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Sample records for food contamination radioactive

  1. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  2. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  3. Contamination of foods by radioactive rains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Nakae, Y; Higasayama, S

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivities of various vegetable foods contaminated by radioactive rains in May, 1954, in the Kagoshima Area were detected. Tea showed especially high radioactivities which could be extracted with hot water. Radioactive Nb, Zr, Hf, Ce, Y, Pr, and La were detected in the hot water extractions of tea by ion-exchange chromatography. The partial contribution of /sup 40/K in these radioactive vegetables was critically examined.

  4. Radioactive contamination in imported foods (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1991-01-01

    Five years have elapsed since the Chernobyl accident, but the effect of radioactivity contamination to foods has continued. Also in Japan, the imported foods which were ordered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to be sent back due to radioactivity contamination do not cease. In fiscal year 1990, three cases occurred: tea from Albania, mushrooms from Yugoslavia and spices from france. If those are not checked at quarantines, it is feared that such foods are distributed in Japan. Among the foods which were ordered to be sent back in the past, there were those from Brazil and Hong Kong where the effect of the Chernobyl accident is little, and the foods contaminated with radioactivity spread worldwide through import and export. Therefore, attention must be paid to the foods from the countries where radioactivity contamination is little. Also it is feared that Japanese foods may be contaminated by being cultivated with imported feed, soil and fertilizer, for which there is no regulation. In this report, the radioactivity contamination of imported foods in fiscal year 1990 is described, and the experimental method and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.; Koester, H.W.; Leenhouts, H.P.; Stoutjesdijk, J.F.; Vaas, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described. (author)

  6. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  7. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  8. Radioactive contamination of the biosphere and consequences for food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with all aspects of radioactive contamination of the biosphere and corresponding consequences for food supply. In particular, releases of radioactivity by nuclear weapon tests in the early 60's and nuclear accidents in recent years are discussed. Contamination of food in the Federal Republic of Germany by these events and corresponding ingestion dose are demonstrated using examples. Furthermore diffusion of radionuclides and their transfer through the food chains to man are described. Suitable methods of decontamination at different production steps and their viability are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Design and development of food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Bohra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity has been part and parcel of living being since the existence of the earth. It is available everywhere in our environment and being responsible for evolution of life on earth at some extent. However, the radioactivity in excess of the natural radioactive can have harmful effects on living being. The radiation exposure can be of external or internal origin or of both. The main route of internal radiation exposure is through the contaminated food chains. The concentration of natural radioactivity in food varies in range of 40-600 Bq/kg. 40 K being the single major radionuclide of food with typical radioactivity; 50 Bq/kg in milk, 420 Bq/kg in milk powder, 165 Bq/kg in potatoes, and 125 Bq/kg in beef is also the main contributor of natural radiation doses to human being. Measurement of radioactivity in food items and drinks is thus very important in controlling the internal exposure to human being especially in case of nuclear disaster. Though, the methods and techniques for food radioactivity measurement already existing, the need of portable instrument is warranted to measure the radioactivity in food items in raw form. Measurement of radioactivity may help in quick and mass screening of food items in case of nuclear emergencies. Any enhanced level of radioactivity in food items especially in case of nuclear emergency need to be evaluated for controlling its spread and restriction of consumption by the public. This way, it may help in managing internal radioactivity contamination to human being

  10. Protection against radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Methods suitable for diminishing radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products and reducing at the same time the irradiation hazards for the human organism are dealt with. The possibilities for the decontamination of foods vegetal and of animal origin are discussed separately. (author)

  11. Control System Radioactive Contamination in Food Samples in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The analyses of the level of radioactive contamination in food samples are carried out by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SMRC) in Poland. The Service was brought into existence in 1961. The Service comprises of a network of measurement stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (CRCM). The duty of the Centre is being executed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP). The uniform methods of sampling are used in measurement stations. All important foodstuff: milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals are controlled in the Service stations. The radiochemical and spectrometric methods are used to determine the activity of radioactive isotopes. The standard equipment of the measurement station is the measurement system type SAPOS-90 and multichannel analyser with scintillation or germanium detector. The structure of the Service, kinds of samples tested by each station, program of sampling in normal and during accident situation are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  13. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1998. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1997. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 33% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1998. (author)

  14. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  15. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  16. Effects of processing techniques on the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    Following contamination of cultures of rice, grapes and various vegetables by 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the effect of processing and cooking techniques on the contamination of the food-stuff was investigated [fr

  17. Control of radioactive contamination of food in the country Somogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Viragh, I.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of spinach, sorrel, lettuce, animal bones, milk and fish was determined in the period 1961-1978. Peak values were measured in 1963 and 1976. The contamination of plants reached higher levels, however, it did not exceed 25 pCi per g dry weight. (L.E.)

  18. Consumer risk perception, attitudes and behaviour related to food affected by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper focuses on consumer attitudes to the countermeasures being taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food. Data is collected from a 1998 survey of 1003 Norwegian and 200 Scottish consumers on their fear of experiencing ill health due to radioactive contamination of food products, their risk averting behaviour connected to the Chernobyl accident of 1986, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for untreated food

  19. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milohnoja, M [Veterinary College, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1986-07-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg.

  20. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milohnoja, M.

    1986-01-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg

  1. The system for measurements of radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.

    1990-01-01

    The service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination comprises a network of 152 measuring stations. They are carrying out continuous measurements of gamma radiation dose rates and radioactivity measurements of 24 hours samples of air (aerosols) and total fallout. On the territory of each province there are selected points for sampling of environmental materials and food. Frequency of sampling depends on material being collected. 1 tab., 2 figs. (A.S.)

  2. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  3. Some radioactivity concentrations and ingestion dose projections arising from consumption of food containing Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, L.R. de la; Palattao, M.V.; Estacio, J.F.L.; Anden, A.

    1987-04-01

    Doses arising from the ingestion of radioactive contamination coming from Chernobyl accident are calculated using various radioactivity limits adopted by different organizations after the accident. These are compared with that allowed in the Philippines. Projected concentrations of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in various food items in the affected countries, one month and one year after the accident are calculated using a model proposed by Boone, Ng and Palms. Except for food produced in one or two hot spots, the projected concentrations after one year are expected to return to within the range of pre-Chernobyl values. (Auth.) 12 refs.; 13 tabs.; 6 figs

  4. Long-term trend of radioactive contamination of food products in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, K.; Marinov, V.; Naidenov, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results which characterize the dynamics for the power of radioactive contamination of foods in the Bulgaria with Cesium radionuclides from May 1986 to December 1995 are presented. It was done for motivation of some conclusions during the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The data are compared with Maximum residues limits (MRL) of our country as well as that of international organizations. They are compared with the background contamination of foods descended from regions affected after experimental nuclear explosion till 1963 too

  5. Long term survey on food pollution and contamination by radioactive fallout in Fukuoka, Japan (1961 - 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Toshiko; Ishinishi, Noburu; Cho, Tetsuji.

    1977-01-01

    The contamination and the pollution of foodstuffs by radioactive fallout have been investigated since 1961 in Fukuoka city and its suburban area. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Recently, the degree of the contamination of greens by radioactive fallout which fell on the leaves decreased to one thousandth in the early stage of the investigation (1961 - 1962). In the period of the investigation, the remarkable increase of the radioactivity of fallout was observed within a week after the Chinese nuclear bomb explosion in the atmosphere (1st, 2nd, 5th, 12th, 13th, and 15th). The radioactivity was 2 to 300 times higher than the usual level. 2) The radioactivity was not remarkable in vegetables which were washed with soap, but it decreased gradually year by year. The increase of the radioactivity was also observed a few days after the atmospheric nuclear explosion. 3) In milk, there were no remarkable yearly decreases of the radioactivity from the beginning of the investigation, but the seasonal variations of the radioactivity, such as higher in April and May, were observed. 4) The radioactivity in diets based on the standard food production in Japan was the highest in 1967. It decreased gradually from 1967 to 1971 and after that the remarkable variation of the activity was not observed. 5) 137 Cs contamination of foodstuffs has been observed quantitatively by the method of gamma spectrometry, while sometimes 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 131 I were also detected from the specimens obtained immediately after the nuclear explosions. (auth.)

  6. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantavaara, A; Wallin, H; Hasunen, K; Härmälä, K; Kulmala, H; Latvio, E; Liskola, K; Mustonen, I; Nieminen, I; Tainio, R

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience.

  7. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Wallin, H.; Hasunen, K.; Haermaelae, K.; Kulmala, H.; Latvio, E.; Liskola, K.; Mustonen, I.; Nieminen, I.; Tainio, R.

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience

  8. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G; Popovic, D; Smelcerovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro); Petrovic, B [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beograd, (Serbia and Montenegro); Djujic, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.; Smelcerovic, M.; Petrovic, B.; Djujic, I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  10. Criminal Protection of the Consumer of Irradiated food and Consumer Protection Against Contaminated Food with Radioactive Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread peaceful applications of atomic energy in food and agriculture had various positive and negative impacts on the economies of food and its production. Food is positively affected through either its treatment by ionizing radiation to preserve and reduce losses in it or by using mutations treated by ionizing radiation for improving their productivity. On the other hand, negative effects of nuclear energy on food are caused by nuclear explosions in nuclear weapons testing as well as by different nuclear energy applications and the wastes formed as a result of it. These activities can cause different contamination levels of the environment and particularly, the arable land. This in turn leads to the production of contaminated food with radioactive isotopes. Consequently, the present work which is subdivided into two parts, involves a study of both the positive and negative effects of ionizing radiations and radioactive isotopes on food. The first part deals with the legal protection of food treated by ionizing radiations to preserve it, explaining the related different legal and regulatory aspects. Food irradiation processes should be carried out in a framework of the national control regulations and in a way that is consistent with the reference standards adopted internationally for the safety and hygiene of food

  11. Inspection system of radioactive contamination in foods and its results in Yokohama City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    Accompanying the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred on April 26, 1986, the radioactive contamination of the foods imported from Europe became problems. Consequently, the Ministry of Health and Welfare stipulated the temporary limit of radioactive concentration in imported foods in terms of the total of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at less than 370 becquerel per 1 kg of foods in November, 1986, and the inspection system was tightened. In Yokohama, in view of securing the safety of foods and eliminating the anxiety of citizen, the measuring instruments for radioactivity were installed in the Hygiene Laboratory in 1986 and in the Food Hygiene Inspection Stations in Central Wholesale Market in 1987, and the inspection was begun. So far 720 subjects were inspected, but there was none that exceeds the temporary limit. The period and the method of executing the inspection and the results of nuclide analysis, screening inspection and so on are reported. It was judged that at the present point of time, there is not much influence to the life of citizen. (K.I.)

  12. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Bergan, Tone; Forseth, Torbjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Hellstroem, Turid

    2001-01-01

    The results from the national monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998 are presented. The average 137Cs concentration is decreasing in cow's and goat's milk, sheep, reindeer and fresh water fish. Pasture and fungi are, on the contrary, not showing a general decreasing trend. The radioactivity in food and humans has been decreasing since 1987. The effective dose from intake is estimated to 0.02 mSv for an average Norwegian in 1998. Vulnerable groups may have received doses up to 0.4 mSv. One cannot rule out the possibility that some individuals in these groups have received doses superior to 1 mSv/year. (Author)

  13. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    This part of the bibliography series, which has changed its name with issue no. 24 (formerly: 'Contamination and decontamination of foods') lists 208 pieces of literature, mainly of the last two years. The literature is classified according to the following main fields. General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foods. (MG) [de

  14. Radioactive contamination in human by polonium-210 in food from marine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S.; Kelecom, Philippe Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Food from marine origin is considered as one of the sources that most contributes to internal radioactive contamination in humans by polonium-210 ( 210 Po). This work intended to check whether a single ingestion of the mussel Perna perna should result in a detectable increase of radioactive contamination in the consumer. The mussel was bought at a fish market localized in the city of Niteroi, RJ, Brazil. It was cooked as usually, and its content in 210 Po determined after acid mineralization, spontaneous electrodeposition on stainless steel disks and alpha counting. Non-smoking volunteers maintained for two weeks a normal diet, but completely avoiding fish and seafood. Then, they ate 200 g of cooked mussel, and collected total faeces and urine every day during ten days. 210 Po level in faeces samples showed a 900% increase at the first day after ingestion, and reached normal levels after 3-4 days. In urine samples, the increase of 210 Po was much lower (50%) and reached a maximum at the fifth day. Such data showed a short time permanence of 210 Po in the intestine. Most of ingested 210 Po (∼91%) was eliminated in up to 5 days through faeces. A small amount was absorbed (∼5-10%), part of it being eliminated in urine, and the remaining contaminated the human body. (author)

  15. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  17. The use of radiochemical analysis for detecting biotracers of food radioactive contamination in Cherkasy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvyijenko, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Stable biotracers of radioactive contamination according to the findings of analytical control of the foodstuffs was determined. The use of radiochemical analysis for determining the activity of the foodstuffs and water (Sr-90, Cs-137) was evaluated

  18. A review of public concerns and reactions about food safety following a release of food contaminants (radioactive or otherwise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out, by questionnaire and personal interview, to assess the extent of the public's knowledge of the procedures employed by MAFF, and other agencies following a food contamination incident involving radioactive contamination. It was also designed to gauge the public's perception of relative risk from routine discharges into the environment and other agents. The study populations were located in 5 locations - 3 near nuclear facilities, and 2 control groups (1 close to a potential chemical polluting plant). The study was not intended to be rigorous (in terms of sex, age and socio-economic group) in random selection of subjects for interview but it was judged that a fairly representative selection of views was obtained from about 50 people at each location. Overall, and importantly, although about 60% claimed that some their diet was locally grown, most people even in these rural areas purchased nearly all of their food and milk in supermarkets. It was difficult to get the interviewees to take the concept of a large incident involving food bans seriously but they seemed to expect the local authority and the police to be prominent in announcing the news. They did not seem to have much confidence in the broadcast media but, when prompted, thought that a MAFF 'hot-line' would be of greatest use in obtaining on-going information. House to house leaf letting was also mentioned as an effective means of disseminating information. Every-one seemed to want more clear information about food contamination in advance of it becoming a real problem - although how they would react to this information was not clear. All groups were fairly conservative when asked about personal risk but became more extreme over risks to society as a whole, particularly in relation to transport and the environment. Overall, as expected, the public perception of relative risk was somewhat divorced from reality. Because of their geographical location and confidents, the study group

  19. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  20. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  1. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  2. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  3. Implementation in laboratories of Latin America of procedures of harmonized essay for the determination of the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Iglicki, F.A.; Aguirre G, J.; Melo F, A.C. de; Tomicic M, I.J.; Loria M, L.G.; Diodati, J.M.; Vasquez B, L.R.; Alarcon S, F.A.; Civil, M.; Naut M, B.C.; Odino M, M.R.; Flores M, Y.R.; Rossbach, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Latin America, nowadays, it is not had harmonized essay procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods. Equally, the great diversity of institutions that in each country are devoted to carry out this control and the difference in the level that its possess the same ones in quality matter, its impose the necessity to implant a Quality Management System on the base of harmonized technical criteria that its help to obtain reliable analytical results. With this end, it was proposed and it was approved the ARCAL LXXIX regional project: 'Harmonization of the technical and specific requirements of quality for the control of the radioactive contamination of foods'. In this work the aspects more significant of the design and content of the Manual of technical procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods, elaborated in the marks of the one referred project are presented. The same one includes eight procedures for the previous treatment of the samples, the spectrometric determination of gamma emitters radionuclides, the determination of the alpha activity indexes and total beta, of 131 I, 89,90 Sr, 226 Ra, 238, 239 Pu and 3 H, using different methodologies validated in the region. The actions carried out to implement this Manual are also exposed. (Author)

  4. Radioactive contamination of foods from fallout as a source of error in some animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G

    1957-01-01

    Radioactivity in control animals since 1956 has increased so as to vitiate experiments. The activity of foods used was measured. The counts are given for rat cubes, milk, peas, sugar, flour, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, salt, semolina, and water. The high count of the cabbage is probably from /sup 137/Cs present as 4 micromicrocuries/g.

  5. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  6. Mathematical programmes for calculator type PTK 1072 to calculate the radioactive contamination in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Visi, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical programmes are given for calculator type PTK 1072 (Hungarian made), to make easier the lengthy calculations applied in examinations in laboratories for control of radioactive materials in food. Basic consideration of making a programme, the method, the mathematical formulae, the variations of calculation and control of program are shown by examples. Making programmes for calculators of other types, too, can be facilitated by adapting the basic consideration. (author)

  7. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  8. Data assimilation for assessing the radioactive food contamination in the late phase after a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, K.; Mueller, H.; Gering, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the need for decision support for the management of nuclear emergencies became evident. Therefore, the Real-Time Online Decision Support RODOS was developed and installed in many European countries. It contains, among other modules, a Food Chain and Dose Module (FDMT), which calculates the activity concentrations of plant and animal products. The outcome of the food chain model is used to estimate ingestion doses and influences the countermeasures to be taken for the protection of the population. Although the food chain model is considered to give valuable predictions of the magnitude of food contamination, these results are associated with considerable uncertainties due to uncertain input data, i.e. deposited activities and activity concentrations in air, as well as due to the uncertainty of the model. Thus, uncertainty of the activity concentrations forecasted by the model hampers decision making. In order to overcome this difficulty a Food Monitoring Module (FoMM) is under development in the framework of the DAONEM project. The Food Monitoring Module uses measurements of feed and foodstuffs' contamination to correct the predicted activity concentrations and to reduce their uncertainty. For the purpose of quantifying the uncertainty of model predictions in the Food Monitoring Module a thorough revision of the model parameter values has been carried out. A probability density function has been assigned to each model parameter describing its uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify those parameters an which the food chain model output mostly depends. The data assimilation is carried out with the Kalman filter. An appropriate type of the Kalman filter had to be selected which is able to handle high-dimensional nonlinear models. By considering on the one hand the uncertainty of the model parameters and input data and, on the other hand, the uncertainty of the measurements, updated values

  9. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    The present volume is a continuation of the earlier bibliographie series 'Contamination and decontamination of foods'. The reduced importance of nuclear weapons tests and decontamination problems in foodstuffs and the increasing amount of literature on environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities and on radioecology made a change of title and a new classification of contents necessary. The main subjects are now: General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The present volume contains 208 citations on these subjects, mainly from the last two years. (orig.) [de

  10. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  13. Electrolyze radioactive contamination away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility is using electrolysis to clean the surfaces of hazardous materials. In the past, contaminated metals were cleaned with concentrated acids. Although these treatments make the surfaces safer, they produce other radioactive and toxic wastes in turn. Anodic current passes through a piece of stainless steel submersed in a sodium nitrate solution, and steel dissolves at the surfaces. Surface contamination strips away along with the surface layers. The authors are using this electrolysis approach to remove plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium. Unlike acid washing processes, electrolytic decontamination can be accomplished quickly. Little waste is generated regardless of how much material has to be removed from the surface. Material removal is proportional to the applied current, which gives the operator control over the rate and extent of decontamination

  14. Food contamination : lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, F.

    1987-01-01

    This brief survey of radioactive contamination of food suggests at least four areas in which action needs to be taken so that we might be better prepared to respond to any possible future nuclear accident. More research is needed on the way that radiation enters the food chain, and the measures that can be taken to counter the health hazards posed by fallout. A second clear need is for a global radioactivity monitoring system. Third, international standards need to be established for methods of sampling, analysis and reporting of the radioactive levels in foods. Finally, an effort must be made to inform the public so it can distinguish between the real and the imaginary hazards posed by radioactively contaminated foods

  15. Radioactive contamination in the environment and its transfer in food chain pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Rajan, A.; Meena, S.; Balamurugan, J.; Jegadeeswari, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive material occurs naturally in the soil, rocks, water, air, and vegetation. The major radionuclides of concern for terrestrial radiation are potassium, uranium and thorium. Each of these sources has been decreasing in activity since the birth of the Earth so that our present dose from 40 K is about ½ what it would have been at the dawn of life on Earth. Some of the elements that make up the human body have radionuclides such as 40 K; thus, there is also a very small amount of internal radiation. Radon gas seeps out of uranium-containing soils found across most of the world and may concentrate in wellsealed homes. It is often the single largest contributor to an individual's background radiation dose. As nuclear facilities are not normally sited in densely populated areas, the adjacent land is likely to be agricultural. Knowledge about the form in which the radionuclides are present in the soil and the patterns of their migration in the environment and food chain can provide the foundation for technical planning

  16. Some bioindicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cozmuta, I.; Micu, C.

    1996-01-01

    The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were numerous and encompassed all areas. One of those lead to the discovery of new monitoring methods which also supply to cost-effective solutions to control contaminant radioactive discharges in the environment. Through the measurements performed, we discovered that some samples, because of their radioactive content restrained also for long periods of time, can be used as bioindicators. Hen eggs between May 1-30 1986 were analysed (identification of radionuclides with a Ge(Li) detector and measuring of total gamma activity with NaI(T1)). Various aspects pursued revealed that eggs are precious witness of vegetable food contamination with fission products, especially Ba-140 and I-131, behaving as radionuclide separators (Ba-140 in egg shell -301 Bq/egg and I-131 in the content - 182 Bq/egg). Some of the most important pharmaceutical plants from Transylvania measured during 1986-1994 period presents high cesium radioactivity. The perennial plants (as Lichen Islandicus) for the same period accumulated a greater activity that the annual ones. Especially the lichen, because of the their slow decreasing activity are suitable as biological detectors also in retrospective measurements. Measuring the activity of some pollen samples was rediscovered. The pollen grains, during their transport in air by the bees, are acting like a filter for radionuclides so that we could use they to monitor the deliverance of these substances in air. (author)

  17. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  18. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  19. Survey of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No; Lee, Chang Wu; Choi, Geun Sik; Cho, Yeong Hyeon; Kang, Mun Ja; Cheong, Geun Ho; Kim, Hui Ryeong; Park, Du Won; Park, Hyo Guk; Kwak, Ji Yeon

    2006-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a lot of countries including EU, Japan, USA are to strengthen survey of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs. Our country has also surveyed radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and started to check continuously the radioactivity contamination of the open market foodstuffs since 2003. In this year, imported foodstuffs(130 samples) and domestic foodstuffs(10 samples) are analyzed to investigate the radioactive contamination. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the open markets; one group is the imported foodstuffs and the other group is the domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities and northeast of Sokcho city concerning recent situations. Samples are usually bought from traditional markets, mart, department store or the Internet. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system for survey and assessment of radioactive contamination. The 131 I radionuclide isn't detected among all foodstuffs(imported and domestic). The 137 Cs radionuclide among the regulation radionuclides( 137 Cs, 13 4 C s, 131 I) of food code is only detected at the imported foodstuffs but its level is far below the maximum permitted level. For the improvement of measurement confidence, the developed analysis method is tested by the participation of the national and international intercomparison. The developed method based on test results and international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as an education of relative workers. It could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. It is technically supported for radioactive analysis of commercial company and the government including KFDA. Finally these results would be used to solve an ambiguous anxiety of a people for radiation exposure by foodstuffs intake and help the KFDA to manage systematically the radioactive contamination and to give

  20. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks due to the radioactive fallout 90Sr before 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, radionuclides like 90 Sr released by atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and the Chernobyl accident have been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, the health risks caused by the prolonged exposure to fallout 90 Sr through food ingestion pathways were evaluated age-dependently for the reference Japanese since 1945 until 2010, using the mathematical model for evaluating global distribution of 90 Sr with food ingestion considering the domestic and international food supply in Japan. The model estimates were compared with the monitoring data of 90 Sr in Japanese total diet and 90 Sr concentration in food to examine the model validity. The results of this evaluation would be useful for understanding the background situations without the Fukushima accident and give important knowledge for the radiological health risk assessment of this accident. (author)

  1. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  2. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  3. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  4. Estimation and evaluation of the radioactive contamination through a food web in an aquatic ecosystem, (2). System analysis of the transfer of radionuclides through a food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Isao; Inoue, Yoriteru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-06-01

    In order to estimate and evaluate the radioactivity concentration in an aquatic ecosystem, the transfer of radioactivity through a food web should be considered. In this paper, systems analysis on the above problem was performed and a quantity of radioactivity in organisms concentrated through their diet was presented. It was found from numerical evaluation that whether the transfer of radioactivity through a diet is significant or not depended on such ecological factors as ration rates, assimilation rates, uptake rates, and turnover rates. The degree of the importance of these parameters on the concentration process of radioactivity was quantitatively evaluated by the mathematical technique of sensitivity analysis.

  5. Radioactive contamination of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytil, I.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model is discussed describing radioactivity transport between the source and the organism. The model is to be applied in assessing the effect of a nuclear installation on the organism. Fortran and Pascal appear to be the most appropriate computer languages. With respect to internal memory requirements, the program file is estimated to consist of a control program and a number of subprograms. Upon setting the radioactivity transport and the output requirements the control program should recall the necessary subprograms. The program file should allow the complete data file and the solutions of all possible radioactivity transport variants to be inputted. It is envisaged that several subprograms will be available for one type of radioactivity transport, this depending on different accuracy of the transport description. Thus, the requirements for input data will also differ. (Z.M.)

  6. Foodstuffs (radioactive contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Donald; Taylor, Teddy; Campbell-Savours, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings are given of the debate in the UK House of Commons on the maximum permitted radioactivity levels for foodstuffs, feeding stuffs and drinking water in the case of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident. The motion takes note of European Community Document no. 7183/87 and urges the Community to assure a common standard of health protection by adopting a rational set of scientifically based intervention levels for foodstuffs. (UK)

  7. Effects of natural radioactivity on food radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennyu, Atsuhito

    2012-01-01

    Since the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Company, groups and individuals including local governments, food manufacturers, distribution circles, retail circles, and citizens are eager to measure the radioactivity of food, in order to confirm the safety of food from the concerns about radioactive contamination. The measurement of radioactivity of food is done by quantitatively determining gamma rays due to radioactive cesium that was incorporated into the biosphere cycle after having been released into the environment. As for the radioactivity measurement of food using gamma-ray spectrometry with a potassium iodide scintillation detector, which is very commonly used, this paper describes the handling method of obtained data, the principle of erroneous detection of radioactive cesium and iodine interrupted by natural radionuclides, and countermeasures for it. Major natural radioactivity sources are uranium series and thorium series. This paper explains gamma rays, which are characteristic in the decay process of uranium series and often affect the measurement of radioactive cesium in food and water. (O.A.)

  8. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    Some guidelines are presented for the Belgian agriculture to realise three vital objectives in case of a nuclear accident : protection of food quality and public health, radiation protection for farmers and keeping the production apparatus intact. (H.E.)

  10. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.

    2007-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

  11. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  12. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  13. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  14. Radioactive contamination in human by polonium-210 in food from marine origin; Contaminacao radioativa humana por Polonio-210 contido em alimento de origem marinha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S.; Kelecom, Philippe Marcel [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria (LARARA)]. E-mail: egbakel@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    Food from marine origin is considered as one of the sources that most contributes to internal radioactive contamination in humans by polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po). This work intended to check whether a single ingestion of the mussel Perna perna should result in a detectable increase of radioactive contamination in the consumer. The mussel was bought at a fish market localized in the city of Niteroi, RJ, Brazil. It was cooked as usually, and its content in {sup 210}Po determined after acid mineralization, spontaneous electrodeposition on stainless steel disks and alpha counting. Non-smoking volunteers maintained for two weeks a normal diet, but completely avoiding fish and seafood. Then, they ate 200 g of cooked mussel, and collected total faeces and urine every day during ten days. {sup 210}Po level in faeces samples showed a 900% increase at the first day after ingestion, and reached normal levels after 3-4 days. In urine samples, the increase of {sup 210}Po was much lower (50%) and reached a maximum at the fifth day. Such data showed a short time permanence of {sup 210}Po in the intestine. Most of ingested {sup 210}Po ({approx}91%) was eliminated in up to 5 days through faeces. A small amount was absorbed ({approx}5-10%), part of it being eliminated in urine, and the remaining contaminated the human body. (author)

  15. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The 137 Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of 137 Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting radionuclides

  16. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  17. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  18. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Sabino, J.F.; Oliva de Sandoval, B.E.; Orozco-Chilel, R.M.; Aguilar-Sandoval, E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 'Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala', concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying

  19. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sabino, J F; Oliva de Sandoval, B E; Orozco-Chilel, R M; Aguilar-Sandoval, E [Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Guatemala C.A. (Guatemala)

    1999-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 `Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala`, concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Contamination due to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The peaceful exploitation of radioactivity and the expansion of the nuclear power programme ensure that the disposal of radioactive wastes will cause contamination of the marine environment in the foreseeable future. The exposure of marine organisms to radioactivity from wastes has been studied in depth and related to exposure to natural background radiation. Concentrations of natural radionuclides and those from marine waste disposal have been measured at various stations in the oceans and seas around the world. The fate of radionuclides at four representative sites has been studied and the concentrations of radionuclides in oysters, porphyra, plaice in the Windscale discharge area have been measured. The extent of human exposure, particularly with reference to seafood consumption in local fishing communities, has been assessed. Effects of radiation on developing fish embryos and eggs and genetic radiation effects in aquatic organisms has been studied. The above studies reveal that the controls applied to the discharge of radioactive wastes to limit hazards to humans also provide adequate protection for populations of marine organisms. (U.K.)

  1. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  2. The Barents Sea, distribution and fate of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeyn, L.; Heldal, H.E.; Svaeren, I.

    1999-01-01

    Possible contamination in the marine food webs of the Barents Sea may be a problem for a rational harvest of the area. Radioactive contamination has in this context a special public impact as even traces of radioactivity seems to be considered by the public to be a real danger. It is therefor of special importance, from a regulatory and fisheries point of view, to accumulate knowledge of the behaviour of radioactive elements in the marine ecosystems of the Barents Sea in order to place this contamination in proper and realistic proportions

  3. Biological cycles of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, M.-G.

    1959-01-01

    Artificial radio-elements (synthesized for scientific or industrial purposes)having been released, may be absorbed by plants or animals, and may eventually involve a catenation of organisms as some feed on the others. All organisms living in a polluted river become more radioactive than the water, which was to be expected, in as much as organisms are hypertonic in respect to sweet water. Conversely, soil brings into play physico-chemical phenomena (absorption) such that plants can get only a small portion of contaminating radio-elements, land animal feeding on such plants are relatively less exposed to contamination, and carnivorous animals feeding on herbivorous are still less exposed. Man, notably is fairly well protected, whereas lower organisms, notably unicellular organisms may suffer (mutations..). Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Pathologie Generale et de Physiologie Clinique', n. 707, April 1959, p. 505-514 [fr

  4. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  5. Measurement of radioactivity in contaminated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Hasegawa, M; Kihara, T

    1956-01-01

    A method called the Direct Method was developed to correct for natural /sup 40/K radiation in plant samples. The K content of the ashed sample is determined by flamephotometry. The radioactivity in a 100 mg sample is measured and the natural radioactivity from /sup 40/K determined by calculation subtracted. Tea samples tested gave evidence of contamination by radioactive fallout.

