understand the local food distribution system in Avian Park, with a focus on food availability and accessibility. Study design: This was a quantitative food store survey that employed semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Setting: The study was conducted in Avian Park, ...

  16. On the Distribution of Zeros and Poles of Rational Approximants on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Andrievskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of zeros and poles of best rational approximants is well understood for the functions (=||, >0. If ∈[−1,1] is not holomorphic on [−1,1], the distribution of the zeros of best rational approximants is governed by the equilibrium measure of [−1,1] under the additional assumption that the rational approximants are restricted to a bounded degree of the denominator. This phenomenon was discovered first for polynomial approximation. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic distribution of zeros, respectively, -values, and poles of best real rational approximants of degree at most to a function ∈[−1,1] that is real-valued, but not holomorphic on [−1,1]. Generalizations to the lower half of the Walsh table are indicated.

  17. Quality, safety and sustainability in food distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Farahani, Poorya; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The management of food distribution networks is receiving more and more attention, both in practice and in the scientific literature. In this paper, we review quantitative operations management approaches to food distribution management, and relate this to challenges faced by the industry. Here...

  18. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  19. Solution to food distribution; Shokuhin ryutsu solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K; Shimizu, T [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    The environment around the food industry has greatly changed these several years. It has become an important problem of enterprise management to structure a business model that can flexibly follow quality assurance based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP), safety securing, and changes in consumption behavior (individual liking and variety). With the theme narrowed down to food safety (industrial engineering [IE] and HACCP consulting frame) and distribution infrastructure from the standpoint of consumers (how to structure a supply chain management [SCM] system), this paper describes our activities for food distribution business. (author)

  20. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS CONTENT IN THE FOOD RATION OF ADOLESCENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubenko, O V; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Glagoleva, O N; Pogodin, I S; Luksha, E A

    2015-01-01

    Adequate, balanced nutrition is a precondition for the formation of health of the younger generation. The study of the dietary intake and peculiarities of the chemical composition offood is needed to substantiate measures aimed at the correction of the ration of adolescents. Hygienic evaluation of the content of water soluble vitamins in foods and the ration of teenage population of the Omsk region. TASKS OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine levels of water-soluble vitamins content in foods forming the basis of the ration of the population the Omsk region. 2. On the base of a study of the actual nutrition of adolescents to determine the levels of water-soluble vitamins consumption. 3. To give a hygienic assessment of adolescent nutrition in the Omsk region in terms of provision with water-soluble vitamins, and to identify priority directions of the alimentary correction of the revealed disorders. The analysis of 389 food samples for the content of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP C, folic acid) was performed with the use of reversed-phase HPLC high pressure on the Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence detector. The hygienic assessment of the actual nutrition of adolescents aged 13-17 years (sample survey; n = 250; 2012-2014) in the Omsk region was performed by the method of the analysis of food consumption frequency. There were noted significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B1 and B2 in the studied samples of cereals, bread and vegetables in comparison with reference data. Consumption levels of vitamins B1, B2, PP folic acid in the diet of adolescents in the Omsk region are lower than recommended values. In the structure of nutrition there is not enough milk dairy products--in 82.4 ± 2.4%, fish and sea products in 90.8 ± 1.8% of adolescents. The actual nutrition of the adolescent population of the Omsk region is irrational, unbalanced in quantitative and qualitative terms, and does not provide the necessary level of consumption of most important water-soluble vitamins

  1. Standardized toxicity testing may underestimate ecotoxicity: Environmentally relevant food rations increase the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Louise M; Krattenmaker, Katherine E; Johnson, Erica; Bowers, Alexandra J; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2017-11-01

    Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 4 food rations for up to 99 d and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs. Exposure to AgNP at low food rations decreased the survival and/or reproduction of individuals, with potential consequences for Daphnia populations (based on calculated specific population growth rates). We also found tentative evidence that a sublethal concentration of AgNPs (75 µg/L) caused Daphnia to alter energy allocation away from reproduction and toward survival and growth. The present findings emphasize the need to consider resource availability, and not just exposure, in the environment when estimating the effect of a toxicant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3008-3018. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. The Impact of a Community-Based Intervention Including a Monthly Food Ration on Food Insecurity Among HIV-Positive Adults During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica; Kayigamba, Felix; Hills, Victoria; Gupta, Neil; Machara, Faustin; Niyigena, Peter; Franke, Molly F

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how food insecurity changed among HIV-positive adults during the first 12 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and whether any change differed according to the receipt of food support, which was provided in the context of a comprehensive community-based intervention. We conducted secondary data analyses of data from a prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of a community-based cART delivery model when added to clinic-based cART delivery in Rwanda. We included patients from four health centers that implemented a clinic-based cART delivery model alone and five health centers that additionally implemented the intervention, which included 10 months of food support. We compared food insecurity at 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to baseline, and stratified by receipt of the intervention. Relative to baseline, median food insecurity score decreased after 3, 6, and 12 months (p value insecurity scores remained unchanged at 3 and 12 months and were significantly higher after 6 months. In adjusted analyses, participants enrolled in the community-based intervention with a food ration had a lower risk of severe food insecurity and a lower risk of moderate or severe food insecurity after 12 months. A comprehensive community-based HIV program including a food ration likely contributes to an alleviation of food insecurity among adults newly initiating cART.

  3. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  4. Food availability and accessibility in the local food distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accessibility of food in retail outlets can influence dietary choices, and therefore the food ..... the personal views, cultural practices, beliefs and experiences .... consumption.4 The mark ups for chips (116%), pilchards in tomato sauce (90%) ...

  5. Distribution of Various Mycotoxins in Compound Feed, Total Mix Ration and Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sultana, A. Rashid, I. Tahira, H. U. Hanif1 and N. Q. Hanif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to assess the spectrum of natural occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and A-B trichothecenes in dairy feed, silage and total mixed rations. One hundred and seventy one samples were analyzed by chromatographic technique. In cattle compound feed, there was a high incidence of aflatoxin B1 (97.3% followed by aflatoxin B2 (50.3%, aflatoxin G1 (10.7%, aflatoxin G2 (1.5%, zearalenone (39.3%, ochratoxin A (37.5% and deoxynivalenol (2.9% with average values of 29, 8, 21, 10, 862, 64 and 813 ng/g respectively. Nine samples were found tainted with T-2 toxin (282ng/g, nivalenol (285ng/g and fusarenon-x (1625ng/g respectively. However, frequency distribution showed that positive seventy-seven (51.6%samples found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 levels higher than permissible level of European Commission (<20ng/g. For zearalenone, forty-four (32.5% samples were tainted with levels ranging from ≥500 to 3750ng/gi.e. higher than recommendations by European commission (<500ng/g. In contrast to compound feed, mycotoxin analysis in silage samples demonstrated the high prevalence of ochratoxin A (77.8 % followed by AFB1 (25% with mean of 53 and 8.71ng/g respectively. A scrutiny of mycotoxin for total mixed ration depicted that all samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A with an average of 30 and 48.5ng/g respectively. As far as multi-mycotoxin co-existence is concerned, compound feed was concurrently contaminated with two, three and four types of mycotoxins.

  6. Distributions of microorganisms in foods and their impact on food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenburger, I.

    2012-01-01

    The physical distributions of pathogens in foods influence the likelihood that a food product will cause illness, but knowledge about the physical distribution of microorganisms in foods and especially the heterogeneity therein is scarce. This Ph.D. research aims to increase the knowledge of

  7. Rationalizing lipid nanoemulsion formation for utilization in the food and beverage industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jiajia

    There is growing interest in the use of nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic functional agents in food and beverage products due to their high optical clarity, physical stability and bioavailability. The goal of this research is to establish quantitative structure-function relationships to allow rational formulation of food-grade nanoemulsions for food and beverage applications. Initially, formation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions using a low energy method was examined. Nanoemulsions were formed using the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, which involves heating a surfactant, oil, water (SOW) systems near the PIT, and then cooling rapidly with stirring. Preliminary experiments were carried out using a model system consisting of a non-ionic surfactant (C12E4), hydrocarbon oil (tetradecane), and water. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding SOW mixtures near their PIT (38.5 °C) and then cooling them rapidly to 10 °C. The PIT was measured using electrical, conductivity and turbidity methods. The optimum storage temperature for PIT-nanoemulsions was about 27 °C lower than the PIT. The stability of PIT-nanoemulsions at ambient temperatures can be improved by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt%) or SDS (0.1 wt%) to displace the C12E4 (Brij 30) from the nano-droplet surfaces. Experiments were then carried out to establish if stable nanoemulsions could be formed using the PIT method from food-grade ingredients. Nanoemulsions were fabricated from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and flavor oil (lemon oil) by heat treatment. Different types of colloidal dispersion could be formed by simple heat treatment (90 °C, 30 minutes) depending on the surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR): emulsions at SOR 2. The results suggested that there was a kinetic energy barrier in the SOW system at ambient temperature that prevented it from moving from a highly unstable system into a nanoemulsion system. The conditions where stable nanoemulsions could be fabricated were also

  8. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  9. Use of Edible Laminate Layers in Intermediate Moisture Food Rations to Inhibit Moisture Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Strike Ration and Meal, Ready-to- Eat (MRE), moisture migration from one part of a component (e.g., sandwich filling) to another (e.g., bread...to improve sensory qualities in commercial products. For example, edible films are currently used in frozen pizza, in microwave dinners , in ready...to- eat ice cream novelties, and as a replacement for seaweed in sushi. 2  These edible barriers are not directly applicable to military uses, so

  10. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  11. Genetically Modified Food Labeling in China: In Pursuit of a Rational Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Roberts, Michael T; Wu, Kaijie

    2016-08-01

    Facing a tension between the increasing use of genetically engineered or modified food and consumer concerns over the risks associated with GMOs, China has established a GM food labeling regime through regulations-known as Agro-GMO regulations-to protect consumers' right to know. However, the design and enforcement of this GM food labeling regime is problematic. As a result, the labeling regime is ineffective and inconsistent, leaving consumers' rights unprotected. As the recently amended Food Safety Law in China requires GM food labeling for the first time, this article argues that China should replace the current Agro-GMO food labeling scheme with a special regulatory scheme. A comparative analysis of the GM food labeling systems in the European Union and United States, coupled with a rigorous examination of the problems and barriers of GM food labeling in China, sets a solid foundation by which to propose changes to incorporate into a special regulatory scheme. To this end, this article engages in such an analysis and recommends practical steps to guide the enactment of a special regulatory scheme. The recommendations comport with China's unique legal and political culture, but also could be used by other national regulatory regimes who permit use of GM food while also being committed to improving consumers' right to know.

  12. Politics of Predation: Food Distribution and Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    contemporary Africa, having their core social roles as home-makers and food ... dominate the family and political arena, the discreet role of women is crucial and ... female voters. .... Also, the existence of formal and informal checks and balances, ... largely self-employed and without restrictions in the work environment.

  13. Emotional and rational product appeals in televised food advertisements for children: analysis of commercials shown on US broadcast networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Brewster, Aaron

    2007-12-01

    The aggressive advertising and marketing of high caloric food products to children is implicated as a potential causative factor in the childhood obesity epidemic. This study analyzed 147 commercials appearing during children's programming on U.S. broadcast networks for a wide range of potential emotional and rational advertising appeals. The most prominent emotional appeals were fun/happiness and play followed by fantasy/ imagination, social enhancement/peer acceptance, and coolness/hipness. Many of the products used the term ;super-charged' or a similar adjective to describe the powerful taste or other physical properties of the product. More than one-third of all the commercials used a fruit appeal or association. Statements or depictions that a product was healthy or nutritious were quite rare among the commercials. This seems to imply that health and nutrition claims are understood by food marketers to not be salient concerns among children and as such are not a selling point to children. Commercials for high sugar cereal products and fast food restaurants differed in several respects. This study can serve to guide child health care professionals and other child advocates in designing measures that counter food advertising messages directed at children.

  14. Rational BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

  15. Marketing and Distribution: Fast Food Placements--Let's Move Slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Barry L.; Stone, James, III

    1978-01-01

    The author presents arguments for and against placing distributive education cooperative students in fast-food outlets, criteria for selecting training stations and students, and a model training plan outline for job and class instruction. (MF)

  16. Applications of lead isotope rations for identification and apportionment on pollution sources in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Duoyong; Wei Yimin; Guo Boli; Wei Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals which can accumulate to an adverse effect level in human bodies through ingestion, inhalation or other pathways. Because of the persistent lead contamination in farmland environment, large risk exists in the primary stage of 'from farm to table' chain. Environmental media such as soils, atmospheric aerosols were the possible lead sources of agro-food. To pinpoint the pollution sources exactly, cut off the contamination pathways in time, and reduce the risk of hazard, pollution sources tracing was very important. Lead isotope ratio combined with certain models is an effective method to discriminate correctly pollution sources and calculate the individual source contributions. In this review, to provide theoretical and technical reference for controlling lead pollution in environment and food, lead pollution sources in food, tracing principle and methods of lead isotope ratios, and its applications on vegetable, tea, wine, cereal and other food products were concerned. (authors)

  17. A protocol and ethical framework for the distribution of rationed chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantel, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Shortages of generic, injectable chemotherapeutics have been increasing in prevalence since 2006. Due to the lack of access to first-line, lifesaving treatments, physicians have been forced to ration chemotherapy between patients. Although the scarcity has been managed with good intentions, it has been done in an ad hoc manner, without the benefit of an ethically grounded and standardized schema. Using an approach based on the "accountability for reasonableness" method by Daniel and Sabin, I establish a framework and protocol for rationing that is specific to chemotherapy. Prior to the state of true shortage, I present guidelines for the use of an adequate supply of chemotherapy with knowledge of upcoming scarcity. Within the rationing framework itself, I first prioritize emergency use of chemotherapeutics and those already receiving treatment at the time of shortage. I advocate for stratifying patients based on the prognostic indicators of their cancer type, using a combination of clinical-trial-based initial response and longer term survival, followed by the patients' line of treatment. All patients who are not able to receive their "best" treatment must receive a sequent, next-best treatment, and their treatment team must have the ability to appeal to a rationing committee in special circumstances. I reject the ideas of stratification based on the intention of the treatment, perceived quality of life, pre-existing condition not impacting performance status, the classical "sickest first" argument, and giving preference to pediatric cases. Lastly, I advocate for any system of rationing to be transparent to those it affects and acknowledge the difficulties it presents to patients and physicians alike. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating Research on Food and the Environment: an Exit Strategy from the Rational Fool Syndrome in Agricultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Ashby

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this paper is that the "rational fool" syndrome can be applied to mainstream public sector agricultural research that is conducted in a way that is rational in the short term, but acts against its own long-term viability. Historically, a main concern of such research has been to maximize high levels of food production together with low prices to consumers. As a result, mainstream agricultural science has ignored negative impacts or externalities, which has contributed to a crisis of credibility with the general public and politically sensitive decision makers. A long-term strategic research agenda for the public sector is being defined that is new and relevant to present efforts to integrate natural resource management and sustainable agricultural production. Such an agenda must be understood as a way of managing natural resources for the production of food and environmental services essential to human well-being. If agricultural systems are viewed and managed as parts of whole ecosystems, the key properties of complex systems that need to be taken into account will force researchers to consider long-term effects and environmental externalities. Research products will then be increasingly strategic in nature, and the research process will be "democratized" as it involves and gains the support of a broad set of stakeholders. Private sector research cannot be expected to meet this need because strategic studies of resource management are required that cannot be made exclusive or proprietary and are, in other words, public goods. Several innovative research initiatives are under way that signal opportunities for change. This paper first elaborates on this argument and then illustrates key elements of the integrated natural resource management approach, with examples of approaches that show promise as alternatives to mainstream agricultural science. Although numerous and diverse, integrated approaches manifest several properties that

  19. Design of a Distributed Food Traceability Platform and Its Application in Food Traceability at Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haibiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food traceability is an important measure to secure food safety. This paper designed a food traceability platform based on distribution framework and implemented it in Guangdong province. The platform can provide traceability service, production and management service for food enterprise, provide forward and backward traceability of the whole cycle of food production and circulation, and provide various methods of food traceability for public. One characteristic of the platform is that it opens up the data flow among production, circulation and supervising departments, and builds a unified commodity circulation data pool. Based on the flow data pool, not only the production and circulation information of the food product can be traced, but also its inspection and quarantine information. Another characteristic of the platform is that its database and data interface were developed based on the fool electronic traceability standards formulated by the National Food and Drug Administration. Its interface standardization and compatibility with other food traceability platforms can thus be guaranteed. The platform is running at Guangdong province for key supervising products of Infant formula foods (including milk powder, rice flour, farina, etc, editable oil and liquor. The public can use the Guangdong food traceability portal, mobile APP, Wechat or the self-service terminals in the supermarkets to trace food products by scanning or input its traceability code or its product code and verify its authenticity. It will help to promote consumer confidence in food safety.

  20. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  1. Distribution of Budget Shares for Food: An Application of Quantile Regression to Food Security 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines, using quantile regression, the linkage between food security and efforts to enhance smallholder coffee producer incomes in Rwanda. Even though in Rwanda smallholder coffee producer incomes have increased, inhabitants these areas still experience stunting and wasting. This study examines whether the distribution of the income elasticity for food is the same for coffee and noncoffee growing provinces. We find that that the share of expenditures on food is statistically different in coffee growing and noncoffee growing provinces. Thus, the increase in expenditure on food is smaller for coffee growing provinces than noncoffee growing provinces.

  2. Distribution system of prepared foods; Chorizumi shokuhin no ryutsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, J.

    1999-09-05

    Chains such as supermarket, convenience store, and delicatessen store are rapidly expanding business. Only of thing and value thing which is only novel enjoyably also consumer needs these cooked family restaurant food service industry menu be. The following would be expected: Goods and menu of surely coming to the hand in result of being safer and result of dealing with the diversification of the flavor, the case in which it is necessary. Recently, it came to the distribution reform of the cooked food remarkably and drastically reducing the distribution cost as the result. (NEDO)

  3. Status and distribution patterns of selected medicinal and food tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree species of ethno-botany and food relevance were identified and enumerated in the course of field survey in the study communities. The spatial distributions of six most-frequently utilized tree species were mapped using Geographical Information System (GIS). Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics ...

  4. Rational valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  5. Rational Arithmetic Mathematica Functions to Evaluate the Two-Sided One Sample K-S Cumulative Sampling Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Randall Brown

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widely used goodness-of-fit tests is the two-sided one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test which has been implemented by many computer statistical software packages. To calculate a two-sided p value (evaluate the cumulative sampling distribution, these packages use various methods including recursion formulae, limiting distributions, and approximations of unknown accuracy developed over thirty years ago. Based on an extensive literature search for the two-sided one sample K-S test, this paper identifies an exact formula for sample sizes up to 31, six recursion formulae, and one matrix formula that can be used to calculate a p value. To ensure accurate calculation by avoiding catastrophic cancelation and eliminating rounding error, each of these formulae is implemented in rational arithmetic. For the six recursion formulae and the matrix formula, computational experience for sample sizes up to 500 shows that computational times are increasing functions of both the sample size and the number of digits in the numerator and denominator integers of the rational number test statistic. The computational times of the seven formulae vary immensely but the Durbin recursion formula is almost always the fastest. Linear search is used to calculate the inverse of the cumulative sampling distribution (find the confidence interval half-width and tables of calculated half-widths are presented for sample sizes up to 500. Using calculated half-widths as input, computational times for the fastest formula, the Durbin recursion formula, are given for sample sizes up to two thousand.

  6. ANTITRUST ISSUES IN THE LARGE-SCALE FOOD DISTRIBUTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Adriano Raffaelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the slow modernization of the Italian large-scale food distribution sector, of the fragmentation at national level, of the significant roles of the cooperatives at local level and of the alliances between food retail chains, the ICA during the recent years has developed a strong interest in this sector.After having analyzed the peculiarities of the Italian large-scale food distribution sector, this article shows the recent approach taken by the ICA toward the main antitrust issues in this sector.In the analysis of such issues, mainly the contractual relations between the GDO retailers and their suppliers, the introduction of Article 62 of Law no. 27 dated 24th March 2012 is crucial, because, by facilitating and encouraging complaints by the interested parties, it should allow the developing of normal competitive dynamics within the food distribution sector, where companies should be free to enter the market using the tools at their disposal, without undue restrictions.

  7. Nutritional quality and price of food hampers distributed by a campus food bank: a Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Abedi, Arvin; Wong, Alexander; Eslamian, Ghazaleh

    2014-06-01

    Food insecurity is a mounting concern among Canadian post-secondary students. This study was conducted to evaluate the content of food hampers distributed by University of Alberta Campus Food Bank (CFB) and to assess the cost savings to students, using these hampers. Contents of hampers distributed among 1,857 students and their dependants since 2006 were evaluated against Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Hampers were aimed at serving university students and one to five members of their households located in Edmonton, Western Canada. One thousand eight hundred fifty-seven clients in Alberta, Canada, were included in the study. Although all hampers provided adequate energy, their fat and animal protein contents were low. Compared to the CFG recommendations, the requirements of milk and alternatives and meat and alternatives were not sufficiently met for clients using > or = 3-person hampers. None of food hampers (i.e. one- to five-person hampers) met the DRI recommendations for vitamin A and zinc. Clients of CFB received Canadian dollar (CN$) 14.88 to 64.3 worth of non-perishable food items in one- to five-person hampers respectively. Hampers provided from the CFB need improvement. Nutrients missing from the food hampers could be provided from fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products; however, these foods are more expensive than processed food items. The CFB provides a significant amount of savings to its clients even without considering the additional perishable donations that are provided to clients. Interpretation of our data required the assumption that all clients were consuming all of their hampers, which may not always be the case. Clients that do not fully consume their hampers may benefit less from the food bank.

  8. A randomized trial of ready-to-use supplementary food versus corn-soy blend plus as food rations for HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Teng, Jessica E; Jerome, J Gregory; Bonds, Matthew; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Franke, Molly F

    2014-04-01

    The epidemics of food insecurity, malnutrition, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently overlap. HIV treatment programs increasingly provide nutrient-dense ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs) to patients living with HIV and food insecurity, but in the absence of wasting, it is not known if RUSF confers benefit above less costly food commodities. We performed a randomized trial in rural Haiti comparing an RUSF with less costly corn-soy blend plus (CSB+) as a monthly supplement to patients with HIV infection who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) perception score, or adherence to ART by ration type at 6 or 12 months. The RUSF group had higher CD4 count at 12 months, but this was also not statistically significant. In 12 months of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between those receiving RUSF-based compared with CSB+-based rations in a cohort of HIV-infected adults on ART in rural Haiti.

  9. Optimization Route of Food Logistics Distribution Based on Genetic and Graph Cluster Scheme Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study takes the concept of food logistics distribution as the breakthrough point, by means of the aim of optimization of food logistics distribution routes and analysis of the optimization model of food logistics route, as well as the interpretation of the genetic algorithm, it discusses the optimization of food logistics distribution route based on genetic and cluster scheme algorithm.

  10. Distribution of Iodine and Selenium in Selected Food Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the contents of iodine and selenium in selected food commodities. Fresh food commodities were mineralized and analysed for their iodine and selenium content by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry using the calibration curve as the method for determining the contents of the elements. The average fruit and vegetables concentrations of iodine were very low. The cow’s milk, other dairy products, eggs, poultry, fresh water fish, beef, liver, and mushrooms are frequently regarded as the most important natural source of dietary iodine from common foods. The higher concentrations of selenium were recorded in the kidney, liver, pork, beef, poultry, fresh water fish, hen’s eggs, cow’s milk, other dairy products, wheat flour, fats, coffee, peppers, mushrooms and potatoes.

  11. Fractal-like Distributions over the Rational Numbers in High-throughput Biological and Clinical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Vladimir; Pasqualucci, Laura; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Rabadan, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments in extracting and processing biological and clinical data are allowing quantitative approaches to studying living systems. High-throughput sequencing (HTS), expression profiles, proteomics, and electronic health records (EHR) are some examples of such technologies. Extracting meaningful information from those technologies requires careful analysis of the large volumes of data they produce. In this note, we present a set of fractal-like distributions that commonly appear in the analysis of such data. The first set of examples are drawn from a HTS experiment. Here, the distributions appear as part of the evaluation of the error rate of the sequencing and the identification of tumorogenic genomic alterations. The other examples are obtained from risk factor evaluation and analysis of relative disease prevalence and co-mordbidity as these appear in EHR. The distributions are also relevant to identification of subclonal populations in tumors and the study of quasi-species and intrahost diversity of viral populations.

  12. Spatio-temporal assessment of food safety risks in Canadian food distribution systems using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Beni, Leila; Villeneuve, Sébastien; LeBlanc, Denyse I; Côté, Kevin; Fazil, Aamir; Otten, Ainsley; McKellar, Robin; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    While the value of geographic information systems (GIS) is widely applied in public health there have been comparatively few examples of applications that extend to the assessment of risks in food distribution systems. GIS can provide decision makers with strong computing platforms for spatial data management, integration, analysis, querying and visualization. The present report addresses some spatio-analyses in a complex food distribution system and defines influence areas as travel time zones generated through road network analysis on a national scale rather than on a community scale. In addition, a dynamic risk index is defined to translate a contamination event into a public health risk as time progresses. More specifically, in this research, GIS is used to map the Canadian produce distribution system, analyze accessibility to contaminated product by consumers, and estimate the level of risk associated with a contamination event over time, as illustrated in a scenario. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rationalization of imports, refineries and distribution of petroleum in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga Alba, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines policies to secure and reduce the cost of oil supplies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), taking into account the existing forces at play: limited foreign exchange, competition for increasingly scarce funds, and the likely emergence of Africa as the fastest growing centre of energy demand over the coming decade. It identifies major inefficiencies in petroleum procurement, refining and distribution, and analyses the specific bottlenecks at each stage of the supply chain. Many of the diseconomies, estimated to yield savings of US$ 1.4 per year, are traced to an inefficient regulatory set-up in SSA countries, as well as unnecessary government interference in the downstream petroleum sector. In particular, price controls, small topping refineries, monopolistic agencies, government subsidies and opaque management structures prevent the working of efficient market mechanisms. The paper discusses the importance of policy reform, outlining what changes need to be implemented on the levels of institutional arrangements, closing of inefficient units, petroleum pricing and encouraging foreign investment in the sector. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs

  14. Macroergonomic study of food sector company distribution centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Acosta, Gabriel; Lange Morales, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study focussed on the work system design to be used by a Colombian food sector company for distributing products. It considered the concept of participative ergonomics, where people from the commercial, logistics, operation, occupational health areas worked in conjunction with the industrial designers, ergonomists who methodologically led the project. As a whole, the project was conceived as having five phases: outline, diagnosis, modelling the process, scalability, instrumentation. The results of the project translate into procedures for selecting, projecting a new distribution centre, the operational process model, a description of ergonomic systems that will enable specific work stations to be designed, the procedure for adapting existing warehouses. Strategically, this work helped optimise the company's processes and ensure that knowledge would be transferred within it. In turn, it became a primary prevention strategy in the field of health, aimed at reducing occupational risks, improving the quality of life at work.

  15. Combined effects of food deprivation and food frequency on the amount and temporal distribution of schedule-induced drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, José Luis; Pellón, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    Under intermittent food schedules animals develop temporally organized behaviors throughout interfood intervals, with behaviors early in the intervals (interim) normally occurring in excess. Schedule-induced drinking (a prototype of interim, adjunctive behavior) is related to food deprivation and food frequency. This study investigated the interactions that resulted from combining different food-deprivation levels (70%, 80% or 90% free-feeding weights) with different food-occurrence frequencies (15-, 30- or 60-s interfood intervals) in a within-subjects design. Increases in food deprivation and food frequency generally led to increased licking, with greater differences due to food deprivation as interfood intervals became shorter. Distributions of licking were modestly shifted to later in the interfood interval as interfood intervals lengthened, a result that was most marked under 90% food deprivation, which also resulted in flatter distributions. It would therefore appear that food deprivation modulates the licking rate and the distribution of licking in different ways. Effects of food deprivation and food frequency are adequately explained by a theory of adjunctive behavior based on delayed food reinforcement, in contrast to alternative hypotheses. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF, supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533 and 2006 (n = 515 were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  17. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  18. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program.We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer children from the control group

  19. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (iv) All initial data regarding the cost of the current warehousing and distribution system and the... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods... General Operating Provisions § 250.14 Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. (a...

  20. Food rationing during World War two: a special case of sustainable consumption? Rationnement alimentaire pendant la seconde guerre mondiale : Un cas particulier de consommation durable ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Theien

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the strategies applied by consumers for making-do during the Second World War in Norway. By reducing waste, using various substitutes and exploiting underused natural resources such as wild plants, birds, and alternative marine sources of nutrition, Norwegian consumers adapted their diet to a situation of food scarcity. However, their everyday consumption was primarily governed by the regulatory framework installed for dealing with the crisis, namely the rationing system. By 1942, almost all common foods had been placed under rationing. Despite of the many bureaucratic inconveniences of this system, it was largely supported by consumers, who accepted it as a socially just mechanism for distributing scarce resources. The article brings up the question of how far the willingness of consumers to accept rationing was a unique experience of the war, or whether one might imagine a similar design for purposes of sustainable consumption.Cet article explore quelques unes des stratégies utilisées par les consommateurs pour survivre pendant la 2è guerre mondiale en Norvège. En limitant les déchets, en utilisant des produits de substitution ainsi que les ressources de la nature telles que plantes sauvages, oiseaux et aliments marins alternatifs, les consommateurs norvégiens ont pu adapter leur alimentation à cette période de pénurie alimentaire. La nourriture quotidienne était toutefois essentiellement encadrée par la réglementation mise en place afin de faire face à la crise, c’est à dire le système de rationnement. En 1942, presque tous les aliments étaient rationnés. En dépit de ses nombreux inconvénients administratifs, le rationnement fut quand même soutenu par les consommateurs, qui l’acceptèrent comme un système socialement équitable pour la distribution des maigres ressources. L’article développe la question suivante : l’acceptation du rationnement par les consommateurs norvégiens est

  1. Pragmatics & rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Allott, N. E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

  2. Application of Cold Chain Logistics Safety Reliability in Fresh Food Distribution Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Yifeng; Xie Ruhe

    2013-01-01

    In view of the nature of fresh food’s continuous decrease of safety during distribution process, this study applied safety reliability of food cold chain logistics to establish fresh food distribution routing optimization model with time windows, and solved the model using MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) with case analysis. Studies have shown that the mentioned model and algorithm can better solve the problem of fresh food distribution routing optimization with time windows.

  3. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  4. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  5. 7 CFR 250.13 - Distribution and control of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum donations. Foods shall be donated only in such quantities as will protect the lower truck load... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution and control of donated foods. 250.13 Section 250.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  6. Rational Functions with a General Distribution of Poles on the Real Line Orthogonal with Respect to Varying Exponential Weights: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, K. T.-R.; Vartanian, A. H.; Zhou, X.

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal rational functions are characterized in terms of a family of matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems on R, and a related family of energy minimisation problems is presented. Existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties of the equilibrium measures which solve the energy minimisation problems are established. These measures are used to derive a family of 'model' matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems which are amenable to asymptotic analysis via the Deift-Zhou non-linear steepest-descent method

  7. Food inquiry of Pierrelatte: study of the food consumptions of the populations near the site of Pierrelatte-Tricastin: Daily rations and auto consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of a partnership between Cogema and I.R.S.N. a study of food consumption of populations living near the site of Pierrelatte-Tricastin has been realised in the commune of Bollene. This inquiry took place in four steps in order to describe correctly the seasons evolutions of the food consumption and auto consumption of families. The aim of this present report is to present the comparison realised of data issued from the inquiry of Pierrelatte to these ones from other recent food inquiries. (N.C.)

  8. Rationalizing and advancing the 3-MPBA SERS sandwich assay for rapid detection of bacteria in environmental and food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brooke; Mills, Alexander; Tucker, Madeline; Gao, Siyue; McLandsborough, Lynne; He, Lili

    2018-06-01

    Bacterial foodborne illness continues to be a pressing issue in our food supply. Rapid detection methods are needed for perishable foods due to their short shelf lives and significant contribution to foodborne illness. Previously, a sensitive and reliable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sandwich assay based on 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MBPA) as a capturer and indicator molecule was developed for rapid bacteria detection. In this study, we explored the advantages and constraints of this assay over the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method and further developed methods for detection in real environmental and food matrices. The SERS sandwich assay was able to detect environmental bacteria in pond water and on spinach leaves at higher levels than the APC method. In addition, the SERS assay appeared to have higher sensitivity to quantify bacteria in the stationary phase. On the other hand, the APC method was more sensitive to cell viability. Finally, a method to detect bacteria in a challenging high-sugar juice matrix was developed to enhance bacteria capture. This study advanced the SERS technique for real applications in environment and food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A methodology for controlling dispersion in food production and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A number of food safety crises, the design and implementation of traceability systems became an important tool for managing safety risks in the food industry. In the literature, numerous studies deal with traceability from the viewpoint of the information system and technology development. Howeve...... the effectiveness of the developed methodology in a numerical investigation....

  10. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  11. Embodying rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

  12. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in food (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, X. J.; Choi, M. S.; Kim, C. J.; Zheng, Y. Z. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean milk, meats(pork, beef and chicken) and grain (wheat, bean and rice) are measured and internal doses are estimated.

  13. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  14. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  15. Politics of predation: food distribution and women | Alliyu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergent on the African conception of food as a significant human physiological need which in most cases defines poverty; this paper discussed the possibility of unique political participation based on the effectiveness of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Within the context of these conceptual issues, women in ...

  16. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The...

  17. 21 CFR 1310.10 - Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.10 Section 1310.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The Administrator...

  18. A quantitative analysis of fine scale distribution of intertidal meiofauna in response to food resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Gauns, M.

    Fine scale vertical and spatial distribution of meiofauna in relation to food abundance was studied in the intertidal sediment at Dias Beach. The major abiotic factors showed significant changes and progressive fine scale decrease in vertical...

  19. Mallards feed longer to maintain intake rate under competition on a natural food distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Duijns, S.; Gyimesi, A.; De Boer, W.F.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Animals foraging in groups may benefit from a faster detection of food and predators, but competition by conspecifics may reduce intake rate. Competition may also alter the foraging behaviour of individuals, which can be influenced by dominance status and the way food is distributed over the

  20. Mallards Feed Longer to Maintain Intake Rate under Competition on a Natural Food Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.G.B.; Duijns, S.; Gyimesi, A.; de Boer, W.F.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Animals foraging in groups may benefit from a faster detection of food and predators, but competition by conspecifics may reduce intake rate. Competition may also alter the foraging behaviour of individuals, which can be influenced by dominance status and the way food is distributed over the

  1. Confucian Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  2. Prediction of residence time distributions in food processing machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Torben; Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The velocity field in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) is calculated using a finite element method. The residence time distribution for the CDHE is then obtained by tracing particles introduced in the inlet.......The velocity field in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) is calculated using a finite element method. The residence time distribution for the CDHE is then obtained by tracing particles introduced in the inlet....

  3. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  4. Marketing and Distributive Education. Food Marketing Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Business Education and Administration Services.

    This document is one of four curriculum guides designed to provide the curriculum coordinator with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the field of marketing as well as to provide marketing and distributive education teachers with maximum flexibility. Introductory information provides directions for using the guide and information on…

  5. Impact Evaluation Study for Institution Strengthening of Social Food Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Notoatmojo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the implementation of activities for strengthening LDPM could achieve the expected goals, to evaluate whether the LDPM strengthening activities had a positive impact. The study analysis used was descriptive, comparison, and financial analysis. The results of this study have shown that LDPM farmers’ income have increased significantly, and the Gapoktan as LPDM farmers’ institution has been significantly developing as a Bulog function in procuring grain paddy from farmers during peak harvest and distributing rice to stabilize the price of rice during the limited rice in the market.

  6. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  7. Incidence of irradiated foods in the distribution network of Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohačenko, I.; Kopicova, Z.; Zamecnikova, I.

    2005-01-01

    The samples, 29 in total, of poultry, rabbit meat, cheese and exotic fruits were taken from the distribution network of Prague. None of the samples was declared as irradiated according to the Decree of the Ministry of Health, CR, No. 133/2004 Sb. The check of their possible exposure to irradiation was made by means of two methods, i.e. the procedure according to EN 1784 (determination of hydrocarbons generated by irradiation using gas chromatography) and the determination of non-bonded o-tyrosine by means of HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neither method brought evidence for the exposure to irradiation, i.e. the purchased foodstuffs concerned were not labelled deceitfully. (author)

  8. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

  9. Effect of food intake on the tissue distribution of gallium-67: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.L.; Szymendera, J.J.; Byrd, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Fasting affects the body retention and tissue distribution of Ga-67 in experimental animals. In Ga-67 experiments, therefore, a difference in food intake between treated and control animals might result in confusing side effects. We have observed this in irradiation studies. It is suggested that a fasting regimen should be imposed in any Ga-67 animal study where an alteration in food intake might be experienced in the treated group

  10. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  11. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

    OpenAIRE

    Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

  12. Stationary distribution and ergodicity of a stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingyi; Liu, Meng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three-species stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps is proposed and analyzed. Sharp sufficient criteria for the existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution are established. The effects of Lévy jumps on the existence of the stationary distribution are revealed: in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution appear, while in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution disappear. Some numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Li, D.; Di, Z.Q.; Miao, Y.; Zhao, S.Q.; Guo, Q.W. [CUMT, Beijing (China). Resource Exploitation Engineering College

    2005-10-01

    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  14. Changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of a hay-based ration offered once or twice daily to dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of the total mixed ration (TMR based on hay as the main forage component (“dry” TMR and distributed once (7.00 am or twice (7.00 am and 1.00 pm daily to 32 lactating cows. The trial was divided in two periods of 14 days each. Diet (DM=53.7% was formulated in order to assure the nutritional requirements of cows producing 24 kg/d of milk (crude protein=14.4% DM; NDF=40.9% DM; milk FU=0.88/kg DM and additional amounts of concentrates were distributed using automatic feeders. Four TMR samples were collected daily (7.00 am, 10.00 am, 1.00 pm, 4.00 pm for six days during each experiment period for a total number of 48 feed samples. Each feed sample was subjected to the estimation of the particle size distribution using the separator of Pennsylvania State University composed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom, and to the determination of the chemical composition. Changes of all three particle size fractions for TMRs were observed during the day with distributions of the TMR both once and twice daily. With the once daily distribution, the large particles fraction increased linearly (P<0.001 from 19.7 to 23.4, 32.2, and 35.1%, while the finest particle fraction decreased (from 60.1 to 58.3, 50.0, 47.8%. According to particle size changes, the chemical composition varied significantly at the different times of sampling when TMR was distributed once daily. Significant variations of DM were detected for TMR with a linear (P<0.001 increase (from 54.4 to 57.9, 60.7, 61.5%. Considering once TMR distribution, the values of NDF and starch showed an opposite trend with an increase of 6.5 and a decrease of 8.3 points from 7.00 am to 4.00 pm (i.e., 9 hrs after distribution. Correlations were estimated between chemical and physical characteristics of TMRs. NDF content was positively and significantly correlated to

  15. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  16. Glossiness and perishable food quality: visual freshness judgment of fish eyes based on luminance distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Takuma; Masuda, Tomohiro; Utsumi, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo; Wada, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effects of statistics of luminance distribution on visual freshness perception using pictures which included the degradation process of food samples. However, these studies did not examine the effect of individual differences between the same kinds of food. Here we elucidate whether luminance distribution would continue to have a significant effect on visual freshness perception even if visual stimuli included individual differences in addition to the degradation process of foods. We took pictures of the degradation of three fishes over 3.29 hours in a controlled environment, then cropped square patches of their eyes from the original images as visual stimuli. Eleven participants performed paired comparison tests judging the visual freshness of the fish eyes at three points of degradation. Perceived freshness scores (PFS) were calculated using the Bradley-Terry Model for each image. The ANOVA revealed that the PFS for each fish decreased as the degradation time increased; however, the differences in the PFS between individual fish was larger for the shorter degradation time, and smaller for the longer degradation time. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the relative importance of the statistics of luminance distribution of the stimulus images in predicting PFS. The results show that standard deviation and skewness in luminance distribution have a significant influence on PFS. These results show that even if foodstuffs contain individual differences, visual freshness perception and changes in luminance distribution correlate with degradation time.

  17. The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-16

    Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, convenience stores, fresh/specialty food markets, carry-out restaurants, and full-service restaurants) were used. ZCTA5s' contextual factors were from the 2000 Census. Numbers of food stores/services were derived from the Census Business Pattern databases. Linear regression models assessed contextual factors' influences (racial/ethnic compositions, poverty rate, urbanization level, and foreign-born population%) on 1-year changes in food stores/services during 2000-2001, adjusted for population size, total business change, and census regions. Small-size grocery stores and fresh/specialty food markets increased more and convenience stores decreased more in Hispanic-predominant than other areas. Among supermarket-free places, new supermarkets were less likely to be introduced into black-predominant than white-predominant areas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.92). However, among areas without the following type of store at baseline, supermarket (OR = 0.48 (0.33-0.70)), small-size grocery stores (OR = 1.32 (1.08-1.62)), and fresh/specialty food markets (OR = 0.70 (0.53-0.92)) were less likely to be introduced into areas of low foreign-born population than into areas of high foreign-born population. Higher poverty rate was associated with a greater decrease in supermarket, a less decrease in small-size grocery stores, and a less increase in carry-out restaurants (all p for trends restaurants than suburban areas. Local area characteristics affect 1-year changes in food

  18. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  19. An analysis software of tritium distribution in food and environmental water in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Xu Cuihua; Ren Tianshan; Deng Guilong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of developing this analysis-software of tritium distribution in food and environmental water is to collect tritium monitoring data, to analyze the data, both automatically, statistically and graphically, and to study and share the data. Methods: Based on the data obtained before, analysis-software is wrote by using VC++. NET as tool software. The software first transfers data from EXCEL into a database. It has additive function of data-append, so operators can embody new monitoring data easily. Results: After turning the monitoring data saved as EXCEL file by original researchers into a database, people can easily access them. The software provides a tool of distributing-analysis of tritium. Conclusion: This software is a first attempt of data-analysis about tritium level in food and environmental water in China. Data achieving, searching and analyzing become easily and directly with the software. (authors)

  20. Location Model for Distribution Centers for Fulfilling Electronic Orders of Fresh Foods under Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of locating distribution centers for delivering fresh food as a part of electronic commerce is a strategic decision problem for enterprises. This paper establishes a model for locating distribution centers that considers the uncertainty of customer demands for fresh goods in terms of time-sensitiveness and freshness. Based on the methodology of robust optimization in dealing with uncertain problems, this paper optimizes the location model in discrete demand probabilistic scenarios. In this paper, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the distribution center location problem. An example is given to show that the proposed model and algorithm are robust and can effectively handle the complications caused by uncertain demand. The model proposed in this paper proves valuable both theoretically and practically in the selection of locations of distribution centers.

  1. Increased food production and reduced water use through optimized crop distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities for food, fuel and other uses is expected to be met through an intensification of production on lands that are currently under cultivation. Intensification typically entails investments in modern technology — such as irrigation or fertilizers — and increases in cropping frequency in regions suitable for multiple growing seasons. Here we combine a process-based crop water model with maps of spatially interpolated yields for 14 major food crops to identify potential differences in food production and water use between current and optimized crop distributions. We find that the current distribution of crops around the world neither attains maximum production nor minimum water use. We identify possible alternative configurations of the agricultural landscape that, by reshaping the global distribution of crops within current rainfed and irrigated croplands based on total water consumption, would feed an additional 825 million people while reducing the consumptive use of rainwater and irrigation water by 14% and 12%, respectively. Such an optimization process does not entail a loss of crop diversity, cropland expansion or impacts on nutrient and feed availability. It also does not necessarily invoke massive investments in modern technology that in many regions would require a switch from smallholder farming to large-scale commercial agriculture with important impacts on rural livelihoods.