  6. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The safety of food and protection of the environment continue to be important issues on the Government's agenda. Radioactivity in food and the environment, a source of potential harm, therefore receives continuous surveillance to ensure that public safety targets and international commitments are met and ensure that the environment is effectively protected. The Government makes the results of such surveillance widely available through publication of this report and through regular updates on the MAFF Web site. This technical report presents the scope and results of our radiological surveillance programmes for 1998. It is complemented in England and Wales by the Environment Agency's surveillance report on non-food pathways. Sponsored by the Joint Food Safety and Standards Group of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in a wide range of foodstuffs and in the environment around nuclear sites and other potential sources of elevated radioactivity throughout the United Kingdom, and also at locations remote from these sources. This report demonstrates that the public is being protected against unacceptable contamination of the food chain and that the UK is fully meeting public safety targets. We remain committed to ensuring that a proper and rigorous surveillance programme is continued to ensure that this remains the case. (author)

  7. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  8. Natural radioactivity (40K) measurement in common food grains using indigenous technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Sahani, R.M.; Damor, S.L.; D'Souza, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Ingestion of contaminated food is one of the major causes of internal doses received in various human organs. As there being no material free from radioactivity on this globe; knowledge of natural radioactivity concentration in common food items is very important for judging the origin of contamination due to nuclear emergency or other man-made activities. An indigenous technology for radioactivity measurement in food/bulk items has been developed and tested using live radioactive sources. This has also been explored for natural radioactivity measurement in common food grains consumed by Indian population. This paper reports the measured natural radioactivity ( 40 K) in common Indian food grains using the developed technology

  9. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  10. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.W.; Gaynor, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a process for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum, anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid: a portion of the anhydrite crystals is converted to subtantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on radiation free gypsum seed crystals. These coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are then separated from the small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination

  11. Cleanup of radioactivity contamination in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity cleanup is needed under a large scale accident in a reactor or in an RI irradiation facility which associates big disperse of radioactivities. Here, the fundamental concept including a radiation protection target, a period classification, planning, an information data base, etc. Then, the methods and measuring instruments on radioactivity contamination and the cleanup procedure are explained. Finally, the real site examples of accidental cleanup are presented for a future discussion. (author)

  12. Radioactive contamination levels in the ambient medium and in the food chain - Quadriennial report 1972-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In the period 1972-1975, the EURATOM-CEA Association continued its research in the following fields: human biology, study of iodine metabolism and its variability, study of the mineral composition of the human body. Transfers of contamination from sources of pollution to man - dry and moist deposits of iodine on grass - transfers of Cr, Zn and Cd in aquatic chains - transfers of heavy metals in marine chains - transfers of iodine and mercury from soil and sediments - transfers in foodstuffs during processing and distribution. Studies of the assessment of the radiological capacity of the environment and methods of assessing individual and collective doses [fr

  13. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  14. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  15. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  17. Natural radioactivity in food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnerts, W

    1989-03-01

    A number of longliving and still being produced radioactive isotopes produces well measurable and not to be neglected radiation, by which, via the food chains, plant, animal and man receives a socalled natural radiation dose. Six of the most important isotopes are discussed here. The radioisotopes /sup 14/C and /sup 40/K form part of the most live-necessary elements; they pass without strong enrichment and discrimination through the food chains and form a practically constant part of the living organism. Yet by excessive fertilizing a rather higher content of potassium than necessary is present in plants. Also a higher radiation dose arises from exessive uptake of food. The isotopes of uranium /sup 238/U and radium, /sup 226/Ra, discussed here, occur everywhere in the soil, but locally in very high amounts. They migrate for a very small part into plant and animal, sometimes occur in vegetable food as part of soil particles. Other important isotopes of the uranium families are radioactive lead, /sup 21/0Pb, and polonium, /sup 210/Po, which can be dispersed to a much greater amount than the other isotopes: in the form of the gaseous intermediate product radon, here the isotope /sup 222/Rn. /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po are finally deposited upon plants and other food products. In the hydrosphere /sup 210/Po can be enriched in the food chain from plankton to fish. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs.

  18. Natural radioactivity in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.

    1989-01-01

    A number of longliving and still being produced radioactive isotopes produces well measurable and not to be neglected radiation, by which, via the food chains, plant, animal and man receives a socalled natural radiation dose. Six of the most important isotopes are discussed here. The radioisotopes 14 C and 40 K form part of the most live-necessary elements; they pass without strong enrichment and discrimination through the food chains and form a practically constant part of the living organism. Yet by excessive fertilizing a rather higher content of potassium than necessary is present in plants. Also a higher radiation dose arises from exessive uptake of food. The isotopes of uranium 238 U and radium, 226 Ra, discussed here, occur everywhere in the soil, but locally in very high amounts. They migrate for a very small part into plant and animal, sometimes occur in vegetable food as part of soil particles. Other important isotopes of the uranium families are radioactive lead, 21 0Pb, and polonium, 210 Po, which can be dispersed to a much greater amount than the other isotopes: in the form of the gaseous intermediate product radon, here the isotope 222 Rn. 210 Pb and 210 Po are finally deposited upon plants and other food products. In the hydrosphere 210 Po can be enriched in the food chain from plankton to fish. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Implementation in laboratories of Latin America of procedures of harmonized essay for the determination of the radioactive contamination of food; Implementacion en laboratorios de Latinoamerica de procedimientos de ensayo armonizados para la determinacion de la contaminacion radiactiva de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M. [CPHR (Cuba); Iglicki, F.A. [CNEA (Argentina); Aguirre G, J. [CNSNS, (Mexico); Melo F, A.C. de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (Brazil); Tomicic M, I.J. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, (Chile); Loria M, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas Nucleares y Moleculares, (Costa Rica); Diodati, J.M. [ARN, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (1429), (Argentina); Vasquez B, L.R. [Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, (Ecuador); Alarcon S, F.A. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares, El Salvador (El Salvador); Civil, M. [Laboratoire Veterinaire et de Controle de Qualite des Aliments, (Haiti); Naut M, B.C. [Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana (Dominican Republic); Odino M, M.R. [Direccion Nacional de Energia y Tecnologia Nuclear (Uruguay); Flores M, Y.R. [Direccion General de Energia Atomica, (Venezuela); Rossbach, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, (Austria)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    In Latin America, nowadays, it is not had harmonized essay procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods. Equally, the great diversity of institutions that in each country are devoted to carry out this control and the difference in the level that its possess the same ones in quality matter, its impose the necessity to implant a Quality Management System on the base of harmonized technical criteria that its help to obtain reliable analytical results. With this end, it was proposed and it was approved the ARCAL LXXIX regional project: 'Harmonization of the technical and specific requirements of quality for the control of the radioactive contamination of foods'. In this work the aspects more significant of the design and content of the Manual of technical procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods, elaborated in the marks of the one referred project are presented. The same one includes eight procedures for the previous treatment of the samples, the spectrometric determination of gamma emitters radionuclides, the determination of the alpha activity indexes and total beta, of {sup 131} I, {sup 89,90} Sr, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238,} {sup 239} Pu and {sup 3} H, using different methodologies validated in the region. The actions carried out to implement this Manual are also exposed. (Author)

  20. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  1. The joint European TEMPUS project 'Human Security (environment, quality of food, public health, and society) on territories contaminated by radioactive agents'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Butchenkow, I.; Maestri, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Joint European TEMPUS Project 'Human Security (environment, quality of food, public health, and society) on Territories Contaminated by Radioactive Agents', started in 2012. The EU project participants are the following: University of Cordoba (Spain) - Project Coordinator, University of Parma (Italy), University of Florence (Italy), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden) and Riga Technical University (Latvia). The project involves three partner countries - Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, represented by the following institutions: Belarusian State University, International Sakharov Environmental University, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno State Agrarian University, Voronezh State University, Tyumen State Medical Academy, Ural Federal University (Yekaterinburg), Chelyabinsk State University, Nuclear Cities Information-Education Centre, Vinnitsa National Medical University, Zhytomyr State Technological University, Kyiv International University, Sevastopol National University of Nuclear Energy and Industry, Polissya branch of G.M. Vysotsky Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration. The main objectives of the project are: to develop interdisciplinary Master and Doctoral (PhD) programs in the field of Human Security of people living in areas affected by accidents at nuclear power plants / plant for processing nuclear fuel within the following specialties: Ecology and Environment Sciences - 'Human Security and Environment'; Food quality control - 'Human Security and Quality of Food'; Medicine - 'Human Security and Public Health'; Political and Social Sciences - 'Human Security and Society'. These programs will be implemented at 12 universities, 4 from each partner country. During the project implementation it is expected to achieve the following main results: modified interdisciplinary Master and Doctoral (PhD) programs taking into account the studied European experience and practice; joint system of upgrade of

  2. Technologies for remediating radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of technologies that can be used for the remediation of radioactively contaminated ground. There are a wide variety of techniques available -most have established track records for contaminated ground, though in general many are only just being adapted to use for radioactively contaminated ground. 1) Remediation techniques for radioactively contaminated ground involve either removal of the contamination and transfer to a controlled/contained facility such as the national LLW repository at Drigg, or 2) immobilization, solidification and stabilization of the contamination where the physical nature of the soil is changed, or an 'agent' is added to the soil, to reduce the migration of the contaminants, or 3) isolation and containment of the contaminated ground to reduce contaminant migration and control potential detrimental effects to human health. Where contamination has to be removed, ex situ and in situ techniques are available which minimize the waste requiring disposal to an LLW repository. These techniques include: 1) detector-based segregation 2) soil washing by particle separations 3) oil washing with chemical leaching agents 4) electro remediation 5) phyto remediation. Although many technologies are potentially applicable, their application to the remediation of a specific contaminated site is dependent on a number of factors and related to detailed site characterization studies, results from development trials and BPEO (best practicable environmental option) studies. Those factors considered of particular importance are: 1) the clean-up target 2) technical feasibility relative to the particular site, soil and contaminant characteristics, and time frame 3) site infrastructure arrangements and needs, the working life of the site and the duration of institutional care 4) long-term monitoring arrangements for slow remedial techniques or for immobilization and containment techniques 5) validation of the remediation 6) health and

  3. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination mapping system detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.; O'Callaghan, P.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Hanford Site's 100 Area production reactors released radioactively and chemically contaminated liquids into the soil column. The primary source of the contaminated liquids was reactor coolant and various waste waters released from planned liquid discharges, as well as pipelines, pipe junctions, and retention basins leaking into the disposal sites. Site remediation involves excavating the contaminated soils using conventional earthmoving techniques and equipment, treating as appropriate, transporting the soils, and disposing the soils at ERDF. To support remediation excavation, disposal, and documentation requirements, an automated radiological monitoring system was deemed necessary. The RCMS (Radioactive Contamination Mapping System) was designed to fulfill this need. This Detailed Design Report provides design information for the RCMS in accordance with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Engineering Design Project Instructions

  5. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    By this standard objective conditions to evaluate and test the ease of decontamination of surfaces under laboratory conditions are to be laid down. Ease of decontamination in this context denotes the summed-up effect of two material properties: a) the capacity of the material for retaining radioactive substances at its surface; b) the ease with which these substances are given off again in the course of cleaning processes. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  7. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  8. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  9. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, S.; Lacourly, G.; Garnier, A.; Cresta, M.; Lombardo, E.

    1968-01-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [fr

  10. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  11. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  12. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  13. Method for electrolytic decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Horita, Masami; Onuma, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrolytic decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals. The contaminated sections are eluted by electrolysis after the surface of a piece of equipment used with radioactive substances has been immersed in an electrolyte. Metal contaminated by radioactive substances acts as the anode

  14. Radioecological conditions in the towns, where the status of radioactive contamination zones will change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, T.N.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Zajtsev, A.A.; Makarevich, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data of changes in the density of soil contamination in settlements where in 2015 change of the status of contaminated areas is possible. Article contains analysis of monitoring of radioactive contamination of food from private farms, the results of radio ecological inspection conducted in 2013-2014. (authors)

  15. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  16. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  17. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food

  18. ARRRG/FOOD, Doses from Radioactive Release to Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of

  19. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  20. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.; Khan, A.J.; Semkow, T.M.; Syed, U.-F.; Roselan, A.; Haines, D.K.; Roth, G.; West, L.; Arndt, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with 241 Am (alpha radioactivity), 90 Sr/ 90 Y (beta radioactivity), and 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 241 Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  1. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Long-run consequences of radioactive contamination in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1983-01-01

    Three papers dealing with the effect of released radioactivity on agricultural operations are presented. The risk of the radiation from 137 Cs is estimated and compased with 90 Sr. The transport of radionuclides in the soil of the district of Malmoehus is calculated and applied to the radiation doses by oral food intake. Calculations of radiation doses by external radiation are also presented and the procedures to prevent contamination of food are disscussed. The items were treated at a public hearing on the 11th of June 1981 (G.B.)

  3. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Y.

    1960-01-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [fr

  4. Radioactive contamination of natural and artificial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, E.L.; Pomansky, A.A.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Temmoev, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma radiation of different materials was measured in an underground low-background chamber with extraordinary background characteristics. The excellent background conditions of the measurements enabled investigators to see the alpha-particle peaks of the internal radioactive contamination of NaI(Tl) detectors, which were especially made for these measurements. The sensitivity limit of the installation was determined by the internal contamination of the NaI(Tl) detectors alone. Any radiation background, except for three substances, tungsten, copper, and brass, could be registered

  5. An overview of sites contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses contamination of land and water by radioactive material which is a subject that has been receiving widespread media attention, and has become the cause of much public anxiety. The contaminated sites can be divided broadly into three groups: Those that are quite old, relatively small in size, and the legacy of non-nuclear industrial activities involved with natural radioactivity, mostly in the early part of the century; the chain of uranium extraction plants used during and shortly after World War II, and the plants and laboratories that comprise the Department of Energy (DOE) research and weapons production complex today. It is the latter group that is the focus of greatest public attention at the present time

  6. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, M; Fujii, M; Kitaguchi, H

    1982-03-29

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode.

  8. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  9. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    For the consideration of the effects on radioactive contamination of agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident, the wet interception coefficients for the plants were derived, and the previous dynamic food chain model was also modified. From the results, radioactive contamination of agricultural products was greatly decreased by rainfall, and it decreased dramatically according to increase of rainfall amount. It means that the predictive contamination in agricultural products using the previous dynamic food chain model, in which dry interception to the plants is only considered, can be overestimated. Influence of rainfall on the contamination of agricultural products was the most sensitive for 131 I, and the least sensitive for 90 Sr

  11. Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulovsky, S.M.; Kryshev, I.I.; Nikitin, A.I.; Savitsky, Y.V.; Malyshev, S.V.; Tertyshnik, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Based on observational data in the period 1971-1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24 Na, 32 P, 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Mn, 58 Co, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 90 Sr, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 144 Ce and 239 Np in the river ecosystem components were generalised. Radioactive contamination of water in the near zone of discharges (within 15 km) was shown to be determine mainly by the short-lived nuclides, such as 24 Na, 32 P, 56 Mn and 239 Np, as well as 51 Cr. Outside the near zone the water contamination level decreased appreciably. According to observational data of 1973, the total contamination inventory of the river bottom in the near zone was as great as 5800 kBq m -2 . More than half was accounted for by two radionuclides: 51 Cr and 65 Zn. At a distance of 1930 km from the site of discharges a technogenic activity of bottom sediments amounted to 5 kBq m -2 and was accounted for by 137 Cs and 65 Zn. The main radionuclide accumulated in fish was 32 P. Exposure doses to aquatic organisms and population were assessed in the near and far zones of the Krasnoyarsk radioactive contamination trace. Within 250 km of the site of discharges the exposure dose to the population from a consumption of 1 kg of fish was shown to amount to an average of 10 μSv. (author)

  12. Phytoremediation options for radioactively contaminated sites evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of the most important site and environmental radioactive contamination problems encountered. ► The potential role of different phytomanagement options is discussed and illustrated with examples. ► The phytomanagement options considered are: soil phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, wetlands and alternative land use. - Abstract: The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed

  13. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  14. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  15. Criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, J.; Mobbs, S.; Burgess, P.; Hitchins, G.; Sinclair, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land. It should be read in conjunction with reference to another output from the project i.e. Environment Agency report, Technical Support Material for the Regulation of Radioactively Contaminated Land 1999. This report deals with the intervention on radioactively contaminated sites i.e. where no change of land use is anticipated and where the land has become contaminated as a result of previous land use and not current practices. (author)

  16. Natural and induced radioactivity in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    One of the first questions often asked about irradiated food is whether it is radioactive. Not many people understand that food and any natural substance contains natural radioactivity which can be measurable. It is therefore important to put the issue on natural radioactivity and possible induced radioactivity in food in perspective. While there is a clear consensus among the scientific community that no radioactivity is induced when food is irradiated by gamma rays from cobalt-60 or cesium-137, electron generated by a machine with energy less than 10 million electron volt (MeV) or X rays produced generated by a machine with energy less than 5 MeV. However, data to this effect were published many years ago and are not easy to find. As food irradiation is gaining wide acceptance in many countries, it was considered timely to compile data on natural and induced radioactivity in food into one document. We are grateful to A. Brynjolfsson, one of the few experts who have the knowledge on this subject as well as wide experience on food irradiation, who collected, compiled and evaluated all data on this subject into one report. This publication provides clear explanations not only why radioactivity cannot be induced in food irradiated by radiation sources mentioned above but to what extent the increase in dose or energy level of radiation sources would induce significantly radioactivity in food. The compilation of such data was prompted by a desire to increase the energy limit and the absorbed dose based on the need to irradiate thicker samples of food and to use sterilizing dose up to 60 kGy. This publication concluded that the increase in radiation background dose from consumption of food irradiated to an average dose up to 60 kGy with gamma rays from cobalt- 60 or cesium-137, with 10 MeV electrons or with 5 MeV X rays is insignificant. In addition, food irradiated with X ray with energy up to 7.5 MeV to a dose of 30 kGy has radioactivity well below natural

  17. Natural and induced radioactivity in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    One of the first questions often asked about irradiated food is whether it is radioactive. Not many people understand that food and any natural substance contains natural radioactivity which can be measurable. It is therefore important to put the issue on natural radioactivity and possible induced radioactivity in food in perspective. While there is a clear consensus among the scientific community that no radioactivity is induced when food is irradiated by gamma rays from cobalt-60 or cesium-137, electron generated by a machine with energy less than 10 million electron volt (MeV) or X rays produced generated by a machine with energy less than 5 MeV. However, data to this effect were published many years ago and are not easy to find. As food irradiation is gaining wide acceptance in many countries, it was considered timely to compile data on natural and induced radioactivity in food into one document. We are grateful to A. Brynjolfsson, one of the few experts who have the knowledge on this subject as well as wide experience on food irradiation, who collected, compiled and evaluated all data on this subject into one report. This publication provides clear explanations not only why radioactivity cannot be induced in food irradiated by radiation sources mentioned above but to what extent the increase in dose or energy level of radiation sources would induce significantly radioactivity in food. The compilation of such data was prompted by a desire to increase the energy limit and the absorbed dose based on the need to irradiate thicker samples of food and to use sterilizing dose up to 60 kGy. This publication concluded that the increase in radiation background dose from consumption of food irradiated to an average dose up to 60 kGy with gamma rays from cobalt- 60 or cesium-137, with 10 MeV electrons or with 5 MeV X rays is insignificant. In addition, food irradiated with X ray with energy up to 7.5 MeV to a dose of 30 kGy has radioactivity well below natural

  18. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  19. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  20. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  1. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  2. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69... Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects evidence that a sealed source has ruptured or licensed materials have caused contamination, the licensee...

  3. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  4. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  5. Surveillance of radioactivity in imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kosako, Maki; Tomita, Banichi

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, the authors examined imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture from 1988 to 1999 for residual radioactivity. The concentration of both 134 Cs and 137 Cs was determined with an NaI(Tl) detector in 940 samples, including cereals and processed cereals (23%), vegetables and processed vegetables (19%), fruits and processed fruits (17%), including wines (6%), cheese and dairy products (12%), drinking water (11%), confections (6%), and other foods (12%). The countries of origin were Italy (35%), France (2%), Germany (5%), Denmark (4%), the Netherlands (4%), other European Countries (21%), the United States (5%), and other Countries (5%). None of the imported foods tested contained a total residual 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity exceeding 370 Bq/Kg, the preliminary limit set by the government, but 1.3% of the imported foods contained more than 5 Bq/Kg, the lower limit of detection. Both the numbers and rates of imported foods containing radioactivity have clearly been decreasing since the accident, but it was noteworthy that raspberry juice produced in the Netherlands in 1998, 12 years after the accident, contained the highest level of residual radioactivity in this survey (94 Bq/Kg). If it were processed to enriched juice and jam, its radioactivity might exceed the preliminary limit. Since processed and enriched fruits are not currently included among inspected foods, fruits in them whose radioactivity exceeds the limit can be marketed, and thus the present inspection system should be assessed. The preliminary radioactivity limit was determined based on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, and it will be necessary to set new preliminary limits if a new, unexpected nuclear accident occurs. This surveillance data is expected to served as reference data. (K.H.)

  6. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  7. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  8. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  9. Packaging and transportation of radioactively contaminated lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, Eugene; Holden, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Under the management of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) the government of the United Kingdom has launched an ambitious program to remediate the nation's nuclear waste legacy. Over a twenty-five year period NDA plans to decommission several first generation nuclear power plants and other radioactive facilities. The use innovative, safe 'fit for purpose' technologies will be a major part of this complex program. This paper will present a case study of a recently completed project undertaken in support of the nuclear decommissioning activities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom. The focus is on an innovative application of new packaging technology developed for the safe transportation of radioactively contaminated lead objects. Several companies collaborated on the project and contributed to its safe and successful conclusion. These companies include British Nuclear Group, Gravatom Engineering, W. F. Bowker Transport, Atlantic Container Lines, MHF Logistical Solutions and Energy Solutions. New containers and a new innovative inter-modal packaging system to transport the radioactive lead were developed and demonstrated during the project. The project also demonstrated the potential contribution of international nuclear recycling activities as a safe, economic and feasible technical option for nuclear decommissioning in the United Kingdom. (authors)

  10. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic - Present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In 1991, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (author)

  11. Radioactivity in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.

    1973-01-01

    A few years ago the writer of a popular article on radioactivity in the oceans suggested that future historians will record that man began to reap the benefits of nuclear energy and the oceans almost simultaneously. Indeed, nuclear power may prove to be a major factor in the exploration, study, and rational use of the oceanic areas covering more than two-thirds of the earth. Most uses of nuclear energy result in the production of some unwanted radioactive wastes. Naturally, high-level wastes are very carefully controlled and stored; and low-level radioactive wastes and by-products are only permitted to enter the environment under the strictest precautions. Research on the fates of radioisotopes entering the marine environment is the province of marine radio-ecologists. This article will touch on some studies of radioecologists concerning the transfer of radioactive materials between water, plants, animals, and sediments in the oceans. (author)

  12. Not to confuse 'contaminated' food and 'irradiated' or 'ionised' food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Food contamination corresponds to the undesired presence of radioactive products in food, while irradiation is a process to which food can be deliberately submitted to improve its preservation or hygiene. This publication explains this difference. It describes the process, physical effects and health impacts of radioactive contamination of food. It briefly describes irradiation or ionisation processes, their objectives, doses of ionising radiations used on food products, undesired and harmful effects. It also indicates food products concerned by these irradiation processes, and the associated legal framework, evokes the lack of information of consumers regarding such practices, briefly evokes risks associated with irradiation installations, and indicates where these installations are located in France

  13. Natural radioactive isotopes in food of Polish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Lis, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The natural radioactive isotopes contamination of basic food products and water in two regions of Poland (Central Poland and Silesia Region) have been measured. The following isotopes have been taken into account: U-234, U-238, Th-228, Th-230, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210; Po-210. The annually intake of mentioned isotopes by regional population and relative doses have been assessed for typical diet of adults in Poland

  14. Radioactive contamination of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1997-01-01

    The major source of man-made radioactivity in the oceans is derived from nuclear weapons testing fallout, which occurred mostly in the late 1950s and early 1960s. For example, 0.9 EBq of 137 Cs and 0.6 EBq of 90 Sr were introduced in this way. Only 60% of the released activity was disposed of in the oceans, rather than 70%, because the nuclear weapons testing occurred mainly in the Northern hemisphere, and the land masses cover more of the Northern hemisphere than the Southern hemisphere. There have also been other releases into the oceans; for example, the water-borne discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the UK, which occurred from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. During this decade, in the order of 40 PBq of 137 Cs was discharged into the Irish sea, and from there it was transported into the north Atlantic ocean. The third important source of radioactivity was the Chernobyl accident. Although most of this radioactivity was distributed over the land masses, about 5 PBq was deposited into the Baltic Sea and about 3 PBq into the Black Sea. The radioactive debris from Chernobyl was distributed around the Northern hemisphere, so some of the radioactivity must have been deposited in the North Atlantic ocean. There have also been a number of local contaminations of the oceans. Among these are satellite failures. For example, the SNAP-9A satellite, which burned up over the South Atlantic ocean in the early 1960s, became a major source of 238 Pu pollution. This is the reason why there is an increased 238 Pu: 239 Pu ratio, mostly in the Southern hemisphere, in global fallout. There are also a number of nuclear submarines on the bottom of the sea; for example, the American Thresher submarine in the Atlantic ocean and the Comsomolets submarine in the Norwegian-Barents sea. Furthermore, there have been several accidents with nuclear weapons; for example, the Palomares accident in Spain in 1966 and the Thule accident in Greenland in 1968. Finally, nuclear

  15. Radioactive contamination at Chelyabinsk-65, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.B.; Norris, R.S.; Suokko, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    As a consequence of poor waste management practices at Chelyabinsk-65, primarily during the first two decades of operations, the site and its surroundings were extensively contaminated, and thousands of people were unknowingly exposed to excessive levels of radiation. In terms of human health consequences, most of the damage has already been inflicted. Nevertheless, containment of the residual radioactivity in high-level waste tanks, in the reservoirs along the Techa River, and in and below Lake Karachay represents expensive challenges for which the best, or even adequate solutions, have yet to be devised. Russian scientists have the knowledge to address these problems, but lack practical experience with contemporary waste management practices. Western expertise could be helpful in quantifying the extent of the problems and devising solutions. However, the real challenge will be to mobilize the economic resources for effective cleanup at Chelyabinsk-65 in light of all the other economic and environmental problems Russia faces. 81 refs

  16. Sources of radioactive contamination inside houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    People may be exposed at home to multiple sources of nuclear radiation such as gamma, beta and alpha rays emitters. House atmosphere is polluted with nuclear radiation from water pollutants and rocks used in the construction. Radon is the only radioactive non-metallic element. Environmental organizations estimated that all houses contain varying concentrations of radon gas, and the residents are exposed to levels of radon over the years. The source of radon in houses is uranium, which may be found in rocks of the house, soil of the garden, water of the deep artesian wells and building materials, especially granite rocks. Breathing air that contains high levels of radon causes lung cancer. Radon is the second cause of lung disease after smoking. There are many means to reduce house pollution including: utilisation of air filters to remove contaminated dust particles, keep residential areas away from the establishments that use nuclear technology or embedded by nuclear waste, avoid using materials made from asbestos in construction works and proper use and disposal of chemicals and medicines containing radioactive isotopes. (author)

  17. Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.; Roberts, R.; Phillips, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department's remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials

  18. Radioactivity in foods - a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of radioactivity data measured after the reactor accident at Chernobyl with those determined in the early 60s shows that iodine 131 in leafy vegetables and in milk was higher in early May than at any previous time. Due to the short half-life of iodine 131 the level of this radionuclide in most of the tested food samples has now fallen below the limit of detectability. Field-grown leafy vegetables contained several hundred Bq/kg of caesium 137 in early May and had to be plowed under. In the meantime caesium 137 activity in most products has fallen to levels not higher than in 1964. In many products the levels are lower. Contamination with strontium 90 and alpha-emitters due to Chernobyl is of minor significance. The total additional effective radiation dose within 50 years in the Federal Republic of Germany is estimated at 150 to 200 mrem per person. The dose due to natural sources in the same time span will be 500 to 20 000 mrem. No reasons are seen for any changes in nutritional behaviour.

  19. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  20. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la Communaute Europenne et vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive. Premiere serie de resultats concernant la consommation alimentaire des individus groupes en neuf classes d'ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S; Lacourly, G; Garnier, A; Cresta, M; Lombardo, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. Le traitement de l'information apportee par les enquetes alimentaires familiales realisees dans onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne a permis de determiner les consommations alimentaires des individus groupes en neuf classes d'age, en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive dans les chaines alimentaires. La methode statistique employee est decrite et les resultats obtenus sont presentes sous forme de tableaux a double entree donnant pour chacune des regions etudiees et pour chacune des neuf classes d'age, les consommations moyennes hebdomadaires, ainsi que les apports en principes nutritifs, mineraux, vitamines et oligo-elements, et calories de chaque regime. (auteurs)

  1. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    estimated dose of 0.42 mSv from enhanced levels of natural radioactivity due to the legacy of past operations at the Rhodia Consumer Specialties Ltd. works at Whitehaven. Operations at this site ceased at the end of 2001 and the plant will be demolished in 2003. By definition, other groups will have received lower doses. In terms of radiation exposure, the next most important group was people living in houseboats in the Ribble estuary in Lancashire. Their dose was from external radiation and was 0.12 mSv in 2002, similar to 0.14 mSv in 2001. The main source of their exposure was radioactive contamination in estuary mud arising from past Sellafield discharges. The highest exposures in Scotland were to the group of terrestrial food consumers around Chapelcross who received an annual dose of 0.055 mSv as a result of gaseous discharges including a component due to inhalation. The second highest exposure was wholly attributable to Sellafield. It relates to a group of consumers of seafood, spending time over inter-tidal areas, who were estimated to receive annual doses of 0.045 mSv. In 2001, this group was estimated to have received a similar dose of 0.040 mSv. Doses due to gaseous discharges from Sellafield were 0.038 mSv, similar to the dose in 2001 of 0.037 mSv. The assessment included the consumption of milk, vegetables, fruit and meat and external exposure from gaseous discharges. The contribution from gaseous discharges of argon-41 reduced by about a factor of five in line with operations at Calder Hall. Most of the seafood and external exposure that can be attributed to Sellafield was from historic discharges. Recent and current discharges of technetium-99 contributed 0.030 mSv, which is around 15% of the dose to the Sellafield seafood consumers. The next most significant site was Dungeness where gaseous discharges from the two power stations resulted in exposure of 0.12 mSv in 2002, mostly from argon-41 in external radiation pathways. At Heysham, high-rate seafood

  2. Assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination levels by depleted uranium after NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.; Markovic, S; Plecas, I.

    2001-01-01

    During NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia various ammunition have been used, some of them for the first time. Among others, 30 mm bullets with depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been used. Radioactivity contamination surveys have started during the war due to indications that DU is used in cruise missiles. Besides that, there were a lot of radioactivity analysis of food, drinking water etc. Some of the obtained results are presented in this paper. Depleted uranium ammunition can permanently contaminate environment and so produce effects on population. Relation of the international radiation and environmental protection standards and contamination levels are discussed as well. (author)

  3. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, C.

    1964-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [fr

  4. Food and water radioactivity surveillance system in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucu, A.; Gheorghe, R.; May, C.; Barbu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Justification: Food and water radioactivity content are closely related both to natural radioactivity and also generated by contamination due to anthropic nuclear activities. Consequently, in accordance with the European Union acquis and World Health Organization recommendation, surveillance systems were operationalized in many European countries. According to the national Romanian derived legislation the public health authorities are responsible for organizing and coordination of the national surveillance system for water and food radioactivity and their health related effects. Objectives: Description of the levels and type of radioactivity of drinking water and main foodstuffs and their contribution to the Romanian population exposure in order to elaborate appropriate public health interventions. Method: The gross parameters, alpha and beta, have been used for screening surveillance of drinking water sources indeed for potable purposes in order to identify those that could exceed the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year. The food surveillance was focused on the main foodstuffs including milk, meat, fish, eggs, bread, potatoes, root vegetables (mainly carrots), leafy vegetables (mainly cabbage), fruits, and canteen menu, controlled for presence and level of radioactivity for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 40 K. Nuclear facility related monitoring for areas as nuclear power plant Cernavoda (type HWR-CANDU) and for regions with activities of extraction and fabrication of uranium fuel includes monitoring of radioactivity for: environmental deposit levels, surface waters, spontaneous vegetation, drinking water and foodstuffs. Results: 1) The water radioactivity surveillance results, mapped by administrative borders of the national territory, reveal that parameters of drinking water complies both with Drinking Water Directive 98/83 EC and WHO recommandation/2004; 2) For food stuff radioactivity: a) Mean registered values fully comply with reference for

  5. Influence of radioactive contaminants on absorbed dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Several popular radiopharmaceutical products contain low levels of radioactive contaminants. These contaminants increase the radiation absorbed dose to the patient without any increased benefit and, in some cases, with a decrease in image quality. The importance of a contaminant to the radiation dosimetry picture is a function of 1) the contaminant level, 2) the physical half-life of the contaminant, 3) the organ uptake and the biological half-time of the contaminant in the various body systems, and 4) the decay mode, energy, etc. of the contaminant. The general influence of these parameters is discussed in this paper; families of curves are included that reflect the changing importance of contaminant dosimetry with respect to the primary radionuclide as a function of these variables. Several specific examples are also given of currently used radiopharmaceutical products which can contain radioactive contaminants (I-123, In-111, Tl-201, Ir-191m, Rb-82, Au-195m). 7 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  6. Radioactivity measurement in imported food and food related items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Santos, F.L.; Rosa, A.M. de la; Tangonan, M.C.; Bulos, A.D.; Nuguid, Z.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), formerly Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) undertook the radioactivity monitoring of imported food and food-related products after the Chernobyl Plant accident in April 1986. Food samples were analyzed for 137 Cs and 134 Cs by gamma spectral method of analysis. This report deals with the measurement process and gives the result of the activity covering the period June 1986 to December 1987. (Auth.). 9 tabs., 7 figs., 4 refs

  7. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  8. Methods for removing radioactive isotopes from contaminated streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, D.R.; Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.; Parish, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for removing radioactive isotopes from contaminated gas streams for use in atmospheric containment and cleanup systems in nuclear power plants are provided. The methods provide for removal of radioactive isotopes from a first portion of the contaminated stream, separated from the remaining portion of the stream, so that adsorbent used to purify the first portion of the contaminated stream by adsorption of the radioactive isotopes therefrom can be tested to determine the adsorbing efficacy of the generally larger portion of adsorbent used to purify the remaining portion of the stream

  9. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  10. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  11. Lichens as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarzov, L.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of lichens were investigated, collected in 1987 in the Eastern Urals and in 1988 in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Data are given on the size of thalli of epiphytic lichens from trunks of pine in the Chernobyl area, and on the beta activity in epiphytic lichens in the birch forests of the Urals 30 years after the Kyshtym accident, as well as concentrations of 40 K, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and the bark of pine tree, taken at 5 locations in the vicinity of Chernobyl 1000 days after the accident. Also given are cross-ratios of radioactivity of 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and in the bark of pine trees. The results indicate that the activity of radionuclides in lichen thalli make a fairly reliable indicator of relative differences between the investigated areas in terms of the level of surface contamination and qualitative composition of the involved radionuclides. (J.B.) 4 tabs., 15 refs

  12. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  13. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report continues the series which combines the results of the radioactivity monitoring programmes previously published by MAFF in two documents: the 'Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) Report: Radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales' and the 'Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report: Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles' (AEMR). For the first time the report includes the results of all environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out on behalf of the regulatory authority in Scotland. These results were previously presented in the 'Statistical Bulletin: Environmental Monitoring for Radioactivity in Scotland' (e.g. The Scottish Office, (1996). Measurements in 1996 included the analysis of samples of food and other materials from the environment and detection of beta and gamma dose rates in the environment. The results show that radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose rates were generally similar to those in 1995. However, near Sellafield, despite the general downward trend in disposals from the site during 1996, there were some increases in concentrations of technetium-99 and carbon-14 in marine foodstuffs reflecting disposals from and operations on the site in previous years. These operations included processing of stored wastes and the operation of the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP). The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) continued its commissioning phase in 1996 and its disposals had little effect on food and the marine environment. The results of the monitoring have been interpreted in terms of public radiation exposures using data on activity levels in food and local surveys to establish potential 'critical groups' of people likely to be most exposed. (author)

  14. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 2. Radioactive cesium in daily food rations of selected population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibniewska, K.; Smoczynski, S.S.; Wisniewska, I.

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium isotopes emitting beta radiation was studied in daily food rations analysed in diets of working-class and non-working-class families from food products from the regions of Olsztyn, Poznan, Lublin, Warsaw and Wroclaw in 1987 and 1988. In 1987 the highest level of radioactive cesium was found in the food rations in Olsztyn, and lowest in the rations in Poznan (3.32 and 0.65 Bq/kg respectively). In 1988 higher radiocesium content was found in rations composed according to the data on the diet consumed daily in non-working-class families. In that case the highest content was in the daily food rations composed in Warsaw - 2.35 Bq/kg and lowest in Poznan - 1.19 Bq/kg in the daily food rations of working-class families about one half of that value was found. The calculated means values of both analysed rations were: 1.35 for Olsztyn, 0.89 for Poznan, and 1.86 Bq/kg for Warsaw. The calculated mean value of the contamination with radioactive cesium was in 1988 0.93 Bq/kg for the rations in working-class families (in 1987 it was 1.80 Bq/kg). (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  15. Method of melting decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the transfer efficiency of radioactive materials into slags. Method: Contaminated metals are melt with adding slagging agent in order to transfer the radioactive materials into the slag, where the slagging agent holds less free energy than that of metal oxides contaminated with radioactive materials in order to promote the transfer of the contaminated materials into the slag layer. This effect can also be attained on metals or alloys other than iron contaminated with radioactive materials. In the case of alloy, the slagging agent is to containing such metal oxide that free energy is less than that of the oxide of metal being the main ingredient element of the alloy. The decontamination effect can further be improved by containing halogenide such as calcium fluoride together with the metal oxide into the slagging agent. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  17. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  18. Monitoring radioactive contamination in food, water sediments and other environmental samples in Egypt. Final report for the period 1 October 1992 - 31 July 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, M.

    1996-09-01

    A detailed survey for radioactivity content was carried out in the following materials: 1) Raw (from quarries) and finished (e.g., bricks, cement, ceramic tiles) building materials originating in central Egypt; 2) soils and plants (particularly cattle fodder) in upper Egypt, including soil to plant transfer factors; 3) water, bottom sediments and shore sediments from Lake Nasser and its immediate surroundings; 4) water, fish, bottom and shore sediments from the Lake Quaran region; 5) soil, plant, drinking water, bottom and shore sediments from the Sinai Peninsula. The concentrations of the following radionuclides were measured: K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Th-232 and U-238. Samples were sealed in Marinelli beakers for 4 weeks to allow complete ingrowth of Rn-222 and daughters. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure K-40 and Cs-137 directly and Ra-226, Th-232 and U-238 indirectly by means of daughter radioactivities. In addition, uranium measurements were also made after chemical decomposition of selected samples by laser fluorimetry and by alpha spectrometry techniques. The results were used for establishing a database of baseline radioactivity levels, for evaluating average doses to the population, for comparison with similar materials from other countries and for determining soil to plant transfer factors which can be used to estimate internal doses to the population. (author). Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Investigation of radioactive contamination at non-radioactive drains of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hiroaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Toru; Kawano, Shinji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1982-05-01

    In April, 1981, it was disclosed that a drainage area at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was so much contaminated with radioactivites. Although Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) officially provided an explanation of a process that resulted in the contamination, many problems remain unsolved on account of insufficient and limited investigations. The authors collected mud samples from contaminated manholes and examined radioactivities in them through the measurement of #betta#- and #betta#-spectra. Chemical separation of the samples was carried out in order to obtain precise concentration of radioactive cesium. Results are as follows: i) the concentration of radioactivities does not show monotonous decrease along the stream line but an anomalous peak at downstream manholes, ii) at the manhole specified No. 6 located rather downstream, 137 Cs concentration is significantly high and the composition of radioactive nuclides is quite different from that in the other manholes, and iii) additional radioactive contamination was observed in other manholes of non-radioactive drains which would not be influenced by the accident explained by MITI. Our present work has provided much more data than by MITI and made it clear that the overall data cnnot be consistent with the simple MITI explanation; a single radioactive release accident caused the disclosed contamination. It is concluded that non-radioactive water drains at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station had been under continual contamination. (author)

  20. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km 2 , the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km 2 or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km 2 are posted as surface contamination and 10 km 2 are posted as underground contamination

  1. Economics and risks of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Ayers, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    As Decontamination and Decommissioning activities proceed within the DOE complex, tremendous volumes of both radioactively contaminated and non-contaminated concrete will be processed for disposal. Current practice is to decontaminate the concrete, dispose of the contamination at LLW facilities and ship the concrete rubble to C ampersand D landfills for disposal. This study evaluates the economic, health and safety, legal, and social aspects of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete. Probabilistic models were used to estimate costs and risks. The model indicates that the radioactively contaminated concrete can be recycled at the same or lower cost than current or alternative practices. The risks associated with recycling were consistently less than or equal to the other alternatives considered

  2. Radioactive waste management for a radiologically contaminated hospitalized patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina Jomir, G.; Michel, X.; Lecompte, Y.; Chianea, N.; Cazoulat, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase following caring for a radiologically contaminated patient in a hospital decontamination facility must be anticipated at a local level to be truly efficient, as the volume of waste could be substantial. This management must comply with the principles set out for radioactive as well as medical waste. The first step involves identification of radiologically contaminated waste based on radioactivity measurement for volume reduction. Then, the management depends on the longest radioactive half-life of contaminative radionuclides. For a half-life inferior to 100 days, wastes are stored for their radioactivity to decay for at least 10 periods before disposal like conventional medical waste. Long-lived radioactive waste management implies treatment of liquid waste and special handling for sorting and packaging before final elimination at the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Following this, highly specialized waste management skills, financial responsibility issues and detention of non-medical radioactive sources are questions raised by hospital radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase. (authors)

  3. Airborne radioactive contamination following aerosol ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, A.; Hart, G.C.; Ibbett, D.A.; Whitehead, R.J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Lung aerosol ventilation studies may be accompanied by airborne contamination, with subsequent surface contamination. Airborne contamination has been measured prior to, during and following 59 consecutive 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol studies using a personal air sampler. Airborne contamination ranging between 0 and 20 330 kBq m -3 has been measured. Airborne contamination increases with degree of patient breathing difficulty. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to staff from ingested activity has been calculated to be 0.3 μSv per study. This figure is supported by data from gamma camera images of a contaminated staff member. However, surface contamination measurements reveal that 60% of studies exceed maximum permissible contamination limits for the hands; 16% of studies exceed limits for controlled area surfaces. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination in Arctic - present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Per

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is probably the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In the last decade information has also been released concerning the nuclear situation which has caused concern in many countries. Due to such concerns, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched in 1991 and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. In 1996 IAEPS became part of the Arctic Council. AMAP presented one main report in 1997 and another in 1998. There are also several other national, bilateral and international programmes in existence which deal with this issue. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (au)

  5. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Cabasino, L.; Kelly, R.; Awai, A.; Kasyk, G.

    1986-04-01

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60 Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60 Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  7. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-15

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of {sup 239,240}Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq {sup 239,240}Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of

  8. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-01

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq 239,240 Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of 239,240 Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq 239,240 Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq 239,240 Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of surface soil at

  9. Transboundary Movement of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizamska, M., E-mail: m.nimzamska@bnra.bg [Emergency Planning and Preparedness Division, Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-15

    Starting in 1989, Bulgaria has undergone a comprehensive transformation of its economy and social conditions. Part of this process is related to the intensive privatization that started in 2001. This privatization included facilities, as well as sites that use radioactive material for different applications - industry, medicine, agriculture, science, etc. The rapid change of property ownership and, in some cases, the resulting bankruptcy, has caused difficulties in tracing and identifying radioactive sources and materials and a deterioration of the system of safety, physical protection, etc. of radioactive material. In some cases, radioactive sources were stolen because of the value of their protective containers and sold for scrap metal. This led to the occurrence of different types of radiation incidents, mainly related to the discovery of radioactive sources in scrap metal. The consequences of these incidents include the risk of radiation exposure of the workers at scrap metal yards or reprocessing facilities and of members of the public and, in addition, radioactive contamination of the environment. The Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (BNRA) has been responding to these incidents and has carried out a series of measures to improve the control over materials (e.g. activated or surface contaminated materials) and radioactive sources and to strengthen the preventive, monitoring, emergency preparedness and mitigating measures at facility, national and transboundary levels. This paper presents an analysis of the lessons learned by the BNRA and of the control of the transboundary movement of radioactively contaminated scrap metal through the territory of Bulgaria. (author)

  10. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  11. Method of preventing contaminations in radioactive material handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)

  12. PABLM, Doses from Radioactive Releases to Atmosphere and Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. 2 - Method of solution: A chain decay scheme including branching for transitions to and from isomeric states is used for radioactive decay. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radio- logical Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and the maximum possible concentration (MPC) for each radionuclide. These doses are calculated as a function of radionuclide concentration in food products, ingestion rates, and a radionuclide-specific dose- commitment factor. Radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption

  13. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  14. The radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rainwaters, caused by the accident in NPP 'Lenin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barishicj, D.; Koshuticj, K.; Kvastek, K.; Lulicj, S.; Tuta, J.; Vertachnik, A.; Vrhovac, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rainwaters, caused by the accident in NPP 'Lenin', has been described. The results represent the sum of measured and evaluated data, the map of the radioactive contamination in Croatia caused by radioactive rainwaters between April, 28 to May, 20 1986 has been constructed. (author) 3 tabs.; 5 figs

  15. The determination of radioactive contamination level in Korean food. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.H.

    1979-03-01

    This study was performed from July, 1974 till May, 1978 to observe the Sr-90 concentration in Korean foodstuffs which were grown in Central district, Honam district, Youngnam district, and several islands (I.) districts; Ulnung I., Hucksan I. and Jeju I. The contamination levels in rice, barley, cultivated vegetables, and wild edible vegetables in Korea were studied. The results obtained were as follows; in the radiochemical determination of Sr-90 in rice and barley samples in 1977, it were estimated 14.7+-7.3 - 58.1+-20.9 pCi/gm-Ca, and 15.7+-3.5 - 90.9+-41.8 pCi/gm-Ca, respectively. The average values of the rice sample and the barley sample showed 34.2+-18.8 pCi/gm-Ca, and 52.5+-30.8 pCi/gm-Ca. In the radiochemical determination of Sr-90 in the cultivated vegetable samples and the wild edible vegetable samples, it were resulted that the cultivated vegetable samples showed 130.9+-2.1 pCi/gm-Ca and the wild edible vegetable sample showed 221.6+-2.2 pCi/gm-Ca. The contamination level by the part of plant were as followed; 153.4+-2.0 pCi/gm-Ca in leaf, 310.2+-3.3 pCi/gm-Ca in root and 131.4+-3.8 pCi/gm-Ca in fruit. (author)

  16. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G.

    1966-01-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [fr

  17. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  18. Bonding of radioactive contamination. IV. Effect of surface finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister are being investigated. Previous investigations in this series have examined the effects of temperature, oxidation before contamination, and atmosphere composition control on the bonding of contamination. This memorandum describes the results of tests to determine the effect of special surface finishes on the bonding of contamination to waste glass canisters. Surface pretreatments which produce smoother canister surfaces actually cause radioactive contamination to be more tightly bonded to the metal surface than on an untreated surface. Based on the results of these tests it is recommended that the canister surface finish be specified as having a bright cold rolled mill finish equivalent to ASTM No. 2B. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Water in the March river radioactively contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A curve of the tritium contamination of the March river measured in Austria from 1976 to 1989 is shown. The conjecture is put forward that this contamination is caused by the Dukovani power plant in the neighbouring CSFR. Further measurements are called for

  20. Bonding of radioactive contamination. III. Auger electron spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Whitkop, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister surface are being investigated. Tests with low pressure water and air-injected water decontamination of radioactive specimens showed that bonding of contamination increases rapidly with postoxidation temperature. Even with the least severe temperature conditions expected on the waste glass canister, bonding is so great that decontamination cannot be affected by water-only techniques. A preoxidation film increased rather than decreased bonding. This memorandum describes detailed surface analyses of coupons simulating DWPF canister surfaces. Based on this examination we conclude: contamination will be dispersed throughout the oxide film on DWPF canisters. Contamination is concentrated at the surface, decreasing farther into the oxide film; some samples contain sludge contamination at the steel/oxide interface. This was not the case for semi-volatile (Cs 2 O) contamination; in samples with contamination at the steel/oxide interface, at least 80% of the contamination is usually in the oxide layer; no difference in contamination dispersion between preoxidized and non-preoxidized samples was found; and postoxidation atmosphere had no effect on the contamination dispersion within the oxide layer. 6 references, 9 figures

  1. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  2. Radioactive elements found in plants contaminated by radioactive rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanidazawa, M; Ishihara, T

    1954-01-01

    Ashes obtained from contaminated trifolium repens, astragalus sinicus, and rumex japonicus were studied. The precipitate obtained by treating the acidic solution of the ash with H/sub 2/S followed by Fe/sup + +/ in the presence of NH/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/Cl contained Y, Sr, and the rare earth elements.

  3. Investigation to radioactive contamination of pool water in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. K.

    2003-06-01

    The pool (3x6x10) in irradiated materials examination facility is usually used for the purpose of taking the specimen out of cask loaded into the pool, and carrying in/out the specimen to/ from the hot cell. Always, it must be cared for the water into the pool to be fine condition because all operation are worked with the naked eye during taking an irradiated materials out of the cask and plunging them in the bucket-elevator. In the aspects of the radioactive remained substances in the water must be controlled so that the amount of substances to be lower than the standard amount prescribed by RCA Korea Activity in a part of radioactive contamination control. In consequence, an expertness of status and a practical use of skill make possible the prevention of radioactive material's diffusion or the radioactive contamination of pool water and safety work

  4. Method of melt-decontaminating alumium contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Iba, Hajime; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable optimum deontamination for radioactive-contaminated aluminum by further improving the decontaminating effect of the slag agent added to radioactive contaminated materials. Method: The slag agent is mainly composed of chloride type slags having a high reactivity for mainly incorporating uranium compounds and easily reacting near the melting point of aluminum and incorporated with fluorides for weakening the deliquescent characteristic to the chloride materials. Further, those slag agents are selected which can be treated at a low temperature in order to prevent the uranium compounds once incorporated into the slags from re-melting into the molten aluminum. Typically, a slag agent comprising 14 LiF, 76 KCl - 10 BaCl 2 is preferred. The basicity of the slag agent ranges from 0.5 to 2 and the melting point is 700 deg C. The melting decontaminating efficiency for the radioactive-contaminated aluminum can thus be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Chernobyl three years later: radiobiologic evaluation of a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, A.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Othmani, S.

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, after partial fusion and confining loss by explosion of a nuclear reactor, 5 x 10(7) Ci of radionuclides escaped from Chernobyl. Three years later, maps show contamination by radioactive isotopes (formed during that period) of 21,000 km2 of Soviet soil, mainly in Byelorussia and part of the Ukraine. Decontamination measures have not been effective to date and 135,000 persons are being followed medically, taking into account the radioactive doses they received. An initial excess of morbidity from solid tumors has been noted much sooner than in the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but its significance is in dispute. Three years later, only the extent of the ecologic disaster caused by the radioactive contamination can be confirmed. It is too early to draw conclusions about radiation-induced carcinogenesis for the contaminated population

  6. Dosimetric system for measurement of radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litynski, Z.; Pienkos, J.P.; Witkowski, J.; Zadrozny, S.

    1985-01-01

    A dosimetric system for personnel dosimetry and monitoring measuring a contamination without time delay and dead time is described. The system ensures many-point measurement and minimalization of background radiation influence. 1 fig. (A.S.)

  7. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  8. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Flesch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  9. An investigation of awareness on the Fukushima nuclear accident and Radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Chul; Song, Young Ju [Dept. of Consumer Safety, Korea Consumer Agency, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate Korean people's awareness about impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan and radioactive contamination caused by it. The respondents of the survey were 600 adults who resided in the Seoul metropolitan area. The survey results show that the majority of respondents were concerned about impact of radiation leakage that might have an effect on our environment. They were worried about radioactive contamination of foodstuffs, particularly fishery products and preferred to acquire information through TV(49.8%) or the Internet(31.3%). Meanwhile, respondents mentioned that the information on the Fukushima nuclear accident and radioactive contamination had not been sufficient and they didn't know well about the follow-up measures of the government on the accident. Most respondents answered that information on radioactive contamination levels and safety of foods and environment was most needed. The results of this study could be useful to enhance awareness on radioactivity and improve risk communication on nuclear power plant accidents.

  10. Risk Assessment Approaches for Carcinogenic Food Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Zoe; Pulido, Olga; Vavasour, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Health Canada has identified the need for a standardized department-wide approach for the risk assessment of carcinogens in foods (e.g., pesticides, food chemical contaminants, veterinary therapeutics). A standardized approach would better facilitate and inform risk management strategies for the control of human exposure to food sources of carcinogens. Within the post- market regulatory context, directly DNA-reactive carcinogens are of most concern because any exposure is theoretically assume...

  11. Method of melting and decontaminating radioactive contaminated aluminum material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo; Iba, Hajime.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the decontaminating efficiency upon melting decontamination of radioactive-contaminated aluminum materials. Method: This invention concerns an improvement for the method of melting decontamination by adding slug agent composed of organic compound to contaminated aluminum material and extracting the radioactive materials into the slug thereby decontaminating the aluminum material. Specifically metals effective for reducing the active amount of aluminum are added such that the content is greater than a predetermined value in the heat melting process. The metal comprises Mg, Cu or a mixture thereof and the content is more than 4 % including those previously contained in the aluminum material. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Radioactive contamination of workers. General recommendation and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Santos, O.R. dos; Silva, E.N.D.; Santos, A.J. dos.

    1987-09-01

    The present publication has an objective to provide data and information to be used by workers who handle with or eventually could enter in touch with radioactives substances. The authors have made a compilation of subjects got from the literature on several aspects about radiocontamination, physical and chemical characteristics of radioisotopes, main sources of radioactive contamination, biological basis and treatement of internal and external decontamination. Special attention was paid to iodine and actinides contamination, particularly to uranium and plutonium. The conclusion are presented as general recommendation and synoptic tables. (Author) [pt

  13. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  14. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  15. Evaluation of certain contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins. Annexed to the report is a summary of the toxicological and dietary exposure information as well as the Committee’s recommendations on the contaminants and groups of contaminants considered at this meeting.

  16. Germanium detectors and natural radioactivity in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbini, Lucia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GeDet-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Potassium is a very important mineral for many physiological processes, like fluid balance, protein synthesis and signal transmission in nerves. Many aliments like raisins, bananas or chocolate contain potassium. Natural potassium contains 0.012% of the radioactive isotope Potassium 40. This isotope decays via β{sup +} decay into a metastable state of Argon 40, which reaches its ground state emitting a gamma of 1460 keV. A commercially produced Germanium detector has been used to measure the energy spectra of different selected food samples. It was calibrated with KCl and potassium contents were extracted. Results verify the high potassium content of commonly recommended food samples. However, the measurement quantitatively differ from the expectations in several cases. One of the most interesting results concerns chocolate bars with different percentages of cacao.

  17. Test and evaluation of radioactively contaminated transducers and transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahm, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    People in the nuclear industries face some unique problems when handling, testing, or examining transducers and transmitters that have been radioactively contaminated. Although many people and organizations, including EG and G Idaho, have performed such work for many years, there are no set, structured approaches or procedures. This paper discusses a disciplined laboratory approach to contaminated transducer testing and evaluation, utilizing equipment and facilities developed specifically for this type of work

  18. Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

  19. The role of bioindicators in assessing radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovicj, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is a survey of investigations into radioactive contamination of selected plant and animal species (bioindicators) which have the capacitr for multiple accumulation of fission products. Literature data on the contamination of bioindicators are compared with special reference to the accumulation of 131 I, 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of atmospheric nuclear experiments and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. (author) 52 refs.; 3 figs [sh

  20. Rapid Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Rare Earth Mine Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to estimate the current levels of environmental radioactivity in Bayan Obo rare earth mine and to study the rapid evaluation methods of radioactivity contamination in the rare earth mine, the surveys of the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and gamma dose rate measurement were carried out around the mining area and living area. The in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer was composed of a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75mm×75mm) and a multichannel analyzer. Our survey results in Bayan Obo Mine display: (1) Thorium-232 is the radioactive contamination source of this region, and uranium-238 and potassium - 40 is at the background level. (2) The average content of thorium-232 in the slag of the tailings dam in Bayan Obo is as high as 276 mg/kg, which is 37 times as the global average value of thorium content. (3) We found that the thorium-232 content in the soil in the living area near the mining is higher than that in the local soil in Guyang County. The average thorium-232 concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7±7.5 and 26.2±9.1 mg/kg, respectively. (4) It was observed that thorium-232 was abnormal distributed in the contaminated area near the tailings dam. Our preliminary research results show that the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry is an effective approach of fast evaluating rare earths radioactive pollution, not only can the scene to determine the types of radioactive contamination source, but also to measure the radioactivity concentration of thorium and uranium in soil. The environmental radioactive evaluation of rare earth ore and tailings dam in open-pit mining is also needed. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41674111).

  1. Radioactive substances found on the contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiba, T; Ohashi, S; Shibata, M; Mizube, T

    1954-01-01

    Radiochemical investigation of the substance collected from the surface of tuna fish which were brought back by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru was performed. Most of the radioactivity was found on the scales which could not be decontaminated by treating with H/sub 2/O; 80% of the activity was removed by washing the dried scales with 3N HCl. Paper chromatographic separation of the HCl fraction showed the presence of /sup 140/Ba, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 132/Te, and probably /sup 95/Zr, /sup 140/La, and rare earths.

  2. Biological effects of water reservoir radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation damage to fresh water fishes at early stages of ontogenesis is revealed only during the spawn incubation in a solution with 10 -5 to 10 -3 Cu/l radioactivity and at relatively high dosages exceeding 500-1000 rad. Damaging effect of a fission product mixture of 9, 30 and 100 day age as well as of several separate radionuclides on embryogenesis of freshwater fishes depends mainly on fish species, concentration, toxicity, chemical form of radionuclides in the residence medium, on peculiarities of metabolism between the aqueous medium and an organism, stage of the embryo development by the moment of radiation effect and duration of this effect

  3. Radiological risk assessment of a radioactively contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted at a radioactively contaminated site under current site use conditions and based on the available preliminary radiological characterization data for the site. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  5. Radioactive air and surface contamination in Czechia and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on the radioactive substance effluents into the environment in conditions of NPP normal operation and on the air contamination by 85 Kr due to operation of the European and Soviet plants for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. Data are given on the dosage of the Czechoslovakia population due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

  6. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Wahba, A.G.; Elraey, M.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  7. Thermoexoemission detectors for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obukhov, V.T.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detectors on base of BeO(Na) monocrystals with thermoemission to be used for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters are suggested. The detectors advantages are sensitivity to α and low-ehergy β radiations, high mechanical strength and wide range of measurements. The main disadvantage is the necessity of working in red light

  8. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  9. Some thoughts concerning the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs 10 years after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Chernobyl disaster happened 10 years ago (26 Apr. 1986), investigation of the radioactive contamination of the environmental is still in the focus of interest. However it can be established that the pollution level in Hungary- like other, from the place of accident rather far located countries - decreased significantly in the food chain in comparison with measured data in May-June, 1986. Practically the present contamination level (e.q. 137 Cs, 90 Sr) since 1989 is the same as it was in the years before the disaster. Since the level of artificial contamination is much less than the natural radioactivity (e.q. 40 K, 226 Ra) of the foodstuffs, the radiation burden caused by the consumed foodstuffs is negligible. (author)

  10. Methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels at decommissioned nuclear facilities/sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hoenes, G.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ultimate disposition of decommissioned nuclear facilities and their surrrounding sites depends upon the degree and type of residual contamination. Examination of existing guidelines and regulations has led to the conclusion that there is a need for a general method to derive residual radioactive contamination levels that are acceptable for public use of any decommissioned nuclear facility or site. This paper describes a methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels based on the concept of limiting the annual dose to members of the public. It is not the purpose of this paper to recommend or even propose dose limits for the exposure of the public to residual radioactive contamination left at decommissioned nuclear facilities or sites. Unrestricted release of facilities and/or land is based on the premise that the potential annual dose to any member of the public using this property from all possible exposure pathways will not exceed appropriate limits as may be defined by Federal regulatory agencies. For decommissioned land areas, consideration should be given to people living directly on previously contaminated areas, growing crops, grazing food animals and using well water. Mixtures of radionuclides in the residual contamination representative of fuel reprocessing plants, light water reactors and their respective sites are presented. These mixtures are then used to demonstrate the methodology. Example acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels, based on an assumed maximum annual dose of one millirem, are calculated for several selected times following shutdown of a facility. It is concluded that the methodology presented in this paper results in defensible acceptable residual contamination levels that are directly relatable to risk assessment with the proviso that an acceptable limit to the maximum annual dose will be established. (author)

  11. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  12. Spectral imaging for contamination detection in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    application of the technique is finding anomalies I supposedly homogeneous matter or homogeneous mixtures. This application occurs frequently in the food industry when different types of contamination are to be detected. Contaminants could be e.g. foreign matter, process-induced toxins, and microbiological...... spoilage. Many of these contaminants may be detected in the wavelength range visible to normal silicium-based camera sensors i.e. 350-1050 nm with proper care during sample preparation, sample presentation, image acquisition and analysis. This presentation will give an introduction to the techniques behind...