  2. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  3. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Availability of added sugars in Brazil: distribution, food sources and time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Mondini, Lenise; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-03-01

    To describe the regional and socio-economic distribution of consumption of added sugar in Brazil in 2002/03, particularly products, sources of sugar and trends in the past 15 years. The study used data from Household Budget Surveys since the 1980s about the type and quantity of food and beverages bought by Brazilian families. Different indicators were analyzed: % of sugar calories over the total diet energy and caloric % of table sugar fractions and sugar added to processed food/ sugar calories of diet. In 2002/03, of the total energy available for consumption, 16.7% came from added sugar in all regional and socio-economic strata. The table sugar/ sugar added to processed food ratio was inversely proportional to increase in income. Although this proportion fell in the past 15 years, sugar added to processed food doubled, especially in terms of consumption of soft drinks and cookies. Brazilians consume more sugar than the recommended levels determined by the WHO and the sources of consumption of sugar have changed significantly.

  5. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  6. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    macro-data, this paper investigates how global price changes appear to have impacted on rural welfare in Vietnam during 2006-12. In this paper we study the case of rice in Vietnam, in the context of the 2008 food price spike. We analyse the responses of domestic producer and consumer prices, and discuss......Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however...... the policy actions taken by the government to help reduce the impact on consumers, as well as to continue to encourage production. We also look at the distributional impact of the resulting domestic price changes, using data from a specialist rural household survey to look at production response. Vietnam...

  7. Quantifying the effect of colony size and food distribution on harvester ant foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Desert seed-harvester ants, genus Pogonomyrmex, are central place foragers that search for resources collectively. We quantify how seed harvesters exploit the spatial distribution of seeds to improve their rate of seed collection. We find that foraging rates are significantly influenced by the clumpiness of experimental seed baits. Colonies collected seeds from larger piles faster than randomly distributed seeds. We developed a method to compare foraging rates on clumped versus random seeds across three Pogonomyrmex species that differ substantially in forager population size. The increase in foraging rate when food was clumped in larger piles was indistinguishable across the three species, suggesting that species with larger colonies are no better than species with smaller colonies at collecting clumped seeds. These findings contradict the theoretical expectation that larger groups are more efficient at exploiting clumped resources, thus contributing to our understanding of the importance of the spatial distribution of food sources and colony size for communication and organization in social insects.

  8. A Rational Approach to Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Describes suicide as reaction to internal and external sources of stress and the impact of life events. Notes that, in the elderly, these situations are prevalent in many who are not suicidal. Contends that much more is written about rational suicide than its alternative (rational nonsuicide). Reviews reasons for this and suggests rational…

  9. The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Methods Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, convenience stores, fresh/specialty food markets, carry-out restaurants, and full-service restaurants) were used. ZCTA5s’ contextual factors were from the 2000 Census. Numbers of food stores/services were derived from the Census Business Pattern databases. Linear regression models assessed contextual factors’ influences (racial/ethnic compositions, poverty rate, urbanization level, and foreign-born population%) on 1-year changes in food stores/services during 2000–2001, adjusted for population size, total business change, and census regions. Results Small-size grocery stores and fresh/specialty food markets increased more and convenience stores decreased more in Hispanic-predominant than other areas. Among supermarket-free places, new supermarkets were less likely to be introduced into black-predominant than white-predominant areas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.92). However, among areas without the following type of store at baseline, supermarket (OR = 0.48 (0.33-0.70)), small-size grocery stores (OR = 1.32 (1.08-1.62)), and fresh/specialty food markets (OR = 0.70 (0.53-0.92)) were less likely to be introduced into areas of low foreign-born population than into areas of high foreign-born population. Higher poverty rate was associated with a greater decrease in supermarket, a less decrease in small-size grocery stores, and a less increase in carry-out restaurants (all p for trends <0.001). Urban areas experienced more increases in full

  10. IRANIAN AND TURKISH FOOD CULTURES: A COMPARISON THROUGH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN TERMS OF PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Avcıoğlu, Gamze Gizem; Avcıoğlu, Gürcan Şevket

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative sociological analysis of Iranian and Turkish food cultures in terms of food preparation, distribution and consumption. Moreover, contribution is intended to be made to the field of applied food sociology. The research design carries features of a qualitative research. Of the qualitative research techniques, observation and interview form were used in the study. Research findings were obtained through observations made in Tehran, the capital c...

  11. Population distribution, food production and other aspects in the vicinity of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Ciallella, N.R.; Zunino, R.; Perez, T.; Jordan, O.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents some of the results of the pre-operational studies carried out in the vicinity of the site of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station, which is being built in the Province of Cordoba, Rio Tercero, next to the lake Embalse. The studies cover population distribution, food production, and other local aspects. The low population in the vicinity of the site increases in summer due to tourism. Main use of the land is grazing and cereal production. Milk production is small, but some is produced near the site. Other aspects of the study are presented in other papers of the Seminar. (author)

  12. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  13. Casebook on rationalization of power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book introduces the cases on rationalization of power use, which is divided into four parts. The first part refers the goal of rational use of energy and the result. The second part deals with the excellent cases on rationalization of domestic power use, which list the name of the company, hotel and factory according to the field such as building, textile and food. The third part contains the outstanding cases on rationalization of foreign power use, which were listed by the specific way to reduce electricity use each section. The fourth part is comprised of two chapters, which deals with the cases of domestic technical data and foreign technical data for rational use of energy.

  14. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  15. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF REFRIGERATED VEHICLES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PERISHABLE FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio G.N. Novaes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of refrigerated products along the distribution process must be kept within close limits to ensure optimum food safety levels and high product quality. The variation of product temperature along the vehicle routing sequence is represented by non-linear functions. The temperature variability is also correlated with the time required for the refrigerated unit to recover after cargo unloading, due to the cargo discharging process. The vehicle routing optimization methods employed in traditional cargo distribution problems are generally based on the Travelling Salesman Problem with the objective of minimizing travelled distance or time. The thermal quality of routing alternatives is evaluated in this analysis with Process Capability Indices (PCI. Since temperature does not vary linearly with time, a Simulated Annealing algorithm was developed to get the optimal solution in which the minimum vehicle traveling distance is searched, but respecting the quality level expressed by a required minimum PCI value.

  16. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  18. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  19. Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nappi Correa

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the food vendor distribution profile of the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and investigate its association with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of different municipal regions. This descriptive, cross-sectional study obtained the location of food vendors from secondary data from different institutional sources. The density of different types of food vendors per 1,000 inhabitants in each municipal weighted area was calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the mean density of food vendors and the weighted income areas. The lowest-income regions had the lowest density of butchers, snack bars, supermarkets, bakeries/pastry shops, natural product stores, juice bars, and convenience stores. The identification of these areas may encourage the creation of public policies that facilitate healthy food startups and/or maintenance of healthy food vendors, especially in the lowest-income regions.

  20. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  1. Effect of day-night cycle on distribution of food intake and economic choice among imposed food opportunities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Dulce M; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-10-01

    We have shown previously that mice given access to four discrete feeding opportunities (FOs) per day show a characteristic sequence of sizes across ordinal FOs. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the relative contributions of external and internal factors on the sequencing of FO size. The external factors were the light:dark Zeitgeber and the cost of food, imposed via different fixed unit prices (FUP) in a closed operant economy, and the internal factors were signals relating to energy status including time since last food and weight loss. In the first experiment, mice were given 4 FOs spaced 4-h apart, but with the timing of the FOs relative to the Zeitgeber altered by a 4-h Zeitgeber advance or delay of the cycle. Food intake, and associated body weight, declined as price increased, but the temporal order of FO size was invariant within a Zeitgeber condition. The Zeitgeber advanced group showed clear evidence of a shift in meal sequence relating to the light:dark cycle. Thus, external factors seem to be a more important determinant of total intake and sequencing than internal factors. In the second experiment, mice were given the choice between continuous costly (CC) and intermittent inexpensive (II) food. II food was available for four-15min intervals every 4-h, and the timing of the 15min intervals was varied relative to the Zeitgeber cycle. In spite of a 20-fold difference in price between CC and II food, mice took approximately equal amounts from each, and all food intake took place during the dark phase. Mice consumed II food only if it was available during the dark phase. Food intake was strongly linked to the light:dark cycle, largely independent of food cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling of Data Warehouse on Food Distribution Center and Reserves in the Ministry of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Purnomo Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to perform database’s planning that supports Prototype Modeling Data Warehouse in the Ministry of Agriculture, especially in the Distribution Center and Reserves in the field of distribution, reserve and price. With the prototype of Data Warehouse, the process of data analysis anddecision-making process by the top management will be easier and more accurate. Research’s method used was data collection and design method. Data warehouse’s design method was done by using Kimball’s nine stepsmethodology. Database design was done by using the ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram and activity diagram. The data used for the analysis was obtained from an interview with the head of Distribution, Reserve and Food Price. The results obtained through the analysis incorporated into the Data Warehouse Prototype have been designed to support decision-making. To conclude, Prototype Data Warehouse facilitates the analysis of data, the searching of history data and decision-making by the top management.

  3. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Multiple Comorbidities and Interest in Research Participation Among Clients of a Nonprofit Food Distribution Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Robin T; Craddock Lee, Simon J; Leonard, Tammy; Cuate, Erica L; Cole, Jay; Pruitt, Sandi L

    2015-10-01

    Persons accessing food from nonprofit distribution sites face numerous challenges and typically have significant unmet health needs. However, given limited and intermittent healthcare system engagement, this vulnerable population is underrepresented in clinical research. We sought to better understand the health needs of a nonclinical population to inform future research and interventions. Focus groups were conducted in English (n = 4) and Spanish (n = 4) with clients of Crossroads Community Services (CCS), the largest distributor of North Texas Food Bank. Discussions probed participants' health status, healthcare utilization, understanding and utilization of mammography, and attitudes toward participation in research. Participants included 42 CCS clients, primarily Hispanic or African American women. Participants reported multiple comorbid conditions among household members, yet utilization of health services was often limited by cost. The majority expressed interest in participating in research to communicate their health concerns and obtain emotional support. CCS clients represent a high-need, under-reached population willing to engage in health-related research that affords them opportunity to connect with peers in group settings and obtain information to improve management of daily life challenges. The Community Assistance Research (CARe) Initiative, a community-academic collaboration, establishes a much-needed opportunity for ongoing clinical research and intervention among this underserved population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  7. Rational Multiparty Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, John Ross

    2014-01-01

    The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

  8. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  9. The Distribution of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin in the OrgansPart of Animals Sea Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.; Kris-Tri Basuki; A, Sukarman; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Supriyanto, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of PSP toxin in the organs part of animals seafood wereinvestigated. PSP is one of the most important toxin of sea food animals forexport commodities. The main feed of animals seafood is microalgae. Sometypes of microalgae produced toxin, i.e. PSP or saxitoxin. Animals seafoodsamples, i.e. mussel, shrimp, and fish were collected from Manila bay andbrought to laboratorium. The head, intestine and muscle organ parts of thesamples were separated. Each organ part of the samples was extracted by 0,1 NHCl. The saxitoxin contents of the animal seafood samples were determined bymicroplate LSC binding assay method. It was found that the intestine organsamples has a higher concentration of saxitoxin (0.28-0.36 ppm), followed byhead organ samples (0.17-0.20 ppm) and muscle organ samples (0.10-0.16 ppm).Therefore, the distribution of PSP toxin in the organ part of the animalsseafood are 47-52% in the intestine organ samples, 27-31 % in the head organsamples and 10-15% in the muscle organ samples. (author)

  10. Assessing Climate Vulnerabilities of Food Distribution Center Sites in Greater Boston and Their Regional Implications: Climate Adaptation Planning in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, A.; Watson, C.; Douglas, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Metro Boston region, an area whose civic leaders have been at the forefront of climate resilience initiatives in recent years, is finalizing a flood vulnerability assessment of food distribution center sites located north of Boston, with the support of the University of Massachusetts Boston and the American Geophysical Union's Thriving Earth Exchange program. The community-scientist collaboration emerged because of the need for more local analyses of the area to inform climate resiliency policy and planning actions for the region. A significant amount of the metro region's food supply passes through two major distribution centers in the cities of Everett and Chelsea, just north of the Mystic River. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), on behalf of the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce, is working with Chris Watson and Ellen Douglas of UMass Boston to build on existing analyses of the region's food system and climate vulnerabilities and to develop a report identifying flood risk exposure to the sites. The analysis brings in dynamic modeling techniques that incorporate storm surge and sea level rise projections under different climate scenarios, and aims to align methodologies with those of other regional analyses, such as Climate Ready Boston and the City of Cambridge's Vulnerability Assessment. The study is helping to inform MAPC's and the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce's understanding of this critical food distribution infrastructure, illustrate the larger regional implications of climate impacts on food distribution in the Greater Boston area, and guide the development of site-specific strategies for addressing identified vulnerabilities.

  11. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti, a threat to food security for the poor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yonow

    Full Text Available The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations. We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675, correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  12. Energetic food in rations for growing goats Alimentos energéticos em rações para caprinos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Raquel Cunha dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of native or cultivated crops in semi-arid region, such as the wild cassava, sorghum and cassava, can reduce costs, increase productivity and competitiveness of the production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three energy sources as a supplement of a wild cassava silage meal over the productive performance and carcass characteristics of growing goats. The experimental treatments were supplementation sources: cassava meal, cassava meal in association to wheat bran and sorghum middling and cassava meal in association to sorghum grain. Eighteen male goats with 14.06±3.61 kg of initial body weight were allocated into three groups in collective pens. The experimental design was a completely randomized with six replications by treatments. The supplementations were not affect the daily weight gain, total weight gain, body condition score, carcass characteristics (cold and hot carcass weight and dressing, carcass measurements (carcass length and depth and leg width, depth and length and commercial meat cuts yields (leg, shoulder, rib, briscket and neck . The cassava meal, in ration containing wild cassava silage with relations of 80% roughage and 20% concentrate, may substitute the grain of sorghum and the wheat bran.A utilização de culturas nativas ou adaptadas ao semi-árido, como a maniçoba, o sorgo e a mandioca, na alimentação animal, pode reduzir os custos de produção, elevar os índices de produtividade e conferir competitividade aos sistemas produtivos. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito de fontes energéticas em rações à base de silagem de maniçoba sobre o desempenho produtivo e características de carcaça de caprinos. Os tratamentos consistiram de fontes suplementares, raspa de mandioca, raspa de mandioca associada ao farelo de trigo e ao sorgo grão moído e raspa de mandioca em associação ao sorgo grão moído. Foram utilizados 18 caprinos machos, com peso corporal inicial m

  13. 75 FR 41795 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  14. 76 FR 43256 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  15. 77 FR 43231 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2012 Through June 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  16. 78 FR 45178 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National Average Minimum Value of.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  17. What's New in USDA's Food Distribution Program for Schools? School Programs USDA Foods Update. Volume 14, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update on all the new products and projects that U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has been working on, in its effort to help schools meet the nutritional needs of the students and to help in the President's challenge to End Childhood Hunger by 2015. This issue includes: (1) Back to…

  18. Modelling and validation of robust partial thawing of frozen convenience foods during distribution in the cold chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Zammit, Gine Ørnholt

    2011-01-01

    with small blocks of a frozen model food (23 pct. Tylose® gel) and quipped with temperature loggers were distributed by trucks operating in the cold chain. In addition, controlled storage and temperature abuse experiments were conducted. To predict the product temperature–time relationship we developed a new...... frozen even after two days or more of distribution at +5oC, and that the temperatures inside the product and in the middle of the box were quite stable against the normal oscillations of the ambient temperature in the cold chain. The product temperature was also robust against temperature abuse......In collaboration with two commercial distributors we have tested a new concept for distribution, where convenience products for the food service industry are prepared, frozen and packed in cardboard boxes, but distributed in the chill chain at +5°C instead of in the frost chain. This will lead...

  19. 75 FR 54530 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Administrative Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... could this description be more helpful in making the rule easier to understand? II. Procedural Matters... rational basis for allocating funds to the Regional Offices. FDPIR State agencies expressed concern that... participants served by each State agency. The decision to pilot a new funding methodology in fiscal year 2008...

  20. Two Concepts of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

  1. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  2. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  3. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  4. Food inquiry of Pierrelatte: study of the food consumptions of the populations near the site of Pierrelatte-Tricastin: Daily rations and auto consumption; Enquete alimentaire de Pierrelatte: etude des consommations alimentaires des populations a proximite du site Pierrelatte-Tricastin: rations journalieres et autoconsommation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of a partnership between Cogema and I.R.S.N. a study of food consumption of populations living near the site of Pierrelatte-Tricastin has been realised in the commune of Bollene. This inquiry took place in four steps in order to describe correctly the seasons evolutions of the food consumption and auto consumption of families. The aim of this present report is to present the comparison realised of data issued from the inquiry of Pierrelatte to these ones from other recent food inquiries. (N.C.)

  5. Rationality, Motivation, Effectiveness: Bureaucracy's Triple Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    1984-01-01

    The United States has inherited an ideology concerning politics, culture, and the state that values the democratic distribution by the schools of rationality and of social motivation. Unfortunately, the bureaucratic organization of schools discourages this distribution, and the incentives for changing either the organization or the distribution…

  6. [Evaluation of the dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in the daily food rations by the students of the Rzeszów University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Marian; Głodek, Elzbieta; Rudy, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    To function properly the human body needs, from a nutritional point of view, the supply of a wide variety of nutrients. In this respect, in addition to essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals play an important role. Particular attention should be paid to the nutrition of studying youth as in their diet there are observed many irregularities arising from the specific nature of student life. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the level of intake of selected vitamins and minerals in a group of students with consideration of gender. The study included the group of 200 persons studying at the Faculty of Biology and Agriculture at the University of Rzeszów. The assessment of intake was made using the method of immediate recording of products and beverages consumed by students within three successive days. Using the Tables of Nutritional Value of Foods and Dishes there was calculated the average daily intake of minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese) and vitamins (A, D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12). It was found that the nutrition of women had seriously deficient intake of vitamin D (49%), folates (54%), thiamine and niacin. In terms of mineral intake in women there was diagnosed insufficient contribution of iron (46%), potassium (51.4%), calcium (55.4%) and magnesium (71.6%) in the diet. In the group of men deficiencies were found in the case of vitamin D (79.4%), foliates (71.6%) and vitamin C (76.0%). The excess of manganese (210.0%), phosphorus (198.9%), sodium (170.2%) in the diet and deficiency of potassium (65.5%), calcium (67.0%) and magnesium (73.9%) were found. The diet of men to a greater extent fulfils the need for vitamins and minerals. The results of the study show the necessity of education in order to foster healthy nutritional habits and to increase the share of natural sources of vitamins and minerals in the diet to prevent the occurrence of

  7. Fallout cesium-137 and mineral-element distribution in food chains of granitic-outcrop ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.; Duke, K.M.; Waide, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fallout 137 Cs movement is described for arthropod food chains on Panola and Arabia mountains, granite monadnocks in the Georgia Piedmont region. Food chains on mountain slopes had significant 137 Cs in herbivore and predator trophic levels. Food bases were identified from observation and from cesium to potassium ratios in vegetation and arthropods. Lichens are major accumulators of fallout 137 Cs but do not appear to be important food sources for arthropods. Cesium-137 concentrations decrease in the food chains; these decreases resemble those reported for other terrestrial arthropod chains. Aspects of 137 Cs movement and nutrient-element dynamics in granitic-outcrop ecosystems are discussed

  8. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

  9. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  10. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  11. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  12. Distribution of U-235 and U-238 in food(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Lee, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Kyun; Han, Man Joong [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    To accomplish the objective of this work, analyses of uranium concentration in 100 food samples (fruit and vegetables) were carried out. The surveillance results on uranium isotope concentrations in food of Korea will be used as a basis of estimating the annual effective dose to the public by uranium and a baseline data to establish a national recommend value for the protection from radiation of food.

  13. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  14. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Wang

    Full Text Available Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080 on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  15. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  16. Implementing a Healthy Food Distribution Program: A Supply Chain Strategy to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Access in Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Kwan, Allison; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Gutierrez, Luis; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2018-05-24

    Increasing access to fresh produce in small retail venues could improve the diet of people in underserved communities. However, small retailers face barriers to stocking fresh produce. In 2014, an innovative distribution program, Community Markets Purchasing Real and Affordable Foods (COMPRA), was launched in Los Angeles with the aim of making it more convenient and profitable for small retailers to stock fresh produce. Our case study describes the key processes and lessons learned in the first 2 years of implementing COMPRA. Considerable investments in staff capacity and infrastructure were needed to launch COMPRA. Early successes included significant week-to-week increases in the volume of produce distributed. Leveraging partnerships, maintaining a flexible operational and funding structure, and broadly addressing store owners' needs contributed to initial gains. We describe key challenges and next steps to scaling the program. Lessons learned from implementing COMPRA could inform other jurisdictions considering supply-side approaches to increase access to healthy food.