  13. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  15. Contamination and decontamination of vehicles when driven in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Nygren, U.

    1999-10-01

    There is reason to ask whether it is beneficial to decontaminate vehicles, in view of the great effort applied. If the level of contamination is low before the decontamination process, then the cost is not motivated, even if the decontamination is shown to be effective in relative terms. The report describes two trials at the National NBC Defence School in Umeaa and one trial at the French test site in Bourges. The aim is to investigate how vehicles are contaminated and at which ground deposition levels troublesome levels of contamination will arise. In the trials, a non-radioactive agent substituting real radioactivity was used. The trials in Sweden so far have used the oversnow vehicle BV 206, during both winter and summer conditions. The vehicles were driven a specific distance along a road on which a known amount of the test substance had been dispersed. Samples were taken on pre-determined areas on one side of the vehicles to measure the amount of test substance. Later, the vehicles continued along a 'clean' road where additional samples were taken, but on the other side of the vehicles. The largest amount of test substance was collected on the tracks and on the back of the vehicle. The tracks and mud-flaps were effectively decontaminated when the vehicles were driven along a clean road, while most of the contamination remained on the backside. The purpose of the trials in France was to compare the results from our non-radioactive and their radioactive method, based on the radioactive La-140. Due to ground conditions, the level of contamination on the vehicles was much less than in the trials in Umeaa, but the effect decontamination could be measured after all

  16. Contamination and decontamination of vehicles driven in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Nygren, U.

    1999-03-01

    There is reason to ask whether it is beneficial to decontaminate vehicles, in view of the great effort applied. If the level of contamination is low before the decontamination process, then the cost is not motivated, even if the decontamination is shown to be effective in relative terms. The report describes two trials at the National NBC Defence School in Umeaa and one trial at the French test site in Bourges. The aim is to investigate how vehicles are contaminated and at which ground deposition levels troublesome levels of contamination will arise. In the trials, a non-radioactive agent substituting real radioactivity was used. The trials in Sweden so far have used the oversnow vehicle BV 206, during both winter and summer conditions. The vehicles were driven a specific distance along a road on which a known amount of the test substance had been dispersed. Samples were taken on pre-determined areas on one side of the vehicles to measure the amount of test substance. Later, the vehicles continued along a 'clean' road where additional samples were taken, but on the other side of the vehicles. The largest amount of test substance was collected on the tracks and on the back of the vehicle. The tracks and mud-flaps were effectively decontaminated when the vehicles were driven along a clean road, while most of the contamination remained on the backside. The purpose of the trials in France was to compare the results from our non-radioactive and their radioactive method, based on the radioactive La-140. Due to ground conditions, the level of contamination on the vehicles was much less than in the trials in Umeaa, but the effect decontamination could be measured after all

  17. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; Crouse, D.J.

    1970-01-01

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  18. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W D; Crouse, D J

    1970-05-15

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  19. The supposed radioactive contamination of the Puelche aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Leopoldo E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to clarify the supposed radioactive contamination of the Puelche Aquifer in the Ezeiza Atomic Center Area, Ezeiza, province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). Reports are listed that show categorically that no anthropogenic uranium contamination is present. As far as the nitrates contamination is concerned, it is not generated by the Ezeiza Atomic Center, because the Center is downward from the contaminated zone. It is possible that the contamination is produced by houses in the area without suitable sewage. In the present case the best contribution to the environmental right, besides the adaptation and the systematization of the different legal instruments, is to found the analysis of the facts on the scientific and technical knowledge. (author) [es

  20. Radioactivity contamination of the Russian Arctic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Rovaniemi (Finland); Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Matishov, D.; Matishov, G.G. [Murmansk Marine Biological Inst., Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The levels of the anthropogenic radionuclides in the Russian Arctic Seas are low compared to the potential sources of pollution and originata mainly from the global fallout, Chernobyl fallout and from the western nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Fresh release of radioactivity was noticed in this study only in the Kola Bay and in two sampling locations in the White Sea. The increased {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in the estuaries of River Dvina and River Yenisey are caused by the riverine transport from the large catchment area. The sediments of the Russian Arctic Seas are hard. Good and enough long cores for sedimentation rate determination were obtained only in two locations in the White Sea. All the cores from river estuaries were badly mixed. (EHS)

  1. [Economic damage caused by lowered prices in the agro-food sector in areas contaminated by radioactive materials leaked from the nuclear power plant severely damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake--consideration from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics and social psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which was severely damaged by the 2011 Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Economic damage due to lowered prices and supplies of food products produced in the areas contaminated by the radioactive materials leaked from the damaged FDNPP to the agro-food sector in the affected areas is notable. In Japanese, this is known as fuhyo higai. In this study, we investigated fuhyo higai from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics, and social psychology in an effort to seek solutions. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Fuhyo higai, or economic damage of the agro-food sector, which is the main industry in the contaminated areas, is serious because it is difficult to reassure the general population regarding food safety. This fuhyo higai does not derive solely from rumor. It has been reported that improving the science literacy of the general population is important as a countermeasure against fuhyo higai, but this may not be effective because of the human social structure and behavior of people who seek subjective safety. Almost all radiological laboratory results of samples of food produced in the contaminated areas were below detectable limits. Very high values were rarely detected. In general, information about the dose-response relationship is obtained under the assumption that there may be error in the response but not in the dose. The rare cases of extremely high radiological values of food samples from the contaminated areas may correspond to large errors in dose. However, it is difficult to deny a high-dose risk. The reported information on the dose-response relationship obtained under the assumption that there is no error in dose is not sufficient. Thus, response, i.e., health risk, cannot be correctly estimated. This leads the general

  2. Radioactivity in food in Belgrade city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorović Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentrations of 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were measured using the gamma spectrometric method in different food chain samples from the area of the City of Belgrade during the periods May-June 2007 and May-June 2008. Relatively high activities of 40K and 137Cs were detected in the soil. These results indicate that 137Cs is present in the area of Belgrade even 20 years after the nuclear accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. However, in the samples of feedstuffs, animal products and bio indicators (meat of wild animals and fish, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and 137Cs were low and below the detection limits. The results of these trials have shown that investigated animal products from the natural environment around Belgrade are radioactivity safe.

  3. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  4. Radioactive contamination in a private residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, W.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    A brief report is given of the contamination of a private house and garden belonging to a deceased medical physicist who had been employed by a large teaching hospital and major research organization and who had his own home laboratory. Gamma dose rates about 1.5 μSvh -1 in the laboratory, 1-2 μSvh -1 in the lounge, 0.4-0.8 μSvh -1 on items of furniture and a fireplace, 0.1 mSvh -1 in the garden shed and 0.15 to 2.0 μSvh -1 in the garden were measured. The decontamination measures performed by the NRPB to clear the area are described. (U.K.)

  5. Theoretical investigation of aspects of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.H.; Chandratillake, M.R.; Taylor, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    The BNFL programme of work has investigated theoretical aspects of the mechanisms responsible for the deposition and adherence of contamination to metallic surfaces and the energetics of physical decontamination processes. The work has been conducted in two phases: The theoretical and laboratory study of deposition of species from aqueous media on to stainless steel; Theoretical assessment of the forces causing the attraction of PuO 2 and UO 2 particles to stainless steel in an air environment and comparison of these forces with the energies delivered by physical jetting processes. The first phase produced a model which was found to give good agreement with plant operational experience of the deposition of simple aqueous ions such as Cobalt. Due to the complexities, however, of surface / colloid and surface / particle interactions the model was found not to be successful at predicting deposition for more complex compounds, such as Ruthenium Nitrosyls. At this stage the model had fulfilled its original requirement of underpinning design work on pipework shielding systems and it was decided not to pursue the library of chemical speciation data that would be necessary to model the behaviour of a full spectrum of possible contaminants. The second phase predicts by theoretical analysis that the relation of the energy delivered by jetting techniques to the physical forces causing the adherence of PuO 2 and UO 2 particles will vary considerably with particle size. This is particularly notably for larger PuO 2 particles which are firmly held as a result of high levels of electrostatic charge due to their intense alpha activity. Small particles tend to be difficult to remove due to the low profile that they present to the jetting medium. Large and small PuO 2 particles and small UO 2 particle are thus predicted to be difficult to remove and will present an energy threshold which may not be crossed by all decontamination techniques. (author)

  6. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  7. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN

  8. Radioactive contamination of honey and other bee-keeping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Komissar, A.D.; Levchenko, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    Great amount of dust is collected in propolis under emergency atmospheric fallouts. Specific coefficient of the product migration amounts to several m 2 per 1 kg. Propolis is a good biological indicator of radioactive fallouts. The propolis collection is inadmissible after radioactive fallouts. Cocoon residuals obtained during bees-wax separation contain many radionuclides and should be disposed in special places. Nuclides are absent in bees-wax. Nuclides accumulated absent in a bee organism migrate into honey and queen milk, the honey is contaminated mainly via biogenic path

  9. Occupational radioactive contamination of cement handlers of the civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pedro Lopes dos; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Dutra, Iedo Ramos

    1999-01-01

    Due to their occupational activities, several classes of workers are exposed to radioactive contamination by materials they handle and that contain traces of uranium and its descendants. This is the case of people that work in the civil construction and that currently handle Portland cement. Among other radioactive elements, cement contains the highly radiotoxic polonium-210 which may promote skin cancer because of its high specific activity and high LET α-particle it emits. Concentrations of polonium-210 are reported for urine, hair and skin smear of workers of the civil construction that usually handle cement. The results are compared to a control group. (author)

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  11. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  12. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  13. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  14. The Study of some nutritional and pharmacological aspects of human radioactive contamination by cesium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1988-04-01

    Foodchains are significant vectors of internal human radioactive contamination. Way of life, especially feeding habits are at present strikingly evolving under the influence of a better knowledge of food requirements and availability, greater use of additives, new technologies, economical, social and psychological factors. As a consequence, Cs and Pu in the diet vary, in spite of their unchanged concentration in the environment. Between source term and effective dose rate, many factors arise that lead to dose factor variability which must be quantified. These considerations should lead to a new optimization of radiological food control [fr

  15. Treatment of Gravel Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohsah, M. A.; Kamal, S. M.; Mamoon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental protection primarily means controlling the releases of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes to the environment and involves treatment, storage, cleanup and disposal of these wastes. The present study concerns the cleanup of gravel that has been contaminated with 2 26 R a. Aqueous solutions of different compositions including water and various concentrations of calcium chloride and barium chloride were used to leach the contaminated gravel. The leaching experiments were carried out in glass column. In some leaching experiments, samples of sandy soil were placed below the gravel to test the sorption of the leached 2 26 R a by the soil. The relative efficiencies of the leachant and the extent of sorption of the leached radionuclide were determined both by the liquid scintillation counting and by the thermoluminescent chips. The TLD chips record the dose before and after decontamination of the gravel and before and after contamination of the soil samples when used. The results obtained indicated that acidified barium chloride was relatively the most effective leachant of 2 26 R a contamination. It reduced the dose from the contaminated gravel to almost half. The soil sample used adsorbs the leached radionuclides efficiently, increasing the soil naturally low dose to about six folds

  16. Analytical strategies for organic food packaging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed. Pressurized Liquid Extraction, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Focused Ultrasound Solid-Liquid Extraction and Quechers have been mainly used in the extraction of food contact material (FCM) contaminants, due to the trend of minimising solvent consumption, automatization of sample preparation and integration of extraction and clean-up steps. Recent advances in analytical methodologies have allowed unequivocal identification and confirmation of these contaminants using Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) through mass accuracy and isotopic pattern applying. LC-HRMS has been used in the target analysis of primary aromatic amines in different plastic materials, but few studies have been carried out applying this technique in post-target and non-target analysis of FCM contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dosskin code for radiological evaluation of skin radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual procedure and computational features of the DOSSKIN code are shown. This code calculates, in a very interactive way, skin equivalent doses and radiological risk related to skin radioactive contaminations. The evaluation takes into account the contributions of contaminant daughter nuclides and backscattering of beta particles in any skin cover. DOSSKIN also allows to estimate the maximum time needed to decontaminate the affected zone, using, as input quantity, the limit value of skin equivalent dose considered by users. The comparison of the results obtained by the DOSSKIN code with those reported by different authors are showed. The differences of results are less than 30%. (authors). 4 refs., 3 fig., 1 tab

  18. Protection of atmospheric air against radioactive gas and aerosol contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykova, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Measures for contamination protection of atmospheric air subdivided into active and passive ones, are considered. The active measures envisage: development and application of waste-free flowsheets, use of flowsheets which restrict formation of gaseous-aerosol discharges; application of highly efficient treatment facilities torage. Dispersion of radioactive substances, released with discharges to the atmosphere, using high stacks; development of the corresponding site-selection solutions and arrangement of sanitary protective zones belong to passive measures. Measures for protection of atmospheric air also include waste and air contamination monitoring. The measures described are considered as applied to NPPs

  19. Internal radioactive contamination in selected groups of CRNL employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.W.S.

    1975-10-01

    This report details the development and execution of a 30 month program designed to characterize the magnitude and distribution of internal radioactive contaminaton amongst selected groups of employees at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, using a shadow shield whole-body counter. The results show that the levels of contamination in these employees are very low, and no contaminant was present in amounts exceeding 10% of the maximum permissible body burden, with the exception of a medically administered radionuclide (selenium-75). Details of the time course of some of the body burdens are also furnished. (author)

  20. Vitrification of radioactive contaminated soil by means of microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xun; Qing, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Xirui

    2017-03-01

    Simulated radioactive contaminated soil was successfully vitrified by microwave sintering technology and the solidified body were systematically studied by Raman, XRD and SEM-EDX. The Raman results show that the solidified body transformed to amorphous structure better at higher temperature (1200 °C). The XRD results show that the metamictization has been significantly enhanced by the prolonged holding time at 1200 °C by microwave sintering, while by conventional sintering technology other crystal diffraction peaks, besides of silica at 2θ = 27.830°, still exist after being treated at 1200 °C for much longer time. The SEM-EDX discloses the micro-morphology of the sample and the uniform distribution of Nd element. All the results show that microwave technology performs vitrification better than the conventional sintering method in solidifying radioactive contaminated soil.

  1. Sites in the United States contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbarst, A.B.; Blom, P.F.; Chan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the century that radioactive materials have been mined, processed, produced, and utilized, many sites across the US have become contaminated. Such sites include bases and installations of the Department of Defense, weapons production and research facilities of the Department of Energy, properties under the authority of other Federal agencies, privately-owned and governmental facilities that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Agreement States, and sites licensed by or the responsibility of states. This review reports on aspects of work by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others to identify sites contaminated with radioactive materials. It also describes the principal programs that have been instituted to deal with them

  2. Disposal sheet for preventing scattering of radioactive contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Kurioka, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kenjiro.

    1990-01-01

    Upon disposal of vinyl sheets at the final stage of dismantling operation for nuclear buildings, etc., radioactive contaminated materials caused by cutting concretes, etc. remain on the sheets. In view of the above, members capable of restoring original shape due to the temperature difference are attached to the sheet main body so that the sheet main body may be folded into a bag-like shape. Since the members as described above are bent upon temperature elevation in the sheets, the sheet main body is pulled by the members and then spontaneously folded into a bag-like shape. As a result, the radioactive contaminated materials remaining on the sheets are wrapped into the sheet main body free from touch to operator's hands or without scattering to the surrounding. This can prevent operator's external and internal exposure. (T.M.)

  3. Effects of food processing on the radioactivity of vegetables and cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Debet, S.; Real, J.

    1995-01-01

    The decrease of radioactivity for 134 Cs, 85 Sr, 106 Ru, 57 Co, 110m Ag during food processing was measured. Washing and bleaching vegetables directly contaminated by a single aerosol deposit led to a radioactivity decrease (depending on the vegetable, the radionuclide and the time of deposition) up to 90% for caesium. The efficiency of these processes was less important when the vegetables were contaminated by root transfer, except for peeling of root vegetables. Canning of vegetables indirectly contaminated by caesium, strontium, cobalt and ruthenium, after paring and bleaching, was rather interesting with residual radioactivity varying from 30 to 50% for green beans and from 5 to 20% for carrots. Measurements of stable caesium and strontium in cereals before and after industrial processing showed an important activity decrease; retention factors varied from 0.1 to 0.2 for wheat milling and 0.1 to 0.4 for rice processing. (authors). 6 refs., 9 tabs., 1 figs

  4. Radioactive fallout in food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this review is designed to provide an up-dated background to the subject in relation to FAO's interests and responsibilities in scientifically accurate but non-technical language. Part 2 is concerned more specifically with the problems of radioactive fallout over pasture and cultivated soils. Moreover, it is mainly concerned with problems of international significance under peacetime conditions and which are likely only to arise as a result of a major nuclear reactor accident, or, possibly, some unintended nuclear explosion. However, relatively local problems of soil contamination could arise as a result of other kinds of accident. In the report the natural occurrence of radionuclides, and radiation exposure as a fact of life in the human environment, are indicated. Exposure to ionizing radiation from natural and man-made sources are compared. The behaviour and significance of radionuclides in ecosystems are briefly illustrated. Land-based nuclear powr stations and nuclear-powered ships and submarines are identified as the major potential accident hazards to agriculture or fisheries under peacetime conditions. 216 refs, figs and tabs

  5. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs

  6. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  7. Radioactive contamination: atlas France and Europe. French soils contamination by Chernobyl accident fallouts - The lie evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Andre; Castanier, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    This document deals with the Chernobyl nuclear accident impacts and the authorities transparency. The first part is a reference document constituted by the CRIIRAD and showing how the authorities strove for minimizing the real contamination of French soils by the Chernobyl fallouts. In the second part, an atlas provides the detailed maps of the radioactive contamination of soils based on more than 3000 measurements carried out by a geologist, Andre Paris, assisted by the CRIIRAD laboratory

  8. Conducting the personal subsidiary plot at the territory, contaminated with radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, A.N.; Kulazhenko, V.G.; Kovalev, S.D.; Milyuta, B.I.; Basalaeva, Z.N.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident large amount of radioactive substances fell at agricultural areas and its production became the source of additional irradiation of population. One of the task is to get food with the content of radionuclides not exceeding the fixed norms. The rules of working hygiene which provide safe living of population at the territories with different level of contamination are described. Recommendations for processing the fruit and market gardens are given, suitable from the point of view of accumulation of radionuclides vegetables and fruits, kinds and sorts cultures are presented. The rules of keeping and feeding the animals, bees and fur-bearing animals are developed. The rules for primary processing of products of plant-growing and stock-breeding, which permit to decrease radioactive contamination 2-10 and more times are presented. Methods of using the products of forest - material and fuel wood, meet of wild animals, mushrooms and berries - are proposed. 5 tabs

  9. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  10. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  11. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Food from Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraica, Maja; Flajs, Dubravka; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Ivić, Dario; Cvjetković, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds under different climatic conditions. Humans and animals are exposed to this compound mainly via ingestion of contaminated food. In Croatia, research on mycotoxins focused on OTA when the mycotoxin theory of endemic nephropathy (EN) was postulated. Ochratoxin A was more frequent and at higher concentration in foods from EN than those from the control regions. Subsequently, OTA concentrations were determined in some commodities intended for human consumption such as maize, wheat, beans and wine. Samples from all parts of Croatia were analyzed and OTA was found in all types of commodities. It was frequently found together with other mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2 and zearalenone). In general, OTA concentration in foods from Croatia is low, but the frequency of positive samples shows considerable variations from year to year depending also on sampling location. Although low levels of OTA were found in a large proportion of analyzed food samples, its persistent co-occurrence with other significant mycotoxins should raise serious public health concerns as there interactions may be synergistic or additive in causing toxicity in humans and animals. There is need to establish control measures through which such contaminations in foods can be managed. PMID:22069674

  12. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural 40 K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area

  13. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univeristy, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural {sup 40}K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.

  14. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlana, Maksimova

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge about biodiversity and about reasons and laws of dynamics of decomposer invertebrates has exclusively important (rather applied, or theoretical) significance for soil science. Earthworms and millipedes are probably the most important members of the soil biota and major contributors to total zoo-mass. Their activities are such that they are extremely important in maintaining soil fertility in a variety of ways. They play an important part in the redistribution of radionuclides accumulated in the natural biogeocenoses and accumulation of radionuclides in their bodies depends on their concentration in the habitat. Since radionuclides can limit biological activity, studies to estimate the tolerance of decomposer community to potentially toxic radiators are needed. The effect of radioactive contamination on the soil invertebrates and decomposition processes in the different biogeocenoses we intensively studied during 17 years after Chernobyl accident. The soil invertebrates were collected according to generally accepted method by M. Ghilyarov. Soil samples were 0,25 m 2 and animals were extracted from samples by hand sorting. Usually decomposition was affected by the presence of decomposer fauna. Considerable differences were found in the species number. The species composition of sites differed clearly. The study showed that the fauna was poorer under increasing levels of radioactive contamination. The higher radionuclide content was found to result in suppression of decomposer community. The results showed a vertical migration of earthworms to deeper soil layers with increasing of radioactive contamination. With the absence of decomposer fauna due to migration to the deeper layer and mortality, the layer of litter increased. The results show that the earthworms were of small size. Cocoon production decreased. Radioactive contamination altered the process of reproduction and age structure of decomposer fauna. The invertebrates collected from the

  15. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlana, Maksimova [Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    The knowledge about biodiversity and about reasons and laws of dynamics of decomposer invertebrates has exclusively important (rather applied, or theoretical) significance for soil science. Earthworms and millipedes are probably the most important members of the soil biota and major contributors to total zoo-mass. Their activities are such that they are extremely important in maintaining soil fertility in a variety of ways. They play an important part in the redistribution of radionuclides accumulated in the natural biogeocenoses and accumulation of radionuclides in their bodies depends on their concentration in the habitat. Since radionuclides can limit biological activity, studies to estimate the tolerance of decomposer community to potentially toxic radiators are needed. The effect of radioactive contamination on the soil invertebrates and decomposition processes in the different biogeocenoses we intensively studied during 17 years after Chernobyl accident. The soil invertebrates were collected according to generally accepted method by M. Ghilyarov. Soil samples were 0,25 m{sup 2} and animals were extracted from samples by hand sorting. Usually decomposition was affected by the presence of decomposer fauna. Considerable differences were found in the species number. The species composition of sites differed clearly. The study showed that the fauna was poorer under increasing levels of radioactive contamination. The higher radionuclide content was found to result in suppression of decomposer community. The results showed a vertical migration of earthworms to deeper soil layers with increasing of radioactive contamination. With the absence of decomposer fauna due to migration to the deeper layer and mortality, the layer of litter increased. The results show that the earthworms were of small size. Cocoon production decreased. Radioactive contamination altered the process of reproduction and age structure of decomposer fauna. The invertebrates collected from the

  16. Residual radioactive contamination at Maralinga and Emu, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokan, K.H.

    1985-04-01

    An account is provided of residual contamination at Maralinga and Emu, in South Australia, where the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Research Establishment conducted nuclear weapons development trials between 1953 and 1963. Detailed information is presented about contamination levels at sites on the range where radioactive materials were dispersed. Some of these were associated with trials involving natural uranium or short-lived isotopes which are no longer present. There are four sites where plutonium-239 was dispersed in substantial quantities from minor trials and information is presented about its distribution. Much of this material has been diluted by mixing with local soil, but there is a significant quantity of material present in the form of contaminated fragments, particularly at Taranaki. A considerable quantity of uranium-235 is also present at Taranaki. An assessment is made of the radiological significance of the dispersed plutonium and it is concluded that the material represents a potential long term hazard while it remains in its present form. Residual radioactivity associated with all but one of the seven major trial sites involving nuclear explosions continues to decay in a predictable way and will in the worst case, fall below levels considered safe for continuous occupancy within about fifty years. One site, Tadje, contains significant concentrations of plutonium over a small area and onsidered to be an additional plutonium-contaminated locality. Measurements of beryllium concentrations in soil are presented

  17. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoyama, Koichi; Takaya, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ways for forestry management in radioactive contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletnik, N.N.; Pasternak, P.S.; Kiselevskij, R.G.; Molotkov, P.I.; Kuchma, N.D.; Landin, V.P.; Matukhno, Yu.D.; Shlonchak, G.L.; Podkur, P.P.; Khudolej, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The necessity of realization of forestry protection measures in the radioactive contamination zone is determined by the forest ecological part and the problems of elimination of the territory secondary contamination in the process of radionuclide migration. The damage of forest tracts in the zone is analyzed. The data on pine surface contamination levels, needles appearance in forests with different degree of damage and crown phytomass, growth for pines 20 years old in forests with different damage degrees are considered. The index of pine forest state is obtained. The data discussed reveal the complicated situation, which takes place in the 30-km zone forests. It is shown that the depth of radionuclide migration into soil for forest areas is twice lower as compared with that for open places. 6 tabs

  20. Measurement of radioactive soil contamination from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loman, A.C.; Kuile, C.R. ter; Slaper, H.

    1990-09-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry can be used to determine the qualitative and quantitative deposition of radioactive materials on the ground surface. By applying the in-situ spectrometry method using either a helicopter or an airplane, large areas can be scanned in a short period of time. In this report the results of in-situ gamma spectroscopic measurements taken from a helicopter are described. Measurements were carried out using a single point source, a field of 36 point sources, and using the present ground contamination due to fall-out from the Chernobyl accident and atom bombs. The results of these measurements were used to determine calibration factors, which were in agreement with a calibration obtained using more simple (and less expensive) laboratory measurements in combination with flux calculations. Detection limits for the measurement of surface contamination were determined. At a height of 50 meters above the surface and using a measurement time of 2 minutes, the minimally detectable surface contamination was 1.1 kBqm -2 for a Cs-137 contamination and 2.1 kBqm -2 for I-131 contamination. Fall-out determinations based on measurements taken at a height of 50 meters were in agreement with determinations taken at a height of 1 meter, and with the results obtained measuring soil samples. The in-situ gamma spectroscopy, using helicopter or airplane, is a fast and powerful method for mapping surface contamination. (author). 13 refs.; 18 figs.; 13 tabs

  1. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, O [Central State Veterinary Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1986-07-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation.

  2. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, O.

    1986-01-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation

  3. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  4. Worker exposures from recycling surface contaminated radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.; Phillips, J.W.; Culp, J.

    1996-01-01

    Current DOE policy permits release from DOE control of real property with residual levels of surficial radioactive contamination if the contamination is below approved guidelines. If the material contains contamination that is evenly distributed throughout its volume (referred to as volumetric contamination), then Departmental approval for release must be obtained in advance. Several DOE sites presently recycle surface contaminated metal, although the quantities are small relative to the quantities of metal processed by typical mini-mills, hence the potential radiation exposures to mill workers from processing DOE metals and the public from the processed metal are at present also a very small fraction of their potential value. The exposures calculated in this analysis are based on 100% of the scrap metal being processed at the maximum contamination levels and are therefore assumed to be maximum values and not likely to occur in actual practice. This paper examines the relationship between the surface contamination limits established under DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,close quotes and radiation exposures to workers involved in the scrap metal recycling process. The analysis is limited to surficial contamination at or below the guideline levels established in DOE Order 5400.5 at the time of release. Workers involved in the melting and subsequent fabrication of products are not considered radiation workers (no requirements for monitoring) and must be considered members of the public. The majority of the exposures calculated in this analysis range from tenths of a millirem per year (mrem/yr) to less than 5 mrem/yr. The incremental risk of cancer associated with these exposures ranges from 10 -8 cancers per year to 10 -6 cancers per year

  5. Latest movements associated with radioactive contamination and disaster waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    As for the radioactive contamination countermeasures taken for the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, this paper introduces in the digest version the following movements from early March to early April 2012. (1) Organizational structure. Inauguration of Nuclear Regulatory Agency, and the organizational structure of Fukushima Environment Regeneration Office of the Ministry of the Environment. (2) The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution. Publication by the Ministry of the Environment on decontamination plan for three municipalities belonging to Special Decontamination Area, decontamination plan for Intensive Contamination Survey Area, new construction of disposal sites for designated waste with the level exceeding 8,000 Bq / kg, and disaster waste direct treatment project and substitute treatment project in Fukushima Prefecture. (3) Radiation exposure countermeasures. Lawmaker-initiated registration plan by Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Party, and New Komeito. (4) Technological evaluation. Publication of the results of Decontamination Technology Demonstration Test Projects by the Cabinet Office, the Ministry of the Environment, and Fukushima Prefecture. (5) Monitoring. Full-scale implementation of radioactivity monitoring plan in Tokyo Bay in Fiscal 2012. (6) Disaster waste countermeasures. Request of the government to the local governments on the wide-area treatment of wreckage, active request to the Cement Association in cooperation with the treatment of wreckage, and positive replies from of 22 prefectures / cities regarding the acceptance of wide-area wreckage treatment. (O.A.)

  6. Radioactivity and food choice: risk factors and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Hermsen, S.; Kamp, M. van der; Loyens, L.; Ruven, H.J.T.