  17. An Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Approach Analysing Distribution of Food Products to Assist the Investigation of Foodborne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Madelaine; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Görlach, Franziska Sophie; Nygård, Karin; Hopp, Petter

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate foodborne outbreak investigations there is a need to improve the methods for identifying the food products that should be sampled for laboratory analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a likelihood ratio approach previously developed on simulated data, to real outbreak data. We used human case and food product distribution data from the Norwegian enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli outbreak in 2006. The approach was adjusted to include time, space smoothing and to handle missing or misclassified information. The performance of the adjusted likelihood ratio approach on the data originating from the HUS outbreak and control data indicates that the adjusted approach is promising and indicates that the adjusted approach could be a useful tool to assist and facilitate the investigation of food borne outbreaks in the future if good traceability are available and implemented in the distribution chain. However, the approach needs to be further validated on other outbreak data and also including other food products than meat products in order to make a more general conclusion of the applicability of the developed approach. PMID:26237468

  18. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  19. Effects of the restriction of food and water intake on the distribution and retention of radioiodine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sun, Xuezhi; Dao Thi Bich Thuy; Chandrasekharan, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131 I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131 I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was given food and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Food and water to the remaining groups were restricted before and/or after the administration of 131 I. The animals in each group were sacrificed 4 h and 24 h after administration, and the activity of 131 I in thyroid, blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, urine, feces, and carcass was measured. There was a significant increase in the retention of 131 I in the thyroid and the concentration of 131 I in the blood due to the restriction of food and water after the administration of 131 I. In contrast, a significant decrease in the urinary excretion was observed in these animals. In those animals, which fasted before administration only, the retention of 131 I in the thyroid and other organs were decreased. Therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and effective therapy with radioiodine as well as effective radiation protection, the intake of food and water should be taken into account. (author)

  20. Nutritional modelling: distributions of salt intake from processed foods in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M

    2009-09-01

    The salt content of processed foods is important because of the high intake of Na by most New Zealanders. A database of Na concentrations in fifty-eight processed foods was compiled from existing and new data and combined with 24 h diet recall data from two national nutrition surveys (5771 respondents) to derive salt intakes for seven population groups. Mean salt intakes from processed foods ranged from 6.9 g/d for young males aged 19-24 years to 3.5 g/d for children aged 5-6 years. A total of > or = 50 % of children aged 5-6 years, boys aged 11-14 years and young males aged 19-24 years had salt intakes that exceeded the upper limit for Na, calculated as salt (3.2-5.3 g/d), from processed foods only. Bread accounted for the greatest contribution to salt intake for each population group (35-43 % of total salt intake). Other foods that contributed 2 % or more and common across most age groups were sausage, meat pies, pizza, instant noodles and cheese. The Na concentrations of key foods have changed little over the 16-year period from 1987 to 2003 except for corned beef and whole milk that have decreased by 34 and 50 % respectively. Bread is an obvious target for salt reduction but the implication on iodine intake needs consideration as salt is used as a vehicle for iodine fortification of bread.

  1. Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fiala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a  hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a  duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.

  2. Prevalence and serotype distribution of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from foods in Montevideo-Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods obtained in retail shops and food industries located in Montevideo-Uruguay, and to identify the serogroups of the obtained isolates. Three-thousand one-hundred and seventy-five food samples (frozen, deli meats, ready-to-eat and cheese were analyzed. The obtained isolates were serogrouped by multiplex PCR and serotyped by conventional procedure. Genetic comparisons were performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis on a sub-set of isolates belonging to the same serotype successively recovered from the same establishment. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 11.2% of samples. The highest prevalence was observed in frozen foods (38%, followed by cheese (10%. 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified serotypes. In six of 236 analyzed establishments we successively recovered L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to the same serotype. Most of them corresponded to serotype 1/2b. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles suggest that at least 33% of L. monocytogenes 1/2b isolates are genetically related and that may remain viable for prolonged periods. The observed prevalence of L. monocytogenes was lower than reported in neighboring countries. Our findings highlight the role that frozen foods may play in the spread of this pathogen, and the relevance of serotypes 1/2b and 4b.

  3. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  4. Universal and Relative Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.

  5. The rational complementarity problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

  6. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  7. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

  8. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  9. Rational Emotive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  10. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...

  11. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in foods(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, S. K.; Lee, S. A.; Choi, M. S.; Zheng, Y. C.; Kim, Do Sung

    2004-02-01

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean vegetables (potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, hot pepper, garlic, onion and pumpkin) and fruits(apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape) are measured and their internal doses are estimated

  12. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in foods(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, S. K.; Lee, S. A.; Choi, M. S.; Zheng, Y. C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean vegetables (potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, hot pepper, garlic, onion and pumpkin) and fruits(apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape) are measured and their internal doses are estimated.

  13. DECOMPOSING CHANGES IN RETAIL FOOD WAGE DISTRIBUTIONS, 1983-1998: A SEMI-PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, John W.; McCall, Brian P.

    1999-01-01

    What role has the growing practice of eating out rather than at home played in the evolution of wages in retail food? Between 1983 and 1998, real wages fell for nearly all types of grocery store employees, whether they were relatively well paid, poorly paid, or somewhere in the middle. This resulted in an eight and a half percent decrease in the average real wage, but unlike many other industries, there was no increase in wage inequality. The "food away from home trend" is apparently connecte...

  14. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  15. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the food web of a high mountain lake, Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O; Ventura, Marc; Catalan, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web organisms included in the diet of brown trout from a remote mountain lake. The preferential habitat and trophic level of the component species have been assessed from the signature of stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N). Subsequently, the patterns of accumulation and transformation of these hydrocarbons in the food chain have been elucidated. Most of the food web organisms exhibit PAH distributions largely dominated by phenanthrene, which agrees with its predominance in atmospheric deposition, water, and suspended particles. Total PAH levels are higher in the organisms from the littoral habitat than from the deep sediments or the pelagic water column. However, organisms from deep sediments exhibit higher proportions of higher molecular weight PAH than those in other lake areas. Distinct organisms exhibit specific features in their relative PAH composition that point to different capacities for uptake and metabolic degradation. Brown trout show an elevated capacity for metabolic degradation because they have lower PAH concentrations than food and they are enriched strongly in lower molecular weight compounds. The PAH levels in trout highly depend on organisms living in the littoral areas. Fish exposure to PAH, therefore, may vary from lake to lake according to the relative contribution of littoral organisms to their diet.

  16. How much is too much? Threshold dose distributions for 5 food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Beyer, Kirsten; Defernez, Marianne; Sperrin, Matthew; Mackie, Alan R.; Salt, Louise J.; Hourihane, Jonathan O.'B.; Asero, Riccardo; Belohlavkova, Simona; Kowalski, Marek; de Blay, Frédéric; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Clausen, Michael; Knulst, André C.; Roberts, Graham; Popov, Ted; Sprikkelman, Aline B.; Dubakiene, Ruta; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Crevel, René; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2015-01-01

    Precautionary labeling is used to warn consumers of the presence of unintended allergens, but the lack of agreed allergen thresholds can result in confusion and risk taking by patients with food allergy. The lack of data on threshold doses below which subjects are unlikely to react is preventing the

  17. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  18. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  19. The Swedish municipal food distribution service to the elderly living at home as experienced by the recipient's relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2013-07-23

    The municipal Food distribution service (FD) to the elderly living at home is a part of the public social and care service in Sweden, The objective of this service is to ensure proper food intake for persons who are unable to do their own shopping, and prepare their own meals. The foremost reasons for the need of the FD service are in situations where there are illness related physical or psychological limitations.This means that the Swedish welfare system takes on the responsibility for its citizens when they have a legal social related need of care. Further, according to the Swedish social legislation, children or other relatives have no legal obligations to take care of their parents or elderly disabled relatives. This also means that the children or relatives of elderly people requiring social support have no legal right to be involved in the evaluation procedure of need assessment or the outcome of any social and care services granted by the Swedish social welfare system. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into how the relatives of elderly people living at home in Sweden experience the municipal service of ready-made meals distributed daily. The data was collected using in-depth interviews with relatives of elderly persons who use the municipal food distribution (FD) service (n=8). The transcribed interview material was analysed using the grounded theory method. The findings of this study revealed that the relatives of the municipal FD service recipients advocate for a food preparation service in the home of the recipient rather than the distribution of ready-made meals from a central kitchen. The results also revealed that the participating relatives felt frustrated by the legal limitations that make it impossible for them to influence the municipal FD service. The findings in this study also indicate that relatives should be considered as a resource in this matter and could actively participate, and have a positive influence on the quality of

  20. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  1. Soil resource supply influences faunal size?specific distributions in natural food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Christian; Den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-01-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use...

  2. Successfully Changing the Landscape of Information Distribution: Extension Food Website Reaches People Locally and Globally

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Henneman; Lisa Franzen-Castle; Kayla Colgrove; Vishal Singh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Food website was to develop Internet-based content that was relevant and reached the general public and multiplier groups, such as educators, health professionals, and media outlets. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a multi-modal approach to information delivery through increases in and changes to content, electronic mailing list creation, and social media posting impacted user access, traffic channels, and referrals from 2010 to 2014. When comparing 2010-2011 ...

  3. Rationality and ritual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1982-01-01

    The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)

  4. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  5. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  6. Food preferences and Hg distribution in Chelonia mydas assessed by stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, M.F.; Lacerda, L.D.; Rezende, C.E.; Franco, M.A.L.; Almeida, M.G.; Macêdo, G.R.; Pires, T.T.; Rostán, G.; Lopez, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic pollutant that poses in risk several marine animals, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Green turtles are globally endangered sea turtle species that occurs in Brazilian coastal waters as a number of life stage classes (i.e., foraging juveniles and nesting adults). We assessed total Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures ("1"3C and "1"5N) in muscle, kidney, liver and scute of juvenile green turtles and their food items from two foraging grounds with different urban and industrial development. We found similar food preferences in specimens from both areas but variable Hg levels in tissues reflecting the influence of local Hg backgrounds in food items. Some juvenile green turtles from the highly industrialized foraging ground presented liver Hg levels among the highest ever reported for this species. Our results suggest that juvenile foraging green turtles are exposed to Hg burdens from locally anthropogenic activities in coastal areas. - Highlights: • We report major diet items for foraging green turtles from northeastern Brazil. • We compare Hg levels between industrialized and relatively pristine foraging grounds. • High local Hg background levels increase Hg exposure in foraging green turtles. • Even an herbivore diet could result in high tissue Hg concentrations. - Hg levels in scutes of foraging green turtles correlated with internal Hg burdens and were influenced by local sources of pollution in two tropical foraging grounds.

  7. Social Initiatives in Food Consumption and Distribution as Part of Sustainable Consumption and Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bachnik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to extract and describe recent social initatves in food consumpton and distributon in Poland and indicate their characteristcs related to sustainable consumpton, sharing economy and collaboratve consumpton and to indicate the processes, mechanisms and future development optons. Food is among areas that seem to adapt to those ideas more easily which means that individual consumers seem to see value in behaving in a more responsible way. In Poland, social awareness is rather limited and responsible behavior happens on a minor scale for the moment, but more internatonal research shows the great potental of sharing economy. Food is being wasted therefore it consttutes a good ground for changing consumpton habits. The paper presents four chosen social initatves in Poland that refer to a sustainable consumpton philosophy and collaboratve consumpton. Those mini case studies are backed by a thorough analysis of relevant literature, theme contents on websites, and results of secondary research studies dedicated to the issues discussed in the paper. Due to the qualitatve character of the study, it shall be followed by more quanttatve research to allow for more general insights and conclusions.

  8. Successfully Changing the Landscape of Information Distribution: Extension Food Website Reaches People Locally and Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Henneman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Food website was to develop Internet-based content that was relevant and reached the general public and multiplier groups, such as educators, health professionals, and media outlets. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a multi-modal approach to information delivery through increases in and changes to content, electronic mailing list creation, and social media posting impacted user access, traffic channels, and referrals from 2010 to 2014. When comparing 2010-2011 versus 2013-2014, there was a 150% increase in total pageviews, 197% increase in unique pageviews, and a 39% increase in average time spent on a page. Since 2010, the website had over 5.2 million total pageviews, 3.1 million sessions, and 2.6 million users. In 2014, top social media referrals included Pinterest, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. Age of visitors ranged from 18 to 65+, with 45% being 18-34 years old. Approximately 70% were female. Visitors came from 229 countries/territories and 18,237 different cities. The website connects Nebraska and the world to the exciting food research and information generated at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and is playing an increasingly important role in shaping the future of food in the local and global community.

  9. Reduced metabolites of nitroaromatics are distributed in the environment via the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Numrah; Cheema, Kausar J; Powell, Glen; Bennett, Mark; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Qadri, Rashad; Yang, Yaodong; Azam, Muhammad; Rossiter, John T

    2018-05-15

    Increased industrial processes have introduced emerging toxic pollutants into the environment. Phytoremediation is considered to be a very useful, economical and ecofriendly way of controlling these pollutants, however, certain pollutants can potentially travel through the food chain and accumulate at hazardous levels. Four isomers of dinitrotoluenes (DNT) were investigated and observed their potential toxicity towards A. thaliana. Two different aphid species (generalist and specialist) were allowed to feed on plants treated with DNTs and toxicity to aphids determined. Reduced metabolites of DNT (in both plant and aphids) were recovered and quantified through GC-MS analyses. 2,6-DNT was observed to be the toxic of the DNTs tested. Complete metabolism of DNTs to their reduced products was never achieved for higher concentrations. Regioselectivity was observed in the case of 2,4-DNT, with 4A2NT as the dominant isomer. Feeding aphids showed a similar toxicity pattern for DNT isomers as host plants. Metabolites were recovered from the body of aphids, demonstrating the potential transport of metabolites through the food chain. Plants show varied toxicity responses towards the DNT isomers. Aphids fed on A. thaliana plants treated with DNTs were shown to have ANTs present, which reflects the propagation of DNT metabolites through the food chain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Limitations of Applying Rational Decision-Making Models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decision-making models as applied to child spacing and more. specificaDy to the use .... also assumes that the individual operates as a rational decision- making organism in ..... work involves: Motivation; Counselling; Distribution ofIEC mate-.

  11. COST ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS FOR THE MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION OF MULTIPLE FOOD COMMODITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Epperson, James E.; Helmreich, D.P.; Moon, Leonard C.; Carley, Dale H.; Huang, Chung L.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors make cost comparisons among alternative computerized marketing systems. The systems described could encompass any number of commodities and stages of distribution involving cash and/or futures transactions.

  12. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  13. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  14. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  15. Emotional Theory of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...

  16. On hereditarily rational functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

  17. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  18. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  19. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  20. Distribution of zooplankton and its relations to food items of fish in coral areas of Karah Island, Malaysia, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Joni, Z.M.; Kassim, Z.; Hussin, W.M.R.W.; Zakaria, M.Z.; Hajisamae, S.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of food items of coral reef fish in breeding grounds of the coastal waters of Karah Island was studied. Samples of fish were caught manually by divers using conventional fishing gears. Stomachs of fish collected were removed onboard, preserved and taken to the laboratory for the analysis of the content. Crustaceous were found to be the main food item of the fish families. The selected breeding ground appeared to be the productive stations for the studied species of fish, zooplankton and the food items. The result also shows a significant relationship between the food items in fish stomachs and zooptoankton distribution. Information on the availability and distribution of food items is important for the management of fishery resources as well as for the efficient exploitation of the species. (author)

  1. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relationship to the distributing agency's plan of operation and any other factors which may be relevant to FNS... purchase cost of land and buildings. In no event shall such funds be used to pay any portion of any... Section shall establish and maintain an effective system of fiscal control and accounting procedures. The...

  2. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the

  3. Are security analysts rational? a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Peixinho, Rúben; Coelho, Luís; Taffler, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Rational choice theory and bounded rationality constitute the basis for the discussion in several areas regarding human rationality. In finance, this discussion has been made between traditional finance and behavioural finance approach, which have different perspectives concerning market agents’ rationality. This paper reviews several studies addressing rationality among security analysts. The analysis shows that analysts’systematic optimism seems to be inconsistent with rationality....

  4. Food availability and predation risk drive the distributional patterns of two pulmonate gastropods in a mangrove-saltmarsh transitional habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yisheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Shing Yip

    2017-09-01

    The pulmonate gastropods, Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878) and Ophicardelus ornatus (Férussac, 1821), exhibit characteristic distributional patterns at the upper intertidal zones in estuarine mangrove and saltmarsh habitats on the eastern Australian coast. Past studies suggested inundation condition, soil salinity, and percent of vegetation cover were responsible for these patterns. In this study, the role of environmental parameters, food availability, physical stress, and predation pressure in determining the distributional patterns of these gastropods was evaluated along transects spanning saltmarsh, mangrove, and the ecotone habitats. For both species, the maximum population abundance occurred in the upper saltmarsh and the ecotone between mangrove and saltmarsh at 361.0 and 358.0 ind.m -2 , respectively, which was four times that of the lower saltmarsh. Mangroves were evaluated as the optimal habitat for the pulmonates in terms of the environmental parameters moisture content and food availability. However, due to its longer inundation duration within each tidal cycle, use of the mangrove habitat by the pulmonates was impeded because of difficulties in oxygen acquisition under submerged conditions. Laboratory experiments revealed the oxygen intake of the pulmonates dropped abruptly to 4.3-9.0% of aerial rates when submerged. This result indicated that mangroves were not the optimal habitat for the pulmonates. Furthermore, the visiting frequency of predators (yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis and toadfishes, Tetraodontidae) was 1.3 times higher in the mangrove compared to those in the ecotone and upper saltmarsh habitats. Underwater video recording also suggested high mortality of these gastropods at 31.7-88.9% in mangrove and 0.80-0.98 times higher than that in saltmarsh, resulting from the predators preying in the mangrove habitat during high tides. Despite the abiotic factors facilitating the distribution of the pulmonates in the mangrove, the

  5. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for Food and Beverage Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruijie

    2013-12-30

    Food and beverage plants inherently consume a large quantity of water and generate a high volume of wastewater rich in organic content. On one hand, water discharge regulations are getting more stringent over the time, necessitating the use of different technologies to reduce the amount of wastewater and improve the effluent water quality. On the other hand, growing energy and water costs are driving the plants to extract and reuse valuable energy and water from the wastewater stream. An integrated waste-tovalue system uses a combination of anaerobic digester (AD), reciprocating gas engine/boiler, membrane bioreactor (MBR), and reverse osmosis (RO) to recover valuable energy as heat and/or electricity as well as purify the water for reuse. While individual anaerobic digestion and membrane bioreactors are being used in increasing numbers, there is a growing need to integrate them together in a waste-to-value system for enhanced energy and water recovery. However, currently operation of these systems relies heavily on the plant operator to perform periodic sampling and off-line lab analysis to monitor the system performance, detect any abnormal condition due to variations in the wastewater and decide on appropriate remedial action needed. This leads to a conservative design and operation of these systems to avoid any potential upsets that can destabilize the system.

  6. Detection of irradiated food by the changes in protein molecular mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niciforovic, A.; Radojcic, M.; Milosavljevic, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The present work deals with the radiation-induced damage of proteins, which is followed by the change in the molecular mass. The phenomenon was studied on protein rich samples, i.e., chicken meat and dehydrated egg white. The radiation dose applied was in the range of the ones used for food microbial control. Chicken drumstick and chicken white meat proteins were separated according to their molecular mass. The protein profile was compared to the meat samples irradiated in the frozen state with 5 kGy at 60 Co source. In the case of chicken white meat, irradiation produces both nonselective protein scission (e.g. the amount of proteins of molecular mass larger than 30 kDa decreases, while the amount of proteins of molecular mass smaller than 30 kDa increases), and selective protein scission (e.g. appearance of a protein fragment of molecular mass equal to 18 kDa). In the case of chicken drumstick proteins the irradiation induces both the protein scission and the aggregation. The changes are nonspecific as well as specific and the generation of Mm = 18 kDa protein fragment was observed again. Irradiation of aerated dehydrated egg white proteins produces only nonselective protein scission. The results are discussed in view of the routine application of SDS-PAGE method for the detection of irradiated foodstuff

  7. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  8. Survey the Outbreak of Giardiasis Among Food Supply and Distribution Staff of South Pars Economic Zone Petrochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Niazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Giardiasis is one of the parasitic infections in the gastrointestinal tract which caused by flagellate protozoa that called giardia and it causes diarrhea. Giardia cysts defecate from infected people. These cysts can enter the body through contaminated hands, water, and food products. Diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pains, growth failure, malabsorption of carbohydrates, fats and vitamins are the giardiasis symptoms. Methods: In this study, samples were taken from 203 people that were working in different food supply and distribution centers in the South Pars petrochemical. After sampling, samples were analyzed according to standard procedures. The results of examinations were studied after verification them by laboratory chief and their related physicians. Results: Out of the whole examined people in this study, kitchen (28% and salad maker (14% centers were the maximum and minimum population, respectively. 8.87% of the total populations were infected by giardia, which salad making center had the greatest share. As well as, the rate of infectious by giardia among the administrative and dishes washing centers was the lowest. Conclusion: Education level and personal hygiene such as hand washing with a detergent can be important in reducing infection due to giardia. So, the training of workers and also periodic testing of individuals can reduce these pollutants.

  9. Distribution, bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids in the marine food web of Bohai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Han, Jianbo; Cheng, Jiayi; Sun, Ruijun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Han, Gengchen; Yang, Wenchao; He, Xin

    2018-06-04

    Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) caused great concerns recently as novel fluorinated alternatives. However, information on their bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine ecosystems is limited. In this study, 152 biological samples including invertebrates, fishes, seabirds and mammals collected from Bohai Sea of China were analyzed to investigate the residual level, spatial distribution, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Cl-PFESAs. 6:2 Cl-PFESA was found in concentrations ranging from food web, indicating biomagnification potential along the marine food chain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  11. [Maintenance ration and conversion efficiency of Hyporhamphus sajori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Tang, Q

    2001-04-01

    The maintenance ration and conversion efficiency of Japanese halfbeak, Hyporhamphus sajori were tested with enclosures installed in a shrimp raising pond. The results showed that there existed an evident relationship between daily ration(DR) and growth rate(GR) of the fish, GR = 140.37 DR - 24.03. The conversion efficiency was 13.96% in biomass or 16.12% in energy. The maintenance ration was 17.12% and 20.39% of body weight in terms of growth rate and specific growth rate, respectively, indicating that it could be deduced from growth rate quite differently from that from specific growth rate in the same experiment. The abnormal growth rate appeared when daily ration was below 3.30% of body weight, implied that Japanese halfbeak may get other food resources besides supplied net zooplankton.

  12. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

  13. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

  14. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    the dry and dry-fed plots; however, no significant difference was found between the wet and wet-fed plots. These results indicate that microhabitat in terms of increased moisture and lower temperature is the driving factor influencing beetle distribution and movement. Food alone is not as influential. ERS carabid beetles may be using lower temperatures and increased moisture as a cue for aquatic food availability.