    1986-01-01

    A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs

  7. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati

    2017-04-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  8. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  9. Risk assessment methodology for evaluating releases of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are expected to be required in the near future in association with license termination of nuclear power facilities and cleanup efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons production facilities. In advance of these D ampersand D activities, it is becoming increasingly urgent that standards be established for the release of materials with residual radioactive contamination. The only standards for unrestricted release that currently exist address surface contamination. The methods used to justify those standards were developed some 20 yr ago and may not satisfy today's criteria. Furthermore, the basis of setting standards has moved away from the traditional open-quotes instrumentation-basedclose quotes concept toward a open-quotes risk-basedclose quotes approach. Therefore, as new release standards are developed, it will be necessary that risk assessment methodology consistent with modern concepts be incorporated into the process. This paper discusses recent developments in risk methodology and issues and concerns regarding the future development of standards for the release of radioactively contaminated materials

  10. Characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Characterization of the contaminated site is essential before embarking on a programme for its remediation and ultimate restoration. Reliable and suitable data must be obtained regarding the distribution and physical, chemical and nuclear properties of all radioactive contaminants. Characterization data is necessary for assessing the associated radiation risks and is used in support of the required engineering design and project planning for the environmental restoration. In addition, continuing characterization can provide information regarding efficiency of the cleanup methods and influence possible redirection of work efforts. Similarly, at the end of the remediation phase, characterization and ongoing monitoring can be used to demonstrate completion and success of the cleanup process. The suggested methodology represents a contribution attempting to solve the issue of preremediation characterization in a general manner. However, a number of difficulties might make this methodology unsuitable for general application across the diverse social, environmental and political systems in the IAEA Member States. This TECDOC covers the methodologies used to characterize radioactively contaminated sites for the purpose of remediating the potential sources of radiation exposure and assessing the hazards to human health and the environment

  11. Processing method for contaminated water containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Toshiaki; Fukagawa, Ken-ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    For absorbing contaminated water containing radioactive substances, a sheet is prepared by covering water absorbing pulps carrying an organic water absorbent having an excellent water absorbability is semi-solidified upon absorption water with a water permeable cloth, such as a non-woven fabric having a shape stability. As the organic water absorbent, a hydrophilic polymer which retains adsorbed water as it is used. In particular, a starch-grafted copolymer having an excellent water absorbability also for reactor water containing boric acid is preferred. The organic water absorbent can be carried on the water absorbing pulps by scattering a granular organic water absorbent to the entire surface of the water absorbing cotton pulp extended thinly to carry it uniformly and putting them between thin absorbing paper sheets. If contaminated water containing radioactive materials are wiped off by using such a sheet, the entire sheet is semi-solidified along with the absorption with no leaching of the contaminated water, thereby enabling to move the wastes to a furnace for applying combustion treatment. (T.M.)

  12. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  13. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Sources to radioactive contamination in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, T.; Boehmer, N.

    1994-02-01

    The report gives a general view of information gathered by the Bellona Foundation on the use of nuclear energy, as well as storage and processing of radioactive waste in the region. Information has been collected since 1989 through extensive field work in the Russian Federation. During the gathering of source material for the report, crucial importance has been attached to Russian sources encountered during the field work. The report intends to present a survey of the various sources of possible radioactive pollution, and the historical background for placing the sources in the region. As it appears from the report, the most significant contamination source is the military activity. The Bellona Foundation has made a point of describing the sources only on a technical base, and no attempts have been made to evaluate risks and consequences of conceivable accidents. 78 refs

  15. Health effects associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptiste, M.S.; Rothenberg, R.; Nasca, P.C.; Janerich, D.T.; Stutzman, C.D.; Rimawi, K.; O'Brien, W.; Matuszek, J.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the health risks associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings. A group of 135 exposed individuals, who were identified through a statewide jewelry screening program, were studied to determine the frequency of carcinoma and other skin problems on the ring finger. Severity of skin problems increased with increasing length of wear. Forty-one of the exposures were associated with mild to severe skin problems. Nine of the individuals studied were diagnosed as having histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas at the site of exposure. The incidence of skin cancer on the ring finger was eleven times that expected for men and forty-five times that expected for women. These data indicate that physicians who have patients with skin lesions of the ring finger should be aware of the possibility of exposure to a radioactive gold ring

  16. Measures against radioactive contamination due to Fukushima First Nuclear Power Plant accidents. Part 3. Removing and decontamination of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the structure of radioactive cesium distribution in soil and found the exponential dependence. This behavior could be explained theoretically. We developed a useful method to decontaminate the soil contaminated with radioactive cesium atoms. We applied our method to the contaminated school yards of elementary schools of Marumori town and decontaminated total area of about 7000 m"2. (author)

  17. Remediation Of Radioactive Contaminated Soil in Oil Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.A.; Hassib, G.M.; Ibrahim, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in evaporation pond has been evaluated. At several onshore oil field locations, the produced water is discharged to form artificial lagoons or ponds. Subsequently, the released waters drain to the ground leaving radioactive deposits associated with the soil that eventually require remedial action in accordance with radiation protection principles. The present study aims to investigate the remediation of contaminated soil in some oil fields and in this concern, two scenarios were proposed. The first scenario is studying the feasibility of using soil washing technique (a physical-chemical separation process) for removing radium-226 from the contaminated soil samples collected from an evaporating pond. The size/activity distribution analyses were carried out. The data obtained showed that almost 68 % of the investigated soil was coarse sand (≥ 300 μm), 28 % was medium and fine sand (≤300 μm and (≥75 μm) and only small fraction of 4 % was silt and clay (≤75 μm). A series of mild acids such as HCl and mild NaCl/HCl (chloride washing) were used for washing the investigated soil fractions. The obtained data showed that the coarse fraction ≥ 300 μm can be re mediated below a regulatory level of 1Bq/g. and the radium from this coarse fraction could be easily removed by screening and chloride washing. For the remediation of (≤ 300 μm and (≥ 75 μm soil fractions, a series of mild chloride washing experiments also showed that the chloride base (NaCl/HCl) was found to be potentially useful. However, there was a difficulty in achieving a low radium value in the fine (≥ 75 μm size fractions using chloride washing. The second scenario is to get rid of all contaminated soil and store it in a concrete basin through the program of radiological protection of personnel and environment. Preliminary gamma survey of contaminated soil showed that the significant area of the investigated

  18. Heavy metal contamination in canned foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, W.A.; Flex, H.; Allan, K.F.; Mahmoud, R.M.; Abdel-Haleem, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper aims to the study of contamination of different foodstuffs, that are consumed frequently in our daily life, such as tomatoes concentrate, jam, tuna, and bean, as a result of canning in glass or tin cans. The effect of the storage time on the contamination of the aforementioned foods with heavy metals was also investigated. The technique used for the simultaneous determination of these elements was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique was selected due to its high accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. In the light of the obtained results it was suggested that tin cans is the best choice for canning jam and it is suitable also for preserving tuna. On the other hand, glass utensils were found to be the most suitable for preserving tomatoes concentrate. detailed studies are needed to throw more light on the effect of canning material on the concentration level of both essential and toxic trace elements in bean

  19. Radioactive inventories and sources for contamination of the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Jenquin, U.P.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on detailing the magnitudes of the sources of radionuclides that may be available, or have already been released to the Ob and Yenisey river systems. The emphasis is on the amounts of radioactivity that have been discharged to the environment in the West Siberian Basin. This are potential source terms to the Kara Sea via the Ob and Yenisey rivers. Russian estimates of what has been discharged to the Barents and Kara Seas, including direct ocean discharges, are summarized to provide some perspective on contamination of the Kara Sea. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise

  1. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthiah, Pushpa; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  2. Development of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xiong Shanbai; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Chen Yuxia; Liao Tao; Li Xin; Lin Ruotai

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the researches of irradiation technology on controlling food mycotoxin, pesticide, veterinary drugs and fishery drugs residue was summarized. And the degradation rate, mechanism, products and toxicities of food contamination were expatiated. The free radical from irradiation attack the site of weaker bond, and the less or more toxic substances were produced, which lead to the degradation of the food contamination. The limitations and future application of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination were also analyzed. (authors)

  3. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  4. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body.

  5. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body

  6. Radioactive contamination of ingredients used in sweets industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnar, Jozsef

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of samples tested in 1983-1987, the activity concentrations relative to unit dry matter are 2,5-3,5-times higher in cocoa shell than in cocoa beans, but the samples have only a small overall radioactive contamination within the total β activity, the 40 K activity ratio in cocoa beans is 72%, in cocoa shells 79%. The respective ratio of 87 Rb can be 20% in the two samples. The activity concentration contribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contamination in cocoa beans and cocoa shells is together 2%. The data of the samples from different locations do not show any significant differences. In samples from 1986-1987 the increase of cesium activity concentration can be observed. (author)

  7. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  8. Preparation of technical support material for radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The UK Government is considering the introduction of a regulatory regime to address the legacy of sites that are radioactively contaminated due to historical activities. The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) consulted on the principles of this regime in 1998, although no specific plans are yet in place to introduce the regime. The consultation paper envisaged that the Environment Agencies would have a major role in regulating the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sites and, where appropriate, their remediation. This work was commissioned by the Environment Agency, with support from DETR and SNIFFER (Scottish and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research) to provide information on the techniques available allow the Environment Agencies to fulfil their envisaged regulatory requirements, and to assist DETR in the preparation of Statutory Guidance. The work was carried out by Entec UK Ltd, in conjunction with the NRPB

  9. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137 Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

  10. Predicted effects of countermeasures on radiation doses from contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Nielsen, S.P.; Nielsen, F.

    1993-02-01

    Quantitative assessments of the effects on radiation-dose reductions from nine typical countermeasures against accidental fod contamination have been carried out with dynamic radioecological models. The foodstuffs are assumed to be contaminated with iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137 after a release of radioactive materials from the Ringhals nuclear power station in Sweden resulting from a hypothetical core melt accident. The release of activity of these radionuclides is assumed at 0.07% of the core inventory of the unit 1 reactor (1600 TBq of I-131, 220 TBq of Cs-134 and 190 TBq of Cs-137). Radiation doses are estimated for the 55,000 affected inhabitants along the south-eastern coast of Sweden eating locally produced foodstuffs. The average effective dose equivalent to an individual in the critical group is predicted to be 2.9 mSv from food consumption contaminated with I-131. An accident occurring during winter is estimated to cause average individual doses of 0.32 mSv from Cs-134 and 0.47 mSv from Cs-137, and 9.4 mSv and 6.8 mSv from Cs-134 and Cs-137, respectively, for an accident occurring during summer. Doses from the intake of radioiodine may be reduced by up to a factor of 60 by rejecting contaminated food for 30 days. For the doses from radiocaesium, the largest effect is found form deep ploughing which may reduce the dose by up to a factor of 80. (au) (12 tabs., 6 ills., 19 refs.)

  11. Map of radioactive contamination in mushrooms of Poland in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Jasinska, M.; Kubica, B.; Kozak, K.; Macharski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Results from part of the Polish Government programme for forests radioactive contamination studies are presented. 278 samples of edible mushroom (Xerocomus badius) were analysed for radiocesium 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and 40 K using low-background gamma spectrometer with a germanium detector. Samples were collected from all districts of Poland in October 1991 by forest inspectors. In consequence maps of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and for 40 K concentration in ''Xerocomus badius'' are presented. The method of measurements is also presented. Large differences in radiocesium contamination levels are observed for various parts of the country. The higher radiocesium contamination level is observed in Czestochowa-Opole region. Maximum value for 137 Cs is equal to 157 kBq/kg d.m. and that for 134 Cs is equal to 16.3 kBq/kg d.m. The 40 K content level is nearly constant and equal to c.a. 1.3 kBq/kg d.m. Minimum values for caesium contamination were observed in the Bieszczady Mountains. The effective dose equivalent estimation due to the consumption of mushrooms is performed. The limits of ingestion amounts are calculated. (author). 15 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs

  13. Process for affixing radioactive contamination on contaminated materials or wastes. Its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouin, Guy; Aude, Georges; Tassigny, Christian de.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for affixing radioactive contamination on materials or waste matter in order to ensure that the materials are transferred in complete safety or to package them when their activity is low. Under this process at least one coat of a resin polymerizable at ambient temperature, for example an epoxy resin, a polyester resin, a vinyl resin or a mixture of thermohardening resin and thermoplastic resin, is sprayed on to the contaminated material part by means of an electrostatic gun [fr

  14. A history of study on safety of irradiated foods (3). Induced radioactivity in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Food irradiation can induce a small amount of radioactivity in the foods. The principal mechanisms of the nuclear reactions are (n, γ), (γ, n), (γ, γ'). The resulting nuclear products were found in irradiated foods were Na-24, P-32, Ca-45, C-11, N-13, and O-15 in the food irradiated by 24 MeV electron beam. The total radioactivity is less than 1/1000 of those of K-40 in the case of electron beams below 10 MeV or X rays below 5 MeV. Package materials affected neutron flux in the foods and enhanced the radioactivity. Electron beam machine produces neutrons and increases the flux in food. IAEA recommend to reduce neutron production in the facility. The safety of irradiated food in the radioactivity field still needs more progress. (author)

  15. Radioactive contamination of animal bones by 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Maracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    90 Sr has been regarded as the fission product of great potential hazard to living things because of the unique combination of its 28-y long half-life, the very energetic beta particle of its 90 Y daughter, and its general resemblance to calcium in metabolic processes. Therefore, due to chemical and metabolic similarity to calcium, bone is the critical organ for radioactive isotopes of strontium. The Department of Radiation Protection of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, has carried out radioactivity measurements of the food chain as part of an extended monitoring programme, since 1963. This includes systematic, long-term measurements of 90 Sr in long bones of some domestic animals (cows and pigs) while data on lamb bones exist for the very beginning of the investigated period, and for the period after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

  16. Interconnection between precipitation density, soil contamination levels and 90Sr and 137Cs content in food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data dynamically characterizing the density of radioactive fallout, contamination of soil and the main kinds of food stuffs with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. It is shown that 90 Sr contamination of bakery products in the country within the whole period of observation is in direct dependence on the density of atmospheric fallouts as a whole in the northern hemisphere. In the reverse, 90 Sr potato contamination primarily correlates with nuclide content in the soil. The dependence between milk contamination and fallout density has an intermediate character as compared with the above types of food stuffs. The same is true for 137 Cs, but a clear tendency to a faster decrease in the level of food stuffs contamination is observed. The importance of the soil way in food stuffs contamination and peculiarities of nuclide migration in food stuffs from various types of soil are considered

  17. Mapping the radioactive contamination in urban environments after nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Proehl, Gerhard; Woda, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the event of a nuclear emergency in an urban environment a reliable overview on the radioactive contamination is crucial for decision making. To assess the radiological situation both measurements of the gamma dose or dose rate (GDR) and results from urban dispersion and deposition models are used. Measurements may arrive from various sources like car-borne detectors or man-borne radiation-sensitive materials embedded in cell phones, flash memory devices or RFID chips. The measurements depend strongly on the detector environment. To account for this dependence each signal is multiplied by a location factor, which quantifies the deviation of the recorded signal from the hypothetical signal of a reference surface of infinitely extended lawn. Furthermore, the data originate from geo-referenced points or lines but do not provide full spatial information. We present here two approaches to produce maps of the reference GDR or surface contamination in urban areas, which are implemented in the Inhabited Areas Monitoring Module (IAMM) as part of the European decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS. Immediately after the accident, a few measurements are combined with the predictions of urban models using data assimilation. If enough measurements are available they are regionalised with geo-statistical interpolation algorithms like inverse distance weighting or kriging. Both approaches are demonstrated in hypothetical scenarios based on the explosion of a radioactive dispersion device. (author)

  18. Strategies for the management of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter, K. R.; Fellingham, L. R.; Holdroyd, S. D.; Smith-Briggs, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing field of activity. Worldwide the activity has been dominated by the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling sites and areas affected by major nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl and Khystym. To date most of the sites in or associated with the UK have been small in scale and have generally involved natural radionuclides. However, with the decommissioning of large areas of many old nuclear industry sites and those associated with the development and production of nuclear weapons and the operations of nuclear submarines, the scale of these operations is set to rise very significantly. This paper addresses key considerations in managing the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites. It illustrates their significance through examples ranging in scale from a few hectares to tens of thousands of square kilometres. The first example deals with a former waste storage and processing area at Harwell Laboratory. The second covers a risk reduction rehabilitation programme at the former British nuclear weapons test site at Maralinga in Australia. The third assesses the potential for cost-effective countermeasures to reduce aggregate doses received outside the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear reactor site

  19. Terrestrial radioactivity monitoring programme (TRAMP) report for 1994. Radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries monitoring programmes for radioactivity in the terrestrial environment of the United Kingdom during 1994 are described. The results of the analyses performed with a commentary are presented. Two complimentary programmes, TRAMP and FARM, are used to ensure that radiation doses received by the public from the consumption of foodstuffs are controlled ion accordance with national and international guidelines. TRAMP concentrates on the monitoring of agricultural produce from the vicinity of the 23 licensed nuclear sites in England and Wales. The focus of FARM is the safety of the general food supply through natural food monitoring; a representative selection of industrial and landfill sites which provide potential sources of radionuclide contamination of the food chain is also monitored. In addition, monitoring programmes are undertaken for airborne grass and soil contamination in the neighbourhood of 18 nuclear sites. The overall conclusion drawn from the results presented is that public exposure to anthropogenic radioactivity due to the consumption of milk and foodstuffs grown around licensed nuclear sites in 1994 was well within acceptable limits. (67 references; 97 tables). (UK)

  20. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  1. Experimental study of contamination by inhalation of radioactive iodine aerosols. Biological balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, G.

    1968-01-01

    Several articles have been published concerning research into contamination produced by inhalation of radioactive iodine aerosols in monkeys. Results dealing with the biological balance of this contamination are presented and discussed in this report. (author) [fr

  2. In-situ vitrification of radioactively contaminated soils: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    The in-situ vitrification (ISV) process is a new technology that has been developed from its conceptual phase through selected field-scale application tests during the last six years. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soils and waste inclusions into a durable glass and crystalline waste form by in-place melting. Electrodes are inserted into the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to melt it. After cooling, the process fixes (TRU) and fission product radionuclides making them relatively nonleachable, resistant to intrusion, and nondispersible when intentionally disturbed. Another application considered for isolation of radioactively contaminated soils, but not yet developed, is the generation of impermeable barrier walls to prevent ground water seepage into a site. The barrier technique could also be used over the surface of an existing disposal site to deter plant and animal intrusion. The development units have been extensively tested with many types of soils and waste inclusions such as concrete, buried metals, sealed containers, organic chemicals with high boiling points such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and inorganic chemicals, including toxic heavy metals, nitrates, and sulfates. Nitrates and organics are destroyed, while heavy metals and fluorides are retained to a high percentage within the molten soil during processing. At $200 to $300/m 3 for radioactive waste, the process is economically competitive with many alternative remediation processes. The ISV process has been developed to the point where it is ready for large-scale field testing at an actual TRU-contaminated soil site. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Characteristics of radioactive contamination of vegetables derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Shimizu, Kikuo; Hirota, Masahiro; Higaki, Shogo; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the characteristics of the radioactive contamination and the physical removal of radioactivity from contaminated cabbage and spinach. In a distribution imaging study, there were two types of contamination, spot type and spread type, of cabbage and spinach. The relative radioactivity (PSL) of the face of the leaf was much higher than that of the back of a leaf of cabbage. The ratio of relative radioactivity (PSL) between spot contamination and spread contamination in a leaf of spinach was 9.4% and 90.6%, respectively. More than 80% of radioactivity attaches to the surface of leaves of spinach. There was no significant difference of radioactivity removal between hand-washing and rinsing with running water. The degree of removal of radioactivity from contaminated spinach depended on the length of time between contamination and rinsing. When contaminated spinach was rinsed within 1 week after contamination, the removal ratio of 131 I and 137 Cs was high, with 50% and 70%, respectively. When rinsing contaminated spinaches more than 2 weeks after contamination, the removal ratio of 131 I and 137 Cs was low, approximately 34% and 69%, respectively. (author)

  4. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafe A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC. The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  5. Risk evaluation of radioactive contamination in some species of edible mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droujinina, I.; Schinner, F.; Dromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: edible mushrooms play an important role even in modern society - far beyond their value as food supply. The search for and gathering of edible mushrooms is one of the last possibilities of urbanized man to satisfy his drive as a hunter and collector in nature and thus an important part of the cultural heritage. Deprivation of this recreational activity due to radioactive contamination is considered simply a certain loss of quality of life and thus may have a strong emotional and sociological impact. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor on 26 April 1986 led to considerable amounts of radioactive material being distributed over a large area of Europe with Austria as one of the highest contaminated western countries. 13 years after the accident at Chernobyl, the long-lived isotopes such as cesium 137 (physical half-life of 30.2 years) and others are still of concern. Several publications suggest that the consumption of wild growing mushrooms has to be regarded as risky. The aim of our study is to provide some new investigations on the process of accumulation of radioactive Cs in ecosystems with the focus of attention on fungi, Therefore factors and processes limiting isotope accumulation of edible mushrooms are being determined, using standard microbiological and physical methods. Through a series of experiments and evaluations some factors limiting the accumulation of radionuclides in mycelia and in fruit bodies of selected mushrooms with a main emphasis placed on taxonomic position of each species and type of metabolism are being defined. On this basis careful extrapolation to the industrially cultivated species and to the most popular objects amongst mushroom-collectors is to be achieved. Our approach of assessing the risk of radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms, which is applicable for any assumed scenario, will be discussed. (authors)

  6. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  7. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  8. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The continual monitoring of environmental radioactive levels in Fukushima, Japan following the nuclear plant accident in March 2011 provides our society with valuable information in two ways. First, the collected data can be used as an indicator to assess the progress of decontamination efforts. Secondly, the collected data also can be used to understand the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the environment which leads to further understanding of the landform processes. These two aspects are inseparable for us to understand the effects of radioactive contamination in a dynamic environmental system. During the summer of 2016, 27 soil core samples were collected on a farmer's land (rice paddies and forest) in Fukushima, about 20 km northwest of the nuclear plant. Each core was divided into 2.0 - 3.0 cm slices for the Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131 level measurement. The collected data is being analyzed from multiple perspectives: temporal, spatial, and geophysical. In the forest area, even on the same hillslope, multiple soil types and horizon depths were observed which indicates the challenges in assessing the subsurface radioactive isotope movements. It appears that although highly humic soils show higher or about the same level of radioactivity in the surface layers, as the depth increased, the radioactivity decreased more in those samples compared with more sandy soils. With regard to the direction a slope faces and the sampling altitudes, the correlation between those attributes and radioactivity levels is inconclusive at this moment. The altitude might have affected the fallout level on a single hillslope-basis. However, to determine the correlation, further sampling and the detailed analysis of vegetation and topography might be necessary. Where the surface soil was scraped and new soil was brought in, former rice paddy surface layers did show three-magnitude levels lower of radioactivity in the top layer when compared with forest soils. At the foot of forest

  9. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion

  10. Ethanol production from rice on radioactively contaminated field toward sustainable rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Izumi, Bintaro; Oki, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive species such as 137 Cs were discharged from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant which was severely damaged by the enormous earthquake and tsunami. Cropland has been radioactively contaminated by 137 Cs etc. and it seems impossible to plant rice due to the non-suitability for food. According to the reports, 137 Cs transferred into the rice from soil is less than 1% on the average. Therefore, it is expected that the concentration of 137 Cs in bioethanol will be well below the tentative restriction value even if bioethanol could be produced from the rice. It is proposed that the rice field should be filled with water to avoid the flow of runoff contaminated by radioactive cesium compounds because they are insoluble in aqueous phase and that bioethanol should be produced from the rice in order to maintain the multifunction of rice field and to continue the agriculture. If rice farming is halted and neglected, agricultural function of rice field as well as local community will be permanently destroyed. (author)

  11. Environmental impact assessment: Classification of ecosystems with respect to vulnerability for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blytt, Line Diana

    1999-01-01

    This presentation recommends that an environmental impact assessment should be made ahead of any major action plan in the environment. The final document should point out to the authorities and public that expertise has been systematised in order to predict the effects of an action plan on the environment. This should be done for different scenarios and time scales. A useful tool for an environmental impact assessment is GIS, Geographic Information Systems. It can be used to identify areas and ecosystems that are vulnerable to radioactive contamination. To predict the radiation dose to humans and biota, a vulnerability assessment considers population density, land use, economic resources and the chemical and biological pathways of radionuclides in different ecosystems. Supplemented with knowledge of consumption and dietary habits a vulnerability assessment can be used to identify critical groups and to calculate doses to these groups. For ecosystems, vulnerability can be quantified by using critical loads for radioactive contamination or flux of radionuclides from an area. One criterion for critical load can be that intervention limits for food products should not be exceeded. If the critical load is low, this indicates a high vulnerability. The flux from an area can also identify vulnerability and it can be used to calculate collective dose. The vulnerability approach is a methodology that can be used to select areas that are suitable for treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive waste

  12. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector

  13. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector. (author)

  14. Considerations of food hygiene in the case of mussels accidentally contaminated by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battani, N.; Chambost, Marie-Daniel; Leandri, Marcel

    1969-09-01

    As the transfer to mankind of radioactive pollution by food chains is a matter of concern, the authors report the study of the use of mussels contaminated by iodine 131 in a food preparation in order to follow the evolution of this radionuclide. After their contamination in seawater, mussels are prepared either with or without their shell. Counting is performed after cooking. Results are discussed in terms of presence of the radionuclide in the different parts of the crude or cooked mussels (shell, body, liquid) [fr

  15. Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period April - May - June, 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singlevich, W.

    1948-10-15

    This report summarizes the radioactive contamination measured at the Hanford Works and immediate plant areas for the quarter April, May, and June, 1948. Topics discussed are: Meteorology; airborne contamination; contamination in the Columbia and Yakima Rivers; and contamination in rain, drinking water, vegetation, and in Hanford Wastes.

  16. The problem of radioactive contamination inhomogeneity and simulation of the transport of radionuclides through agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girij, V.A.; Shpinar, L.I.; Yaskovets, I.I.; Zaitov, V.R.; Hille, R.

    1997-01-01

    The analyses of the measurement data on the territory of the Ukrainian Polesie region carried out by the Research Centre Juelich and the Ukrainian Institute of Radioecology shows that there is a high degree of inhomogeneity for the contamination pattern, they transfer from soil to the biosphere and for the food consumption. Therefore, a deterministic environmental assessment model may not be convenient because most processes are not known in detailed. In this situation a probabilistic approach seems to be more promising. In this report presented a dynamic model for the transfer of radioactivity in terrestrial food chains that fit to the regionally conditions and agricultural practice. The living organism will be treated as dynamic system subject to random action of radioactivity. This system is described by stochastic differential equations of Langevene's type. Starting from this base we calculated a distribution function of radionuclide body burdens for inhabitant ensembles under the assumptions that entering of activity into organisms is a random temporary function that can be approximated by certain impulse Poison processes. A comparison of calculated distribution function is carried out with measurement results of internal body burden. It shown a satisfactory description of the real situation found for four investigated villages of Ukrainian Polesie region (Olevsk, Narodichi, Vezhitsa and Stare Selo) that were characterized by different degree of contamination and different degree of inhomogeneity

  17. Technical Workshop on Remediation of Radioactive Contamination in Agriculture, IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 17-18 October 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The year 2016 marks the fifth anniversary of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) and the 30th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. A Technical Workshop on Remediation of Radioactive Contamination in Agriculture was coorganised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization of Japan (NARO) and held at the IAEA headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 17 to 18 October 2016. Over 100 experts from around the world participated in the event. All presentations and discussions focused on research results and practical experience from Japan and from countries affected by Chernobyl NPP accident. This event was a great success in promoting and sharing knowledge and experience related to remediation of radioactive contamination in food and agriculture. From an agricultural perspective, the impacts of these two major accidents are related to caesium radionuclides, specifically "1"3"7Cs, which is a relatively long lived isotope with a half-life of some thirty years. Research and technical efforts to remediate and ameliorate the impact of radioactivity on agricultural production aim to minimize and prevent contamination of foods and other commodities, and further to assist the social and economic recovery of affected rural communities by enabling sustainable production. However, these efforts are not widely appreciated outside the affected areas

  18. Simplified model for radioactive contaminant transport: the TRANSS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Kincaid, C.T.; Reisenauer, A.E.

    1986-09-01

    A simplified ground-water transport model called TRANSS was devised to estimate the rate of migration of a decaying radionuclide that is subject to sorption governed by a linear isotherm. Transport is modeled as a contaminant mass transmitted along a collection of streamlines constituting a streamtube, which connects a source release zone with an environmental arrival zone. The probability-weighted contaminant arrival distribution along each streamline is represented by an analytical solution of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation with constant velocity and dispersion coefficient. The appropriate effective constant velocity for each streamline is based on the exact travel time required to traverse a streamline with a known length. An assumption used in the model to facilitate the mathematical simplification is that transverse dispersion within a streamtube is negligible. Release of contaminant from a source is described in terms of a fraction-remaining curve provided as input information. However, an option included in the code is the calculation of a fraction-remaining curve based on four specialized release models: (1) constant release rate, (2) solubility-controlled release, (3) adsorption-controlled release, and (4) diffusion-controlled release from beneath an infiltration barrier. To apply the code, a user supplies only a certain minimal number of parameters: a probability-weighted list of travel times for streamlines, a local-scale dispersion coefficient, a sorption distribution coefficient, total initial radionuclide inventory, radioactive half-life, a release model choice, and size dimensions of the source. The code is intended to provide scoping estimates of contaminant transport and does not predict the evolution of a concentration distribution in a ground-water flow field. Moreover, the required travel times along streamlines must be obtained from a prior ground-water flow simulation

  19. Radioactive contamination of former Semipalatinsk test site area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, O.I.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapon infrastructure elimination activities and related surveys of radioactive contamination are virtually accomplished at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). The radioecological surveys accompanied closure of tunnels which were used for underground nuclear testing at Degelen technical field and elimination of intercontinental ballistic missile silo launchers at Balapan technical field. At the same time a ground-based route survey was carried out at the Experimental Field where aboveground tests were conducted and a ground-based area survey was performed in the south of the test site where there are permanent and temporary inhabited settlements. People dwelling these settlements are mainly farmers. The paper presents basic results of radiological work conducted in the course of elimination activities. (author)

  20. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Estimating potential groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.; Neuder, S.M.; Pennifill, R.A.; Ginn, T.