  15. Study on the food distribution among workers of different races of the honeybee Apis mellifica L. by means of the 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloft, W.J.; Djalal, A.S.; Drescher, Wilhelm

    1976-01-01

    Using the radioactive tracer-technique, the social food distribution among workerbees of different races of the honeybee Apis mellifica L. to workerbees of Apis cerana Fabr. was studied. The experiments were carried out under standardized conditions as age, groupsize, food-supply of the donor-bee, distribution-time and temperature. Significant differences in the time required for social food distributions among workerbees of the different races were demonstrated. The highest number of acceptor-bees during 4 hours belonged to A.m.ligustica. A.m. caucasica reached similar values, A.m. carnica was intermediate, while A.m. mellifica was the slowest distributor. This foodsharing behavior was compared with other differences in the activity of different bee races

  16. Spatial Distribution of Mercury (Hg Concentration in Agricultural Soil and Its Risk Assessment on Food Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqian Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil mercury (Hg pollution in some areas of China is a serious problem and has aroused a lot of attention on a local scale. However, there are few studies on Hg pollution on a national scale. This study collected 444 published papers during 2005–2015 on Hg concentrations in agricultural soil throughout China, under seven land uses, namely: dry land, paddy field, vegetable field, tea garden, orchard, traditional Chinese medicine field and tobacco field, to assess the spatial distribution of Hg concentration and evaluate its influence on food safety. The averaged Hg concentration (0.108 mg/kg was higher than its background (0.065 mg/kg, but much lower than the guidelines (GB15618-1995 II for crop production. The spatial distribution of Hg throughout China showed great variability, with some hotspots due to Hg related mining and smelting activities. According to the Environment Quality Standard for soil in China (GB15618-1995 II, 4.2% of agricultural soil should be abandoned due to Hg pollution, and 2.0% faced a high risk of Hg pollution.

  17. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. International cooperation for rational use of energy in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers discussed the experiences of OLADE, IEA and EEC member countries in the field of rational use of energy in a number of industrial sectors, such as textiles; generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; iron and steel; non-ferrous metals; cement; and sugar. Instruments and technologies for rational use of energy in industry were also discussed as well as possibilities for international cooperation in this field.

  19. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  20. Differential Rationality and Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    This publication discusses differential rationality; it asserts that the development of institutions, professions, and individuals involves the differentiation of forms and styles of thinking and knowing that are, in various ways, idiosyncratic. Based on this understanding, differential rationality can be seen as a developmental construct that…

  1. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshi, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

  2. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

  3. Food consumption and daily feeding periodicity : comparison between pelagic and demersal whiting in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    composition and energy density of the prey and spatial distribution of the whiting, demonstrates the need for a sampling design that includes both pelagic and demersal layers when quantifying the food consumption of whiting.(C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.......Pelagic North Sea whiting Merlagius merlangus fed at night, while demersal whiting fed by day. The estimated specific daily ration ranged from 4.38 to 7.84% in 1992 and from 3.99 to 10.31% in 1993 using the in situ rate of gastric evacuation. Using Anderson's evacuation model the specific daily...... ration ranged from 0.41 to 1.66% in 1992 and from 0.78 to 1.75% in 1993. The specific daily rations were significantly different where energy density of stomach content by length class of whiting was significantly different between the two layers and years. The fact that daily ration was related to prey...

  4. The concept of rational suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D J

    1986-05-01

    Suicide has been condemned in our culture in one way or another since Augustine offered theological arguments against it in the sixth century. More recently, theological condemnation has given way to the view that suicidal behavior must always be symptomatic of emotional disturbance and mental illness. However, suicide has not always been viewed so negatively. In other times and cultures, it has been held that circumstances might befall a person in which suicide would be a perfectly rational course of action, in the same sense that any other course of action could be rational: that it could be sensible, i.e., defensible by good reasons, or that it could be in keeping with the agent's fundamental interests. Indiscriminate use of modern life-sustaining technologies has renewed interest in the possibility of rational suicide. Today proponents of rational suicide tend to equate the rationality of suicide with the competence of the decision to commit suicide.

  5. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2008-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

  6. Comparative analysis of field ration for military personnel of the ukrainian army and armies of other countries worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mardar; M. Hkrupalo; M. Stateva

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the Ukrainian nutritional standards this Article provides comparative analysis of field rations of different countries worldwide to make a proposal on improvement of food-stuff assortment in food ration for military personnel in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Army of USA, the British Army, Army of Germany, Army of Italy, Army of Canada, Army of France, Army of Belarus, Army of Armenia. In accordance with the comparative analysis it was established that ration c...

  7. The Ecological Rationality of State-Dependent Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. M.; Trimmer, P. C.; Houston, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory studies on a range of animals have identified a bias that seems to violate basic principles of rational behavior: A preference is shown for feeding options that previously provided food when reserves were low, even though another option had been found to give the same reward with less delay. The bias presents a challenge to normative…

  8. [Rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, A

    2006-12-01

    Every body speaks about inappropriate use of medicines and each one gives his own explanation. Politicians are telling about the waste of medicines and the money of their national budget. Citizens are saying that the physicians prescribe more than necessary for treatment and blame them as one part of the financial burden weighting on their family budget. Physicians give different explanation and think that the rational use of medicines is a sort of pressure to limit their freedom to prescribe what it seems to them necessary and better for their patients. Pharmacists dispensing medicines consider the prescription as a physician's prerogative and prefer to stay neutral in this debate. Within this large range of opinions, it is difficult to find general consensus, so that every body take care to not declare his proper opinion about the subject, the causes and the adequate solutions. Finally no changes take place in this issue. However, neither the government as responsible for the citizen's health, nor the health professionals and international organisations, are facing their complete obligations toward the populations by ensuring to them that the medicines are administered according to the health need of the patients, efficacious and safe , in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lower cost, and be secured against misuse by the pharmacist before the delivery to the patients. This is a worthwhile programme, but unfortunately without designate takers or promoters until now.

  9. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  10. Plural rationalities and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.; Thompson, M.

    1989-01-01

    Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)

  11. Alternative Disaster Feeding Ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    most immediate need is the physiological nutritional requirements for survival: water and food. According to Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs , this...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden...academic research and how its results can make a difference developing policy which affects people in need , who might also be someone I know or love. I

  12. Rational consensus under uncertainty: Expert judgment in the EC-USNRC uncertainty study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.; Kraan, B.; Goossens, L.

    1999-01-01

    Governmental bodies are confronted with the problem of achieving rational consensus in the face of substantial uncertainties. The area of accident consequence management for nuclear power plants affords a good example. Decisions with regard to evacuation, decontamination, and food bans must be taken on the basis of predictions of environmental transport of radioactive material, contamination through the food chain, cancer induction, and the like. These predictions use mathematical models containing scores of uncertain parameters. Decision makers want to take, and want to be perceived to take, these decisions in a rational manner. The question is, how can this be accomplished in the face of large uncertainties? Indeed, the very presence of uncertainty poses a threat to rational consensus. Decision makers will necessarily base their actions on the judgments of experts. The experts, however, will not agree among themselves, as otherwise we would not speak of large uncertainties. Any given expert's viewpoint will be favorable to the interests of some stakeholders, and hostile to the interests of others. If a decision maker bases his/her actions on the views of one single expert, then (s)he is invariably open to charges of partiality toward the interests favored by this viewpoint. An appeal to 'impartial' or 'disinterested' experts will fail for two reasons. First, experts have interests; they have jobs, mortgages and professional reputations. Second, even if expert interests could somehow be quarantined, even then the experts would disagree. Expert disagreement is not explained by diverging interests, and consensus cannot be reached by shielding the decision process from expert interests. If rational consensus requires expert agreement, then rational consensus is simply not possible in the face of uncertainty. If rational consensus under uncertainty is to be achieved, then evidently the views of a diverse set of experts must be taken into account. The question is how

  13. Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of

  14. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  15. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

  16. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

  17. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  18. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  19. Rational-Emotive Staff Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)

  20. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  1. Management between Rationality and Irrationality

    OpenAIRE

    Cene Bavec

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss theoretical and practical aspects of management and its rational and irrational behavior in the light of traditional management theories and contemporary social theories and theories of complexity. We exposed differences between middle and top management, where rationality is ascribed mainly to middle management, while top management often acts on seemingly irrational way. For the part of this irrationality, we cannot blame management because it originates from the na...

  2. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  3. [Rationalization, rationing, prioritization: terminology and ethical approaches to the allocation of limited resources in hematology/oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The field of oncology with its numerous high-priced innovations contributes considerably to the fact that medical progress is expensive. Additionally, due to the demographic changes and the increasing life expectancy, a growing number of cancer patients want to profit from this progress. Since resources are limited also in the health system, the fair distribution of the available resources urgently needs to be addressed. Dealing with scarcity is a typical problem in the domain of justice theory; therefore, this article first discusses different strategies to manage limited resources: rationalization, rationing, and prioritization. It then presents substantive as well as procedural criteria that assist in the just distribution of effective health benefits. There are various strategies to reduce the utilization of limited resources: Rationalization means that efficiency reserves are being exhausted; by means of rationing, effective health benefits are withheld due to cost considerations. Rationing can occur implicitly and thus covertly, e.g. through budgeting or the implementation of waiting periods, or explicitly, through transparent rules or policies about healthcare coverage. Ranking medical treatments according to their importance (prioritization) is often a prerequisite for rationing decisions. In terms of requirements of justice, both procedural and substantive criteria (e.g. equality, urgency, benefit) are relevant for the acceptance and quality of a decision to limit access to effective health benefits. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

    1990-01-01

    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  5. 137Cs content in the ration of rural population of regions with increased nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the ration of rural population of arctic regions and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. The peculiarity of the nitrition structure of the population in the North is a relatively large contribution of deer meat in the ration. The main amount of 137 Cs contribution with other food stuffs and drinking water in the ration of population of this area does not exceed 10 %. The main supplier of 137 Cs in the ration of population of woodlands is milk which constitutes 70 %. The second place is taken by potatoes. The role and significance of separate food stuffs as 137 Cs suppliers in the ration in the zones with increased migration can be different; the leading role in this process is played by natural factors

  6. Food assistance is associated with improved body mass index, food security and attendance at clinic in an HIV program in central Haiti: a prospective observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivers Louise C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available to guide programmatic solutions to the overlapping problems of undernutrition and HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of food assistance on patient outcomes in a comprehensive HIV program in central Haiti in a prospective observational cohort study. Methods Adults with HIV infection were eligible for monthly food rations if they had any one of: tuberculosis, body mass index (BMI 2, CD4 cell count 3 (in the prior 3 months or severe socio-economic conditions. A total of 600 individuals (300 eligible and 300 ineligible for food assistance were interviewed before rations were distributed, at 6 months and at 12 months. Data collected included demographics, BMI and food insecurity score (range 0 - 20. Results At 6- and 12-month time-points, 488 and 340 subjects were eligible for analysis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that at 6 months, food security significantly improved in those who received food assistance versus who did not (-3.55 vs -0.16; P Conclusions Food assistance was associated with improved food security, increased BMI, and improved adherence to clinic visits at 6 and 12 months among people living with HIV in Haiti and should be part of routine care where HIV and food insecurity overlap.

  7. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

  8. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  9. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  10. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  11. Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour

    OpenAIRE

    Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...

  12. Potential risk and sodium content of children's ready-to-eat foods distributed at major amusement parks in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eat foods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eat foods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eat foods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eat foods from Korean amusement parks.

  13. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

  14. Implicit Statistical Learning in Real-World Environments Leads to Ecologically Rational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Sonja; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    2018-01-01

    Ecological rationality results from matching decision strategies to appropriate environmental structures, but how does the matching happen? We propose that people learn the statistical structure of the environment through observation and use this learned structure to guide ecologically rational behavior. We tested this hypothesis in the context of organic foods. In Study 1, we found that products from healthful food categories are more likely to be organic than products from nonhealthful food categories. In Study 2, we found that consumers' perceptions of the healthfulness and prevalence of organic products in many food categories are accurate. Finally, in Study 3, we found that people perceive organic products as more healthful than nonorganic products when the statistical structure justifies this inference. Our findings suggest that people believe organic foods are more healthful than nonorganic foods and use an organic-food cue to guide their behavior because organic foods are, on average, 30% more healthful.

  15. Empirical study of the GARCH model with rational errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting Ting; Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    We use the GARCH model with a fat-tailed error distribution described by a rational function and apply it to stock price data on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. To determine the model parameters we perform Bayesian inference to the model. Bayesian inference is implemented by the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm with an adaptive multi-dimensional Student's t-proposal density. In order to compare our model with the GARCH model with the standard normal errors, we calculate the information criteria AIC and DIC, and find that both criteria favor the GARCH model with a rational error distribution. We also calculate the accuracy of the volatility by using the realized volatility and find that a good accuracy is obtained for the GARCH model with a rational error distribution. Thus we conclude that the GARCH model with a rational error distribution is superior to the GARCH model with the normal errors and it can be used as an alternative GARCH model to those with other fat-tailed distributions

  16. Prevalence and distribution of sensitization to foods in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a EuroPrevall analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burney, P.; Summers, C.; Chinn, S.; Hooper, R.; van Ree, R.; Lidholm, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reports of adverse reactions to foods are increasing, but there is limited information on the comparative prevalence of sensitization to food allergens using standardized methods. Methods: Sera from the 'random sample' of young adults seen during the second phase of the European

  17. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-11-01

    Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  19. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  20. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  2. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  3. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  4. Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2002-01-01

    Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  5. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  6. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  7. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  8. APPLICATION OF INTERFIRM NETWORKS CONCEPTS IN THE RETAIL SECTION: AN APPLICATION OF THE BROKER CONCEPTS AND OPERATORS LOGISTICS IN DISTRIBUTING COMPANIES OF FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesinaldo Ataíde Cândido

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of main the practical ones adopted for the organizations in the current environment business-oriented and of management has been the application of the principles of nets, based in the concepts of the partnership, the association and the co-operation. The experiences of this new type of practical of management have been successful in diverse economic sectors, creating better conditions for the attainment of competitive advantages. In this work, a study is made to see the possibility of application in the sector of food distribution, inside of the new perspectives of the supply management and the logistic one. In this direction, the work makes a diagnosis of the retail sector, verifying the possibilities of the application of the principles of nets in a together operating company to the representation sector and food distribution, from a process of strategic change, considering a management model based in the concepts of brokers and logistic operator, which they substitute and/or they incorporate the diverse involved agents with the food distribution, which are: the commercial representative, the deliverer and the wholesaler. Key words: competitiveness, network organizational, chain of supply.

  9. Ración alimentaria: asuntos de biopolítica en la escuela colombiana de principios del siglo XX. // Food ration: issues of biopolitics in Colombian school early twentieth century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Herrera Beltrán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES Nos adentramos en las relaciones entre la escuela, la infancia y la sociedad, mediadas por prácticas alimentarias que se producen en forma de políticas educativas y sociales, cuyo propósito se inscribe en el gobierno de la población, en la pretensión de mostrar las distintas formas de emergencia y las fuerzas que las impulsan y las sitúan en la agenda global fuertemente ligada a la escuela. Quisimos hacer visibles ciertas prácticas alimentarias, así como mostrar el valor que fueron tomando los alimentos en la perspectiva higiénica, la importancia de los lugares creados en la escuela como las cantinas, la cooperativa y las tiendas escolares. // (EN We enter into relationships among school, children and society, mediated by food practices that occur in the form of educational and social policies, whose purpose is part of the population government, on the pretense of showing the different forms of emergency and the forces that impulse and place them on the global agenda strongly linked to school. We wanted to make visible certain dietary practices as well as to show the value was taken by food in hygienic perspective, the importance of places created at school as canteens, cooperative and school shops.

  10. Trophic structure and mercury distribution in a Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) food web using stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Raphael A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Rail, Jean-Francois; Braune, Birgit M.; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Hill, Laura G.; Lean, David R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Even at low concentrations in the environment, mercury has the potential to biomagnify in food chains and reaches levels of concern in apex predators. The aim of this study was to relate the transfer of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a Gulf of St. Lawrence food web to the trophic structure, from primary consumers to seabirds, using stable nitrogen (δ 15 N) and carbon (δ 13 C) isotope analysis and physical environmental parameters. The energy reaching upper trophic level species was principally derived from pelagic primary production, with particulate organic matter (POM) at the base of the food chain. We developed a biomagnification factor (BMF) taking into account the various prey items consumed by a given predator using stable isotope mixing models. This BMF provides a more realistic estimation than when using a single prey. Lipid content, body weight, trophic level and benthic connection explained 77.4 and 80.7% of the variation in THg and MeHg concentrations, respectively in this food web. When other values were held constant, relationships with lipid and benthic connection were negative whereas relationships with trophic level and body weight were positive. Total Hg and MeHg biomagnified in this food web with biomagnification power values (slope of the relationship with δ 15 N) of 0.170 and 0.235, respectively on wet weight and 0.134 and 0.201, respectively on dry weight. Values of biomagnification power were greater for pelagic and benthopelagic species compared to benthic species whereas the opposite trend was observed for levels at the base of the food chain. This suggests that Hg would be readily bioavailable to organisms at the base of the benthic food chain, but trophic transfer would be more efficient in each trophic level of pelagic and benthopelagic food chains.

  11. Optimal public rationing and price response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  13. Rational Suicide among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Derek

    1992-01-01

    Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)

  14. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  15. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  16. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  17. Rational Development of Addiction Pharmacotherapies: Successes, Failures, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Pierce, R.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kenny, Paul J.; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently effective, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid addiction. In some cases these therapeutics were rationally designed and tested using a combination of various animal models of addiction. In many cases, however, effective drug therapies for addiction were derived from the testing of compounds developed for other CNS disorders (e.g., analgesics and antidepressants), which were tested clinically in the absence of prior a...

  18. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  19. Delicious Dinner or Ruined Ration?

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A question for long-duration human presence and performance in space is: has the food shelf-life expired? Food for long-duration manned missions will require...

  20. Comparative analysis of field ration for military personnel of the ukrainian army and armies of other countries worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improvement of the Ukrainian nutritional standards this Article provides comparative analysis of field rations of different countries worldwide to make a proposal on improvement of food-stuff assortment in food ration for military personnel in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Army of USA, the British Army, Army of Germany, Army of Italy, Army of Canada, Army of France, Army of Belarus, Army of Armenia. In accordance with the comparative analysis it was established that ration composition used for the Armed Forces of Ukraine military personnel lags behind developed countries of the world both in nutrition arrangement and in nutrient composition, especially in relation to assortment and variety of ration food-stuff. Moreover, a field ration is strictly unified and doesn’t consider individual needs of military personnel in calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, food fibers. Selection of individual field ration takes to account only age of military personnel, i. e. individual needs related to nutrition composition such as physical abilities, level of physical activity, gender, type of occupation before military conscription and etc. are not consideredThe obtained results confirms practicability of assortment products assortment included to field rations for the purpose to correct nutrition rations towards optimal balance for military efficiency of army, adaptation of military personnel to physical and psychological loads.

  1. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  2. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  3. Modelling of coupled heat and electric field distribution during ohmic heating of solid foods with varying sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Bøknæs, Niels; Nielsen, P.L.

    factors leading to variations and uncertainties in prediction of the right process parameters. The current work is focused on modelling of OH of solid food pieces of varying sizes cooked in one batch. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during OH of shrimps has been...

  4. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten

  5. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L

    2011-04-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  6. Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...

  7. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  8. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  9. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  10. Electricity rationing and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha; Soares, Lacir Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  11. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

  12. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...

  13. Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)

  14. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  15. Temporal growth and spatial distribution of the fast food industry and its relationship with economic development in China - 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Qu, Weidong; Wang, Youfa

    2017-09-01

    The fast food (FF) industry has expanded rapidly in China during the past two decades, in parallel with an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Using government-reported longitudinal data from 21 provinces and cities in China, this study examined the growth over time and the spatial distribution patterns of the FF industry as well as the key social economic factors involved. We visualized the temporal and geographic distributions of FF industry development and conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal spatial analysis to assess associations between macroeconomic conditions, population dynamics, and the growth and distributional changes of the industry. It grew faster in the southeast coastal (more economically developed) areas since 2005 than in other regions. The industry was: 1) highly correlated with Gross Domestic Product; 2) highly correlated with per capita disposable income for urban residents; 3) moderately correlated with urban population; and 4) not correlated with an increase of population size. The mean center of the FF industry shifted westward as the mean center of the GDP moved in the same direction, while the mean center of the population shifted eastward. The results suggest that the rapid FF industry expansion in China was closely associated with economic growth and that improving the food environment should be a major component in local economic development planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  17. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  18. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Bradley A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

  19. Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Walter R.

    This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…

  20. Information Transmission and Rational Inattention

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tutino

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...

  1. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  2. Kant on empiricism and rationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...

  3. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  4. Vertical distribution and in situ feeding of marine particle-grazers in relation to their food, the microplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napp, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A cruise was completed to measure the vertical distributions of plant biomass, growth, size and species composition, nutritional content and the zooplankton biomass and species composition. There were no consistent differences in the size spectra of particles between the regions of highest plant biomass and highest growth rates. Species known to be noxious or distasteful to the zooplankton were not members of either assemblage. The nutritional content of the particulate matter was greatest at the plant biomass maximum. Thus there was no evidence that the region of higher plant growth rates was a better place for zooplankton to feed. The diurnal distribution of zooplankton biomass was not consistently related to the vertical distributions of plant biomass, primary productivity, or productivity/chlorophyll. At night, the vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass was consistently related to the vertical distribution of plant biomass. There were species whose vertical distributions were consistently related to either the vertical distribution of plant biomass or productivity/chlorophyll a but not primary productivity, contrary to the observations of others. The total grazing pressure, measured in situ with a new design of grazing chamber and an isotopic carrier which labels the particulate matter day and night, indicated that the daily production of plant carbon was much greater than its rate of removal by the grazers. Thus, it is not necessary for the grazer biomass maximum to be located above the chlorophyll a maximum in order for that feature to persist

  5. Microbiological Findings in Ready-to-Eat and Precooked Food Distributed in Public Catering Halls in Cagliari Province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, Silvana; Sabiu, Rosangela; Tedde, Tiziana; Cocco, Enrica; Pitzalis, Gabriella; Meli, Clara; Cogoni, Maria Paola

    2014-08-28

    During this research 159 samples of ready-to-eat and precooked food were examined for the detection of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , Escherichia coli , coagulase-positive staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae , bacterial count. All samples were negative for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes ; although a low count of coagulase-positive staphylococci (no. 5 samples) and E. coli (no. 3) was found. We proceeded with the identification of the isolates on every sample with high, moderate and low-count of Enterobacteriaceae , to better understand the microbial ecology. The Enterobacteriaceae species most frequently detected were Pantoea spp. (29.62%), Enterobacter cloacae (20.37%) and Serratia liquefaciens (12.96%); other different species of Enterobacteriaceae were detected with a ready-to-eat and precooked food, to proceed with the identification of every microorganism.

  6. Suitability of a Freeze Dried Product as a Vehicle for Vitamin Fortification of Military Ration Packs: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fresh food is not practical. Australian CRP comprise a range of individual food items assembled into packages of sufficient quantity and variety to...stored at 37 °C/12month 100% Fruit grains, Fruit spread ≥ 90% Baked beans, Chocolate ration Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) ≥ 50% Retort pouched meals...75% Retort pouched meals, Noodles, instant Vitamin E > 50% Chocolate, ration > 30% Cheese, processed, cheddar > 50% Scotch-finger biscuit Vitamin A

  7. Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... in food aid beneficiary populations and to guide the formulation of food aid products, this ... In some cases, food aid rations provide insufficient quantity and quality of ... studies found documenting the nutritional status of non-emergency food aid recipients.

  8. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  10. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  11. Institutionalized Ignorance as a Precondition for Rational Risk Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the lowest organizational level, where concrete risks occur, to the highest organizational level, where the body of professional risk expertise is situated. The article emphasizes the role of knowledge, responsibility, loyalty, and trust as risk-attenuation factors and concludes by suggesting......The present case study seeks to explain the conditions for experts’ rational risk perception by analyzing the institutional contexts that constitute a field of food safety expertise in Denmark. The study highlights the role of risk reporting and how contextual factors affect risk reporting from...... that the preconditions for the expert's rationality may rather be a lack of risk-specific knowledge due to poor risk reporting than a superior level of risk knowledge....

  12. Interactive effects of temperature, food and skeletal mineralogy mediate biological responses to ocean acidification in a widely distributed bryozoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Daniel S; Bean, Jessica R; Ninokawa, Aaron T; Hill, Tessa M; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric

    2017-04-26

    Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata ) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), temperature and food concentrations. High CO 2 and cold temperature induced degeneration of zooids in colonies. However, colonies still maintained high growth efficiencies under these adverse conditions, indicating a compensatory trade-off whereby colonies degenerate more zooids under stress, redirecting energy to the growth and maintenance of new zooids. Low-food concentration and elevated temperatures also had interactive effects on skeletal mineralogy, resulting in skeletal calcite with higher concentrations of magnesium, which readily dissolved under high CO 2 For taxa that weakly regulate skeletal magnesium concentration, skeletal dissolution may be a more widespread phenomenon than is currently documented and is a growing concern as oceans continue to warm and acidify. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Immediate Feedback on Accuracy and Performance: The Effects of Wireless Technology on Food Safety Tracking at a Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wireless ring scanners, which provided immediate auditory and visual feedback, were evaluated to increase the performance and accuracy of order selectors at a meat distribution center. The scanners not only increased performance and accuracy compared to paper pick sheets, but were also instrumental in immediate and accurate data…

  14. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  15. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  16. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  17. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Procedural Rationality in the Decision-Making of Internationalizing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said; Narooz, Rose

    This paper contributes to the growing body of empirical work on how SME decision-makers decide to internationalize in two ways: first, it responds to recent calls for incorporating strategic decision-making literature into understanding SME internationalization decisions. Second, it provides a be...... a more rational decision-making procedure when they perceive a high level of international risk. The evidence also suggest that internationalization performance, planned internationalization, credit check, and decision team size are positively related to procedural rationality....... a better understanding of under what circumstances, SME decision-makers tend to follow a more rational approach toward internationalization decisions. Specifically, this paper examines a set of contextual variables (the level of perceived international risk, internationalization performance, planned versus...... ad hoc internationalization, credit check, distribution adaptation, and decision team size) and their influence on the extent of procedural rationality in SME internationalization decision-making process. The findings from a sample of 176 export-active SMEs show that decision-makers tend to follow...

  19. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  20. Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...

  1. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  2. Rational Drug Use of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Sahingoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they

  3. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-29

    survival in a competitive environment , and a minority of rational individuals can sometimes impose rationality on the whole market. Third, the...intuitive appeal of the axioms of rational choice makes it plausible that the theory derived from these axioms should provide an acceptable account of choice...rn-use U? RATIONAL CHOICE AMD THE FINNING OF KCISIOUS(U mi/ STANFORD UNIV CR A TYERSEY ET AL. 29 NAYN4-S4-K-S61SWICLASS IF lED FO 5/10S IL EEEEEEEE

  4. Rationality in Machiavelli and in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Chaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains interpretation and comparative analysis of Machiavelli’s and Kant’s conceptions on rationality as two prime examples of “realist” and “idealist” modes of agency. Kantian model of rationality is viewed as an augmentation of the Machiavellian one, not an opposition to it. To elaborate the point, Robert Aumann’s model of act-rationality and rulerationality is applied to the two philosophical models. Kantian practical reason is interpreted as an addition to Aumann’s instrumental rationality, providing rules for rules, or “rule-rule-rationality”.

  5. Molecular characterization of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in Schizothorax prenanti: cloning, tissue distribution and role in food intake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Yuan, Dengyue; Zhou, Chaowei; Lin, Fangjun; Wei, Rongbin; Chen, Hu; Wu, Hongwei; Xin, Zhiming; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Chen, Defang; Yang, Shiyong; Wang, Yan; Pu, Yundan; Li, Zhiqiong

    2016-06-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a crucial neuropeptide involved in various biological functions in both mammals and fish. In this study, the full-length MCH cDNA was obtained from Schizothorax prenanti by rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction. The full-length MCH cDNA contained 589 nucleotides including an open reading frame of 375 nucleotides encoding 256 amino acids. MCH mRNA was highly expressed in the brain by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Within the brain, expression of MCH mRNA was preponderantly detected in the hypothalamus. In addition, the MCH mRNA expression in the S. prenanti hypothalamus of fed group was significantly decreased compared with the fasted group at 1 and 3 h post-feeding, respectively. Furthermore, the MCH gene expression presented significant increase in the hypothalamus of fasted group compared with the fed group during long-term fasting. After re-feeding, there was a dramatic decrease in MCH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of S. prenanti. The results indicate that the expression of MCH is affected by feeding status. Taken together, our results suggest that MCH may be involved in food intake regulation in S. prenanti.

  6. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  7. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  8. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  9. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  10. Rational consumption of nutrients at school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, F.; Lupu, V. V.; Pallag, A.; Barz, C.; Fodor, K.

    2017-05-01

    Nutrition lies at the basis of life being a factor of permanent action by which the individual, respectively small or large communities have ensured their survival in relation to the environment. Food represents a natural component which provides the energy and the vitality of the body and helps preserve people’s health and welfare. Rational nutrition is closely related to the physical and mental development of the young persons, to the adults’ work capacity, to the maintaining, as long as possible, of the elderly’s health condition, to the prevention of some acute and/or chronic diseases.

  11. Saqayti: For greater rationalization of tapstand water supplies Une meilleure rationalisation de la distribution d’eau grâce aux Saqaytis Saqayti para racionalizar la utilización de los puntos de abastecimiento de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hascoet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, considerable progress has been made in connecting users to water and sanitation. However, some households, particularly in urban and surrounding areas, currently cannot be given an individual connection to the drinking water network due to a lack of equipment and/or financial reasons. To ensure that they have access to this essential service, these households are generally supplied by means of communal tapstands (CTs where water is made available to them free of charges by the local authorities. While these open access CTs provide a temporary connection solution, they do not enable the resource to be optimally managed nor equitably shared. Free and open access to all has lead to over-consumption, wastage, and use of the resource by consumers outside the intended beneficiary group. This results in heavy costs for the municipalities concerned and jeopardizes the sustainability of the utility. In response to this situation, and in accordance with the recommendations of the international community and of civil society, a new type of tapstand “Saqayti” has been developed to distribute prepaid water to beneficiaries in Rabat, Tangier and Tetouan. Saqaytis allow for targeted distribution of the utility to the intended beneficiaries as they are accessible by means of a chip card distributed to users on a case-by-case basis by the municipal authority. These users benefit from free access to the tapstand up to a monthly limit equivalent to their basic needs. This paper aims at demonstrating how Saqayti has shown itself to be an innovative addition to the provision of individual utility connections, providing the poorest with access to a water and sanitation service which meets international standards of quality, and fulfills a threefold goal of economic, social and environmental progress.Au Maroc, l’accès à l’eau et à l’assainissement a connu des progrès considérables au cours des dix dernières années. Cependant certains

  12. Is It Rational to Assume that Infants Imitate Rationally? A Theoretical Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that preverbal infants evaluate the efficiency of others' actions (by applying a "principle of rational action") and that they imitate others' actions rationally. The present contribution presents a conceptual analysis of the claim that preverbal infants imitate rationally. It shows that this ability rests on at least three…

  13. Etude numérique et expérimentale des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques. Influence et comportement de l'aération de l'huile Numerical and Experimental Study of Valvetrains Equipped with Hydraulic Lash Adjusters. Influence and Behaviour of Oil Aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un code numérique de simulation des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques a été développé. Le code est basé sur trois sous-modèles couplés : mécanique, hydraulique et physique. Le premier étudie la distribution comme un assemblage masses ressorts, le deuxième étudie le poussoir comme un organe hydraulique à part entière et le dernier permet d'étudier l'aération de l'huile et en particulier les phénomènes de dissolution. Une validation expérimentale a été menée sur un banc culasse alimenté par une huile mélangée à de l'air en proportions mesurées. L'instrumentation permettait de mesurer l'accélération de la tête de soupape, son déplacement au voisinage du siège et la force entre poussoir et soupape. Cette validation a montré que la simulation reflétait bien la réalité, notamment en ce qui concerne les effets de l'aération. A model of valvetrain equipped with a direct acting hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA is presented. As it is the cause of many problems, a possible aeration is taken into account. The main model is made of three submodels:1. The first one is a mechanical one with masses, springs and dampers and needs the cam laws and the pressure of the chamber of the HLA as data. 2. The second submodel is an hydraulic one. It studies the HLA chamber through the check valve flows, the leakage flow and the mechanical strains on the chamber oil. This submodel gives the chamber pressure to the first submodel. 3. The third submodel is a physical one and evaluates the instantaneous amount of air present in the chamber oil. It takes into account the arrival of new bubbles through the check valve and the mass exchanges (diffusion, dissolution between the bubbles and the oil bulk. This amount of air has a direct influence on the chamber pressure calculation made in the second submodel. Experimental validation of the model was conducted on an engine head. This engine head was feeded by an oil circuit in which

  14. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  15. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  16. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, John

    2017-01-01

    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  17. Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven A.

    Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…

  18. Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...

  19. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  20. Should Teachers Be Taught to Be Rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Robert E.; Feiman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Teacher education programs have long attempted to teach students to follow a rational mode of thinking. Recent research on teacher thinking has shown that a gap exists between how teachers think and the rational model. Such research should be used to give teacher educators insight into how their students think and learn. (JN)

  1. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  2. RATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS TO GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under weak restrictions on the various free parameters, general theorems for rational representations of the generalized hypergeometric functions...and certain Meijer G-functions are developed. Upon specialization, these theorems yield a sequency of rational approximations which converge to the

  3. The rational maps Fλ(z)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that the rational maps in the family {z → zm +λ/zd : λ ∈ C\\{0}} for integers m, d ≥ 2 ... The problem of the existence of Herman rings of a rational map has been studied by. Lyubich in [9] ..... Surveys 41(4) (1986) 35–95. [10] Milnor J ...

  4. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  5. Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  6. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  7. Argumentation, rationality, and psychology of reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their descriptive accuracy of our cognitive capacities. In response, I propose an activity-based account of reasoning which retains the assumptions of argumentative rationality while recontextualizing the relationship between reasoning as a justificatory activity and the psychological states and processes underlying that activity.

  8. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  9. Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.

  10. Spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the exotic Newcastle outbreak in 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberano, Gustavo; Carpenter, A Tim E; Cardona, Carol; Charlton, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    After the 1971-1973 outbreak of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in California, a free-of-charge diagnostic submission program was created for backyard poultry flocks. This program was implemented to improve disease surveillance in small poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the END outbreak in 2002-2003. Cases and controls were selected from within a 100-mile (161-km) radius of each of three laboratories, and their geographic distributions were evaluated. Global clustering of cases was significant around all three laboratories, with mixed results at the local clustering level and the only significant clustering at the focal level around the Davis laboratory with an observed to expected ratio of approximately 5. The area of influence for all three laboratories was about 20 miles (32 km). The significant clustering of cases around the laboratories indicates that more public information about the free-of-charge program could result in coverage of a larger portion of the population; however, the value of the information resulting from increased sampling should be considered relative to the additional cost of obtaining it.

  11. DYNAMICS OF MAIN PROFITABILITY INDICATORS IN DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY EL CASIO COM SRL-SLOBOZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu MUNTEANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The return of distribution companies is related to the performance of activity based management, which can be expressed through a system of indicators reflecting their activity. This paper aims to analyse the company EL CASIO COM SRL Slobozia, active in the distribution field of food and agricultural products in Ialomita and Calarasi counties. We analysed the economic indicators between 1999-2009 from which resulted the main elements influencing the company’s revenue and profitability. The analysed period revealed that the break-even was achieved in 2003 with 5 employees, a revenue of 1899, 16 thousand lei whereas the expenses amounted 1732 thousand lei and labour productivity was set at 379, 8 thousand lei/ worker. The resulted trend after presenting and interpreting the exponential function Y=3,862·X10,5480866·X 21,239971is given based on the changes of income level (Y, from the factors of influence, represented by the amount of equity (x 1 and labour used (x 2. The multiple correlation ratios (rx 1x 2 = 0, 9505, confirm the influence intensity of the two factors upon the trends in revenue growth. As result we can see trends in revenue growth with amplification factors of influence

  12. Ethics of rationing of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2016-09-21

    Rationing of various needed services, for example, nursing care, is inevitable due to unlimited needs and limited resources. Rationing of nursing care is considered an ethical issue since it requires judgment about potential conflicts between personal and professional values. The present research sought to explore aspects of rationing nursing care in Iran. This study applied qualitative content analysis, a method to explore people's perceptions of everyday life phenomena and interpret the subjective content of text data. Data collection was performed through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with open-ended questions. The study population included Iranian nurses of all nursing positions, from clinical nurses to nurse managers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 15 female and 3 male nurses (11 clinical nurses, 3 supervisors, 1 matron, 1 nurse, and 2 members of the Nursing Council) working in hospitals of three cities in Iran. The study protocol was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (91D1302870). Written informed consent was also obtained from all participants. According to the participants, rationing of nursing care consisted of two categories, that is, causes of rationing and consequences of rationing. The first category comprised three subcategories, namely, patient needs and demands, routinism, and VIP patients. The three subcategories forming the second category were missed nursing care, patient dissatisfaction, and nurses' feeling of guilt. Levels at which healthcare practices are rationed and clarity of the rationing are important structural considerations in the development of an equal, appropriate, and ethical healthcare system. Moreover, the procedure of rationing is critical as it not only influences people's lives but also reflects the values that dominate in the society. Therefore, in order to minimize the negative consequences of rationing of nursing care, further studies on the ethical dimensions of this phenomenon

  13. From receptor balance to rational glucocorticoid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, E Ron

    2014-08-01

    Corticosteroids secreted as end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis act like a double-edged sword in the brain. The hormones coordinate appraisal processes and decision making during the initial phase of a stressful experience and promote subsequently cognitive performance underlying the management of stress adaptation. This action exerted by the steroids on the initiation and termination of the stress response is mediated by 2 related receptor systems: mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). The receptor types are unevenly distributed but colocalized in abundance in neurons of the limbic brain to enable these complementary hormone actions. This contribution starts from a historical perspective with the observation that phasic occupancy of GR during ultradian rhythmicity is needed to maintain responsiveness to corticosteroids. Then, during stress, initially MR activation enhances excitability of limbic networks that are engaged in appraisal and emotion regulation. Next, the rising hormone concentration occupies GR, resulting in reallocation of energy to limbic-cortical circuits with a role in behavioral adaptation and memory storage. Upon MR:GR imbalance, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs, which can enhance an individual's vulnerability. Imbalance is characteristic for chronic stress experience and depression but also occurs during exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids. Hence, glucocorticoid psychopathology may develop in susceptible individuals because of suppression of ultradian/circadian rhythmicity and depletion of endogenous corticosterone from brain MR. This knowledge generated from testing the balance hypothesis can be translated to a rational glucocorticoid therapy.

  14. Local, organic food initiatives and their potentials for transforming the conventional food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Lieblein

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de discuter l’importance des initiatives locales dans la distribution de produits biologiques. Le sujet est abordé d’une part en fonction de la relation entre ce type d’initiatives et le système agroalimentaire conventionnel et d’autre part en fonction de la possibilité du développement d’un système agroalimentaire plus durable. Basé sur trois études scandinaves, concernant des produits biologiques en Norvège et au Danemark, cet article souligne le fait que les différents acteurs intreviewés jouent à la fois sur le tableau du local et du biologique et sur le tableau du conventionnel. En dépit de différences structurelles distinctes, les deux systèmes, et les conventions qui leur sont rattachées, s’influencent mutuellement. Afin de mettre au point une agriculture plus durable, il semble donc important de mettre en valeur le fondement global de l’agriculture écologique, qui repose non seulement sur des valeurs biologiques et locales, mais encore sur des aspects économiques, sociaux et culturels qui doivent être pris en considération.The aim of this article is to discuss the importance of local initiatives for distribution of organic food. This subject is discussed both in relation to how such initiatives may affect the overall conventional food system and the possible implications for development of a more sustainable food system. The article is based on findings from three different cases of local, organic food in Norway and Denmark. We found that actors within the cases are both involved with local, organic food initiatives and at the same time part of the overall conventional food system. Even though there are distinctive structural differences between these distribution systems, they mutually affect each other. This means that conventions normally associated with local, organic food systems may ‘rub off’ to the conventional food system and vice versa. In order to develop

  15. How People in Okinawa Relate to Saury and Salmon: Regional Characteristics in the Diffusion, Distribution, and Consumption of Food

    OpenAIRE

    林, 紀代美

    2013-01-01

    本研究は,沖縄県を対象として,当該地域の漁業活動で対象とされていない魚種の流通・消費を取り上げて,地域の食卓への普及過程とその背景,販売・消費活動の展開や地域的特徴を明らかにすることを目的とする.遠洋漁業用餌のサンマの一部が1950年代末から食用に転用され,1960年代には琉球の業者が食用商材を本土から集荷を開始していた.日本への復帰を契機に,本土の業者も流通に参入し,本格的にサンマ商材が扱われるようになった.今日では生・生鮮品の販売も普及している.沖縄の食習慣や社会・経済的条件の影響を受けて,本土とは異なるサンマの販売形態や調理・消費動向が確認された. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diffusion process and background to regional meals, the creation of sale-consumption activity, and regional characteristics focusing on the distribution and consumptio...

  16. Bioaccumulation of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a typical freshwater food web contaminated by e-waste in south china: Bioaccumulation factors, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Tang, Bin; Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Yu; Mai, Bixian

    2017-03-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem. SCCPs were detected in all of the investigated aquatic species at concentrations of 1700-95,000 ng/g lipid weight. The calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) varied from 2.46 to 3.49. The relationship between log BAF and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log K OW ) for benthopelagic omnivorous fish species followed the empirical model of bioconcentration, indicating that bioconcentration plays an important role in accumulation of SCCPs. In contrast, the relationship for the benthic carnivorous fish and invertebrates was not consistent with the empirical model of bioconcentration, implying that the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in these species could be more influenced by other complex factors (e.g., habitat and feeding habit). Preferential distribution in the liver rather than in other tissues (e.g., muscle, gills, skin, and kidneys) was noted for the SCCP congeners with higher log K OW , and bioaccumulation pathway (i.e. water or sediment) can affect the tissue distribution of SCCP congeners. SCCPs underwent trophic dilution in the aquatic food web, and the trophic magnification factor (TMF) values of SCCP congener groups significantly correlated with their corresponding log K OW values (p < 0.0001). The present study results improved our understanding on the environmental behavior and fate of SCCPs in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Definition of rational antiepileptic polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B J; Homan, R W

    1996-01-01

    Rational polypharmacy is in its earliest stages of development and will require substantial additional development to realize its full potential. Indeed, despite the powerful appeal of the concept, clinical proof is not yet available that RP is superior to monotherapy. Important questions need to be addressed: 1. Will RP control seizures more effectively than monotherapy? 2. What data are needed to develop RP for a specific patient? 3. Will RP be cost effective? 4. Can RP be developed which will treat or prevent epilepsy while controlling seizures? Possible approaches to these questions could include: 1. The development of a data base for prospective use to monitor patients being treated at Epilepsy Centers using RP principles. 2. Use the data obtained from the above to construct more specific studies to compare identified combination therapies with monotherapy. 3. Prospectively compare in a placebo controlled, blinded study, the effect of the combination of an anti-ictal medication and a laboratory proven antiepileptic drug for prevention of the development of epilepsy in an at risk population such as head trauma or stroke.

  18. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  19. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  20. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the North Korean government, which controls food distribution, has denied the World Food Program full access to the food distribution chain and has not provided required reports on food use...