    1986-11-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report describe the NRC's methodology for assessing the potential public health and environmental impacts associated with onsite disposal of very low activity radioactive materials. This volume (Vol. 3) describes a general methodology for predicting potential groundwater contamination from onsite disposal. The methodology includes formulating a conceptual model, representing the conceptual model mathematically, estimating conservative parameters, and predicting receptor concentrations. Processes which must generally be considered in the methodology include infiltration, leaching of radionuclides from the waste, transport to the saturated zone, transport within the saturated zone, and withdrawal at a receptor location. A case study of shallow burial of iodine-125 illustrates application of the MOCMOD84 version of the US Geological Survey's 2-D solute transport model and a corresponding analytical solution. The appendices include a description and listing of MOCMOD84, descriptions of several analytical solution techniques, and a procedure for estimating conservative groundwater velocity values

  1. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  2. Epidemiologic studies of radioactively contaminated environments and cancer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on epidemiologic studies which address the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Investigations of the possible adverse effects of living in radioactively contaminated environments are difficult to conduct, however, because human populations tend to be fairly mobile, cumulative exposures to individuals from environmental conditions are difficult to estimate, and the risks associated with such exposures tend to be small relative to background levels of disease. Such studies can be arbitrarily classified as geographic correlation surveys, analytic studies, and cluster evaluations. Geographic correlation studies (ecological surveys) relate disease in populations to area characteristics. Although exposure to individuals is unknown, these exploratory or hypothesis-generating studies can identify areas to target for further in-depth evaluation. Analytic investigations relate individual exposure information to disease occurrence. Unusual occurrences of disease in time and place (clusters) occasionally point to a common environmental factor; cluster evaluations have been most successful in identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks

  3. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  4. Radioactivity in food and the environment, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report is the first in a series which combines the results of the radioactivity monitoring programmes previously published by MAFF in two documents. Approximately 1500 samples of terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs were analyzed together with approximately 3700 samples of environmental indicators and dose rate measurements from sites throughout England and Wales. The essential conclusion of the report is that foodstuffs produced in England and Wales and seafoods produced in the waters surrounding the British Isles are radiologically safe to eat. (UK)

  5. Honey As A Bioindicator Of Environmental Radioactive Contamination In Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Petrinec, B.; Marovic, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in foodstuffs in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment. The programme has been designed and endorsed by the Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Security and fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty. For describing the overall possible impact the contaminants have on the entire region, the most efficient sampler would be one that covers the largest area possible. In this sense, honey has been shown to be an excellent biological indicator for detecting radionuclides but also other pollutants such as heavy metals. In Croatia, radiocaesium nuclides like 137Cs and 134Cs in honey were first investigated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For both radionuclides, the activity concentrations in honey, which peaked in May 1986, decreased exponentially and the estimated ecological residence time, corrected for radioactive decay, was found to be 1.23 y for 137Cs and 1.07 y for 134Cs. In the early 1990s, activity concentrations in honey for both radionuclides were under the detection limit, but again rose after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Effective radiation doses due to radiocaesium, received by the Croatian population by honey consumption, even in the year of the Chernobyl accident were estimated to be very small, the per caput dose being less than 1 micro Sv. Based on radioecological investigations of honey, we argue that the mobility of honey bees and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program if honey and other bee-farming products are included in the routine radioecological monitoring programme for the Croatian environment. (author).

  6. Radioactive contamination of copper produced using nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, D J; Arnold, W D; Hurst, F J

    1970-05-15

    Laboratory tests simulating the processing of copper ore after fracturing with nuclear explosives indicate that only very small fractions of the radioactive fission products will be dissolved on leaching with dilute sulfuric acid. Tritium (as tritiated water) will be by far the dominant radionuclide in the circulating leach liquor, assuming use of a fusion device. Only 106Ru appears of significant importance with respect to contamination of the cement copper. It is rejected effectively in electrolytic purification and, therefore, the final copper product should be very low in radiocontamination and not hazardous to the customer. The activity level may be high enough, however, to make the copper unsuitable for some specific uses. If necessary, solvent extraction can be used as an alternative to the cementation process to reduce the radioactivity of the copper products. The tritium in the circulating liquor and the 106Ru in the cement copper are potential hazards at the plant site and must be given consideration in designing and operating the facility. However since the activity levels will be low, the protection necessary to ensure safety of the operating personnel should be neither difficult nor costly to provide. (author)

  7. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1987-01-01

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  8. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  9. NERIS workshop. Lasting contaminations and land development. After Fukushima: the possibility of a lasting radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The document contains the contributions proposed during a workshop and the content of discussions after these contributions. For the first day, case studies are thus reported and commented: land contamination in Japan after the Fukushima accident, the CENTRACO plant accident, medium and long term stakes within the context of a lasting contamination by pesticides (the case of chlordecone pollution in the French West Indies), the complex and multiple actor challenges in the case of long duration radiological contamination for land agriculture, a lasting contamination in urban environment (the case of Metaleurop). The second session addressed the conditions and means for preparedness of local actors to a lasting radioactive contamination: the Norwegian approach, how to take the post-accidental perspective into account in the local safeguard plans, the PRIME project (research project on radio-ecological sensitivity indices and multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial territory), the pilot radiation protection project of the Montbeliard district, the OPAL project (to provide the local information commissions with post-accidental zoning information on the different French nuclear sites)

  10. Experiences in monitoring airborne radioactive contamination in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezawa, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Yabe, A.

    1980-01-01

    The following results were obtained at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from experience in air monitoring at the hot cells for handling highly radioactive materials, the glove box containing plutonium and the cell for producing 99 Mo. (1) The ratios of activities of airborne dust to those of whole dust were of the order of 10 -2 for the semi-volatile form of 125 Sb, and 10 -3 to 10 -4 for the particulate form of 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 144 Pr, when irradiated fuels were cut in the hot cells. (2) The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of airborne particle size distributions varied from O.4 to 15 μm with changing geometric standard deviation (sigmasub(g)) 1.7 to 7, depending on types of metallurgical treatment of fuels and on kinds of work in the cells. (3) A resuspension factor (the ratio of the concentration of airborne contamination to the surface contamination) was found to be 4x10 -8 to approximately 2x10 -7 cm -1 for plutonium oxide deposited on the floor surface. (4) The collection efficiency of the charcoal-loaded filter paper for airborne radioiodine, consisting of 60% inorganic and 40% organic iodide, was over 95% under conditions of relative humidity 40 to approximately 80% and face velocity 50 cm/sec, during the production of 99 Mo. (H.K.)

  11. Sanitation of conditioned radioactive waste after a contamination accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeppli, J.

    1980-01-01

    In June 1978, there occurred in the port of Ijmuiden, Netherlands, a contamination incident involving drums originating from Switzerkand and containing radioactive wastes intended to be dumped into the sea. The batch of 207 drums excluded from the sea-dumping action had to be sanitated for the next year dumping in such a manner, that these wastes met the international requirements and could be disposed of by sinking them into the Atlantic. As a consequence of extensive sanitation work, requiring part of the wastes to be newly conditioned and several drums to be packaged again, the total weight of the wastes ready for dumping was doubled. The total radiation exposure for the personnel that took part in the individual phases of sanitation amounted to about 10 man-rem. The main causes for this contamination incident were unusual chemical composition of the concentrate to be solidified, unsufficient quality control and a position not suitabble for transport. The measures taken after this incident intend to avoid similar occurrences in the future. (orig.) [de

  12. Radioactive contamination in the Barents Sea, past and present status, uptake of radinuclides in fish and its impact on fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Føyn, Lars

    1994-01-01

    During the atmospheric nuclear bomb test at the end of the fifties and in the beginning of the sixties the Institute of Marine Research, IMR, monitored the radioactive contamination in commercial landed fish from the Barents Sea. There were indications of an immediate response in uptake of radionuclides depending on the time of the year, probably due to the food situation for the fish. There was also indications of species dependant uptake of radionuclides in fish. Even duri...

  13. Radioactivity and food choice: risk factors and perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnerts, W T; Hermsen, S; Kamp, M van der; Loyens, L; Ruven, H J.T.

    1986-12-01

    A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of /sup 131/I, /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs.

  14. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1979-05-01

    This latest volume of the bibliography series - which from no. 28, 1979, on goes under the title of 'Bibliography in Environmental Radioactivity in Foods' now that the ZEAD-bibl. series have been terminated - lists 197 bibliographic references, mainly from the last two years, with the emphasis on general environmental surveillance and surveillance of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  15. Food processing as an agricultural countermeasure after an accidental contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igreja, Eduardo; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Prado, Nadya M.P.D.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Food processing allows significant reduction in the radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs. The effects of processing on contaminated food depend on the radionuclide, the type of foodstuff and the method of processing. The effectiveness of radionuclide removal from raw material during processing can vary widely; however, processing of raw materials of vegetable and animal origin is often considered one of the most effective countermeasures for reducing the radioactive contamination of the foodstuff to or below permissible levels, and can be applied both domestically and in industrial processing of food. The food processing retention factor, Fr, is the fraction of radionuclide activity that is retained in the food after processing; it is obtained by the product of two quantities, the processing efficiency, Pe, that is the ratio of the fresh weight of the processed food to the weight of the original raw material, and the processing factor, Pf, that is the ratio of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the processed and in the raw material. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the reduction in dose due to food processing after a nuclear or radiological accident. Radionuclides considered were Cs-137, Sr-90 and I-131. The effect on total diet of individuals was investigating for a typical diet of the Southeast region, where the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants are located. The effect was analyzed considering the use of the processing technologies after contamination events occurring in different seasons of the year. (author)

  16. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  17. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations II. Preliminary findings on the radioactive fallout due to nuclear detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    Since we have detected a considerable amount of artificial radioactivity in the rain in spring 1954, it has become one of the most important items, from the health physics point of view, to continue measurements of radioactivity in the rain and in the atmosphere. To watch out the radioactive contamination of our environment due to repeated nuclear weapons testings in other countries was also considered to be important from the nuclear engineering point of view, in the sense that the permissible allowances of the radioactivity for the peaceful uses of atomic energy might be lowered if the degree of radioactive contamination due to nuclear testings should continue to increase gradually and indefinitely. If the permissible level were lowered, the cost for radiation protection may be expected to increase at the peaceful uses of atomic energy and should the radioactive contamination increase seriously in the future, it was anticipated that we may have to face a very difficult situation in designing the atomic energy facilities for peaceful purposes in our country. From these points of views, we have been continuing measurements of the radioactivity in the rain in Osaka, Japan since the spring of 1954. Some of the preliminary findings are introduced in this paper.

  18. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations II. Preliminary findings on the radioactive fallout due to nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    Since we have detected a considerable amount of artificial radioactivity in the rain in spring 1954, it has become one of the most important items, from the health physics point of view, to continue measurements of radioactivity in the rain and in the atmosphere. To watch out the radioactive contamination of our environment due to repeated nuclear weapons testings in other countries was also considered to be important from the nuclear engineering point of view, in the sense that the permissible allowances of the radioactivity for the peaceful uses of atomic energy might be lowered if the degree of radioactive contamination due to nuclear testings should continue to increase gradually and indefinitely. If the permissible level were lowered, the cost for radiation protection may be expected to increase at the peaceful uses of atomic energy and should the radioactive contamination increase seriously in the future, it was anticipated that we may have to face a very difficult situation in designing the atomic energy facilities for peaceful purposes in our country. From these points of views, we have been continuing measurements of the radioactivity in the rain in Osaka, Japan since the spring of 1954. Some of the preliminary findings are introduced in this paper

  19. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioactive contamination level of vehicles resulted from transporting fine rare-earth minerals by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Kaichun; Yu Boyong; Gao Shengwei

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of radioactive contamination level of steel open wagon surface resulted from transporting fine rare-earth minerals. Under promising transport conditions (the packaging consists of two layers of plastic bags and two layers of plastic net sacks, each package contains 50 kg of minerals, each vehicle carries 60 t), the surface radioactivity (total α and total β) of 16 vehicles on two lines from Baotou to Wujiachuan (924 km) and from Baotou to Sankeshu (2236 km) was measured before loading, after unloading and washing, using α and β surface contamination detector. The results showed that the radioactive contamination level of the vehicle surface after unloading appeared significantly different. The contamination level of vehicle bases was higher than that of both sides, long distance vehicles was higher than that of short distance vehicles. The radioactive contamination level of vehicles surface after washing was below the standard limits, these vehicles can be used for ordinary goods transport

  1. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-01-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Plant protection under conditions of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipas, A.S.; Oulianenko, L.N.; Pimenov, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing influence of anthropogenic contaminants as well as substantiated risk of the action of ionizing radiation on agroecosystems suggest the necessity of studying both the state of separate components of cenosis and search for methods on retention of ecosystem stability as a whole. In this case it should be taken into account that by retention of resistance of living organisms to the action of stress agents not only genetically conditioned potential but induction of protective reactions at the expense of ecogene action is of deciding significance as well. Protection of agricultural plants on the territories subjected to radioactive contamination resulting from the ChNPP accident brings attention of research works to a series of problems, the main one being the minimization of pesticide use by the total ecologization of technological processes, in plant growing. But an ordinary discontinuance of conducting protective chemical measures leads to growth in the number of harmful organisms in crop sowings and as a consequence an increase of crop loss and decrease of its quality. It is possible to solve this problem by introduction of measures increasing the resistance of agricultural plants to the action of unfavorable factors of environment. Application of biologically active substances (BAS) of natural and synthetic nature for incrustation of seeds fits into these methods. For the territories with increased content of radionuclides and especially by their rehabilitation the methods of preventive treatments directed to retarding the development of harmful organisms in crop sowings and excluding subsequent technological operations on chemical protection of sowings takes on special significance as it is directly connected with the problem of radiation burden on workers of agroindustrial complex

  3. Radioactive contamination: what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Averous, J.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Dupuis, M.C.; Paquot, A.; Barescut, J.C.; Cessac, B.; Darmendrail, D.; Grevoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A national conference was held on May, 2004, in Paris. It concerned the radioactively polluted soil and sites, in order to identify action strategies for the treatment of radioactive pollution. Several aspects have been studied: action plan for radioactivity polluted sites, regulation of radioactively polluted sites in France, situation and practice abroad, natural radioactivity and radioactive pollution: definition and limits, inventory and descriptive data on polluted sites in France and in Europe, radioactive waste and radioactivity polluted sites management: national inventory contribution, then ended with three panels sessions about experience feedback on the management of radioactively polluted sites, responsibilities, legal and regulatory context and financing issues, from evaluation to remediation for polluted sites. (N.C.)

  4. DIRECTIONS FOR THE RECOVERY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustovska O.V.

    2016-05-01

    friendly. The suspension of activities and the provision of radioactively clean food products led to the growth of volumes of consumption of contaminated food of local production, the increase in the number of people exceeding the doses of internal irradiation and the deterioration of the health status of the people of radioactively contaminated territories. The main component of the mechanism by contaminated land is agricultural activities (placement of crops, depending on the ability to accumulate radionuclides, soil treatment, agrochemical activities (liming of acidic soils, application of mineral and organic fertilizers and the use of sorbents, change of mode of feeding of animals and processing of animal products to reduce the content of radionuclides. Of course, the above list of events is far from complete, this is only the basic that require mandatory implementation in agricultural production. Among the measures of rehabilitation of polluted areas leading place belongs to the radical improvement of meadows and pastures, which in turn requires a considerable amount of seeds of cereals and legumes. The analysis of economic efficiency of growing of the testes, including radioactively contaminated region shows that even in marginal soils of Polesye in low yield of the seed farms have substantial profits. On soils with acidity the most common and affordable event reduce radionuclide accumulation in products is liming, which not only reduces the accumulation of radionuclides in agricultural crops but also improves soil fertility, increases yield and contributes to the dilution of radionuclides per unit mass of crop production. Only a comprehensive use of differentiated areas of contaminated land will allow some measure to improve the ecological situation on the territory of the object.

  5. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  6. Predicting the radioactive contamination of the surroundings near a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, M; Paskalev, Z

    1975-01-01

    Predicting the radioactive contamination requires determining the concentration of radioactive material emitted from the stack of a nuclear power plant into the air and deposited on the earth's surface. The main factors determining the degree of contamination are the distance from the stack, the wind velocity and air turbulence. Formulas are presented for predicting the amount of radioactivity as a function of the initial concentration of activity, the distance from the stack and the meteorological condition. Formulas are given for the maximum deposition of radioactive aerosols at a distance R from the stack under wet and dry condtions. 2 refs. (SJR)

  7. Synthesis of available information in Japan about the contamination of food products by radionuclides remaining in the environment after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the general status of contamination of the land environment in Japan after the Fukushima accident (maps indicate level of Caesium 134 and 137). It outlines and comments that these radioactive caesium deposits are generally the reason of a persistent contamination of some food products. It describes the measures and arrangements implemented in Japan to control the contamination of food products and to restrict their marketing, comments the assessment of the contamination of food products according to results published in Japan since the accident for the different types of food products: agriculture, fishing, meat and milk, mushrooms, other land vegetal products

  8. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  9. Levels of surface contamination with radioactive materials at workplaces of nuclear research centre at Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Nemcova, I.; Kasikova, M.; Popper, J.; Chysky, J.

    1983-01-01

    A hygiene supervision unit at workplaces of the nuclear Research Institute in Rez monitored on a long-term basis surface contamination with radioactive substances. Surface contamination was found at workplaces with open sources. Of the 4343 monitored places action levels were only exceeded in 13 cases. The obtained data were used for typifying workplaces with the highest level of surface contamination, to determine in certain instances the mechanism of the escape of radioactive substances from insulating facilities and to determine the rate of the spread of the radioactive substance into adjacent non-active workplaces. (author)

  10. Low-waste technology of prevention, decontamination and localization of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizhnerov, L. V.; Konstantinov, Ye. A.; Prokopenko, V. A.; Sorokin, N. M.

    1997-01-01

    The report presents the results of research in developing a low-waste technology of prevention, decontamination and localization of radioactive contamination founded on the of easily removed protective polymeric coating based on water and alcohol latexes and dispersion of polymers with special activating additives. The developed technology provides for the reduction of weakly fixed radioactive contamination of non-painted and painted surfaces to admissible levels (as a rule), it securely prevents and localizes contamination and does not generate secondary liquid radioactive wastes

  11. Radioactive contamination of Bunodosoma caissarum under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos

    The kinetics of uptake and release of radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr (III and VI), 60 Co and 65 Zn in the 'cnidaria' Bunodosoma caissarum have been studied. This is an exclusively Brazilian species and easily collected on the Rio de Janeiro coastal waters. The kinetic experiments have been made in aquariums of 1000 cm 3 , in laboratory under controlled conditions and accompanied by single channel radiometry. The velocities of concentration were evident to radionuclides 131 I and 133 Ba. The larger concentration factors were registred to 51 Cr (III), 65 Zn and 51 Cr (VI), with middle values of 20,0 , 14,5 and 8,6 respectively. The same radionuclides stood out in the loss experiments, presenting the following biological half-lives : 292,2 h ( 51 Cr-III), 784,0 h ( 51 Cr-VI) and 823,0 h ( 65 Zn). This expressive value for the 65 Zn suggests a probable biological integration of this radionuclide by the species studied. The results allow us to indicate the 'anthozoa' Bunodosoma caissarum as a bioindicator of the radioactive contamination of the marine environment. (Author) [pt

  12. Heavy metals contamination: implications for health and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth C. Reyes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals in water resources, soil and air poses one of the most severe problems that compromise food safety and public health at global and local level. In this review, the specific problem of contamination by mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the environment and food is presented. A description of the sources of contamination, exposure in living beings, accumulation and retention in food and consumer products is carried out. Study cases and results in some countries included Colombia are discussed.

  13. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  14. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  15. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  16. Structure and dimensions of radioactive contamination caused by use of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive contamination is one of unavoidable consequences of nuclear burst. Its structure and dimensions are depended of many factors connected with type of weapon, with meteorological conditions and location of burst and characteristics of area involved. Contamination manifests in two ways - as induced radioactivity in the nearness of the center of explosion and as radioactive fallout. Induced radioactivity originates from interaction of neutrons from primary beam with elements naturally presents in environment, which results in creating radionuclides and area of radioactive contamination. Radioactive fallout consists of material formed or collected in the explosion that falls on earth in form of small particles. This contaminant contains α, β and γ sources with structure dependent of explosive energy and location of burst. Some radionuclides, often present in fallout, are very dangerous as internal sources ( 90 Sr, 131 I, 137 Cs, 239 Pu). Dimension of contaminated area varies widely, but if one has Knowledge of enough parameters, it is possible to predict its shape, as well as dose rate on some distance from zero point. Preciseness of this work is essentially affected by credibility of data involved and by kind of selected model. Using of well-chosen model enables on-time evaluation of risk from radioactive contamination and planning adequate protection. (author)

  17. An example of rehabilitation strategies for radioactive contaminated areas in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsakova, S.K.; Zhuchenko, Yu.M.; Voigt, G.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for remediation and rehabilitation of areas contaminated by radionuclides is largely based on the predictions of individual doses, the internal doses being estimated by the potential contribution of major food products. As an example, the Chechersk region in the Gomel district has been selected to represent areas where, in 1995, individual doses exceeded the national dose limit of 1 mSv/yr. For this area, the contribution of food consumption to the total dose has been estimated, and measures for its reduction are proposed. The radical improvement of pastures for grazing of private dairy cows is one of the most effective measures to reduce internal 137 Cs doses. It is shown that the use of herbage from a cultivated pasture with an average 137 Cs contamination level of 405 kBq/m 2 during five subsequent years leads to an individual accumulative averted dose from milk consumption of 0.98 mSv, which is below the given dose limit of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. In this paper estimates of fluxes of mainly 137 Cs and to a smaller extent of 90 Sr associated with foodstuffs derived from various ecosystems are given and account is also taken of the radioactivity exported from the area

  18. RADFOOD--a dynamic model for radioactivity transfer through the human food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive fallout presents a short-term risk due to its direct deposition on agricultural crops, as well as a long-term risk resulting from its deposition on soil and subsequent uptake by crops. A dynamic model, RADFOOD, was developed, based on different existing models. It simulates transport of fallout radionuclides through agricultural food chains to man and evaluates the radiation doses resulting from consumption of contaminated food. Transport was modeled through compartments representing various environmental elements of food products. Internal radiation doses (whole-body weighted doses) following ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs were then estimated. Specific types of crops, soils and diet of man and livestock were considered. A sample calculation was performed in which individual and collective radiation doses, as well as associated health effects, resulting from fallout contamination were evaluated. They were estimated for food consumption beginning at various times after the fallout deposition and for different consumption durations. A sensitivity analysis, performed for the main model parameters, showed that the radiation dose is sensitive, for the short-term period, to changes in initial deposition levels and in the parameters characterizing initial fallout interception and resuspension

  19. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  20. Investigating the contamination of accelerated radioactive beams with an ionization chamber at MINIBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Zidarova, Radostina

    2017-01-01

    My summer student project involved the operation and calibration of an ionization chamber, which was used at MINIBALL for investigating and determining the contamination in post-accelerated radioactive beams used for Coulomb excitation and transfer reaction experiments.

  1. Evaluation of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet detector for surface radioactive contamination monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, R.M.; Chaudhary, H.S.; Mahala, V.K.; Senwar, K.R.; Meena, J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Radioactive contamination may be caused by release of radioactivity in the environment due to accident at nuclear plant/reactor or spillage of loose radioactive materials in a laboratory. The protection of workers from potentially hazardous radiations emitted by the contaminants is a matter of prime concern. The detection of such radiations requires a monitoring system capable of measuring the level of radioactivity at the contaminated site. Plastic scintillators are widely used for large area radiation monitoring due to the ease of preparation in different shape and sizes. These detectors are sensitive to beta and gamma radiation therefore can be used for monitoring of beta and gamma contamination. In this paper, performance results of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet of area 800 cm 2 are reported

  2. Decrease of radioactive contamination by official wine-making procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.; Steffens, W.

    1993-01-01

    A contamination with strontium may be lowered by precipitation as tartaric acid complex, a contamination with cesium or cobalt by precipitation of hexacyanoferrates, both accepted wine-making techniques. Contaminated must was obtained both by addition of nuclides to products from the wine harvest or better by growing wine plants on contaminated soils. (orig.) [de

  3. The logistics of food supply following radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orre, K.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions at the national level about critical infrastructure and its vulnerability are more common now following the events of September 11. The National Emergency Supply Agency organised a training exercise to test the logistics of food supply following passage of a plume containing radioactive material over a district in Finland. This short paper summarises the problems that had to be faced and suggests a way forward for improving emergency preparedness in this area

  4. Dalgety Bay: Managing the risks from historic radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, P. [Scottish Environment Protection Agency (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Discrete radioactive items have been detected on a public beach at Dalgety Bay, Fife near Edinburgh, Scotland since 1990. Dalgety Bay is a New town built on the site of a former military airfield which serviced and decommissioned planes between 1917 and 1959. In 2011, monitoring of the affected foreshore reported hundreds of radium sources on the beach with activities up to 76 MBq. Immediate actions included closure of part of the beach, additional signs and an intensification of the monitoring and recovery programme. In order to determine the potential source and magnitude of the problem a programme of investigation was commissioned by both SEPA and the UK's Ministry of Defence MoD. The investigation programme revealed that the coastline at parts of the bay was made largely of ash and clinker the result of burning of wastes at the time the air base was operational. The depth of these deposits is variable but at times can be metres thick and extent several metres inland. This made ground contained radium sources which were being exposed on the foreshore as marine action eroded the coastline. Current monitoring and recovery programmes continue to recover over 100 sources each month from the beach which is around 800 m long in entirety. The potential health consequences of encountering such a source ranged according to the potential exposure scenario. For walkers passing through the area the external doses are practically zero, however if people remove material either inadvertently or deliberately doses from skin contact can be significant. For the skin doses initial estimates of doses have indicated that the dose rates were around 1 Gray per hour per MBq (to 1 cm{sup 2} ) to the 70 micron skin thickness recommended by ICRP[1] (ICRP, 89). For ingestion doses can be in excess of 100 mSv. The major variables defining the committed effective dose are the initial activity and the diverse range in solubility which is from zero to 36%. The potential doses to date give

  5. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    The 3–11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. - Highlights: • About 20,000 food products imported from Japan were tested by low-background HPGe detectors. • In total, 46 food products had been found to be contaminated by I-131, Cs-134 or Cs-137, however, the radiation levels were all below the limit of Taiwanese regulations. • The measurement techniques described in this study can be used as a fast screening tool to ensure safety of food supplied

  6. Optimization of fodder rations for intensive development of cattle-breeding in an radioactive contaminated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarov, G.V.

    1999-01-01

    It has been calculated some variants of the optimal structure of milk cow herd's fodder rations in a radioactive contaminated zone in dependence of the contamination density. Rations were balanced in primary nutritive including digestible protein. It has been determined their costs and specific radioactivity of cesium-137. These fodder rations can be recommended to the farms of the Gomel Region suffered from the Chernobyl nuclear power station explosion

  7. Biological cycles of radioactive contaminants; Les cycles biologiques des pollutions radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, M. -G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1959-07-01

    Artificial radio-elements (synthesized for scientific or industrial purposes)having been released, may be absorbed by plants or animals, and may eventually involve a catenation of organisms as some feed on the others. All organisms living in a polluted river become more radioactive than the water, which was to be expected, in as much as organisms are hypertonic in respect to sweet water. Conversely, soil brings into play physico-chemical phenomena (absorption) such that plants can get only a small portion of contaminating radio-elements, land animal feeding on such plants are relatively less exposed to contamination, and carnivorous animals feeding on herbivorous are still less exposed. Man, notably is fairly well protected, whereas lower organisms, notably unicellular organisms may suffer (mutations..). Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Pathologie Generale et de Physiologie Clinique', n. 707, April 1959, p. 505-514 [French] L'utilisation a des fins pacifiques ou scientifiques conduit au rejet dans le milieu ambiant de radio-elements artificiels. Ces radio-elements seront plus ou moins absorbes par les plantes et les animaux. Cette pollution va gagner tous les etres vivants a travers les chaines alimentaires. Cependant, l'importance relative de ces absorptions varie avec chaque cas particulier. Par exemple, lors du rejet du radio-element dans un fleuve ou un etang, on constate que tous les etres vivants dans ce milieu presentent une radioactivite specifique superieure a celle du milieu. Ceci n'est pas a priori etonnant puisque tous les etres vivant en eaux douces sont hypertoniques vis-a-vis du milieu. Les facteurs de concentration varient avec la nourriture et des exemples precis sont fournis. A l'inverse, lorsqu'il s'agit de la contamination d'un sol, par suite de phenomenes physicochimiques d'absorption, les plantes ne prelevent qu'une faible partie des radio-elements presents. La nourriture etant moins fortement contaminee, les animaux terrestres le

  8. Radio contamination control on imported food. The bilberry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappa, S.; Calabrese, M.; Stancher, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper was pointed out the European regulation concerning the permissible limits of 137 Cs contamination in food importation, from countries affected by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident of 1986. A discussion about the control systems is lead and original data concerning the importation of the fruits of bilberry, a species particularly sensitive to radio contamination, are reported [it

  9. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces - Testing of decontamination agents for textiles. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present International Standard provides an experimental method for determining the efficiency of the agents for removal radionuclides deposited on textile materials. It applies to testing the detergents which might be used in water solution for cleaning textiles contaminated by radioactive elements. It is applicable for testing the efficiency of detergents for eliminating non-radioactive dirt

  10. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M; Lacourly, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  11. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  12. Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period October, November, December 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paas, H.J.; Singlevich, W.

    1950-03-02

    This report summarizes the measurements made for radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works. The principal sources of the radioactivity originating as a result of operations at Hanford which affect the environment in this area are the two waste stacks in the separations area and the cooling water from the four pile areas. Measurements are also made on samples taken from the Hanford waste systems which are primarily confined within the project proper. Although monthly summaries of these data are reported in Health Instrument Divisions Environs reports, a somewhat more detailed discussion of these data is covered in the quarterly report. In this manner, a better evaluation of possible trends can be detected as a result of the increased number of measurements made available by combining the data for a three month period. The following areas are discussed: meteorology, radioactive contamination of vegetation, airborne contamination and air radiation levels, radioactive contamination in Hanford wastes, radioactive contamination in the Columbia and Yakima rivers; beta activity in rain and snow, and radioactive contamination in drinking water and test wells.

  13. Precaution against radioactive contamination of steel products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, E.; Schulz-Klemp, V.; Steffen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regulations for handling of radioactive materials in Germany. Engagement of the Germany Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) since the end of the eighties and measures taken. Level of radioactivity in uncontaminated steel products. Agreements between steel industry and scrap supplying industry as well as terms of delivery. Actual status of equipment for detection of radioactivity in the German steel plants. Demands of steel users for clean steel. (author)

  14. The sensitivity of different environments to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Carini, F.; Barabash, S.; Berkovskyy, V.; Brittain, J.E.; Chouhan, S.; Eleftheriou, G.; Iosjpe, M.; Monte, L.; Psaltaki, M.; Shen, J.; Tschiersch, J.; Turcanu, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes modelling calculations carried out to determine the sensitivity of various rural and semi-natural environments to radionuclide contamination by 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 131 I released during a major nuclear accident. Depositions of 1000 Bq/m 3 were assumed for each radionuclide. Four broad types of environments were considered: agricultural, forest or tundra, freshwater aquatic, and coastal marine. A number of different models were applied to each environment. The annual dose to a human population receiving most or all of its food and drinking water from a given environment was taken as a broad measure of sensitivity. The results demonstrated that environmental sensitivity was highly radionuclide specific, with 137 Cs generally giving the highest doses during the first year, especially for adults, in terrestrial and freshwater pathways. However, in coastal marine environments, 131 I and 239 Pu were more significant. Sensitivity was time dependent with doses for the first year dominating those for the 2nd and 10th years after deposition. In agricultural environments the ingestion dose from 137 Cs was higher for adults than other age groups, whereas for 90 Sr and 131 I, the ingestion dose was highest for infants. The dependence of sensitivity on social and economic factors such as individual living habits, food consumption preferences, and agricultural practices is discussed. -- Highlights: ► We model the impact of fallout from a nuclear accident in four different settings. ► The greatest impact on human populations occurs in agricultural environments. ► 137 Cs dominates in agricultural, forest, and tundra environments. ► Both 137 Cs and 90 Sr are important in freshwater aquatic environments. ► Coastal marine environments are more susceptible to 131 I and 239 Pu

  15. Cross-contamination of foods and implications for food allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2010-07-01

    Cross-contamination presents a risk of unknown magnitude for food allergic consumers. Published cases likely represent the tip of a rather large iceberg. Cross-contamination can occur in homes, restaurants, food manufacturing plants, and on farms. The frequency of cross-contamination as the cause of accidental exposures to allergenic foods is unknown. Food allergic individuals can react to ingestion of trace levels of the offending food, although a highly variable range of threshold doses exist among populations of food allergic individuals. The magnitude of the risk posed to food allergic consumers by cross-contamination is characterized by the frequency of exposure to cross-contaminated foods, the dose of exposure, and the individual's threshold dose. The food and food service industry (and food preparers in homes as well) have the responsibility to provide and prepare foods that are safe for food allergic consumers, but quality of life may be improved with the recognition that safe (though very low) thresholds do exist.

  16. Study of radioactivity pollution in various food from the local market by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Wahab, M.; Morsy, Z. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium and thorium and potassium are naturally occurring radioactive materials present in all soils, and therefore radioactivity can be found at every step of the food chain. Consumption of food contaminated with radioactive fallout may cause risk, radiation injuries from internal radiation. In the present work thirty five samples of different types of food materials were collected from the local markets, like: seeds, seasonings, fish, dried vegetables, rice, tea, coffee, milk, black honey... etc.. These were studied to determine the radioactive content, i.e. of uranium, thorium and potassium, and to determine the quantity of poisons and heavy metals in order to know the safety of eating such food. From the results, it was observed that the uranium concentration varied with a maximum value (20.74), for radium the maximum value was (20.08), for thorium the maximum value was (7.93), and for potassium the maximum value determined was (1179.54) Bq/kg. The radium equivalent (Ra eq ), the l γ index, the air absorbed rate due to Ra, and due to U, the external (H ex ) and internal (H int ) hazards and the AGDE were estimated. It is noted from the present results that it is safe to eat the above samples yet the accumulation of large amounts may produce high doses of radiation to people, especially that cesium was detected in some samples, and the maximum concentration was 4.39 Bq/kg. The atomic absorption technique was used to determine the concentration of some metals in twelve samples

  17. Evaluation and communication of potential risk of radionuclide contamination of foods after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Jun; Nakamura, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    A large scale nuclear power plant accident happened after the great earthquake with a huge tsunami in the Eastern part of Japan in March 2011. Potential risk from radionuclide contamination in foods after the nuclear power plant accident was estimated using data of radiological food contamination from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data analyzed by combining nuclide, food, level of radiation detection, period, age-classified population, were compared to provisional index levels of radionuclides, and existing contamination levels in food by natural radioactive potassium. Health risk was shown to be very low or negligible considering presence of background radiological exposure from foods and the environment. Appropriate explanation of risk to various stakeholders of the society is imperative and results of trials were reported. (author)

  18. Effective sampling strategy to detect food and feed contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Yamine; Fels, van der Ine

    2018-01-01

    Sampling plans for food safety hazards are aimed to be used to determine whether a lot of food is contaminated (with microbiological or chemical hazards) or not. One of the components of sampling plans is the sampling strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three

  19. Contamination of Ethiopian paper currency notes from various food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination rate of Ethiopian paper currency notes handled by various food handlers with E. coli and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed. A total of 384 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) notes were randomly sampled from meat handlers at butchers, bread and the related food handlers at cafeteria, fruit and vegetables handlers ...

  20. Contaminants in food supplements and associated health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Through the increasing use and availability of food supplements on the market, safety Aconcerns relating to the safety of these food supplements are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to investigate the presence and actual levels of contaminants of

  1. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  2. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority leads international cooperation on radioactive contamination in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In cooperation with Russia, Norway is responsible for the part of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) concerning radioactivity. An assessment of the consequences of radioactive contamination for the environment in northern areas will be an important part of AMAP's report to the Ministers of the Environment in the eight participating countries in 1996. The report will contain an overview of the sources of the contamination and the level of radioactivity in the environment, in addition to an evaluation of the consequences for humans and the environment

  3. Estimated effects of radioactive fallout on agricultural production in Sweden. Contamination of crop products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Loensjoe, H.; Karlstroem, F.

    1994-01-01

    The study is part of a research project, 'Radioactivity problems within the food sector' performed in 1991-94 at the request of the National Board of Agriculture in Sweden by The National Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, and the Dept. of Radioecology and the Dept. of Biosystems and Technology, the latter two belonging to the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences. The aim of the study was to investigate the contamination levels that may occur in agricultural crop products in Sweden in a situation of radioactive fallout from the use of nuclear weapons. There is a risk for a major nuclide transport in agricultural systems by the feeds, mainly by pasture grass and silage and hay crops but also to some extent by grain crops. For that reason, cattle are expected to be important vectors of the fallout nuclides to the human diet, particularly in milk from dairy cattle but also in beef. The activity transport by grain to pig products may also be of some importance. 8 refs, 7 figs, 25 tabs

  4. Radioactive contamination of plants in Japan covered with fallout from H-bomb detonations in March-May 1954 at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. I. Distribution of deposited radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatazawa, M; Ishihara, T

    1955-01-01

    In May 1954 rains contained radioactivity up to 0.2 muc./liter. The provisional permissible level of unknown radioisotopes in H/sub 2/O is given as 10/sup -7/ muc./ml for ..beta..- or ..gamma..-emitters. The safety factor for these values is at least 100. From these values the permissible level for foods was calculated as 0.22 muc./day. Food plants tested ranged 0 to 1.25 muc./10g dry matter. It is concluded that serious radioactive contamination of plants was probable.

  5. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials and Cobald-60 contaminated ferrous scraps from steel industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, H.E.; Chiu, H.S.; Hunga, J.Y.; His, H.W.; Chen, Y.B.

    2002-01-01

    Since the occurrence of radioactively contaminated rebar incident in 1992, steel industries in Taiwan were encouraged by Atomic Energy Council (AEC) to install portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in shipments of metal scrap feed. From 1994 through 1999, there were 53 discoveries of radioactivity in ferrous scraps by steel companies. These include 15 orphan radioactive sources, 16 cobalt-60 contaminated rebars, 20 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) contaminated scraps, and two unknowns. Most NORM-contaminated scraps were from abroad. The NORM and cobalt-60 contaminated scraps were taken from the steel mills and analyzed in laboratory. The analytical results of scales and sludge sampled from NORM-contaminated scraps combining with the circumstantial evidences indicate that five possible industrial processes may be involved. They are oil production and treatment, heavy mineral sand benefication and rare earth processing, copper mining and processing, recovery of ammonium chloride by lime adsorption in Ammonium-soda process, and tailing of uranium enrichment process. The cobalt-60 activity and trace elements concentrations of contaminated rebars confirm that all of them were produced domestically in the period from Oct. 1982 to Jan. 1983, when the cobalt-60 sources were lost and entered the electric arc furnace to produce the contaminated rebars. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Hamadan Nuclear Medicine Centers Using Wipe Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rostampour

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: In centers 1 and 2, most of the radioactive contamination occurred under the hood due to labeling of radiopharmaceuticals activity. Also, in center 3, the highest contamination rate belonged to patients’ corridor that could be due to frequent the area. According to this subject, necessary measures in this regard should be considered by the department responsible for health physics.

  7. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  8. Probabilistic approach to the prediction of radioactive contamination of agricultural production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.F.; Chernyaeva, L.G.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The organization of agricultural production on the territory contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl reactor disaster involves prediction of the content of radionuclides in agro-industrial products. Traditional methods of prediting the contamination in the products does not give sufficient agreement with actual data and as a result it is difficult to make the necessary decisions about eliminating the consequences of the disaster in the agro-industrial complex. In many ways this is because the available methods are based on data on the radionuclide content in soils, plants, and plant and animal products. The parameters of the models used in the prediction are also evaluated on the basis of these results. Even if obtained from a single field or herd of livestock, however, such indicators have substantial variation coefficients due to various factors such as the spatial structure of the fallouts, the variability of the soil properties, the sampling error, the errors of processing and measuring the samples, and well as the data-averaging error. Consequently the parameters of the radionuclide transfer along the agricultural chains are very variable, thus considerably reducing the reliability of predicted values. The reliability of the prediction of radioactive contamination of agricultural products can be increased substantially by taking a probabilistic approach involving information about the random laws of contamination of farming land and the statistical features of the parameters of radionuclie migration along food chains. Considering the above, comparative analysis is made of the results obtained on the basis of the traditional treatment (deterministic in the simplest form) and its probabilistic analog

  9. Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivan, V.; Egger, K.P.; Hausbeck, R.; Schmid, W.

    1986-01-01

    Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results. (orig.) [de

  10. A Study on the Method to Discriminate Between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination Using Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, T. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Yang, H. Y.; Kang, D. W.; Lim, S. N.; Kim, H. J.; Jin, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Park, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    Whole Body Counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plants (NPPs). In domestic NPPs, it is prescribed that all workers should take a whole body counting after radiation works if the possibilities of radioactive contamination exist or the radioactivity is detected by a portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external skin contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker assumed to be detected is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external skin contamination, it is determined finally as an internal exposure if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes the misjudgment of the external skin contamination as well as the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to discriminate between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and WBC. Preliminary experimental results indicated that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external skin contamination and the difference of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was less than about factor 2 for the internal contamination

  11. Monitoring radioactivity in food and actions of the Ministry in charge of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grastilleur, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    French ministry of food, agriculture and fisheries (general directorate for food) is involved in all aspects of food safety and food controls As such, MAAP guarantees both the quality and safety of food products radioactivity controls in food participate to this global aim. Since 1987 and following the accident on Tchernobyl nuclear plant, regulations and monitoring-control programmes have been implemented by MAPP, mainly based on Cs 134 and 137 and Sr 90 researches in raw products such as game, milk and dairy products and honey A new monitoring and control programme has been implemented as from 2009, with the help of IRSN and thanks to the work on management during post-accidental phases initiated in 2005 by ASN. Mainly the activity of Cs is determined but also other parameters are measured such as Ca, K and l 131 activities in the samples analysed by IRSN. In 2009, 812 samples were programmed and all of them have proven to be conform. During the year 2010, 725 samples will be collected, Global exposure to radioactivity in France is estimated at 4000 μSv per year, food and water contributing to 6% (that is about 250 μSv) mainly due to K and Ca (natural radioactive components of the regime). (author)

  12. Radioactivity of food products in the region of the ''Kozloduj'' atomic power station in the pre-exploitation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jotov, M.; Petkov, T.; Zlatanova, R.; Boyadzhiev, A.

    1976-01-01

    The pre-exploitation status of the region of the ''Kozloduj'' atomic power stationand its torch zone, regarding the concentration of the biologically most dangerous artificial isotopes in the basic food products was determined. The tested foods were milk, meat, wheat, fish and grapes produced at the most important and basic production regions in the controled region. The radioactive isotope concentrations in the analyzed food produxts are reported. They will serve as a basis in assessing any eventual additional contamination of the region as a result of the work of the ''Kozloduj'' electric power station. (author)

  13. Estimation of the furan contamination across the Belgian food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Georges; Scippo , Marie-Louise; Eppe , Gauthier; De Pauw , Edwin; Saegerman , Claude

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The current paper provides the estimate of the furan content in Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restrictive number of samples (n=496). The geographic distribution, the different market chains and labels, but also the consumption frequencies were taken into account for the sampling plan construction. Weighting factors on contamination levels, consumption frequency and diversity of food items were applied to set ...

  14. Modeling Chronic Versus Acute Human Risk from Contaminants in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Jensen, Helen H.; Nusser, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of policies and regulations to address food safety concerns depends critically on appropriate assessment of health risk in foods. This paper evaluates the methods for assessing the population's exposure to a hazardous substance or contaminant in food and some aspects of the quantification of risk. We review current federal programmatic approaches to risk assessment and potential problems with these approaches. After developing procedures for estimating exposures of individuals...

  15. Radioactive contamination status of an elementary school in southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, four years after decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Nagakubo, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the radioactive contamination status of an elementary school in southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, four years after decontamination. The radioactive dose rate was measured in the playground (n = 36), back yard (n = 1), parking lot (n = 3), and gutters (n = 30) with a thallium-activated sodium iodide scintillation detector. In addition, topsoil from the playground and gutters sediment were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, and sand from the parking lot and sediment from gutters was imaged following an autoradiography method. The mean radioactive dose rate in the playground was almost 0.08 μSv/h. The dose rate was higher at sites facing the mountains, near the main gate, and by the front entrance of the school building. Meanwhile, the radioactive cesium (Cs) concentration of sediment imaged using autoradiography was > 8,000 Bq/kg. These results indicated that the radioactive dose rates in the decontaminated school were below the threshold for being a health hazard. However, the topsoil in the playground had been re-contaminated with radioactive Cs, which had likely been transported via dirt attached to children's shoes and car tires. In addition, the radioactive sediment in the gutters had likely been contaminated by rainwater, suggesting that radioactive protection is necessary when handling gutter sediment. (author)

  16. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  17. Management of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods in Spain. Establishment of a common framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Montero, M.; Oltra, C.; Sala, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Gallego, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales - UPM-ETSII (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident with radiological consequences affecting the quality of foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and in general, consumer goods, the European Union and its Member States, have developed radiation protection general guidelines to manage such situations. In this context, there are recommendations and standards, at international (Codex Alimentarius -FAO/OMS-, IAEA) and regional levels (EURATOM Directives) based on activity concentrations in different products and maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. These levels are based on certain assumptions about the consumption of contaminated products. However, the application of these guidelines is not easy, as shown after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Several factors converge in this situation. First, is the national regulation of each country, that can decide on the maximum radioactivity levels in food consumed within the country. Other is the misinterpretation of the guidelines that where originally developed for specific conditions. Finally, rejection attitudes of consumers and general public towards foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and goods according to their provenience, must also be taken into account. Aware of this reality, the European Union is funding within its 7. Framework Programme for R and D projects to help optimize European response to radiological emergencies, including those involving contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods. Specifically, this is the overall objective of the PREPARE Project (Innovative Integrative Tools and Platforms to be Prepared for Radiological Emergencies and Post-Accident Response in Europe) within the framework of NERIS Platform (European Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery). PREPARE project is intended to develop strategies, guidelines and tools for the management of foodstuffs and consumer goods contaminated with radioactivity, considering not only the Public Administration, as

  18. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs: determination of permissible levels; Contamination radioactive des denrees alimentaires: determination des niveaux admissibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay- aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In a latent air-soil contamination situation, the population would receive 80 per cent of its contamination through foodstuffs. The supervision of this food poses many problems: sampling, radionuclide dosages, etc. It is also necessary to estimate the maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs, once the maximum exposure limit for the human body has been fixed. The passage of this level to the maximum concentrations is not simple since a) each radionuclide has its own particular effect on the body; b) their concentrations vary from one foodstuff to another, and c) the average amounts of foodstuffs vary from one population to another. Two methods are given here for estimating the maximum permissible concentrations in foodstuffs, together with the first diets likely to become critical when several of them are to be considered simultaneously. The results depend on the way in which the present situation can change to become critical. This evolutionary path can only be estimated approximately. Two methods are therefore given for studying the sensitivity of the results. As an example, a numerical application of these methods using data actually available is given. The data used is naturally incomplete and this will always be true. This application test indicates however two fields in which an improvement is absolutely necessary. 1 - The obtention of multiple observations (simultaneous dosage of at least 2 radionuclides in the same foodstuff, and simultaneous dosage of at least two foodstuffs for the same radionuclide); this assumes a combined effort by the various organisms; 2 - The reaching of an agreement on the dosage methods used by the various organisms since the results actually available are not comparable. (authors) [French] Dans une situation de contamination air-sol latente, la contamination des populations se ferait a 80 pour cent par l'alimentation. Surveiller cette alimentation pose des problemes complexes: echantillonnage, dosage des

  19. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  20. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  1. The Control of Food Contaminants - Improving Food Safety, Protecting Consumers and Facilitating Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasanya, James

    2014-01-01

    People need safe and wholesome food and the joint FAO/IAEA Division recognizes this basic requirement in its work with Member Countries. This feature article discusses this issue in terms of the Food and Environmental Protection (FEP) section and laboratory in the area of food contaminants, using examples from our work with countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region

  2. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The newest issue in the line of this bibliography contains 249 quotations which are based on the original documents, primarily of the last two years. The bibliography is divided into the following chapters: general aspects (38 quotations), environmental radioactivity (70 quotations), radio ecology (114 quotations) and radio nuclide in food (27 quotations). The main emphasis is as the number of quotations shows, on the area of radio ecology and that contains: eco-systems in country and nourishment connections, eco-systems in water and nourishment connections and bibliographical effects. (MG) [de

  3. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  4. Attitude of a group of Belgian stakeholders towards proposed agricultural countermeasures after a radioactive contamination: synthesis of the discussions within the Belgian EC-FARMING group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Hardeman, F.; Pauwels, O.; Bernaerts, M.; Carle, B.; Sombre, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the case of radioactive contamination of the environment with an impact on the food chain, the remediation strategy will not only be based on scientific knowledge and technical experience, but will also be dictated by peculiarities of the country. These characteristics include the agro-industrial structure, the local and international economical contexts and the political configuration including the distribution of responsibilities and competencies. This paper identifies and illustrates the most relevant characteristics of the Belgian agricultural system and political environment; it also describes the past experience with food chain contamination, which is expected to influence the attitude of Belgian stakeholders, who would be involved in the setting up of countermeasure strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. The picture drawn explains why several countermeasures aiming to reduce the contamination in food products, although scientifically sound and technically feasible, are hardly acceptable or even not acceptable at all, to the stakeholders

  5. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Dyerberg, Jørn; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    , the phenomenon has been known as "The Arctic Dilemma". However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional......, the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron were extremely high and borderline toxic. The levels of contaminants such as organochlorins and heavy metals were also strongly correlated with the relative content of local food in the diet. The best balance between potentially beneficial and harmful substances...... resulting in less adequate nutrient coverage but at the same time lower contaminant load. Thus, we recommend not to increase the consumption of local products beyond the present level but rather to improve the quality of the imported food. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct-1...

  6. Dating of oilfield contamination by Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) using isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Othman, I.; Aba, A.

    2008-05-01

    In the present work, the possibility of using radium isotope ratios (226, 224, 228) for dating of NORM contaminated sites in the oilfields due to uncontrolled disposal of produced water into the environmental NORM contaminated soil sample were collected from different locations in Syrian Oilfields and radioactivity analysed. In addition, production water samples were collected and analysed to determine the isotopes ratios of the naturally occurring radioactive materials. The results have shown that the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra can be successfully used to date contaminated soil provided that this ratio is determined in production water. Moreover, the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra activity ratios was used for the first time for dating of contaminated soil where all factors affecting the method application have been evaluated. Furthermore, the obtained results for dating using the three methods were compared with the actual contamination dates provided by the oil companies. (Authors)

  7. Development of the Discrimination Programs between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination of Workers Using a Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, T. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Lim, S. N.; Kim, H. J.; Jin, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Park, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    A whole body counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plant (NPP). In domestic NPPs, several whole body counters are in operation to monitor the internal radioactive contamination of workers. All workers take a whole body counting after radiation works if there is high possibility of radioactive contamination or the radioactivity is detected by portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external contamination, it is determined finally as an internal contamination if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes not only the misjudgment of the external contamination as the internal contamination, but also the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to set up the discrimination program between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and a whole body counter. After the analysis of experimental results, we found that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external contamination and the ratio of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was more than about factor 2 for the external contamination

  8. The transfer of radio-active products through food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The food chain mechanism on dry land is considered. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are compared and a fuller investigation of 90 Sr deposition on soils. Calculated values of annual mean deposition of 90 Sr, in mCi/Km 2 , and content of milk, in pCi/gCa, from world wide fallout, 1958-75, in the UK agrees well with those observed by within 10%. The significance of radiation doses received through the food chain are discussed. The total estimated average exposure of members of the UK to natural background radiation in 1977 was 1100μSv, of which 0.2% was due to the discharge of radioactive materials into the environment. (U.K.)

  9. Estimation of furan contamination across the Belgian food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, G; Scippo, M-L; De Pauw, E; Eppe, G; Saegerman, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the furan content of Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restricted number of samples (n = 496). The geographic distribution, different market chains and labels, and consumption frequencies were taken into account in the construction of the sampling plan. Weighting factors such as contamination levels, consumption frequency and the diversity of food items were applied to set up the model. The very low detection capabilities (CC(β)) of the analytical methods used (sub-ppb) allowed reporting of 78.2% of the overall dataset above CC(β) and, in particular, 96.7% for the baby food category. The highest furan levels were found in powdered roasted bean coffee (1912 µg kg(-1)) with a mean of 756 µg kg(-1) for this category. Prepared meat, pasta and rice, breakfast cereals, soups, and baby food also showed high mean furan contents ranging from 16 to 43 µg kg(-1). Comparisons with contamination surveys carried out in other countries pointed out differences for the same food group and therefore contamination levels are related to the geographical origin of food items.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Processing Facilities, Food Contamination, and Human Listeriosis: The Brazilian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Woodward, Joshua John; Call, Douglas Ruben; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that contaminates food-processing environments and persists within biofilms on equipment, utensils, floors, and drains, ultimately reaching final products by cross-contamination. This pathogen grows even under high salt conditions or refrigeration temperatures, remaining viable in various food products until the end of their shelf life. While the estimated incidence of listeriosis is lower than other enteric illnesses, infections caused by L. monocytogenes are more likely to lead to hospitalizations and fatalities. Despite the description of L. monocytogenes occurrence in Brazilian food-processing facilities and foods, there is a lack of consistent data regarding listeriosis cases and outbreaks directly associated with food consumption. Listeriosis requires rapid treatment with antibiotics and most drugs suitable for Gram-positive bacteria are effective against L. monocytogenes. Only a minority of clinical antibiotic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains have been described so far; whereas many strains recovered from food-processing facilities and foods exhibited resistance to antimicrobials not suitable against listeriosis. L. monocytogenes control in food industries is a challenge, demanding proper cleaning and application of sanitization procedures to eliminate this foodborne pathogen from the food-processing environment and ensure food safety. This review focuses on presenting the L. monocytogenes distribution in food-processing environment, food contamination, and control in the food industry, as well as the consequences of listeriosis to human health, providing a comparison of the current Brazilian situation with the international scenario.

  11. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, K.-W.; Woo, Z.-H.; Jeong, K.-S.; Oh, W.-Z.; Han, M.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3 H and 14 C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared

  12. Complex relationship between groundwater velocity and concentration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, F.E.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses the results from the Multi-component Mass Transport model to examine the complex interrelationship between groundwater velocity and contaminant dispersion, decay, and retardation with regard to their influence on the contaminant concentration distribution as it travels through the geosphere to the biosphere. The rate of transport of contaminants through the geosphere is governed by groundwater velocity, leach rate, and contaminant retardation. The dominant characteristics of the contaminant concentration distribution are inherited during leaching and modified during transport by dilution, dispersion and decay. For a hypothetical non-decaying, non-dispersing contaminant with no retardation properties, the shape of the source term distribution is governed by the groundwater velocity (dilution) and leach rate. This distribution remains unchanged throughout transport. Under actual conditions, however, dispersion, decay and retardation modify the concentration distribution during both leaching and transport. The amount of dispersion is determined by the distance traveled, but it does have a greater peak-reducing influence on spiked distributions than square-shaped distributions. Decay acts as an overall scaling factor on the concentration distribution. Retardation alters the contaminant travel time and therefore indirectly influences the amount of dilution, dispersion and decay. Simple relationships between individual parameters and groundwater velocity as they influence peak concentration do not exist. For those cases where the source term is not solubility-limited and flow past the waste is independent of regional hydrologic conditions, a threshold concentration occurs at a specific groundwater velocity where the effects of dilution balance those of dispersion and decay

  13. Radiological assessment of radioactive contamination on private clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Thierfeldt, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the very rare, cases where private clothing of persons working in a nuclear installation are inadvertently contaminated and this contamination is not detected when leaving the facility, there may be radiological consequences for this person as well as for members of his or her family. The VGB (Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber) in Germany has investigated in detail the spread of contamination in nuclear power plants. Part of this evaluation programme was a radiological analysis which has been carried out by Brenk Systemplanung GmbH (Aachen/Germany). The radiological analysis started with the definition of the source term. It is highly unlikely that activities of more than 5 kBq 60 Co could leave a plant undetected on the body or the clothes. Nevertheless activities up to 50 kBq and different nuclide vectors were regarded. It has been found that 60 Co is the most important contaminant. The radiological analysis focusses on two types of contamination: particles and surface contamination. The pathways by which such a contamination can lead to an exposure by external irradiation or by ingestion depend on the type of contamination and are analysed in detail. For example, a particle could be retained in pockets or other parts of clothing and may lead to prolonged external irradiation until the piece of clothing is washed. The analysis is performed on the basis of conservative to realistic assumptions. In conclusion, the analysis has shown that especially particle contamination needs to be focussed on. However, by the advanced detection equipment in German plants doses which may pose a health hazard can safely be excluded. (authors)

  14. Roles of concrete technology for containment of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori; Imamoto, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials was emitted in the environment by the reactor accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Nuclear debris still remains in the reactor container. An investigative committee was organized in Japan Concrete Institute to study on the containment of radioactive materials and the safe utilization of concrete materials. We have investigated the effect of the hydrogen explosion upon the property of concrete and the transfer of materials into the concrete. We also present the outline of the advice made by Japan Concrete Institute about technologies on the concrete materials for the waterproofing in buildings and for water-shielding walls. (J.P.N.)

  15. An automatic drawing system for a report radioactive contamination check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneyoshi, Keiji; Tomita, Satoru; Yoda, Isao

    2002-01-01

    An Automatic drawing system for a report of surface contamination check in a radiation controlled area has been developed. The system can print out the report applied for the format provided by the law from the raw data that is the output from measuring instruments. The task of a worker is only to insert an FD storing the data into a PC and to push a button. The system also yields contamination maps to indicate contamination points clearly. With this system the time to complete the report from the raw data could be decreased from more than two hours to 4 minutes. (author)

  16. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  17. Method and apparatus for treating liquid contaminated with radioactive particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirs, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus reduces the amount of radioactive solids resulting from the filtration of particulate contaminants from liquid in a nuclear reactor plant. A filtration system includes a pre-filter comprising a sheet filter medium through which the reactor liquid passes to remove relatively large particulate contaminants for storage or disposal. The reactor liquid is then passed through a bed of granular filter medium to accumulate substantially all the previously non-filtered contaminants and thereby provide a clarified liquid suitable for reuse in the reactor. Backwash liquid is flowed through the granular filter bed to remove and entrain the accumulated contaminants into a slurry which is received by a reservoir where the slurry is maintained quiescently to settle the contaminants. Removal of liquid from the reservoir concentrates the contaminants for storage or further processing, without the necessity of large quantities of filter aids that would increase the quantity of storage-requiring contaminated solids

  18. Modeling the migration of radioactive contaminants in groundwater of in situ leaching uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Tai Kaixuan

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of groundwater from in situ leaching (ISL) of uranium mining is a widespread environmental problem. This paper analyzed the monitor results of groundwater contaminations for a in situ leaching uranium mine. A dynamic model of contaminants transport in groundwater in ISL well field was established. The processes and mechanisms of contaminant transport in groundwater were simulated numerically for a ISL well field. A small quantity of U and SO 4 2- migrate to outside of well field during ISL production stage. But the migration velocity and distance of contaminations is small, and the concentration is low. Contaminants migrate as anomalistic tooth-shape. The migration trend of U and SO 4 2- is consistent. Numerical modeling can provide an effective approach to analyse the transport mechanism, and forecast and control the migration of contaminants in groundwater in ISL well field. (authors)

  19. Monitoring of Radionuclide Contamination in Food Samples in Malaysia due to Daiichi Reactor Accident in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Wo, Y.M.; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima, Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Thus, a continuous monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water needs to be conducted by the authorities. In addition to radioactivity monitoring, Malaysia should also control the entry of contaminated food in order to prevent radionuclide ingestion by human. The radionuclide 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were used as a measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who is responsible in analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was included. The radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring were discussed. (author)

  20. Verification of radioactive contamination surveys for practical use in biological research centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, M.T.; Requejo, C.; Ruiz, M.; Pina, R.

    2006-01-01

    Unsealed sources are commonly used in science research laboratories. Their manipulation may imply a radioactive contamination hazard. Therefore, adequate and sensitive survey meters must be available, and must have an effective and accurate response to intensity and type of radiation emitted by the used radionuclides to identify and quantify the possible contamination and then be able to avoid any associated or unwanted consequences that may arise. Periodic surveys are performed to show control, any time, any place radioactive contamination is suspected, and to ensure radioisotopes are being used safely. The immediate work areas must be often checked with portable survey monitors, including the entire lab and particularly bench tops, personnel protective equipment or solely designated equipment for isotope use (micro-fuges, water baths, incubators). These are carried out with portable survey instruments like Geiger-Muller tubes, proportional counters and scintillation detectors that provide direct or indirect measurements capabilities. The Radiation Safety Office (R.S.O.) as well as the radioactive compounds working laboratories at the Instituto de Inv. Biomedicas 'A. Sols' (Madrid-Spain) are provided with an adequate radiation measurement instrument. But, before a portable survey instrument is used, several quality checks should be made (batteries, calibration sticker), and the instrument response should be tested with a check source. This paper aims at determining, with a R.S.O. procedure, these surveys working parameters -detection efficiency, calibration factors and minimum detectable activities-, using reference checking sources ( 14 C, 36 Cl, and 90 Sr/ 90 Y) with known radioactivity covering the energy range of beta emitting isotopes used in biological research. No gamma portable monitors have been tested for the R.S.O. has no gamma checking sources. Therefore, 58 beta monitors were tested, obtaining t he efficiency values, the calibration factors (Bq cm-2 s

  1. General radioactive contamination of the biosphere in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (C.C.R.X.) reports the results of the radioactivity measurements in 1979. These are divided into measurements for the National Measuring Programme and Additional Measurements. The former include the analyses considered essential for an efficacious control of the radioactivity of the biosphere and are performed in air, soil, surface water, milk and in deposition on the surface of the earth. Samples of milk and grass from the surroundings of nuclear reactors have also been analysed. Additional measurements comprises orientating research for specific radionuclides which may be present in some samples, and other investigations which may procure useful information. Results of determinations of radionuclides in some fishery-products from the Dutch waters are given in view of the potential which some marine organisms have to concentrate fission products and especially activated corrosion products from nuclear installations. After a discussion of the results for the National Measuring Programme, a calculation is given of the total artificial radioactivity in the average Dutch diet in 1979 and of the total mean annual radiation dose the Dutch population received as a result of the presence of artificial radionuclides. Different methods studied to calculate the bone dose due to Sr-90 in the diet are outlined as an appendix. (Auth.)