  1. Regional distribution of nitrogen fertilizer use and N-saving potential for improvement of food production and nitrogen use efficiency in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Cai, Dianxiong; Hoogmoed, Willem B; Oenema, Oene

    2011-08-30

    An apparently large disparity still exists between developed and developing countries in historical trends of the amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers consumed, and the same situation holds true in China. The situation of either N overuse or underuse has become one of the major limiting factors in agricultural production and economic development in China. The issue of food security in N-poor regions has been given the greatest attention internationally. Balanced and appropriate use of N fertilizer for enriching soil fertility is an effective step in preventing soil degradation, ensuring food security, and further contributing to poverty alleviation and rural economic development in the N-poor regions. Based on the China Statistical Yearbook (2007), there could be scope for improvement of N use efficiency (NUE) in N-rich regions by reducing N fertilizer input to an optimal level (≤180 kg N ha(-1)), and also potential for increasing yield in the N-poor regions by further increasing N fertilizer supply (up to 116 kg N ha(-1)). For the N-rich regions, the average estimated potential of N saving and NUE increase could be about 15% and 23%, respectively, while for the N-poor regions the average estimated potential for yield increase could be 21% on a regional scale, when N input is increased by 13%. The study suggests that to achieve the goals of regional yield improvement, it is necessary to readjust and optimize regional distribution of N fertilizer use between the N-poor and N-rich regions in China, in combination with other nutrient management practices. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  3. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  4. Rationalization of imports, refineries and distribution of petroleum in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga-Alba, E.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum products currently provide 69% of commercial energy requirements in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), or 21% of total primary energy consumption, including fuelwoods used for household energy needs - a proportion that will increase with the process of modernization in these economies and with the growing difficulties they are experiencing in financing projects for alternative commercial energy sources. In macro-economic terms, securing reliable and cheap petroleum product supplies is of vital importance for maintaining a sustainable level of economic growth. Petroleum products are an important tax base, contributing to nearly 40% of the fiscal revenues in Sub-Saharan countries. With the exceptions of Nigeria, Congo, Cameroon, Angola and Gabon, SSA countries are net importers of oil, devoting on average a third of their hard currency earnings to these imports. There is no other region in the world than SSA - with the lowest GDP per capita - that dependence on oil imports has become such a dominant factor in the macroeconomic calculus. The vulnerability of these economies, most of which depend heavily on donor financing for a large portion of their foreign exchange, can be directly assessed by understanding their increasing difficulty in assuring petroleum supplies. The use of petroleum products in SSA remains largely confined to the transport sector and to the existing light industry. Gasoline, jetfuel and diesel represent more than 2/3rds of the total petroleum consumption. The supply of households, which account for the largest portion of primary energy needs, is still based on fuelwoods and is growing beyond sustainable levels, posing an increasing threat to the environment. To respond to the deforestation problem and to facilitate the transition to more environmentally sound supply systems, African countries need to assess their capacity and means to increase their use of LPGs and other modern household fuels. 6 tabs

  5. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  6. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Arieli

    2008-01-01

    R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

  7. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Oualhadj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.

  8. Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...

  9. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-10-01

    Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people "should" or "ought to" make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision-making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence-based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision-making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret-based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta-rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is "rational" behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context-poor situations, such as policy decision-making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision-making, whereas in the context

  10. Milk Production, Physiological Condition and Performance of Etawa Crossbreed Goats Feed by Ration Supplemented with Mangosteen Peel Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzarnisa; Rachmadi, D.; Azhar, A.; Fakhrur Riza, R.; Hidayati, A.

    2018-02-01

    Study on the effect of the addition of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel flour on physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats was done. This was to grant the use of mangosteen peel flour that rich of antioxidants and has variety good benefits for health as feed additive for cattle. This study used a Complete Randomized Block Design consisting of 4 treatment groups and 4 replications each. Subjects were 16 female Etawa crossbreed goats randomly designed into treatments group based on lactation periods. Subjects were feed with traditional rations (control, A), traditional rations and 2.5% mangosteen peel flour (B), tradition rations and 5% mangosteen peel flour (C), and traditional rations and 7,5 % mangosteen peel flour (D). Data on performance (milk production) and physiological condition (respiratory frequency, rectal temperature, and heart rate) obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the addition of mangosteen peel flour as food additive in the rations resulted in variations in the milk production, physiological condition (rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration frequency) and performances (daily weigh gain, food consumption, ration conversion and breast volume) of Etawa crossbreed goats, but significant effect was only observed in the respiration frequency. The addition of 2.5% mangosteen peel flour in the ration caused the best, expected effects on milk production physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats.

  11. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children malnutrition affects fewer children but is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Supplementary feeding programs aim to treat moderate acute malnutrition and prevent the deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. The aim was to compare recovery rates of children with moderate acute malnutrition in supplementary feeding programs by using the newly recommended ration of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  12. The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement motivation of students. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on Students Achievement Motivation.

  13. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  14. A survey of food bank operations in five Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Dachner, Naomi; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Ostry, Aleck; Williams, Patricia; Bosckei, Elietha; Poland, Blake; Raine, Kim

    2014-11-28

    Food banks have emerged in response to growing food insecurity among low-income groups in many affluent nations, but their ability to manage this problem is questionable. In Canada, in the absence of public programs and policy interventions, food banks are the only source of immediate assistance for households struggling to meet food needs, but there are many indications that this response is insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that facilitate and limit food bank operations in five Canadian cities and appraise the potential of these initiatives to meet food needs. An inventory of charitable food provisioning in Halifax, Quebec City, Toronto, Edmonton, and Victoria, Canada was conducted in 2010. Of the 517 agencies that participated in a telephone survey of their operations, 340 were running grocery programs. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between program characteristics, volume of service, and indicators of strain in food banks' abilities to consistently achieve the standards of assistance they had established. Extensive, well-established food bank activities were charted in each city, with the numbers of people assisted ranging from 7,111 in Halifax to 90,141 in Toronto per month. Seventy-two percent of agencies indicated that clients needed more food than they provided. The number of people served by any one agency in the course of a month was positively associated with the proportion of food distributed that came from donations (beta 0.0143, SE 0.0024, p 0.0041) and the number of volunteers working in the agency (beta 0.0630, SE 0.0159, p 0.0167). Food banks only achieved equilibrium between supply and demand when they contained demand through restrictions on client access. When access to assistance was less restricted, the odds of food banks running out of food and invoking measures to ration remaining supplies and restrict access rose significantly. Despite their extensive history

  15. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision‐making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people “should” or “ought to” make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision‐making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence‐based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision‐making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret‐based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta‐rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is “rational” behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context‐poor situations, such as policy decision‐making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision

  16. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jun; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches

  17. Towards a classification of rational Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Ganchev, A.; Vecsernyes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Rational Hopf algebras, i.e. certain quasitriangular weak quasi-Hopf *-algebras, are expected to describe the quantum symmetry of rational field theories. In this paper methods are developed which allow for a classification of all rational Hopf algebras that are compatible with some prescribed set of fusion rules. The algebras are parametrized by the solutions of the square, pentagon and hexagon identities. As examples, we classify all solutions for fusion rules with not more than three sectors, as well as for the level three affine A 1 (1) fusion rules. We also establish several general properties of rational Hopf algebras and present a graphical description of the coassociator in terms of labelled tetrahedra. The latter construction allows to make contact with conformal field theory fusing matrices and with invariants of three-manifolds and topological lattice field theory. (orig.)

  18. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...

  19. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  20. Pandemic ventilator rationing and appeals processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

    2011-06-01

    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans.

  1. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  2. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  3. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  4. Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)

  5. Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...

  6. Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Zhong He; Lei Shi

    2008-01-01

    As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, ...

  7. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  8. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  9. Local Foods and Food Cooperatives: Ethics, Economics and Competition Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.; Woods, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer interest in locally produced foods marketed through local food networks has been increasing. Local food networks utilize local supply chains such as direct market sales to consumers through CSAs, farmers markets, farm stands, and other alternative outlets. Our goal is to examine the role of food cooperatives in strengthening the local food networks and distributing locally produced products. We utilize data from a national study which includes case studies with three leading food co-...

  10. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in suspended load, sediment, primary producers, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, in a deltaic lagoon habitat in the Tabasco coast, with the aim to assess the potential ecological risk in that important wetland. Zn showed the highest concentrations, e.g., in suspended load (mean of 159.58 mg kg"−"1) and aquatic consumers (15.43–171.71 mg kg"−"1), particularly Brachyura larvae and ichthyoplankton (112.22–171.71 mg kg"−"1), followed by omnivore Callinectes sp. crabs (113.81–128.07 mg kg"−"1). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Zn were observed for planktivore and omnivore crustaceans (3.06–3.08). Zn showed a pattern of distribution in the food web through two pathways: the pelagic (where the higher concentrations were found), and the benthic (marsh plants, sediment, mollusk, fish). The other heavy metals had lower occurrences in the food web. Nevertheless, high concentrations of Ni and Cr were found in phytoplankton and sediment (37.62–119.97 mg kg"−"1), and V in epiphytes (68.64 mg kg"−"1). Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations in sediments surpassed international and national threshold values, and Cd entailed a “considerable” potential risk. These heavy metals are most likely transferred into the food web up to fishes through the benthic pathway. Most of the collected fishes are residents in this type of habitat and have commercial importance. Our results show that the total potential ecological risk in the area can be considered as “moderate”. Nevertheless, heavy metal values were similar or surpassed the values from other highly industrialized tropical coastal regions

  11. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  12. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  13. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  14. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  15. Effective Entrepreneurial Choice: The Role of Rationality and Non-Rationality in Three Entrepreneurs Success Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Anne Michele, Siang Yoon

    2007-01-01

    Good entrepreneurship is important for economic growth and productivity in any modern economy. The purpose of this dissertation is to research how good entrepreneurial decisions are made. In theory, optimal or rational decision making means choosing the best alternative in response to the problem. However, in reality, people do not act rationally because they often cannot make rational choices. The reason is that people do not have enough brain power, time or resources to process the compl...

  16. Lying for Strategic Advantage: Rational and Boundedly Rational Misrepresentation of Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Vincent P.

    2001-01-01

    Starting from Hendricks and McAfee's (2000) example of the Allies' decision to feint at Calais and attack at Normandy on D-Day, this paper models misrepresentation of intentions to competitors or enemies. Allowing for the possibility of bounded strategic rationality and rational players' responses to it yields a sensible account of lying via costless, noiseless messages. In many cases the model has generically unique pure-strategy sequential equilibria, in which rational players exploit bound...

  17. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  18. Approximation by rational functions as processing method, analysis and transformation of neutron data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaj, E.V.; Badikov, S.A.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    Possible applications of rational functions in the analysis of neutron cross sections, angular distributions and neutron constants generation are described. Results of investigations made in this direction, which have been obtained after the preceding conference in Kiev, are presented: the method of simultaneous treatment of several cross sections for one compound nucleus in the resonance range; the use of the Pade approximation for elastically scattered neutron angular distribution approximation; obtaining of subgroup constants on the basis of rational approximation of cross section functional dependence on dilution cross section; the first experience in function approximation by two variables

  19. Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, Bart

    2007-01-01

    I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a rational individual is motivated to serve his self-interest on the basis of cost-benefit calculations. Such a Homo Economicus is ch...

  20. The effect of .temperature on the rate of passage of food in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -abundance of food and, on the other hand, starvation. Methods. Laboratory. In the laboratory ... which prevented the loss of faecal pellets or food organisms. Larger fish ..... Daily ration can be estimated from the fresh weight ofthe gut contents ...

  1. Maintaining nutritional adequacy during a prolonged food crisis. [Basic foods for post-nuclear attack use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.B.; Kearny, C.H.

    1979-08-01

    This handbook is the first to assemble nutritional information and make recommendations on the efficient use of unprocessed grains, beans, and other elemental foods during the aftermath of a nuclear war. These basic foods would constitute the main resources to combat famine after a major nuclear attack. Such an attack would reduce and probably eliminate most commercial food processing for many months. To decision makers, this handbook should prove useful on basic aspects of nutrition in a long-term survival situation. These decision makers might range from the heads of families to government officials. Recommendations for nutrition given by organizations experienced in crisis feeding are reviewed and compared. Based on the best nutritional information available, emergency dietary recommendations are made for minimum and intermediate goals. The emergency dietary recommendations are applied to food for practical survival rations. Long-term survival rations for Americans are evaluated. These rations are (1) ten single-food rations; (2) four cereal-legume rations, ratio 4:1; (3) four cereal-legume rations, ratio 8:1; and (4) four cereal-legume-dry milk rations. The 22 different survival rations are detailed and summarized in 20 tables which list their nutritional adequacies and deficiences. Expedient procedures are given by which basic foods may be processed and cooked to provide a more healthful diet than most Americans believe possible. Special attention is given to the requirements of infants, children, and pregnant or lactating women. The eleven appendixes provide a wealth of specialized information. Among these appendixes is one that summarizes new and improved expedient methods for removing radioactive fallout and other contaminants from water. Another appendix is a comprehensive account of ways to sprout seeds to produce vitamins and improve palatability. (ERB)

  2. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation

    1999-12-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  3. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  4. Dynamics of market structure driven by the degree of consumer’s rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Tatsuo; Onozaki, Tamotsu

    2010-03-01

    We study a simple model of market share dynamics with boundedly rational consumers and firms interacting with each other. As the number of consumers is large, we employ a statistical description to represent firms’ distribution of consumer share, which is characterized by a single parameter representing how rationally the mass of consumers pursue higher utility. As the boundedly rational firm does not know the shape of demand function it faces, it revises production and price so as to raise its profit with the aid of a simple reinforcement learning rule. Simulation results show that (1) three phases of market structure, i.e. the uniform share phase, the oligopolistic phase, and the monopolistic phase, appear depending upon how rational consumers are, and (2) in an oligopolistic phase, the market share distribution of firms follows Zipf’s law and the growth-rate distribution of firms follows Gibrat’s law, and (3) an oligopolistic phase is the best state of market in terms of consumers’ utility but brings the minimum profit to the firms because of severe competition based on the moderate rationality of consumers.

  5. A rational workflow for sequential virtual screening of chemical libraries on searching for new tyrosinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Casanola-Martín, Gerardo M; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Rescigno, Antonio; Abad, Concepcion; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosinase is a bifunctional, copper-containing enzyme widely distributed in the phylogenetic tree. This enzyme is involved in the production of melanin and some other pigments in humans, animals and plants, including skin pigmentations in mammals, and browning process in plants and vegetables. Therefore, enzyme inhibitors has been under the attention of the scientist community, due to its broad applications in food, cosmetic, agricultural and medicinal fields, to avoid the undesirable effects of abnormal melanin overproduction. However, the research of novel chemical with antityrosinase activity demands the use of more efficient tools to speed up the tyrosinase inhibitors discovery process. This chapter is focused in the different components of a predictive modeling workflow for the identification and prioritization of potential new compounds with activity against the tyrosinase enzyme. In this case, two structure chemical libraries Spectrum Collection and Drugbank are used in this attempt to combine different virtual screening data mining techniques, in a sequential manner helping to avoid the usually expensive and time consuming traditional methods. Some of the sequential steps summarize here comprise the use of drug-likeness filters, similarity searching, classification and potency QSAR multiclassifier systems, modeling molecular interactions systems, and similarity/diversity analysis. Finally, the methodologies showed here provide a rational workflow for virtual screening hit analysis and selection as a promissory drug discovery strategy for use in target identification phase.

  6. Effectiveness of community-based complementary food supplement (Yingyangbao distribution in children aged 6-23 months in poor areas in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation.Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6-23 months for 18 months. Representative children were selected by probability proportional to size sampling methods to assess compliance of YYB and the intervention efficacy. A questionnaire was designed to collect data on basic characteristics of children, breastfeeding, 24-hour dietary intake, and consumption and appetite of YYB. Anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field, and anemia prevalence was evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12-35 months to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children's anemia.Of the children involved in the follow-up survey (n = 693, the P50 (P25, P75 intake of YYB was 6.7 (3.5, 7.0 sachets weekly, and 54.7% of the children liked the taste of YYB. Compared with the baseline situation (n = 823, the proportion of children fed a diverse diet and foods rich in iron or vitamin A increased (P < 0.01 in the follow-up study. The prevalence of stunting and underweight decreased (P < 0.05, the prevalence of anemia decreased from 28.0% to 19.9% (P < 0.01, and the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 26.8% to 15.4% (P < 0.01. For children aged 12-23 months, those who liked YYB and consumed 6 or more sachets of YYB weekly were at lower risk for anemia (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.90, P < 0.05, but the risk of stunting was associated

  7. Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)

  8. Consumers' food choice and quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Grunert, Klaus G.

    to which the topic has been researched at MAPP. As a general framework for analysing consumer quality perception and choice of food products, MAPP has developed the Total Food Quality Model, which will be used to structure this overview. We start by presenting the Total Food Quality Model and an overview......There is a long tradition of research into consumers' food choice and quality perception. In the last few years, however, these topics have received even more attention due to the intense debate about such issues as ethical considerations in relation to food production and quality, food scandals...... and the resulting food scares among consumers, genetic modification of foods, and animal welfare (or, rather, non-welfare), which has made questions regarding food quality and consumers' supposedly rational or irrational food choices even more urgent. Increased interest in health and quality stands in stark...

  9. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bügel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may cause problems in changing the food based on single constituents or attributes when applying the concept of functional food to organic food production. Claims of the influence of the food positively on health can only be accepted as true when the claims have been tested and then validated by the EU-Commission. Whereas functional food focuses on product comparison based on specific constituents or attributes, organic food as a whole has no placebo for comparison and effects on environment and society are not part of the health claim regulation. Therefore it seems rather difficult to establish the health claims of organic foods. Consumers buy organic food out of an emotional attitude and associate the food with naturalness. In contrast, the decision for buying functional food is related to rationality and consumers associate functional food with a more technological approach. For this reason, the authors conclude that the concept of functional food seems not to support organic food production in Europe.

  10. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component invento...... of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program.......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  11. Information, power, and social rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of institutional structures on economic and political processes and on the results of such processes is a central economics and political-science problem. This study adopts the recent fundamental information economics thesis which maintains that unevenly distributed information has a negative effect on politico-economic systems and that the corresponding individual and collective countermeasures are keys to the structures and characteristics of economic and political institutions. The theoretical part presents some relatively simple game theory models to elucidate the basic problems caused by unevenly distributed information in politico-economic systems. The empirical part is dedicated to an international comparative analysis of nuclear energy policies in the United States, in Great Britain, France, and in Germany. The results obtained reveal that the information economics approach explains the way in which the different institutional arrangements have influenced the policies and their results in the respective countries. The last chapter classifies the theoretical and empirical results by some further theoretical political-science, sociological and economic approaches. Points of contact with and differences between combined federalistic, neo-corporate, bureaucratic-politics and technocratic approaches are discussed. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Korea from 2003 to 2016: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunbawui Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne illnesses in Korea, either directly or indirectly, by consuming infected seafood. Many studies have demonstrated the antibiotic susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus. This strain has developed multiple antibiotic resistance, which has raised serious public health and economic concerns. This article reviews the food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of V. parahaemolyticus in Korea during 2003–2016. Main body V. parahaemolyticus infections appeared to be seasonally dependent, because 69.7% of patient infections occurred in both August and September during 2003–2016. In addition, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in marine environments varies seasonally but is particularly high in July, August, and September. V. parahaemolyticus isolated from aquaculture sources on the Korean coast varied in association with virulence genes, some did not possess either the tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin or trh (tdh-related hemolysin genes, and a few were positive for only the trh gene or both genes. The high percentage of ampicillin resistance against V. parahaemolyticus in the aquatic environment suggests that ampicillin cannot be used to effectively treat infections caused by this organism. Short conclusion This study shows that the observed high percentage of multiple antibiotic resistance to V. parahaemolyticus is due to conventionally used antibiotics. Therefore, monitoring the antimicrobial resistance patterns at a national level and other solutions are needed to control aquaculture infections, ensure seafood safety, and avoid threats to public health caused by massive misuse of antibiotics.

  13. Laccase engineering: from rational design to directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Diana M; Alcalde, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases considered by many in the biotechonology field as the ultimate "green catalysts". This is mainly due to their broad substrate specificity and relative autonomy (they use molecular oxygen from air as an electron acceptor and they only produce water as by-product), making them suitable for a wide array of applications: biofuel production, bioremediation, organic synthesis, pulp biobleaching, textiles, the beverage and food industries, biosensor and biofuel cell development. Since the beginning of the 21st century, specific features of bacterial and fungal laccases have been exhaustively adapted in order to reach the industrial demands for high catalytic activity and stability in conjunction with reduced production cost. Among the goals established for laccase engineering, heterologous functional expression, improved activity and thermostability, tolerance to non-natural media (organic solvents, ionic liquids, physiological fluids) and resistance to different types of inhibitors are all challenges that have been met, while obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of laccase structure-function relationships. In this review we examine the most significant advances in this exciting research area in which rational, semi-rational and directed evolution approaches have been employed to ultimately convert laccases into high value-added biocatalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Rationalization and rationing at the bedside. A normative and empirical status quo analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D

    2014-02-01

    The topic of bedside rationing is increasingly discussed in Germany. Further need for clarification exists for the question how bedside rationing (e.g., in the area of overcare) can be justified despite coexistent inefficiencies. This paper outlines and analyses the relationship of waste avoidance and rationing from an ethical perspective. Empirical findings regarding the status quo of bedside rationing and rationalization are presented. These normative and empirical explorations will then be further specified regarding opportunities for future physician-driven activities to tackle overuse. The self-government partners in Germany should communicate more explicitly within their communities and to the public how and with which benchmarks they aim to reduce inefficient health care (overuse) in an appropriate manner. Physician-driven activities such as the "Choosing Wisely®" initiative in the USA could provide a first step to raise the awareness for overuse among physicians as well as in the public.

  15. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    our common understanding of reason and rationality? To adopt rational expectations about the world, after all, should we not attempt to avoid the emotional over-determination of our assessments? I show that applied reason is conceptually entangled with this superstitious optimism in the continued...... of retro-causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against...... successes of technology. The article thus reveals a curious sense in which reason is intrinsically superstitious. I offer an evolutionary explanation for this, showing that the biological origins of reason will by nature tend to produce rational agents which are superstitiously bound to realism...

  16. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  17. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  18. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  19. Starlings uphold principles of economic rationality for delay and probability of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Tiago; Vasconcelos, Marco; Kacelnik, Alex

    2013-04-07

    Rationality principles are the bedrock of normative theories of decision-making in biology and microeconomics, but whereas in microeconomics, consistent choice underlies the notion of utility; in biology, the assumption of consistent selective pressures justifies modelling decision mechanisms as if they were designed to maximize fitness. In either case, violations of consistency contradict expectations and attract theoretical interest. Reported violations of rationality in non-humans include intransitivity (i.e. circular preferences) and lack of independence of irrelevant alternatives (changes in relative preference between options when embedded in different choice sets), but the extent to which these observations truly represent breaches of rationality is debatable. We tested both principles with starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), training subjects either with five options differing in food delay (exp. 1) or with six options differing in reward probability (exp. 2), before letting them choose repeatedly one option out of several binary and trinary sets of options. The starlings conformed to economic rationality on both tests, showing strong stochastic transitivity and no violation of the independence principle. These results endorse the rational choice and optimality approaches used in behavioural ecology, and highlight the need for functional and mechanistic enquiring when apparent violations of such principles are observed.

  20. Rationality and Emotions in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is traditionally viewed as a rational process where reason calculates the best way to achieve the goal. Investigations from different areas of cognitive science have shown that human decisions and actions are much more influenced by intuition and emotional responses then it was previously thought. In this paper I examine the role of emotion in decision making, particularly Damasio’s hypothesis of somatic markers and Green’s dual process theory of moral judgment. I conclude the paper with the discussion of the threat that deliberation and conscious rationality is an illusion.

  1. Rationality and drug use: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Serge; Lohéac, Youenn; Rinaudo, Stéphane

    2007-05-01

    In rational addiction theory, higher discount rates encourage drug use. We test this hypothesis in the general framework of rationality and behaviour under risk. We do so using an experimental design with real monetary incentives. The decisions of 34 drug addicts are compared with those of a control group. The decisions of drug users (DU) are not any less consistent with standard theories of behaviour over time and under risk. Further, there is no difference in the estimated discount rate between drug users and the control group, but the former do appear to be more risk-seeking.

  2. Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...

  3. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...

  4. Were Neanderthals Rational? A Stoic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Whiting

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the philosophical approach of Stoicism as the basis for re-examining the cognitive and ethical relationship between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Stoicism sets out a clear criterion for the special moral status of human beings, namely rationality. We explore to what extent Neanderthals were sufficiently rational to be considered “human”. Recent findings in the fields of palaeoanthropology and palaeogenetics show that Neanderthals possessed high-level cognitive abilities and produced viable offspring with anatomically modern humans. Our discussion offers insights for reflecting on the relationship between humans and other forms of natural life and any moral obligations that result.

  5. Rational homotopy theory and differential forms

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented.  New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu

  6. Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.

  7. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  8. Models of bounded rationality under certainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area. Theory Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify

  9. Suicide: rationality and responsibility for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Angela Onkay

    2014-03-01

    Death by suicide is widely held as an undesirable outcome. Most Western countries place emphasis on patient autonomy, a concept of controversy in relation to suicide. This paper explores the tensions between patients' rights and many societies' overarching desire to prevent suicide, while clarifying the relations between mental disorders, mental capacity, and rational suicide. A literature search was conducted using search terms of suicide and ethics in the PubMed and LexisNexis Academic databases. Article titles and abstracts were reviewed and deemed relevant if the paper addressed topics of rational suicide, patient autonomy or rights, or responsibility for life. Further articles were found from reference lists and by suggestion from preliminary reviewers of this paper. Suicidal behaviour in a person cannot be reliably predicted, yet various associations and organizations have developed standards of care for managing patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour. The responsibility for preventing suicide tends to be placed on the treating clinician. In cases where a person is capable of making treatment decisions--uninfluenced by any mental disorder--there is growing interest in the concept of rational suicide. There is much debate about whether suicide can ever be rational. Designating suicide as an undesirable event that should never occur raises the debate of who is responsible for one's life and runs the risk of erroneously attributing blame for suicide. While upholding patient rights of autonomy in psychiatric care is laudable, cases of suicidality warrant a delicate consideration of clinical judgment, duty of care, and legal obligations.

  10. Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We

  11. [Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlícek, J

    1993-11-08

    Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.

  12. Parity, Incomparability and Rationally Justified Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of a rationally justified choice between two options neither of which is better than the other while they are not equally good either (‘3NT’). Joseph Raz regards such options as incomparable and argues that reason cannot guide the choice between them. Ruth

  13. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  14. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  15. Viagra: : A success story for rationing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.; Sturm, H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing

  16. Confucianism and Critical Rationalism: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    According to Karl Popper's critical rationalism, criticism is the only way we have of systematically detecting and learning from our mistakes so as to get nearer to the truth. Meanwhile, it is arguable that the emphasis of Confucianism on creating a hierarchical and harmonious society can easily lead to submission rather than opposition, producing…

  17. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  18. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  19. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  20. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  1. The Assessment of Rational Thinking: IQ ? RQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that distinguishing between rationality and intelligence helps explain how people can be, at the same time, intelligent and irrational (Stanovich, 2009). As such, researchers need to study separately the individual differences in cognitive skills that underlie intelligence and the individual differences in…

  2. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  3. Effecting attitudinal change towards rational drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T; Natu, M V

    1995-01-01

    Attitudes of 40 interns towards rational drug use (RDU) were assessed, using a standardized Likert type scale. The assessment was repeated after 4 months to evaluate the effect of usual working conditions of the hospital. After this period, the attitudes had slided towards negative side (p attitudes of test group returned towards positive side (p attitudes.

  4. Rationalizing Cooperation: Moroccan Craft, Politics, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Claire

    2018-01-01

    State attempts to rationalize Moroccan craft education reflect the ambivalent status of traditional knowledge in a modern economy. Female artisans, recently organized as a cooperative, navigate this ambivalence in a weaving "theory" class and in their "occupation" of the cooperative structure itself. During performances of…

  5. CREDIT RATIONING AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    have the negative effect of stifling the growth of potential firms, thereby .... credit market may explain the credit rationing behaviour of banks to ... derive policy implications to enhance access to bank credit by SMEs. 4. ..... The main challenges to SMEs identified by the study were non-payment of outstanding ... This decision is.

  6. The quantum symmetry of rational field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1993-12-01

    The quantum symmetry of a rational quantum field theory is a finite-dimensional multi-matrix algebra. Its representation category, which determines the fusion rules and braid group representations of superselection sectors, is a braided monoidal C*-category. Various properties of such algebraic structures are described, and some ideas concerning the classification programme are outlined. (orig.)

  7. More Than the Ten Rational Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1980-01-01

    The 10 rational processes (which include recalling and imagining, classifying and generalizing, comparing and evaluating, analyzing and synthesizing, and deducting and inferring) are examined from a cultural and historical perspective, with particular emphasis on the suprarational aspects of creative thinking. A three stage model for facilitating…

  8. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nicolas Kaufmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

  9. On A System of Rational Difference Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Din Qamar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study local asymptotic stability, global character and periodic nature of solutions of the system of rational difference equations given by xn+1= , yn=, n=0, 1,…, where the parameters a; b; c; d; e; f ∊ (0; ∞), and with initial conditions x0; y0 ∊ (0; ∞). Some numerical examples are given to illustrate our results.

  10. Teachers\\' practical rationality of mathematics teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mathematics teaching as a practice and the way that teachers learn in such a practice. Conversations during interviews with the teachers in the sample indicate that SchoÈn\\'s notion of reflection-in-action is a key to understanding how teachers use their practical rationality as they try to understand nuanced meanings of the

  11. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  12. The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. Barry

    1976-01-01

    The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of…

  13. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  15. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  16. Medicine, ethics and religion: rational or irrational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R D; Genesen, L B

    1998-12-01

    Savulescu maintains that our paper, which encourages clinicians to honour requests for "inappropriate treatment" is prejudicial to his atheistic beliefs, and therefore wrong. In this paper we clarify and expand on our ideas, and respond to his assertion that medicine, ethics and atheism are objective, rational and true, while religion is irrational and false.

  17. A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan

    1980-01-01

    A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function...

  18. Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...

  19. Travel time variability and rational inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...

  20. Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.

  1. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  2. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  3. [Historical development of vaccines. Introduction: Hazards and rationality in the vaccinal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, A M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the one hundred years of vaccination that has passed since Louis Pasteur first coined this generic term. According to the late Jonas Salk, vaccinology is a science encompassing all aspects of vaccine from its conception in the laboratory to its production by companies and its application and distribution in the field. In this historical survey I explore how vaccination never consisted of a simple and uniform application of a rational model, but rather diverged along various pathways, several of which were discarded in retrospect as being hazardous, and I analyse the ongoing interplay between rational and inventive thinking.

  4. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    and producers. Northern European consumers are among the most environmentally concerned consumers, however, their concerns do not always translate in more sustainable food-related behaviours. Furthermore, food choices are not always rational and could be non-reflective. Hence, the objective of this pilot study......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate...

  5. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  6. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  7. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  8. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, B.; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    open access article Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings fromThe Great Rationality Debate from t...

  9. Solving the Rational Polynomial Coefficients Based on L Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Li, X.; Yue, T.; Huang, W.; He, C.; Huang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model is a generalized sensor model, which can achieve high approximation accuracy. And it is widely used in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. Least square method is usually used to determine the optimal parameter solution of the rational function model. However the distribution of control points is not uniform or the model is over-parameterized, which leads to the singularity of the coefficient matrix of the normal equation. So the normal equation becomes ill conditioned equation. The obtained solutions are extremely unstable and even wrong. The Tikhonov regularization can effectively improve and solve the ill conditioned equation. In this paper, we calculate pathological equations by regularization method, and determine the regularization parameters by L curve. The results of the experiments on aerial format photos show that the accuracy of the first-order RPC with the equal denominators has the highest accuracy. The high order RPC model is not necessary in the processing of dealing with frame images, as the RPC model and the projective model are almost the same. The result shows that the first-order RPC model is basically consistent with the strict sensor model of photogrammetry. Orthorectification results both the firstorder RPC model and Camera Model (ERDAS9.2 platform) are similar to each other, and the maximum residuals of X and Y are 0.8174 feet and 0.9272 feet respectively. This result shows that RPC model can be used in the aerial photographic compensation replacement sensor model.

  10. Nurses' work environments, care rationing, job outcomes, and quality of care on neonatal units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Christian M; Clarke, Sean P

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationship between work environment characteristics and neonatal intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of care rationing, job outcomes, and quality of care. International evidence suggests that attention to work environments might improve nurse recruitment and retention, and the quality of care. However, comparatively little attention has been given to neonatal care, a specialty where patient and nurse outcomes are potentially quite sensitive to problems with staffing and work environments. Over a 6-month period in 2007-2008, a questionnaire containing measures of work environment characteristics, nursing care rationing, job satisfaction, burnout and quality of care was distributed to 553 nurses in all neonatal intensive care units in the province of Quebec (Canada). A total of 339 nurses (61.3%) completed questionnaires. Overall, 18.6% were dissatisfied with their job, 35.7% showed high emotional exhaustion, and 19.2% rated the quality of care on their unit as fair or poor. Care activities most frequently rationed because of insufficient time were discharge planning, parental support and teaching, and comfort care. In multivariate analyses, higher work environment ratings were related to lower likelihood of reporting rationing and burnout, and better ratings of quality of care and job satisfaction. Additional research on the determinants of nurse outcomes, the quality of patient care, and the impact of rationing of nursing care on patient outcomes in neonatal intensive care units is required. The Neonatal Extent of Work Rationing Instrument appears to be a useful tool for monitoring the extent of rationing of nursing care in neonatal units. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Environmental risk, precaution, and scientific rationality in the context of WTO/NAFTA trade rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Pauwelyn, Joost; Smith, Kelly

    2004-04-01

    This article considers the role of scientific rationality in understanding statements of risk produced by a scientific community. An argument is advanced that, while scientific rationality does impose constraints on valid scientific justifications for restrictions on products and practices, it also provides flexibility in the judgments needed to both develop and apply characterizations of risk. The implications of this flexibility for the understanding of risk estimates in WTO and NAFTA deliberations are explored, with the goal of finding an intermediate ground between the view that science unambiguously justifies or rejects a policy, and the view that science is yet another cultural tool that can be manipulated in support of any decision. The result is a proposal for a dialogical view of scientific rationality in which risk estimates are depicted as confidence distributions that follow from a structured dialogue of scientific panels focused on judgments of evidence, evidential reasoning, and epistemic analysis.

  12. Rural Dwellers' Knowledge of Nutrition and their Food Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Food is the main source of good nutrition and we eat food to supply us with .... Table 3: Distribution of Respondents on Frequency of Food Consumption. Food Groups. F. (%). Never. F. (%) ..... they alone cannot solve the problem of malnutrition.

  13. Characteristics of enterotoxin distribution, hemolysis, lecithinase, and starch hydrolysis of Bacillus cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental microbe implicated as a main cause of food poisoning with various symptoms, depending on the strain type and the isolation source. In this study, the potential virulence factors and biochemical properties of B. cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were analyzed and compared. A total of 347 B. cereus strains were isolated and identified from 687 infant food formulas and RTE food samples. All the isolates had one or more enterotoxin genes, and one-half of the strains had all 3 enterotoxin genes (hbl, nhe, and cytK) that are involved in food poisoning in humans. Here, all the 3 genes were detected in 50% of the B. cereus isolates from RTE foods and only 14% of the isolates were identified from infant formulas. The latter harbored low cytK and bceT, and very low hbl genes. Most B. cereus isolates possessed the hemolysis gene, but not the ces gene. The infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis activity than the other isolates. In addition, 26% of the total isolates showed low lecithinase activities and 10% showed high lecithinase activities. A greater number of isolates from the infant formula showed high lecithinase activity than those from the RTE foods. Approximately 83% of the isolates were positive and 17% were negative for starch hydrolysis. Over 90% of the RTE food isolates and only 35% of the infant formula isolates were positive for starch hydrolysis. However, all the strains possessed nhe, but their harboring patterns of hbl and cytK were significantly different. Most starch-hydrolyzing strains possessed hbl, but only 23% nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates possessed this gene. Moreover, very low nonstarch hydrolyzing strains harbored cytK. Most nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates showed high lecithinase and strong hemolysis activities, and very low hbl and cytK harboring. In summary, most infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis and higher lecithinase activities with lower

  14. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Lucian Curşeu

    Full Text Available We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality. Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  15. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H M; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  16. Prioritising alternatives for maintenance of water distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for maintenance of water distribution networks: A group decision approach. ... Difficulties related to the group decision-making process in the water supply sector, ... This study focused on the rational use of water resources and reduction of ...

  17. Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Sürücü

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the exp...

  18. Thinking about acting logical foundations for rational decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, John L

    2006-01-01

    John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Real agents have limited cognitive powers, but traditional theories of rationality have applied only to idealized agents that lack such constraints. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of ""real rationality.""

  19. The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Noah; Huys, Quentin; Griffiths, Tom; Lieder, Falk

    2017-01-01

    © 2017, Psychonomic Society, Inc. Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind’s bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to...

  20. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  1. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  2. Rationally Irrational: The Case of Sexual Burglary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedneault, Amelie; Beauregard, Eric; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated rationality in sexually motivated burglaries. Specifically, we analyzed the situational cues identified by sexual burglars in their target selection. The research project investigated 224 individual incidents of residential burglary with apparent sexual motivations. Situational characteristics of the incidents were recorded and analyzed using forward sequential regressions. Results indicated that most sexually motivated burglaries occurred in occupied residences with deficient physical guardianship, when the victim was alone. Violence, theft, penetration, and fetishism were found to be committed in circumstances that increased the benefits and lowered the risks. Results showed that sexual burglary is rational in nature-sexual burglars chose residences that were easy to break into. We found little support for the premise that such opportunities arose while carrying out regular burglaries. Instead, the data indicated that sexual burglars acted opportunistically on situational cues that are markedly dissimilar to those of regular burglars. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurus Shalihin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.

  4. On the rationality of Manx crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Ahlbom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs

  5. . MODERN EDUCATION: FROM RATIONALITY TO REASONABLENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Anisimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of modern education development and criticizes a pragmatic attitude to education. Based on the retrospective historical analysis, the author maintains that educational systems are generally focused on fostering the pragmatic intellect rather than reasoning, which leads to a superficial world perception, and undermines personal analytical potential and capability of strategic problem solving. Concentration on rationality is unlikely to provide a way out of the world crisis. In the author’s view, education demands both the deep and solid comprehension of existential concepts and the reference to the “absolute spirit” of Confucius, Plato, Kant and Hegel. The research is aimed at justifying the civilizational paradigm of education on the basis of Hegelian fundamental ideas of intellectual perception with the emphasis on reasonability instead of rationality. As the most adequate implementation instrument, the author suggests a game simulating technique that combines the benefits of philosophical, scientific and methodological thinking.

  6. Moral Credentialing and the Rationalization of Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan P.; Tamborski, Michael; Wang, Xiaoqian; Barnes, Collin D.; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies lead to the paradoxical conclusion that the act of affirming one’s egalitarian or pro-social values and virtues might subsequently facilitate prejudiced or self-serving behavior, an effect previously referred to as “moral credentialing.” The present study extends this paradox to the domain of academic misconduct and investigates the hypothesis that such an effect might be limited by the extent to which misbehavior is rationalizable. Using a paradigm designed to investigate deliberative and rationalized forms of cheating (von Hippel, Lakin, & Shakarchi, 2005), we found that when participants had credentialed themselves (versus a non-close acquaintance) via a set of hypothetical moral dilemmas, they were more likely to cheat on a subsequent math task, but only if cheating was highly rationalizable. When cheating was difficult to rationalize, moral credentialing had almost no impact on cheating. PMID:21503267

  7. Is facet analysis based on rationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In several writings I have claimed that the basis of knowledge organisation (KO) must be found in subject knowledge, and that researchers and practitioners in KO must achieve knowledge about the domains that they are organising. Domain knowledge is not neutral, but rather is based on competing...... epistemologies and worldviews, and the classifier is therefore participating in struggles related to worldviews. Different traditions, approaches and paradigms in knowledge organisation research (and practice) can best be understood as more or less associated with one of four epistemologies: empiricism......, rationalism, historicism/hermeneutics, or pragmatism/critical theory (of which only the last position fully acknowledges the non-neutrality of knowledge organisation). Ranganathan – and the whole facet-analytic school – has formerly been exemplified as a rather clear example of rationalism. Some have objected...

  8. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  9. Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2010-09-01

    Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.

  10. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  11. Normative and descriptive rationality: from nature to artifice and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, T. R.; Uckelman, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    Rationality plays a key role in both the study of human reasoning and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Certain notions of rationality have been adopted in AI as guides for the development of intelligent machines and these notions have been given a normative function. The notions of rationality in AI are often taken to be closely related to conceptions of rationality in human contexts. In this paper, we argue that the normative role of rationality differs in the human and artificial contexts. While rationality in human-focused fields of study is normative, prescribing how humans ought to reason, the normative conception in AI is built on a notion of human rationality which is descriptive, not normative, in the human context, as AI aims at building agents which reason as humans do. In order to make this point, we review prominent notions of rationality used in psychology, cognitive science, and (the history of) philosophy, as well as in AI, and discuss some factors that contributed to rationality being assigned the differing normative statuses in the differing fields of study. We argue that while 'rationality' is a normative notion in both AI and in human reasoning, the normativity of the AI conception of 'rationality' is grounded in a descriptive account of human rationality.

  12. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...... the apparent rationality of the reasoning....

  13. Rationalization and the Role of the School Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines rationalization in counselors' interactions with students, parents, and teachers--provides examples of each kind of interaction. Describes the dynamics of rationalization in the schools and outlines interventions that may be used with students, parents, and teachers. Also explores counselors' use of rationalization and gives examples of…

  14. Anxiety reduction through group instruction in rational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J W; Wilkerson, J

    1982-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of group Rational Therapy in promoting rational thinking and self-enhancing emotions among 24 college students. Each subject was administered the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire as a pre- and post-test measurement. Results reveal that some aspects of personality are affected by Rational Therapy group programs while others are not.

  15. Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W

    1997-10-01

    Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide relevant information regarding the medical procedures prior to patients consenting to have those procedures, they should also assist patients to think more rationally. We distinguish between rational choice/action and rational belief. While autonomous choice need not necessarily be rational, it should be based on rational belief. The implication for the doctrine of informed consent and the practice of medicine is that, if physicians are to respect patient autonomy and help patients to choose and act more rationally, not only must they provide information, but they should care more about the theoretical rationality of their patients. They should not abandon their patients to irrationality. They should help their patients to deliberate more effectively and to care more about thinking rationally. We illustrate these arguments in the context of Jehovah's Witnesses refusing life-saving blood transfusions. Insofar as Jehovah's Witnesses should be informed of the consequences of their actions, they should also deliberate rationally about these consequences.

  16. Cognitive Rationality and Its Logic-Mathematical Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the cognitive (flexible) rationality, combining rational and irrational moments of the scientific search of the cognizing subject. Linguo-cognitive model of the concept as the flexible regulative rationality reveals the activity of the cognitive processes and the mentality of the epistemological-ontic subject, its leading…

  17. Coping More Effectively Through Rational Self-Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Rational Self-Counseling, a variation of rational-emotive therapy, is a self-help therapeutic technique in which students are encouraged to be responsible for their own behavior and emotions. The primary function of self-counseling is to evaluate whether thoughts are rational. A list of questions which students might ask themselves is presented.…

  18. Suspected Outbreak of Riboflavin Deficiency among Populations Reliant on Food Assistance: A Case Study of Drought-Stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin K.; Talley, Leisel E.; Birungi, Nelly; McClelland, Amanda; Madraa, Elizabeth; Chandia, Agnes B.; Nivet, Jacqueline; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Serdula, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS) and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. Objective This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. Design An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals), and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration). Results Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2%) of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. Conclusion Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions. PMID:23658790

  19. Suspected outbreak of riboflavin deficiency among populations reliant on food assistance: a case study of drought-stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin K; Talley, Leisel E; Birungi, Nelly; McClelland, Amanda; Madraa, Elizabeth; Chandia, Agnes B; Nivet, Jacqueline; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Serdula, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS) and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals), and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration). Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2%) of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.

  20. Suspected outbreak of riboflavin deficiency among populations reliant on food assistance: a case study of drought-stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Nichols

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. DESIGN: An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2 deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals, and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration. RESULTS: Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2% of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. CONCLUSION: Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.