  2. The reality of radioactive contamination in construction of Taiwan and the treatment concerned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chin-Wang

    2005-01-01

    It has been more than 50 years since Taiwan started the research on the peace application of radioactivity. During the first 20-30 years, it was found that the radioactive contaminated waste steel from atomic power plants was recycled together with general waste steel and was used to make other products including reinforcing bars. It was because the radiation resources ware not carefully controlled and managed. Since 1982, the radioactive contaminated reinforcing bars and buildings were gradually found, as the radiation dose rates were 5 μSv/h and 0.5 μSv/h, respectively. The radioactive nuclide was all Co-60. By August 2003, 1,626 households, 7,824 people's houses were founded to be radioactive contaminated. Furthermore, radiation dose rates higher than 5 μSv/h were measured from 264 of those householders. The government has started to ameliorate this situation and 94.7% of the cases have become normal. The cancer death rate of these people is found to be 0.49% (89 patients in 7,824 people, 39 was dead), and it is 4 times higher than that for general people. In order to solute this pollution problem, the government has made the law to check the radioactivity of all reinforcing bars and to control and manage those radiation resources more carefully. Additionally, there are tax exemption, subsidy, and expropriation with compensation for the polluted buildings. (author)

  3. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Dept. of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940's at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima (Japan)), the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares (Spain)). This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. (authors)

  4. Complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, Oleg; Fadeev, Mykhaylo; Kireev, Serhiy; Proskura, Mykola

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this work a general procedure of establishment the criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of alone areas of the Chornobyl exclusion zone is represented by the following three stages, namely: 1) Justification of the dose criterion of complete release by applying the fundamental approaches of regulating the prolonged exposure of the public on a basement of ICRP Publication No. 82; 2) Justification of a procedure for establishment of dose constraint through evaluation of the statistical distribution of a controlled radiation value through determination of the high boundary of the confidence interval; 3) Generalization of conversion coefficients (via the density of radioactive contamination of soil) and coverage coefficients for the dose forming factors of the public (inhalation intake of transuranium radionuclides both at natural and technogenic dust resuspension, peroral intake of 137 Cs and 90 Sr via food stuff, external exposure from 137 Cs); on a basis of these coefficients average doses and dose constraint of a critical group of the public are calculated. As it is shown in the work, the generalized criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone can be defined by dividing the recommended ICRP dose clearance level for situation of the post-accidental prolonged exposure of a critical group of the public, namely, 0.3 mSv·year -1 to the dose conversion coefficient (i.e. transfer from the superficial soil contamination of radioactivity to the dose constraint for the Chornobyl exclusion zone), namely, 12.9 μSv·year -1 /((kBq·M -2 ). Thus, a level of the density of radioactive contamination of soil, that provides the complete release from regulatory control makes 23.3 kBq·M -2 . For completion of the work on justification of the criterion of complete territory release in the conditions of

  5. Escherichia Coli Food Contamination on Three Type of Food Establishment in South Jakarta, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Djaja

    2008-01-01

    Food with its nutrient constituencies is important and needed by all biological organisms including human live. On theaters hand through food could transfer some of diseases agent that could cause gastro-intestinal disorder and food intoxication. Food contamination prevalence is still height (by E. coli 65.5%) and diarrhea cases 116.075 in 1995, food out break intoxication 31.919 occur in 1997, and with CFR 0.15%. Prospective study has been done in order to identify the E. coli food contamina...

  6. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination; Schema anatomo-physiologique du tractus gastro-intestinal a prendre en consideration pour le calcul des niveaux de contamination Radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, Association EURATOM-CEA, Niveaux de Contamination (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [French] Cette note a pour objet de rassembler les donnees anatomiques et physiologiques du tractus gastrointestinal, chez l'adulte et chez l'enfant, et d'en deduire un schema standard qui puisse servir de base au calcul des niveaux de contamination de la chaine alimentaire par les substances radioactives. (auteur)

  7. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination; Schema anatomo-physiologique du tractus gastro-intestinal a prendre en consideration pour le calcul des niveaux de contamination Radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, Association EURATOM-CEA, Niveaux de Contamination (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [French] Cette note a pour objet de rassembler les donnees anatomiques et physiologiques du tractus gastrointestinal, chez l'adulte et chez l'enfant, et d'en deduire un schema standard qui puisse servir de base au calcul des niveaux de contamination de la chaine alimentaire par les substances radioactives. (auteur)

  8. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zhang Lansheng; Kang Baoan

    1988-08-01

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  9. Thermal decomposition of woody wastes contaminated with radioactive materials using externally-heated horizontal kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Ito, Takuya; Suzuki, Seiichi; Kojima, Toshinori; Kodera, Yoichi; Hatta, Akimichi; Kikuzato, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Thermal decomposition experiments of woody wastes contaminated with radioactive materials were conducted using an externally-heated horizontal kiln in the work area for segregation of disaster wastes at Hirono Town, Futaba County, Fukushima Prefecture. Radioactivity was not detected in gaseous products of thermal decomposition at 923 K and 1123 K after passage through a trap filled with activated carbon. The contents of radioactive cesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) were measured in the solid and liquid products of the thermal decomposition experiments and in the residues in the kiln after all of the experiments. Although a trace amount of radioactive cesium was found in the washing trap during the start-up period of operation at 923 K, most of the cesium remained in the char, including the residues in the kiln. These results suggest that most of the radioactive cesium is trapped in char particles and is not emitted in gaseous form. (author)

  10. Hygiene intervention reduces contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Zaman, Rokon Uz; Hossain, Zakir; Islam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Mondal, Dinesh; Sharker, Mohammad Abu Yushuf; Islam, Khairul; Jahan, Hasin; Bhuiya, Abbas; Endtz, Hubert P; Cravioto, Alejandro; Curtis, Valerie; Touré, Ousmane; Cairncross, Sandy

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the impact of a hygiene intervention on the contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh. Sixty households were selected: 30 study and 30 control households. Samples of weaning food were collected from all the 60 households at baseline and examined for faecal coliforms (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) and Clostridium perfringens (CP) following standard procedures. After cooking, food samples were collected on three occasions before feeding. Following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) procedures, critical control points were determined. The mothers in the 30 study households were then trained for 4 weeks in how to attain the control point conditions. Then, again the food samples were collected and analysed. At baseline, weaning foods from study and control households were heavily contaminated with FC and FS. The FC and FS counts were 1.84 log(10) and 1.92 log(10) colony-forming unit (cfu)/g, respectively, in the study households, and 0.86 log(10) and 1.33 log(10)  cfu/g, respectively, in the control households in the first feeding. After the intervention, the FC and FS counts in study households had dropped to 0.10 log(10) and 0.09 log(10)  cfu/g, respectively, a statistically significant reduction (P food hygiene. A hygiene intervention following the HACCP approach reduced the weaning food contamination significantly. Awareness building among mothers about weaning food hygiene could be an important intervention for preventing weaning food-related diarrhoea in Bangladesh. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF FOOD BORNE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION IN SOME EGYPTIAN FOOD food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of food borne bacterial contamination in some Egyptian food. Total viable bacteria and total coliform bacteriawere isolated from different sources of food; carbohydrates (bread, flour and basbousa, vegetables (outer and inner tissues of potato and outer and inner tissues of cucumber and proteins (mincedmeat, cheese and milk. The study resulted in maximum value of total viable bacteria found in outer tissue of potato 68X104±1.0, while the minimum value found in inner tissues of potato andcucumber. The study resulted in total coliform was maximum value in minced meat 6.4X103±0.3. Basbousa and inner tissue of potato and cucumber were free from coliforms. The ability of isolatesto producing proteolytic enzymes was tested, we found that 326 isolate (63.92% from all isolates had this ability, thus we selected most 2 potent proteolytic isolates. The two isolates were identifiedas Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The identification confirmed by microlog 34.20 system and 16SrRNA for two isolates and the same result was founded. Sensitivity tested for the most potentproteolytic species to 12 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy. The results showed that all species were sensitive to most of antibiotics, except B. cereus which was strongly susceptible to azteronam and ceftazidim. The data showed that raw meat, cooked food products, and raw milk were most commonly contaminated with foodborne pathogens and many pathogens were resistant to different antibiotics. The study provided useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to consumers, which has significant public health impact.

  12. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  13. Sources to environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear activities in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.G.; Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Cheliabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent

  14. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (≥ 134, 137Cs 1000 kBq m−2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33 Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21 Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

  15. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Comparative study between radioactive contamination in milk powder by chernobyl accident [137Cs] and natural radioactivity [40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.

    2005-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, Mexico imported from an European country 28,000 Tons of contaminated milk powder with the fission product 137 CS. When the contamination was detected, the alarm among the authorities and population spread out very quick and of course the product was retired at once from the foodstuff market. Nevertheless, the public panic grew up in such a manner, that even the way to manage and to dispose safely this material, considered highly dangerous, was largely discussed. Now, about two decades ago from this event, a study has been performed to compare the level of radioactivity due to both radioisotopes present in one saved sample: the artificial contaminant 137 CS, beside the natural, all around present 40 K, in order to evaluate in a more realistic way how risky was the management, possible consumption, and final disposition of this nourishment. This paper considers results obtained within an uncertainty degree equal to ±5%, and set up conclusions by comparing artificial and natural radioactivity present in that contaminated milk powder.

  17. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bq g{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behaviour patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size. (author).

  18. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again.

  19. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  20. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    1994-01-01

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs

  1. Intervention strategies for the recovery of radioactive-contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Vazquez, C.

    2000-01-01

    Following an accident with environmental consequences, intervention may be necessary. The type of remedial actions and the strategy required will be dependent upon, inter alia, the phase and conditions within the contaminated scenario. Leaving aside the basic countermeasures (such as confinement, evacuation), which are based on internationally agreed Generic Intervention Levels (GIL's), the paper deals with intervention strategies leading to a return of the contaminated site to as close to normality as possible with the lowest social cost. The reduction of the damage from the existing contamination must be justified and optimised; the best strategy for applying recovery actions must be selected from a set of potential alternatives. A methodology for intervention strategies analysis, developed in the framework of CEC-CHECIR ECP-4 'Decontamination Strategies', is presented together with some examples of application. (author)

  2. Melting-decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Noboru; Iba, Hajime.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate uranium components remaining in metals even after the uranium-contaminated metals are melted. Method: Metal wastes contaminated with actinide element or its compound as nuclear fuel substance are melted in a crucible. Molten metals are fallen through a filter disposed at the bottom of the crucible into another receiving crucible. Uranium compounds are still left in the molten metal fallen in the receiving crucible. The residual uranium compounds are concentrated by utilizing the principle of the zone-refining process. That is, a displaceable local-heating heater is disposed to the receiving crucible, by which metals once solidified in the receiving crucible is again heated locally to transfer from solid to molten phase in a quasi-equibilized manner. In this way, by eliminating the end of the metal rod at which the uranium is segregated, the contaminating coefficient can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Radiological risk assessment for radioactive contamination at landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted for a landfill site where radioactive residues resulting from past uranium ore processing operations are present. Potential radiation doses to an individual under different scenarios have been predicted using the RESRAD computer code. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site that is currently underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Some aspects of radioactive contamination and decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident zone territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Nad''yarnykh, G.V.; Teplitskij, A.L.; Shilin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Data are presented on the radioactive contamination of the 30-km zone, on the radionuclide (RN) distribution in soils and on the RN migration in grounds. During 1986-1988 were tested over 20 techniques for territory decontamination and were found out the most optimal ones. The first stage of decontamination was removal of an upper contaminated soil layer. The second stage was prolonged chemical fixation of dusting decontaminated soil areas. 3 tabs

  5. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lef?vre, Ir?ne; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottl?, Catherine; Bont?, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons t...

  6. Decontamination methods of the vegetables contaminated with radioactive materials from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kunihide; Shiba, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Among agricultural products, vegetables contaminated with radioactive materials were examined to find a practical decontamination method. For spinach, washing by running water or hot water, and by ultrasonic or shower washing were tested. Furthermore, chemical method using detergent acid, alkaline salt was examined. High removal efficiency was obtained for iodine 131 using sodium hydrosulfate. For visual observation, IP imaging and scanning electromagnetic method were used to find spots and plane contamination. (S. Ohno)

  7. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Huy Uyen; Bui Van Loat; Dang Phuong Nam; Cao Anh Duc; Pham Quang Dien; Nguyen Hao Quang

    1990-01-01

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs 137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10 -5 Bq/g; Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10 -5 Bq/g. Cs 137 is radioactive so Cs 137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K 40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  8. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller Julianne J.; Mizell Steve A.; Nikolich George; Campbell Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  9. Equipment for measuring contamination of hands with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erban, J.; Kleinbauer, K.; Husak, V.; Grigar, O.

    1986-01-01

    The claimed device consists of a scintillation detector mounted in a shielding case consisting of rings. The shielding case is provided with a cavity with an inlet opening lined with polyethylene foil. The cavity shape, shielding and replaceable foil guarantee minimizing the interfering effect of radiation sources in the vicinity and of contamination of the device. Gradually inserting the hand in the cavity or suitably placing the hand can locate contamination of the hand surface. The sensitivity of the device for 125 I and 99 Tc is 200-times higher than that of Geiger-Mueller counter instruments. (M.D.)

  10. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  11. Radioactive Contamination Near Natural Uranium - Graphite - Gas Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassany, J.; Pouthier, J.

    1967-01-01

    The authors give the results of numerous assessments of contamination in connection with reactors in operation during maintenance; reactors shut down during overhaul and repair work (coolants, exchangers, interior of the tank, etc.) ; and accidents in the cooling circuit and ruptured cladding. They show that, except in special cases, it is mainly activation products that predominate. Moreover, after eight years of operation the points where contamination likely to give considerable dose rates accumulates remain very localized, and there has been no need to reinforce personnel protection measures. (author) [fr

  12. Radioactive contamination of some rubber or plastic surfaces by fission products. Decontamination tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.

    1957-10-01

    With the objective of notably addressing the contamination and decontamination of gloves and floor covering, this report first presents some characteristics of contaminating radioactive materials (nature, physical and chemical condition), of contaminated surfaces (surface condition, surface nature), and of decontamination processes (physical, chemical or mechanical action). It describes the operational modality implemented to test decontamination processes on various glove or flooring materials: sample preparation, counting, decontamination, reproducibility of decontamination tests, results in terms of activity reduction. It more precisely describes the tested samples: short gloves, gloves from glove boxes, floor and wall coverings. Results are presented and discussed in terms of sample susceptibility to contamination, and of decontamination, but also for re-contamination tests after a Nab-based decontamination (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain)

  13. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  14. Calculation of Radioactivity Concentration on Cover Depth of Contaminated Zone for Self-Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Daeseo; Sung, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We have a lot of uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes owing to dismantlement of uranium conversion facility. There are several radioactive material disposal methods such as regulation exemption, decontamination and long term storage. It is necessary for us to perform permanent disposal of these wastes. To acquire radiation dose under self-disposal from them, the study on decontamination of some uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes was performed using electrokinectic-electrodialytic. In this study, we evaluated radiation dose on the cover depth of contaminated zone from the wastes under radiation dose limit using RESRAD Version 6.5. At first, the calculation of the radiation dose on the wastes of contaminated zone are carried out. The second, the cover depth of contaminated zone are analyzed. The application to self-disposal of contaminated zone are also analyzed. To acquire radiation dose under self-disposal from uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes, we decontaminated some uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes using electrokinectic-electrodialytic. To perform self-disposal of the quantity (30,000kg) of contaminated zone, the calculating conditions for radiation dose on the cover depth of contaminated zone are as follows. The area of contaminated zone is 10m{sup 2}. The thickness of contaminated zone is 2 m. The cover depth of contaminated zone are analyzed. The application to self-disposal of contaminated zone are also analyzed. Therefore, as the cover depth increases, the uranium concentration has an increasing trend. It realize that the cover depth of contaminated zone is adequate < 2m at the quantity(30,000kg) of contaminated zone. As the cover depth increases, the uranium concentration has a decreasing trend. As the cover depth increases, the radiation dose(residents) has also a decreasing trend.

  15. Multiple methods for assessing the dose to skin exposed to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, J.; Heinmiller, B.E.; Corrigan, M.

    2017-01-01

    There is the possibility for a worker at a nuclear installation, such as a nuclear power reactor, a fuel production facility or a medical facility, to come in contact with radioactive contaminants. When such an event occurs, the first order of business is to care for the worker by promptly initiating a decontamination process. Usually, the radiation protection personnel performs a G-M pancake probe measurement of the contamination in situ and collects part or all of the radioactive contamination for further laboratory analysis. The health physicist on duty must then perform, using the available information, a skin dose assessment that will go into the worker's permanent dose record. The contamination situations are often complex and the dose assessment can be laborious. This article compares five dose assessment methods that involve analysis, new technologies and new software. The five methods are applied to 13 actual contamination incidents consisting of direct skin contact, contamination on clothing and contamination on clothing in the presence of an air gap between the clothing and the skin. This work shows that, for the cases studied, the methods provided dose estimates that were usually within 12% (1σ) of each other, for those cases where absolute activity information for every radionuclide was available. One method, which relies simply on a G-M pancake probe measurement, appeared to be particularly useful in situations where a contamination sample could not be recovered for laboratory analysis. (authors)

  16. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. ► Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. ► The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. ► The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. ► Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m 3 of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, U, and α-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 μm filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb β-emitters, α-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously eliminate particles and adsorb ionic radionuclides from water.

  17. Radioactive Contamination Tenacity on Building Substrate – 17417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick; Boxall, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Radiological decontamination is an essential enterprise that has become more important over the last four decades due to unfortunate accidents and the threat of terrorist actions. Decontamination can be an effective, beneficial alternative for the cleanup of radiological contamination events; however, the costs and benefits need to be balanced against those for complete removal and demolition of contaminated areas or facilities. Demolition and removal are often the first options considered in such circumstances as decontamination may be thought of as slow and costly. Decontamination has advantages, including significant waste reduction over demolition. In areas with buildings of cultural or societal importance, demolition may not be an option. Three decontamination evaluation test series are the focus of this article: SIMCON 1 and 2 (i.e., simulated contamination), and Urban RDD (radiological dispersal device, i.e., a dirty bomb detonation). These test series revealed that different contaminants respond differently during decontamination. This was found to be true with both SIMCON and Urban RDD simulant tests. SIMCON 2 especially demonstrated that chemically different contaminants respond differently to different decontamination methods: cesium appears to be less tenacious (more easily removed) than zirconium using chemical methods. These differences were underscored by the Urban RDD tests where americium and cobalt tended to precipitate on high pH surfaces (such as concrete), making them easier to remove, while cesium and strontium were essentially unaffected by surface pH and were imbibed more strongly into the substrate pore structure. While authorities argue over the contributions of contaminant chemistry and substrate morphology, the clear answer is that each has a contribution to the tenacity of a contaminant. Knowing how these characteristics interact will make us better at decontamination in the field. This knowledge refutes the efforts of perhaps well

  18. On development of systematical recommendations for the appropriate decision-making during relief works of radioactive contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, A.F.; Grachev, M.I.; Andrianov, K.N.; Grinev, M.P.; Savkin, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    The basic principle and decision-making structure on the relief of radioactive contaminated areas on the basic of the cost-benefit analysis are presented. Dose criteria and classification of radioactive contaminated areas are discussed. The examples of multifactorial analysis and hierarchy analysis method are given. 2 tabs

  19. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E. F.; Mironov, V. P.; Drugachenok, M. A.; Kudryashov, V.P; Grushevich, L.E; Adamovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m 2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  20. [Regional features of food standards and health risks associated with chemical contamination of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikov, O V; Khatuaev, R O; Istomin, A V; Rumyantseva, L A

    In the article there are presented results of a study of the balance of food consumption by the population of the Voronezh region, the assessment of the level of contamination of food products and both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic and public health risk caused by this contamination. There was evaluated the level of nutrition-dependent diseases. A special feature of this study is a comparative analysis of data obtained during the two five-year periods of 1995-1999 and 2010-2014, that permitted to reveal changes in food consumption, the dynamics of morbidity rate associated with the nutritional factor.

  1. Radioactive contamination. Italian programme to monitor the radiocesium levels in the urine and thyroid status of exposed children from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Valeriani, F.; Musumeci, R.G.; Salimei, G.; Marinosci, N.; Giannotti, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1995, following the accident at Chernobyl, the Italian Red Cross has hosted about 2,000 children from the contaminated zones of Belorussia and the Ukraine. The purpose of the project was to ensure, by temporary removal of the children from the contaminated areas, an improvement in their general well-being with both physical and psychological benefits. In the current work, in particular, the results reported are of a study carried out in order to evaluate radioactive contamination levels and the medical surveillance of the thyroid status of the exposed children after the fall-out of the accident at Chernobyl. During the course of the research 400 children were examined, masculine and feminine, between the ages of 6 and 16. The children from Belorussia were hosted by families in Tuscany and the children from the Ukraine were hosted in the Corpomiles Center of the Italian Red Cross in Lazio. The children were hosted for a period of 30 days in our country and many have returned since then and we have repeated the same analyses. In the current work a radiometric analysis was carried out on the children's urine samples to find Cs-137 and Cs-134. The concentration of the two radionuclides was measured at the beginning and end of the children's stay in Italy. The two radionuclides were collected over a period of 24 hours. Moreover, a scan of the thyroid was carried out on the same children to discover the potential presence of a glandular tumour of pathological form caused by I-131. The results of the spectrometric analyses give indications as to the degree of radioactivity contamination in the children relative to their different home countries. The results confirm the existence of a chronic radioactive contamination due to a balanced diet of contaminated food. The analysis of the thyroid also demonstrated small to medium lymphadenopaties latero cervical. In conclusion, data collected from our present multidisciplinary work shows a decrease of around 30% in Cs-137

  2. Analysis of Radioactivity Contamination Level of Kartini Reactor Efluen Gas to the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Purwanto; Aminjoyo, S

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of radioactivity contamination level of Kartini reactor efluen gas to the environment has been done from 13-10-'95 until 8-2-'96. The aim of this research is to determine the radioactivity contamination level on the environment resulted from the release of Kartini reactor efluen gas and other facilities at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre through stack. The analysis methods is the student t-test, the first count factor test and the gamma spectrometry. The gas sampling were carried out in the stack reactor, reactor room, environment and in other room for comparison. Efluen gas was sucked through a filter by a high volume vacuum pump. The filter was counted for beta, gamma and alpha activities. The radioactivity contamination level of the efluen gas passing through the stack to the environment was measured between 0.57 - 1.34 Bq/m3, which was equal to the airborne radioactivity in environment between 0.69 - 1.12 Bq/m3. This radioactivity comes from radon daughter, decay products result from the natural uranium and thorium series of the materials of the building

  3. Assessment of radioecological situation of a site contaminated by technologically enhanced natural radioactivity in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactivity contamination originating from the coal fired power plant and its waste dumps located in a bay of the Adriatic which is due to geographical characteristics sensitive to any kind of pollution including radioactivity is discussed. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustile ash and slag showed increased concentrations of natural radioactivity which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of Croatian Adriatic. There are two coal slag and ash piles, one of them was closed and covered by soil and the other is a still operating pile. The location of both piles presents a considerable environmental problem: situated close to the seaside, slag and ash are accumulating in the littoral zone and, in the case of operating pile, are being filled up directly into the sea. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactivity level at the ash and slag deposits and to assess the risk of increased radioactivity for the inhabitants of the nearby urban area, for the plant workers and general environment of the bay including the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  5. GIS-application for analysis of risk of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, A.; Rigina, O.; Elyuchnikova, E.; Nazarenko, L.

    1995-01-01

    The main task of the international project Kolanet is the establishment of an information system for quick response on radiation accidents on the Kola peninsula. Along with a monitoring system, the response system includes a system for forecasting of possible consequences of an accident, based on several computer programs. As a first task of the project a data base and a map of the risk objects have been established. The data base includes information on nuclear ships and nuclear facilities, together with data on nuclear explosions, burials and dumping of radioactive wastes. 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. Prevention of radioactive contamination in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.

    1995-01-01

    In this work was studied the separation of uranium from the phosphate rock to decrease the level of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers, this prevents the redistribution of uranium in the environment. The uranium leaching conditions from phosphate rock were estimated using alkaline solutions. The changes in the natural phosphate rock after leaching were studied. The amenability to separate the uranium from phosphate rock with ammonium carbonate / bicarbonate solution was determined. The uranium extraction was approximately 40%. The leaching conditions showed high selectivity for uranium without changes in the ore structure. The bulk ore was not dissolved. (Author)

  7. Trace contaminants of agriculture, fisheries and food with particular reference to isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Growing world population, industrilization and intensification of agricultural and fisheries practices have greatly increased the need during recent decades to protect the resources concerned, and the quality of food and agricultural environment. These trends have also resulted in a growing range of trace contaminants and excessive nutrient problems of agriculture and fisheries. Isotopic tracer and nuclear analytical techniques are powerful and often unique tools for the study and control of the problems, especially in relation to trace elements, nutrients and contaminants. In addition to the conventional use of radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers there appears to be considerable scope for the use of environmental or natural isotope ratio techniques and the use of labelled reagents and substrates as monitoring tools. Representative applications are described. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of the Shagan river ecosystem components with artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, S.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Yakovenko, Yu.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Shagan river is the only surface waterway on the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site territory. It flows along the eastern boundary of the SNTS and is a left-bank tributary of the Irtysh river. The length of the Shagan riverbed is 275 km with an average slope 0.003, which changes considerably from one part of the riverbed to the other. Within the Balapan testing ground the length of the riverbed is about 50 km, and the slope angle is, on average, 0.002. The watershed area of the left-bank part of the testing ground, where testing wells are located, is about 900 km 2 . In 2006 during radio-ecological investigations of the SNTS aquatic environment, scientists determined contamination of the Shagan river with radioactive products of nuclear explosions. The main radioactive pollutant is tritium. Maximal tritium concentration in the river waters (40*10 4 Bq/l) was registered 4.7 km away from the Atomic lake at levels of more than 50 times higher than the maximal permissible level for drinking water. As the distance from the Atomic lake increases, tritium concentration in the Shagan waters considerably decreases, and in the place of its confluence with the Irtysh rivertritium concentration in water becomes 10 Bq/l, which is equal to MPL (maximal permissible level) used for equipment. A complex of scientific investigations including hydrogeological, hydrological and geophysical investigation showed that tritium contamination of the Shagan waters is caused by the discharge of contaminated ground waters from the testing ground Balapan. In 2007 additional investigations of the river ecosystem showed that surface waters of the river in addition to tritium contained 90 Sr, and bottom sedimentations were contaminated with 60 Co, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 137 Cs. It should be noted that concentration of 90 Sr in water reaches the level comparable with intervention level established by NRB-99 (Radiation Safety Norms) for water and food intake. By the character of tritium and

  9. Treatment techniques for the removal of radioactive contaminants from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Maximum contaminant levels have been set for radioactive contaminants, as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL 93-523). Treatment techniques are available for removing radium and beta-gamma emitters. Presently-used methods of removing radium-226 are precipitative lime softening (80-90% removal) ion exchange softening (95% removal) and reverse osmosis (95% removal). The 5 p Ci/l limit for radium can be met with conventional technology for raw waters in the 5-100 p Ci/l concentration range. Treatment for removal of beta or gamma emitters must be based upon chemical rather than radioactive characteristics of the contaminant. Reverse osmosis can remove a broad spectrum of ions and molecules from water, so it is the process most likely to be used. The maximum contaminant level for beta and gamma radioactivity is an annual dose equivalent to the total body or any organ not to exceed 4 m rem/year. The fate of radionuclides after removal from drinking water should be considered. Presently radium is disposed with other process wastes at softening plants removing radium. Confinement and disposal as a radioactive waste would be very expensive. (author)

  10. The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands in Mogilev region [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komleva, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was analyzed the present level of radioactive situation and contamination of areas of agricultural companies with radiocesium at in Mogilev region. There were suggested methodical approaches on organizing the use of the lands in such a way as to get the minimum content of radionuclides in the manufactured products

  11. Radioactive contamination of soil-vegetation cover in some southern areas of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Zharikov, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of radioactive contamination of meadow-pasture lands in the south of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) has been studied using experimental data. Individual parameters of radionuclide transport from soil into plants depending upon soil type and sub-type, extent of land use for hay-making and pasturing, and other nature-climatic and anthropogenic factors have been determined. (author)

  12. Development of Radioactive Substance Contamination Diffusion Preventive Equipment for a Hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Do Sik; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Kim, Ki Ha; Lee, Eun Pyo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hot cell of irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF), which has been operating since 1996, is generally contaminated by the radioactive nuclides of irradiated nuclear fuels and structural steels like Cs-137, Co-60, Co-134 and Ru-106. Especially Cs-137 is a main contaminated radioactive isotope which is easily moved here and there due to air flow in the hot cell, water-soluble, extremely toxic, and has a half-life of 30.23 years. To repair or fix the abnormal function of test apparatus installed in the hot cell, the maintenance door, so called a rear door and located at an intervention area, is opened to enter the hot cell inside. In a moment of opening the maintenance door, dirty air diffusion from the hot cell to an intervention area could be occurred in spite of increasing the rpm of exhaust fan to maintain much low under pressure, but an adjacent area to a maintenance door, i.e. intervention area, is very severely contaminated due to the unpredictable air flow. In this paper, the development of the radioactive substance contamination diffusion preventive equipment for a hot cell is studied to prevent dirty and toxic gaseous radioactive nuclides diffusion from a hot cell and installed at an intervention area of IMEF

  13. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137 Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137 Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition

  14. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  15. The forming of the complexes of soil mezofauna in the zone of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out the pedobiological research in the different biogeocenoses in the zone of radioactive contamination. Based on the obtained data we can conclude a direct correlation between the viability of the soil invertebrates and the background gamma-radiation intensity. All the facts indicate that soil animal complexes in biogeocenoses exposed to radiation for a long time impact clearly noticeable suppression

  16. Facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The standard applies to processes applied in facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants with LWR- and HTR-type reactors. It does not apply to the treatment of concentrates obtained in the decontamination of water. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioautographic studies of the materials obtained from the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru contaminated by radioactive ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Akagi, H; Goto, H; Wakisaka, G

    1954-01-01

    The contamination was associated with the presence of small radioactive particles. Although these particles were easily scattered, it was difficult to remove them completely. The particles did not penetrate into the interior of clothes of fine meshes. Decontamination by washing with sea water was not perfect.

  18. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-01-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  20. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination; Caracterisation de mousses dulcaquicoles comme indicateurs de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    1994-12-16

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs.