WorldWideScience

Sample records for food contact notification

  1. 21 CFR 170.103 - Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket... ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.103 Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN). A manufacturer or supplier may withdraw an FCN without prejudice to...

  2. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls......Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  3. 77 FR 66909 - Notification of Contact Information Change for the Benghazi Accountability Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notification of Contact Information Change for the Benghazi Accountability Review Board SUMMARY: On October 1, 2012, the Department of State announced the formation of the Benghazi Accountability Review Board...

  4. 78 FR 14097 - Pulse Oximeters-Premarket Notification Submissions [510(k)s]; Guidance for Industry and Food and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pulse Oximeters--Premarket Notification Submissions... availability of the guidance entitled ``Pulse Oximeters--Premarket Notification Submissions .'' This guidance document pertains to non-invasive pulse oximeters intended for prescription use to measure arterial...

  5. Interactive network analytical tool for instantaneous bespoke interrogation of food safety notifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The globalization of food supply necessitates continued advances in regulatory control measures to ensure that citizens enjoy safe and adequate nutrition. The aim of this study was to extend previous reports on network analysis relating to food notifications by including an optional filter by type of notification and in cases of contamination, by type of contaminant in the notified foodstuff. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A filter function has been applied to enable processing of selected notifications by contaminant or type of notification to i capture complexity, ii analyze trends, and iii identify patterns of reporting activities between countries. The program rapidly assesses nations' roles as transgressor and/or detector for each category of contaminant and for the key class of border rejection. In the open access demonstration version, the majority of notifications in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed were categorized by contaminant type as mycotoxin (50.4%, heavy metals (10.9% or bacteria (20.3%. Examples are given demonstrating how network analytical approaches complement, and in some cases supersede, descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, which may give limited or potentially misleading information. One key feature is that network analysis takes the relationship between transgressor and detector countries, along with number of reports and impact simultaneously into consideration. Furhermore, the indices that compliment the network maps and reflect each country's transgressor and detector activities allow comparisons to be made between (transgressing vs. detecting as well as within (e.g. transgressing activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This further development of the network analysis approach to food safety contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of the effort ensuring food is safe for consumption in the European Union. The unique patterns of the interplay between detectors and

  6. The correlation analysis of alert notifications in the rasff to food from the non-eea countries and from the eea countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Pigłowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed is used to quickly mutual information of member countries of the European Economic Area (EEA on risks in food. A similar trend line course of alert notifications in the RASFF in time to food from the non-EEA countries and the EEA countries, as well as a very high value of the Pearson's r correlation coefficient (0.96 indicated an interdependence of alert notifications from these two groups of countries. Therefore, the goal of the article was to examine the strength of correlation within particular products categories and hazards categories. Methods: Data for the study came from the RASFF database from the years 1979-2013 covering 8175 alert notifications, including the 2540 notifications to food from the non-EEA countries and 5635 notifications to food from the EEA countries. Within each products category and hazards category examined whether there was a correlation (i.e. the value of calculated statistics t exceeded the value of critical statistics t0.05;n-2, and then calculated the Pearson's r correlation coefficient. Results: The value of Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated the occurrence of a very high correlation in the products category "Herbs and spices" (0.98, and the high correlation in the following categories: "Bivalve molluscs and products thereof" (0.70, "Dietetic foods, food supplements fortified foods" (0.86, "Fish and fish products" (0.79, "Food contact materials" (0.89, "Fruits and vegetables" (0.88 and "Meat and meat products (other than poultry" (0.72. However, in the case of hazards categories the very high correlation occurred in the category of "Food additives and flavourings" (0.93 and "Radiation" (0.94 and the high correlation in the case of "Composition" (0.89, "Foreign bodies" (0.88, "Heavy metals" (0.80, "Mycotoxins" (0.81  and "Pathogenic micro-organisms" (0.72. Conclusions: The results showed the need to pay particular attention by the border

  7. Siloxanes in silicone products intended for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    Silicone is used in food contact materials due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. It is thermostable and flexible and is used in bakeware and kitchen utensils. Silicone is also used to coat paper to make it water and fat resistant. There is no specific regulation in EU which covers...... silicone as food contact materials, but in Regulation 1935/2004 on materials intended to come into contact with food it is stated that materials should be manufactured so it do not transfer their constituents to food in quantities which could endanger human health. Silicone may contain residual siloxane...... oligomers which might migrate to the food when the product is being used. DTU has proposed two action limits for low molecular weight siloxanes in food contact materials. For the sum of cyclic siloxanes D3 to D8 the limits are 12 mg/kg food for adults and 2 mg/kg food for children. For the sum of cyclic...

  8. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq Mohd Khairi, Mohd; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3570 Lubricants with incidental food contact.... Polybutene, hydrogenated; complying with the identity prescribed under § 178.3740 Do. Polyethylene Do...

  10. [Contact tracing and partner notification among a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients. A prospective study carried out in Palermo in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Nogare, Fabrizio; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Adriana; Dalle Nogare, Ernesto Renato; Arena, Nunzia; Prestileo, Tullio

    2014-09-01

    Introduction. Contact tracing and partner notification are tools to prevent the spread of the HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These tools protect the rights of the individual contrasting healthcare policies that encourage dangerous kinds of discrimination. Objective. Pointing out the opinion of a sample of HIV-1 infected patients about the possibility of starting a support helpdesk for contract tracing and partner notification. Design and setting. A survey about contact tracing and partner notification procedures was conducted through anonymous questionnaires filled by a sample of 110 HIV-infected patients, involved in a follow-up stage at the Infectious Diseases Outpatients Clinic from the Civic Hospital Benfratelli in Palermo. The survey took place in May 2012. Results. An efficient partner notification is considered essential, both to protect people with whom the patient has come into contact and to contribute to the reduction of HIV spread. The questions dealing with this issue recorded more than 90% of positive answers. The questions about protecting the privacy during the diagnosis notification processes enlightened that notifying the partner is always felt as a greater need compared to the risk of losing one's own privacy; in fact, the positive answers were 81%. As for the role played by the physician during the contact tracing and partner notification process, 34% of the interviewees think that the physician should ask the patient to disclose the names of partners with whom he/she had a risky behavior. Finally, as for the question concerning how partner notification should happen, the results showed that 31% of the interviewees declare to be favorable to a full mandate by the physician, while just above 25% would choose to notify it personally, even though with the physician's help. Conclusion. Overall, the survey showed that more than 70% of people interviewed are favorable to a personal notification, against 25% of the interviewees who

  11. Food contact materials, flavouring substances and smoke flavourings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel K-H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel and the subsequent Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel have undertaken evaluations of the safety of flavourings (both chemically defined substances and mixtures such as smoke flavourings and food contact materials (FCM, as well as assessments on other substances used in food. The major progress in methodologies for the evaluation of the safety of these substances is highlighted in this article. By December 2011, scientific opinions had been adopted for 247 substances for food contact materials, mainly plastics. Adoption of a series of opinions on active and/or intelligent packaging substances and on recycling processes of plastics is planned between July 2012 and December 2013. Panel opinions, EFSA statements/reports and guidance documents were published on specific issues and on substances for which there was an urgent request for safety evaluation (for example isopropylthioxanthone (ITX, bisphenol A (BPA, phthalates, epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO, benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. By 2009, the AFC and CEF Panels had completed the safety review of 2 067 flavourings substances used in the EU. Additional data, which were requested for 404 substances, are currently under evaluation or have been generated. Eleven smoke flavourings have been evaluated, and the CEF Panel has prepared a guidance document on the future data required for the evaluation of flavourings.

  12. Survival of norovirus surrogate on various food-contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, An-Na; Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an environmental threat to humans, which spreads easily from one infected person to another, causing foodborne and waterborne diseases. Therefore, precautions against NoV infection are important in the preparation of food. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of murine norovirus (MNV), as a NoV surrogate, on six different food-contact surfaces: ceramic, wood, rubber, glass, stainless steel, and plastic. We inoculated 10(5) PFU of MNV onto the six different surface coupons that were then kept at room temperature for 28 days. On the food-contact surfaces, the greatest reduction in MNV was 2.28 log10 PFU/coupon, observed on stainless steel, while the lowest MNV reduction was 1.29 log10 PFU/coupon, observed on wood. The rank order of MNV reduction, from highest to lowest, was stainless steel, plastic, rubber, glass, ceramic, and wood. The values of d R (time required to reduce the virus by 90%) on survival plots of MNV determined by a modified Weibull model were 277.60 h (R(2) = 0.99) on ceramic, 492.59 h (R(2) = 0.98) on wood, 173.56 h on rubber (R(2) = 0.98), 97.18 h (R(2) = 0.94) on glass, 91.76 h (R(2) = 0.97) on stainless steel, and 137.74 h (R(2) = 0.97) on plastic. The infectivity of MNV on all food-contact surfaces remained after 28 days. These results show that MNV persists in an infective state on various food-contact surfaces for long periods. This study may provide valuable information for the control of NoV on various food-contact surfaces, in order to prevent foodborne disease.

  13. Migration of compounds from food contact materials and articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents the different types of food contact/packaging materials (plastics, paper and cardboard, metals, glass, rubbers, lacquers and coatings) and discusses the EU legislation concerning the safety of using these materials. Case studies on the migration of lead, bisphenol A, bisphen...

  14. Systemic contact dermatitis to foods: nickel, BOP, and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Stephanie K; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD), a cutaneous reaction that is a direct manifestation of systemic exposure to a known allergen in a sensitized individual, has been increasingly recognized as a cause of persistent cutaneous contact dermatitis that is refractory to conventional therapies. While SCD in response to drugs has been described well in the literature, SCD to allergens in common foodstuffs is a less well-articulated phenomenon. Several foods that are universally consumed throughout the world contain potent allergens including nickel, balsam of Peru, trace metals, urushiol, and sesquiterpene lactones as well as a host of others that may cause a distinctive clinical picture. In this review article, the authors review the typical presentation and prevalence of SCD to foods, pathophysiology, the most common offensive ingestible food allergens, several appropriate diets, and effectiveness of dietary avoidance for situations in which SCD is suspected.

  15. Anticipation of future notifications to EFSA of microbial taxonomic units intentionally introduced into the food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available EFSA requested the preparation and prioritisation of a list of microorganism species likely to be notified to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the future in the regulatory context of food and feed additives, food enzymes and food flavourings by consulting the following EFSA scientific Units (Food Ingredients and Packaging (FIP, FEED, Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMO, Pesticides. This list is intended to be considered for the annual updates and reviews of the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS recommended list of biological agents. EFSA’s QPS assessment has entered EU law only recently with the publication of a new Commission Implementing Regulation No 562/2012 regarding specific data required for risk assessment of food enzymes having regard to Regulation (EC No 1331/2008 establishing a common authorising procedure for food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings and to the EFSA guidance on data requirements for the evaluation of food enzyme applications. An EFSA internal working group (WG prepared a list of microorganism species that maybe likely to be notified to EFSA in the near future based on available information relevant in the legal framework. A high number of application dossiers for risk assessment of enzymes are expected to be submitted until March 2015 in the context of enzyme safety evaluation to the FIP Unit and Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel. It is therefore recommended to consider the list as soon as possible by the annual QPS WG of the Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel to avoid where possible any unnecessary toxicity testing for taxonomic units which would potentially receive a QPS recommendation.

  16. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  17. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  18. 75 FR 4523 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Acting Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of..., International Activities Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA, 5100..., Consumer Safety Officer, Division of Food Contact Notifications, Office of Food Additive Safety...

  19. Evaluating use stage exposure to food contact materials in a LCA framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present novel methods to incorporate exposure to chemicals within food contact materials (FCM) (e.g. packaging) into life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical migration into food is modeled as a function of contact temperature, time, and various chemical, FCM, and food properties. In order...... in a way compatible with intake fraction, iF, a metric traditionally used in LCIA. The model predicts PiF increases with temperature and for compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients within more permeable materials which are in contact with foods with high ethanol equivalencies (fatty foods)....

  20. Cold plasma rapid decontamination of food contact surfaces contaminated with Salmonella biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-contamination of fresh produce and other foods from persistent pathogen reservoirs is a known risk factor in processing environments. Industry requires a rapid, waterless, zero-contact, chemical-free method for removing pathogens from food-contact surfaces. Cold plasma was tested for its abili...

  1. Updated evaluation of the migration of styrene monomer and oligomers from polystyrene food contact materials to foods and food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; Begley, Timothy

    2014-04-01

    Due to the 2011 labelling of styrene monomer as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by the National Institutes of Health's National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the controversy over whether styrene oligomers mimic the physiological effects of estrogen, an updated review of styrene monomer and oligomers in food and food contact materials (FCMs) was performed. The concentrations of styrene monomer and oligomers were determined in 24 polystyrene (PS) products and ranged from 9.3 to 3100 mg kg(-1) for the styrene monomer, 130-2900 mg kg(-1) for the sum of three styrene dimers, and 220-16,000 mg kg(-1) for the sum of six styrene trimers. Foods in contact with PS packaging had styrene monomer concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 163 ng g(-1); dimer concentrations from the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 4.8 ng g(-1) and trimer concentrations were all below the LOQ (2 ng g(-1)). Diffusion coefficients (Dp) and partition coefficients (K) were also calculated for styrene dimers and trimers. The results presented here indicate that styrene monomer concentrations in foods have not significantly changed since the 1980s and monomer concentrations in food packaging quantified in this study were all below USFDA limits. Although styrene dimers and trimers are present in higher concentrations in PS FCMs than the monomer, their migration to food is limited because of their high K values (4 × 10(2) to 2 × 10(6)) and their low diffusion coefficients in PS products. Additionally, diffusion coefficients calculated using USFDA-recommended food simulants and Arrhenius plots describing the temperature dependence of styrene dimers and trimers can be used in future calculations of dietary intake of the styrene oligomers.

  2. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enforcement of the Danish Bisphenol A restriction on Food Contact Materials and Articles for infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In Denmark a national restriction was implemented in 2010 banning the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in any Food Contact Materials intended for children in the age 0-3 years. The ban includes BPA in baby bottles, baby cups, food cans for infant formulas and lids for glass containers with baby food. To ...

  4. Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands...... resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were......%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact...

  5. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effectiveness of coatings for surfaces in contact with food

    OpenAIRE

    Peiró Ramírez, Marianela

    2014-01-01

    Pòster The aim of this experimental study consisted in evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of different coverings, with various antimicrobial additives to use in surfaces in contact with food by making different microbiological test over this surfaces.

  6. Survey of the occurrence of 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether in food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This project is a survey of the occurence of 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether (HDDGE) specifically in food contact material on the Danish market This survey clarifies that HDDGE is listed on an inventory for possible use in printing inks food contact materials, but that is not used by European...... producers and importers. The substance is not allowed for use in plastic materials for food contact. One Danish company reported a possible use of HDDGE in coating of drinking tanks and pipelines. This is the only use of HDDGE confirmed in relation to food contact materials in Denmark. The project...... is following up on a previous survey under the Danish EPA’s LOUS-review (Environmental Project no. 1472)....

  7. Microbial survival on food contact surfaces in the context of food hygiene regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart-Moonlight, Belinda Isobel

    2001-07-01

    Bacterial food poisoning causes substantial suffering and financial loss worldwide. One way organisms enter foods is via cross contamination directly or indirectly from structural and food contact surfaces. An 'in situ' method was developed for the detection of surviving bacteria on surfaces. Samples of test surfaces were overlaid with agar and after incubation, colonies were visualised by reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium, which was reduced to a purple insoluble dye. It was shown that the death of bacteria applied as liquid films to surfaces, occurred largely at the point of drying. For impervious surfaces (ceramic, stainless steel, glass and polystyrene), surface type had little effect on survival. In contrast, survival was markedly affected by the nature of the suspension fluid in which cells were dried. In deionised water, survival was low and for Gram negative organisms was strongly influenced by cell density. Where cells were dried in simulated food films (containing brain heart infusion, NaCI, serum or sucrose), survival values increased with increasing concentrations and approached 100% for Staphylococcus aureus cells suspended in 10% w/v sucrose. The survival of Gram positive organisms on impervious surfaces was generally greater than for Gram negative organisms and consistent with this observation, scanning electron microscopy indicated that Gram negative cells collapsed during drying. On wood surfaces, survival was generally similar to or higher than on impervious surfaces. However, neither of the Gram positive organisms tested (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) could be recovered following inoculation onto the surface of the African hard-wood, iroko, although Gram negative organisms survived well. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that cells had not been adsorbed below the wood surface and an ethanol-soluble toxic factor was extracted from iroko, which killed Staphylococcus aureus cells, but had no effect on the

  8. Food and Drug Administration Efforts to Mitigate Contact Lens Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Denise; Green, Joffre Angelo; Robboy, Marc; Eydelman, Malvina

    2017-01-01

    The premarket review of contact lenses and accessories by the FDA involves the assessment of nonclinical and clinical information in support of clearance or approval of marketing applications. The review process for these medical devices, including attributes, which may contribute to comfort for lens wearers, is summarized, as are mechanisms by which FDA continues to assess and improve recommendations through the review process and through collaboration with external entities.

  9. Persistence and Elimination of Human Norovirus in Food and on Food Contact Surfaces: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel; Knight, Angus; Richards, Gary P

    2016-07-01

    This critical review addresses the persistence of human norovirus (NoV) in water, shellfish, and processed meats; on berries, herbs, vegetables, fruits, and salads; and on food contact surfaces. The review focuses on studies using NoV; information from studies involving only surrogates is not included. It also addresses NoV elimination or inactivation by various chemical, physical, or processing treatments. In most studies, persistence or elimination was determined by detection and quantification of the viral genome, although improved methods for determining infectivity have been proposed. NoV persisted for 60 to 728 days in water, depending on water source. It also persisted on berries, vegetables, and fruit, often showing 8.0, freeze-drying, and UV radiation. Ineffective disinfectants included hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, most ethanol-based disinfectants, and antiseptics at normally used concentrations. Thorough washing of herbs and produce was effective in reducing, but not eliminating, NoV in most products. Washing hands with soap generally reduced NoV by <2 log. Recommendations for future research needs are provided.

  10. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  11. US FDA's revised consumption factor for polystyrene used in food-contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, K; Elyashiv-Barad, S

    2007-09-01

    US FDA's continual effort to evaluate the safety of food-contact materials includes periodically re-examining our established packaging factors, such as consumption and food-type distribution factors. The use of polystyrene in food-contact and disposable food-packaging applications has expanded and is expected to continue to increase in the future. Therefore, it is important to revise the polystyrene consumption factor to account for increases in consumer exposure to substances migrating from styrenic food packaging. The currently used consumption factor for polystyrene is 0.1, which is based on market data collected around 1980. US FDA has revised the polystyrene consumption factor utilizing three different sources of market data. Using consumption and population data, US FDA calculated a new consumption factor of 0.14 for polystyrene. This consumption factor has been further subdivided to allow for the refinement of exposure estimates for uses limited to specific subcategories of polystyrene packaging.

  12. Influence of aqueous food simulants on potential nanoparticle detection in migration studies involving nanoenabled food-contact substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Noonan, Gregory O

    2016-05-01

    Research focused on assessing potential consumer exposure to nanoparticles released from nano-enabled food-contact materials (FCMs) has often reached conflicting conclusions regarding the detection of migrating nanoparticles. These conflicting conclusions, coupled with the potential for nanoparticles to be unstable in certain food simulants, has necessitated a closer look at the role played by food simulants recommended for use in nanoparticle migration evaluation. The influence of aqueous food simulants on nanoparticles under migration evaluation conditions is reported herein. The stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) spiked into three food simulants (water, 10% ethanol and 3% acetic acid) was investigated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4), ultrafiltration, electron microscopy (EM), and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS). While 3% acetic acid induced significant oxidative dissolution of AgNP to silver ions, there were very minor to no changes in the physicochemical properties of AgNP in water and 10% ethanol.

  13. Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of recycled fibre-based paper for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Vinggaard, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Food-contact materials, including paper, have to comply with a basic set of criteria concerning safety. This means that paper for food contact should not give rise to migration of components, which can endanger human health. The objectives of this pilot study were, first, to compare paper...... of different qualities as food-contact materials and to Perform a preliminary evaluation of their suitability from a safety point of view, and, second, to evaluate the use of different in vitro toxicity tests for screening of paper and board. Paper produced from three different categories of recycled fibres (B......-D) and a raw material produced from virgin fibres (A) were obtained from industry, and extracts were examined by chemical analyses and diverse in vitro toxicity test systems. The products tested were either based on different raw materials or different treatments were applied. Paper category B was made from 40...

  14. Interfacial behavior of common food contact polymer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiserman, W M; Can, S Z; Walker, R A; Begley, T H; Limm, W

    2007-07-15

    Irganox 1076 (IN1076) and Irganox 1010 (IN1010), phenol containing species often used as antioxidant additives in food packaging polymers have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. Consequently these additives are likely to absorb to surfaces where their free energy is minimized. Experiments described in this work examine the two-dimensional phase behavior and vibrational structure of IN1076 and IN1010 films adsorbed to the air/water interface. Surface pressure isotherms show that repeated compression of these films leads to continued irreversible loss of molecules and that on a per molecule basis, this loss is more pronounced for IN1076 than for IN1010. Differences in the surface properties of these two antioxidant additives are interpreted based on differences in molecular structure. Surface specific vibrational measurements of these organic films show very little conformational order, implying that even when closely packed, both antioxidant species have little affinity for forming highly organized domains. These findings have important ramifications for mechanisms that reduce antioxidant activity in polymers as well as descriptions of antioxidant blooming on polymer surfaces.

  15. [Endocrine disruptors in food contact articles and baby toys with their transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A number of endocrine disruptors have been reported in food contact articles and baby toys mainly during the second half of the 1990s. Bisphenol A, nonylphenol, phthalates, styrene dimers and trimers, and their transision are described in this article. Bisphenol A was found in polycarbonate tableware, nursing bottles and the epoxy resin coating of cans, therefore, it was also found in the canned foods and drinks. Polycarbonate is now only slightly used for tableware or nursing bottles in Japan because consumers refused them. The can manufacturers changed their coating material to the low bisphenol A resin or PET films and voluntarily regulate its migration limit to under 5 or 10 ng/ml. Nonylphenol was found in most PVC wrapping films and gloves. It was generated from an oxidant, tris (nonylphenyl) phosphite. PVC wrapping film was extensively used in markets, thus many kinds of foods were contaminated. Among them, fillet or minced fish and meat contained it at high levels. In 2000, manufacturers voluntarily changed their composition and all wrapping films in Japan no longer contain nonylphenol. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in PVC gloves, which contaminated packed lunches and hospital meals at high levels. The government prohibited these gloves for all food contact use in 2000, moreover, other PVC food contact articles containing DEHP were prohibited for contact use with fatty foods in 2002. DEHP was also found in PVC toys which was prohibited in 2002. Styrene dimers and trimers were found in PS products, which migrated into cupped noodles after cooking. No changes have been made in them. In Japan, the exposure to bisphenol A, nonylphenol and DEHP have been significantly reduced and people also have more concerns with the safety of food contact articles.

  16. Contingency contacting. Combining positive reinforcement and escape extinction procedures to treat persistent food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, T; Babbitt, R L; Coe, D A; Krell, D M; Hackbert, L

    1994-01-01

    Chronic food refusal has traditionally been treated with forced feeding and other physical prompting-based procedures when positive reinforcement procedures prove inadequate. Potential problems with such procedures, however, include exacerbation of feeding difficulties and health risks, as well as low parental approval and probability of implementation. Contingency contacting maximizes contact between oral acceptance and positive reinforcement, prevents escape functions of inappropriate behaviors, and requires minimal physical contact between feeder and child. Performances of two children exhibiting chronic food refusal were observed under baseline, positive reinforcement, and contingency contacting conditions. Positive reinforcement increased acceptance only slightly and did not change negative vocalization or interruption for one child. Contingency contacting rapidly increased acceptance and grams of food consumed, and decreased negative vocalization and interruption for both children. Withdrawal to positive reinforcement decreased acceptance for both children and grams consumed for one. Reinstituting contingency contacting rapidly increased acceptance and recovery of grams consumed for one child. Parental approval ratings and treatment and research implications are discussed.

  17. Detection of fresh-cut produce processing residues on food contact surface materials using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce the risk of foodborne-illness, produce processors currently clean and sanitize food contact surfaces daily before production starts. Current methods to verify the efficacy of cleaning procedures include visual inspection and direct surface sampling using ATP bioluminescence assays and cul...

  18. Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in black nylon and other food-contact materials, 2004-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Okholm, B.; Foverskov, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in migrates from 234 samples of food-contact materials, including black nylon (polyamide) kitchen utensils (n = 136), coloured plastics (28), and clear/printed multilayer film/laminates (41...

  19. Migration from food contact plastics. Part I. Establishment and aims of the PIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, P A; McGuinness, J D

    1987-01-01

    In the European Community regulatory approaches adopted by individual Member States to the control of food contact plastics differ markedly and, as a result, the European Commission has identified a need for harmonized legislation in this sector. The Commission requested its Scientific Committee for Food to advise on the toxicity of monomers and other starting substances used in the production of such plastics and the Committee's report has recently been published. It is apparent that, although some monomers have been studied in depth, for many little or no information was available to the Committee on either the levels migrating into food or their likely toxic effects. The Committee has requested that such information be provided within 3 years. Following discussions between the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, PIRA and companies involved in either the manufacture or use of food contact plastics, a Project has been established at PIRA to develop sensitive analytical procedures for the relevant UK-required monomers and to provide the required migration data. As a second part to this project the methodology for determining overall migration is being examined with a view to resolving existing experimental difficulties. The first analytical methods to be developed in the project are those for the determination or terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid. Residual levels of these monomers in plastics and the quantities migrating into food simulants and food have been shown to be very low.

  20. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ..., Storage, and Transportation.'' The guidance addresses testing procedures for Salmonella species (spp.) in... results, when the presence of Salmonella spp. in the food may render the food injurious to human health... Salmonella spp. in human foods (except shell eggs) and direct-human-contact animal foods, and...

  1. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (<1, 5, 30, and 300 s), and inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer). The surfaces used were stainless steel, tile, wood, and carpet. The food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm(2)) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10(7) CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm(2) contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P < 0.000001) on the log percent transfer of bacteria. The inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer) also had a significant effect on transfer (P = 0.013), and most interaction terms were significant. More bacteria transferred to watermelon (∼0.2 to 97%) than to any other food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy.

  2. An effect-directed strategy for characterizing emerging chemicals in food contact materials made from paper and board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Bengtström, Linda; Taxvig, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are any type of item intended to come into contact with foods and thus represent a potential source for human exposure to chemicals. Regarding FCMs made of paper and board, information pertaining to their chemical constituents and the potential impacts on human health...

  3. Commonly used disinfectants fail to eradicate Salmonella enterica biofilms from food contact surface materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M; Morris, D; De Lappe, N; O'Connor, J; Lalor, P; Dockery, P; Cormican, M

    2014-02-01

    Salmonellosis is the second most common cause of food-borne illness worldwide. Contamination of surfaces in food processing environments may result in biofilm formation with a risk of food contamination. Effective decontamination of biofilm-contaminated surfaces is challenging. Using the CDC biofilm reactor, the activities of sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride were examined against an early (48-h) and relatively mature (168-h) Salmonella biofilm. All 3 agents result in reduction in viable counts of Salmonella; however, only sodium hydroxide resulted in eradication of the early biofilm. None of the agents achieved eradication of mature biofilm, even at the 90-min contact time. Studies of activity of chemical disinfection against biofilm should include assessment of activity against mature biofilm. The difficulty of eradication of established Salmonella biofilm serves to emphasize the priority of preventing access of Salmonella to postcook areas of food production facilities.

  4. Food contact substances and chemicals of concern: a comparison of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geueke, Birgit; Wagner, Charlotte C; Muncke, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Food contact materials (FCMs) are intended to be in contact with food during production, handling or storage. They are one possible source of food contamination, because chemicals may migrate from the material into the food. More than 6000 FCM substances appear on regulatory or non-regulatory lists. Some of these substances have been linked to chronic diseases, whilst many others lack (sufficient) toxicological evaluation. The aim of this study was the identification of known FCM substances that are also considered to be chemicals of concern (COCs). The investigation was based on the following three FCM lists: (1) the 2013 Pew Charitable Trusts database of direct and indirect food additives legally used in the United States (or Pew for short), (2) the current European Union-wide positive list for plastic FCMs (or Union for short), and (3) the 2011 non-plastics FCM substances database published by EFSA (or ESCO for short). These three lists of food contact substances (Pew, Union, ESCO lists) were compared with the Substitute It Now! (SIN) list 2.1, which includes chemicals fulfilling the criteria listed in article 57 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH), and the TEDX database on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A total of 175 chemicals used in FCMs were identified as COCs. Fifty-four substances present on the SIN list 2.1 were also found on the Union and/or ESCO lists. Twenty-one of those 54 substances are candidates for Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), and six of these 21 are listed on Annex XIV and intended for phase-out under REACH. In conclusion, COCs used in FCMs were identified and information about their applications, regulatory status and potential hazards was included.

  5. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis on food and food contact surfaces by ultraviolet light and freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, can occasionally be contracted as a naso-pharangeal or gastrointestinal illness through consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the use of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV-C) to inactivate a multi-isolate cocktail of avirulent Y. pestis on food an...

  6. 21 CFR 190.6 - Requirement for premarket notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (HFS-820), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... receipt of a notification made under section 413 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act)...

  7. Fractionation of extracts from paper and board food contact materials forin vitroscreening of toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda; Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit;

    2014-01-01

    Paper and board used as food contact materials (FCMs) are chemically complex matrices, partly due to the naturally occurring substances in paper and board, but also due to the chemical treatment of the paper used to make it suitable for food contact. In order to assure the safety of packaging......% after extraction and fractionation. The fractionation both reduces the number of compounds to be identified and works as a sample clean-up by reducing matrix effects. Raw extracts and fractions from two paper and board FCMs were furthermore tested in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) reporter gene...... assay. Both raw extracts and two of the fractions of the raw extracts gave a positive response in the AhR assay. The strategy of extraction followed by fractionation offers a powerful tool in order to make the workflow for screening FCMs for potentially adverse effects more efficient....

  8. Morphological significance of cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils in contact with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Toshiko; Park, Bong Joo; Aihara, Maki; Ri, Noritoshi; Saito, Toshiko; Sawada, Takuo; Takatori, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    Cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils that come into contact with food were morphologically investigated. The most common contaminants, C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, were detected on the samples. The morphological changes of the Cladosporium species were investigated by using stereoscopic, optical light, fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopes. Microscopically the Cladosporium contaminants were observed as aggregated dark brown spots, strongly pigmented, irregularly swollen, and in long chains. Using fluorescent microscopy, the Cladosporium mycelia were clearly stained with fluorescein diacetate as viable cells, but the old cells were mostly non-viable, as shown by staining with propidium iodide. The dynamics of the morphological changes showed that the penetrating mycelia were closely attached to the surface of the materials and utensils under investigation. These results provide information about the significance of Cladosporium contamination on materials and utensils in contact with food and may contribute to the control of fungal contamination.

  9. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.

  10. Bioluminescence ATP Monitoring for the Routine Assessment of Food Contact Surface Cleanliness in a University Canteen

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Osimani; Cristiana Garofalo; Francesca Clementi; Stefano Tavoletti; Lucia Aquilanti

    2014-01-01

    ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10 cleaning control points (CPs), including food contact surfaces at risk of contamination from product residues or microbial growth, were analysed during an 8-month monitoring period....

  11. Microbiological evaluation of food contact surfaces at red meat processing plants in Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kemal Büyükünal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A microbial survey was performed for different red meat processing plants produces retail cuts and ground beef in Istanbul, Turkey. Swab samples from 10 cm2 of surface were obtained from food contact surfaces and environmental surfaces. Total mesophilic aerobic count (TMC, coliform count (CC, Escherichia coli count (ECC and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were determined for each sample. Average surface counts for TMC from floor, wall, food contact surfaces were between 2.71 to 3.15 log10 CFU / cm2, 0.69 to 1.56 log10 CFU/cm2 , 2.23 to 3.0 log10CFU/cm2 respectively. Coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined from floor and food contact surfaces. Samples taken from four different wall were negative for Escherichia coli. Any E. coli O157:H7counts were observed at the samples. Microbial testing for red meat processing plants is one of the most important subject for identifying and monitoring potential hazards as part of HACCP and GMP programs.

  12. Recent European Food Safety Authority toxicological evaluations of major phthalates used in food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuguenot, Jean-Claude

    2009-08-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, and at the EU level, the Scientific Committee for Food evaluated a number of phthalates that were being used, or were requested for use, as additives in plastics. At this time, peroxisome proliferation was considered as the pivotal effect on which toxicological evaluation of these chemicals was based. At the end of 1990s, a general consensus has been agreed that rodents are highly sensitive to the phenomenon of peroxisome proliferation and that this particular effect should not be used for human risk assessment. Consequently in 2004, it was requested from the newly created European Food Safety Authority to perform a new evaluation of the mainly used phthalates on the basis of existing data. This paper summarizes evaluations of butylbenzylphthalate, dibutylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate.

  13. Attachment behaviour of Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella Typhimurium P6on food contact surfaces for food transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    or presence of residues were evaluated. Observations were correlated with water contact angles of the materials (hydrophobicity) and roughness profile (Ra). Attachment of the organisms was negatively correlated tothe hydrophobicity of the three materials with r = -0.869 and -0.861 for E. coli K12 and S...... material sections of the same surfaces. We report these observations for the first time for aluminium and the FRP material and in part for stainless steel. The S. Typhimurium P6 strain also had significantly higher level of attachment than the E. coli K12 strain. Our findings show that food residue...

  14. Eradication of high viable loads of Listeria monocytogenes contaminating food-contact surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ede Candia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the efficacy of cold gaseous ozone treatments at low concentrations in the eradication of high Listeria monocytogenes viable cell loads from glass, polypropylene, stainless steel and expanded polystyrene food-contact surfaces. Using a step by step approach, involving the selection of the most resistant strain-surface combinations, 11 Listeria spp. strains resulted inactivated by a continuous ozone flow at 1.07 mg m-3 after 24 or 48 h of cold incubation, depending on both strain and surface evaluated. Increasing the inoculum level to 9 log CFU coupon-1, the best inactivation rate was obtained after 48h of treatment at 3.21 mg m-3 ozone concentration when cells were deposited onto stainless steel and expanded polystyrene coupons, resulted the most resistant food-contact surfaces in the previous assays.The addition of naturally microbiologically contaminated meat extract to a high load of L. monocytogenes LMG 23775 cells, the most resistant strain out of the 11 assayed Listeria spp. strains, led to its complete inactivation after four days of treatment.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the survival of L. monocytogenes and the effect of ozone treatment under cold storage conditions on expanded polystyrene, a commonly-used material in food packaging. These results could be useful for reducing pathogen cross-contamination phenomena during cold food storage.

  15. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.

  16. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications.

  17. Genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we conducted in vitro genotoxicity tests to evaluate the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. Styrene oligomers were extracted with acetone and the extract was subjected to the Ames test (OECD test guideline No. 471 and the in vitro chromosomal aberration test (OECD test guideline No. 473 under good laboratory practice conditions. The concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers in the concentrated extract were 540 and 13,431 ppm, respectively. Extraction with acetone provided markedly higher concentrations of styrene oligomers compared with extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution, which is the food simulant currently recommended for use in safety assessments of polystyrene by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. And these high concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers were utilized for the evaluation of genotoxicity in vitro. Ames tests using five bacterial tester strains were negative both in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU was also negative. Together, these results suggest that the risk of the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers that migrate from polystyrene food packaging into food is very low.

  18. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-12-15

    Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food.

  19. Microbiological Quality of Food Contact Surfaces in A Hospital Kitchen in Shiraz, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of healthy food is considered as an essential need to devoid the physical, chemical, and biological hazards. The importance of this issue is more conspicuous in places such as hospitals where people with somehow compromised immune systems are under treatment. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of food contact surfaces in a kitchen in one of the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In the present study, samples were taken from 48 food contact surfaces according to ISO 18593:2004(E and placed into the bags containing diluting solution; they were then transferred to the laboratory for microbial analysis in the cold chain. The microbial analysis was carried out according to ISO 4833-1:2013 and BS ISO 4832:2006 for enumeration of total bacterial count and coliform. Results: Based on the results presented here, 39.6% and 85.7% of the samples showed acceptable contamination with regard to the enumeration of total bacterial and coliform count. Besides, 18.2% and 72.7 % of work surfaces groups (cutting board, table, and hand showed acceptable contamination with regard to the enumeration of total bacterial count and coliform in comparison to the standards. Furthermore, 45.9% and 89.2% of other surfaces showed acceptable total bacterial and coliform count, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that safe management of the kitchen, education of the staff and also improvement of the equipment used are necessary.

  20. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known... another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices,...

  1. Cleaning and other control and validation strategies to prevent allergen cross-contact in food-processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S; Al-Taher, Fadwa M; Moorman, Mark; DeVries, Jonathan W; Tippett, Roger; Swanson, Katherine M J; Fu, Tong-Jen; Salter, Robert; Dunaif, George; Estes, Susan; Albillos, Silvia; Gendel, Steven M

    2008-02-01

    Food allergies affect an estimated 10 to 12 million people in the United States. Some of these individuals can develop life-threatening allergic reactions when exposed to allergenic proteins. At present, the only successful method to manage food allergies is to avoid foods containing allergens. Consumers with food allergies rely on food labels to disclose the presence of allergenic ingredients. However, undeclared allergens can be inadvertently introduced into a food via cross-contact during manufacturing. Although allergen removal through cleaning of shared equipment or processing lines has been identified as one of the critical points for effective allergen control, there is little published information on the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for removing allergenic materials from processing equipment. There also is no consensus on how to validate or verify the efficacy of cleaning procedures. The objectives of this review were (i) to study the incidence and cause of allergen cross-contact, (ii) to assess the science upon which the cleaning of food contact surfaces is based, (iii) to identify best practices for cleaning allergenic foods from food contact surfaces in wet and dry manufacturing environments, and (iv) to present best practices for validating and verifying the efficacy of allergen cleaning protocols.

  2. Exposure Assessment of Sb2O3 in PET Food Contact Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian; Xu, Hai Bin; Sun, Ru Bao; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to do exposure assessment of the possible migration of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) from Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) food contact materials (FCM). Consumption Factor (CF) and Food-type Distribution Factor (fT) were calculated from survey data with reference to the US FDA method. The most conservative migration conditions were obtained by testing Sb migration from PET FCM based on the Chinese national standard of GB/T 5009.101-2003[1]. Migration levels of Sb from PET FCM were tested and migration levels of Sb2O3 were obtained through molecular weight conversion between Sb and Sb2O3. Exposure assessment of Sb2O3 was undertaken. The Chinese Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of Sb2O3 resulted from PET FCM was 90.7 ng p-1d-1. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  4. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  5. Evaluation of migration models that might be used in support of regulations for food-contact plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begley, T.; Castle, L.; Feigenbaum, A.; Franz, R.; Hinrichs, K.; Lickly, T.; Mercea, P.; Milana, M.; O'Brien, A.; Rebre, S.; Rijk, R.; Piringer, O.

    2005-01-01

    Materials and articles intended to come into contact with food must be shown to be safe because they might interact with food during processing, storage and the transportation of foodstuffs. Framework Directive 89/109/EEC and its related specific Directives provide this safety basis for the protecti

  6. Phthalates in soft PVC products used in food production equipment and in other food contact materials on the Danish and the Nordic Market 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    2016-01-01

    to food type, contact temperature and time in contact with food. In both recent control campaigns about 1/3 of the samples analysed exceeded the current maximum limits for phthalates (especially DBP and DEHP) in plastics or showed migration into the fatty food simulant above the specific migration limits....... Critical sample types were conveyor belts, hoses and gloves. Conclusions Legal limits for phthalates were exceeded in many of the samples analysed in recent tests, including a large proportion of conveyor belts and gloves. The proportion of non-compliant conveyor belts, hoses and gaskets was lower in 2013...

  7. Bioluminescence ATP Monitoring for the Routine Assessment of Food Contact Surface Cleanliness in a University Canteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Osimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10 cleaning control points (CPs, including food contact surfaces at risk of contamination from product residues or microbial growth, were analysed during an 8-month monitoring period. Arbitrary acceptability limits were set for both microbial loads and ATP bioluminescence readings. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.99 between the means of ATP bioluminescence readings and the viable counts of total mesophilic aerobes was seen, thus revealing a strong association of these parameters with the level of surface contamination. Among CPs, the raw meat and multi-purpose chopping boards showed the highest criticalities. Although ATP bioluminescence technology cannot substitute traditional microbiological analyses for the determination of microbial load on food contact surfaces, it has proved to be a powerful tool for the real time monitoring of surface cleanliness at mass catering plants, for verify the correct application of SSOP, and hence for their implementation/revision in the case of poor hygiene.

  8. Bioluminescence ATP monitoring for the routine assessment of food contact surface cleanliness in a university canteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Tavoletti, Stefano; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2014-10-17

    ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10 cleaning control points (CPs), including food contact surfaces at risk of contamination from product residues or microbial growth, were analysed during an 8-month monitoring period. Arbitrary acceptability limits were set for both microbial loads and ATP bioluminescence readings. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.99) between the means of ATP bioluminescence readings and the viable counts of total mesophilic aerobes was seen, thus revealing a strong association of these parameters with the level of surface contamination. Among CPs, the raw meat and multi-purpose chopping boards showed the highest criticalities. Although ATP bioluminescence technology cannot substitute traditional microbiological analyses for the determination of microbial load on food contact surfaces, it has proved to be a powerful tool for the real time monitoring of surface cleanliness at mass catering plants, for verify the correct application of SSOP, and hence for their implementation/revision in the case of poor hygiene.

  9. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan-Li; Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  10. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  11. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. PMID:27579217

  12. Use of bioassays to assess hazard of food contact material extracts: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Isabelle; Souton, Emilie; Dahbi, Laurence; Chagnon, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the use of in vitro bioassays for the hazard assessment of food contact materials (FCM) as a relevant strategy, in complement to analytical methods. FCM may transfer constituents to foods, not always detected by analytical chemistry, resulting in low but measurable human exposures. Testing FCM extracts with bioassays represents the biological response of a combination of substances, able to be released from the finished materials. Furthermore, this approach is particularly useful regarding the current risk assessment challenges with unpredicted/unidentified non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) that can be leached from the FCM in the food. Bioassays applied to assess hazard of different FCM types are described for, to date, the toxicological endpoints able to be expressed at low levels; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and endocrine disruption potential. The bioassay strengths and relative key points needed to correctly use and improve the performance of bioassays for an additional FCM risk assessment is developed. This review compiles studies showing that combining both chemical and toxicological analyses presents a very promising and pragmatic tool for identifying new undesirable NIAS (not predicted) which can represent a great part of the migrating substances and/or "cocktail effect". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adhesion of Pathogenic Bacteria to Food Contact Surfaces: Influence of pH of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akier Assanta Mafu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces in cultures with different pHs (6, 7, and 8 was studied. The results indicated that the type of material had no effect on the attachment capacity of microorganisms, while environmental pH influenced the adhesion of A. hydrophila, E. coli, and S. aureus to both solid substrates. The attachment of S. Enteritidis (P>.05 was not affected by the type of substrate or the culture pH, whereas E. coli displayed the weakest affinity for both polystyrene and glass surfaces. No correlation was established between the physicochemical properties of the materials, or the bacterial and the rate of bacterial adhesion, except for S. aureus. Photomicrographs have shown that surfaces were contaminated by small clusters of S. Enteritidis while S. aureus invaded the food contact surfaces in the form of small chains or cell aggregates.

  14. Multicomponent recycled plastics: considerations about their use in food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, C; Salafranca, J; Rubio, C; Cacho, J

    1998-10-01

    Two multicomponent post-use recycled plastics named as NPP40A3 (formulated with 85% HDPE and 15% of a PP-PS-PVC mixture) and NPP40A6 (formulated with 80% NPP40A3, 10% ABS and 10% HIPS), both of them with 3.1% of plasticizer and 0.6% of stabilizer to obtain a better final product, have been analysed. Plastics were extracted both with dichloromethane and methylbenzene, and analysed by HPLC and GC-MS to identify the maximum possible number of compounds. Major additives quantified were di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (3.262% and 2.955% respectively) and Irganox 1010 (0.473% and 0.498% respectively). Several degradation compounds have been detected. In order to check if these plastics could be used in food contact applications, global and specific migration tests have been applied. The results obtained are discussed.

  15. Preacclimation alters Salmonella Enteritidis surface properties and its initial attachment to food contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yishan; Kumar, Amit; Zheng, Qianwang; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-04-01

    Exposure of Salmonella to environmental stress, prior to its adherence to a food contact surface, may change the cell surface properties and consequently affect its initial attachment and biofilm formation. This study investigated the influence of temperature and pH preacclimation on the initial attachment of Salmonella Enteritidis to acrylic and stainless steel. Besides, changes in physicochemical properties of cells were examined; and their surface attachment was modeled by xDLVO theory. Results showed that control cells pre-grown at 37°C had significantly (P0.05) different from control cells pre-grown at pH 7.3, but they were significantly higher compared to cells pre-grown at pH 8.3 and 9.0. No significant difference was observed between cell attachment to acrylic and stainless steel, although they had different physicochemical properties. The xDLVO theory successfully explained higher attachment for cells pre-grown at optimal condition on both contact surfaces. However, the xDLVO theory could not explain the similar attachment of cells to acrylic and stainless steel. This study elucidates that commonly used intervention technologies including cold storage, thermal treatment, and alkaline antimicrobial agents might alter the physicochemical properties of S. Enteritidis cells and result in varied initial attachment levels.

  16. Interaction between staining and degradation of a composite resin in contact with colored foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Soares-Geraldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite resins might be susceptible to degradation and staining when in contact with some foods and drinks. This study evaluated color alteration and changes in microhardness of a microhybrid composite after immersion in different colored foods and determined whether there was a correlation between these two variables. Eighty composite disks were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10: kept dry; deionized water; orange juice; passion fruit juice; grape juice; ketchup; mustard and soy sauce. The disks were individually immersed in their respective test substance at 37 ºC, for a period of 28 days. Superficial analysis of the disk specimens was performed by taking microhardness measurements (Vickers, 50 g load for 45 seconds and color alterations were determined with a spectrophotometer (CINTRA 10- using a CIEL*a*b* system, 400-700 nm wavelength, illuminant d65 and standard observer of 2º at the following times: baseline (before immersion, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Both variables were also submitted to Pearson's correlation test (p < 0.05. The passion fruit group underwent the greatest microhardness change, while the mustard group suffered the greatest color alteration. Significant positive correlation was found between the two variables for the groups deionized water, grape juice, soy sauce and ketchup. Not all color alteration could be associated with surface degradation.

  17. Interlaboratory Study on Caprolactam Test for Food-Contact Nylon Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazunari; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Takashi; Abe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Kondo, Takahide; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Sonobe, Hironori; Takasaka, Noriko; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nakanishi, Toru; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hayakawa, Masato; Hikida, Akinori; Miura, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Miku; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese Food Sanitation Law sets a limit on the migration level of caprolactam for food-contacting nylon products. Here, we carried out an interlaboratory study in twenty laboratories to evaluate the performance of the official GC-FID test method and a GC-MS method as an alternative test method to the official method. Each laboratory quantified caprolactam in three test solutions in 20% ethanol as blind duplicates using GC-FID or GC-MS. The official method (GC-FID with absolute calibration) gave trueness, repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDr) values of 96-97%, 3.3-5.4% and 4.0-6.7%, respectively. These values met the target criteria (trueness: 80-110%, RSDr: 10%, RSDr: 25%). The performance of the method was further improved by the introduction of heptalactam as an internal standard. As for GC-MS method, some values of the RSDr exceeded 10% when absolute calibration was used. However, when an internal standard was introduced, the trueness, RSDr and RSDr of GC-MS method were all acceptable at 94-96%, 2.0-4.4% and 7.0-9.4%, respectively. Therefore, GC-MS with an internal standard is available as an alternative test method to the official method.

  18. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowson, Andrew.

    1991-09-01

    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author).

  19. Six Open Questions about the Migration of Engineered Nano-Objects from Polymer-Based Food Contact Materials: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar, Maryam; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Löschner, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials in food contact applications has created enormous interest in recent years. The potential migration of engineered nano-objects (ENOs) from food contact materials (FCMs) is one of the most important concerns regarding potential human exposure to ENOs and health risks....... This includes the very fundamental questions whether ENOs can migrate from FCMs at all and what the potential release mechanisms of ENOs could be. The inconsistency of findings from experimental studies is highlighted based on the example of silver nanoparticle migration from polymer-based FCMs. Challenges...

  20. Earthquake Notification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) is a free service that sends you automated notifications to your email or cell phone when earthquakes happen.

  1. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  2. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process FOOD RePET FGI. H., used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process FOOD RePET FGI. H., EU register No RECYC106. The input of the process is hot washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried flakes are fed into a reactor at high temperature, crystallised, ...

  4. Food-induced contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) in atopic dermatitis: Reproducibility of repeated and duplicate testing with a skin provocation test,the skin application food test (SAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Oranje (Arnold); D. van Gysel (Dirk); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P.H. Dieges

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIgE-mediated contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) is one of the manifestations of allergy in childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). Allergens such as foods and animal products penetrate the skin easily. They can then cause urticarial reactions in sensitized individuals. A provocation test system

  5. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  6. A novel safety assessment strategy for non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in carton food contact materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Rennen, M.; Leeman, W.; Houben, G.; Muilwijk, B.; Acker, F. van; Krul, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges in food contact materials research is to prove that the presence of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) is not a safety issue. Migration extracts may contain many unknown substances present at low concentrations. It is difficult and time-consuming to identify all

  7. Microbiological levels of randomly selected food contact surfaces in hotels located in Spain during 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; Laso, Elena; Pérez, María José; Berrocal, Clara Isabel

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the microbial levels of food contact surfaces in hotels. Microbiological levels of 4611 surfaces (chopping machines, kitchenware, knives, worktops, and cutting boards) from 280 different facilities in Spain were determined in a 3-year period. The contact-plate technique was used throughout the survey. Overall, the mean of the log of total aerobic count cm(-2) was 0.62, better than those reported for child-care and assisted living facilities. Significant differences were detected among different types of surfaces, time of sampling, season, and year. The majority (74%) of food contact surfaces sampled in Spanish hotels was within the recommended standard of <1.3 log CFU cm(-2), and differences depend on several factors. Our results set a representative picture of the actual situation in our resorts and establish the basis for the development of educational programs to improve food handlers' knowledge of foodborne diseases and their transmission via food contact surfaces.

  8. A novel safety assessment strategy for non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in carton food contact materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Rennen, M.; Leeman, W.; Houben, G.; Muilwijk, B.; Acker, F. van; Krul, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges in food contact materials research is to prove that the presence of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) is not a safety issue. Migration extracts may contain many unknown substances present at low concentrations. It is difficult and time-consuming to identify all the

  9. High-Throughput Predictive Approaches to Evaluating Chemicals in Food Contact Materials: Migration, Exposure, and Alternatives Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation describing CSS research on HT predictive methods to modeling exposure and predicting functional substitutes. It will be presented at a forum co-sponsored by the State of California and UC Berekeley on evaluation of chemical alternatives for food contact ch...

  10. Endocrine disruptors in food contact materials; is there a health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Food Contact Materials (FCMs) are a major source of endocrine disrupting chemical substances (EDCs), thus forming an important part of human exposure to these compounds, to which this article is addressed. The potential impact of such exposures on endocrine function, and thereby health outcomes, requires scientifically valid evidence so that appropriate risk management decisions can be taken to diminish human exposure, particularly in vulnerable population groups like infants and small children. Relevant aspects of exposure assessment are discussed based on testing migration of EDCs from FCMs, together with the different approaches so used. The specific migration testing determines whether limits for defined substances are met. However not all EDCs present in the leachate may be found by these means. In fact, the chances of detecting EDCs in the food simulant (leachate) are improved when it is subjected the relevant biological testing, thus helping to provide improved protection against these chemical substances. Nevertheless, official controls and risk management decisions do not necessarily take such testing into account, as the relevant legislation is based on specific migration limits that may be easily quantified and addressed in the risk management process. Elucidating the link between observed endocrine activity and any toxic effects so arising, is complicated by the complexity of endocrine interrelationships coupled with relatively limited sensitivity of toxicological tests. Any risk assessment implies a rather high uncertainty and should include also any cumulative effects. This review discusses the effects of the EDCs like bisphenol A, phthalates and benzophenone found in FCMs. In addition, the approaches from the USA and EU for systematically evaluating man-made EDCs in the environment are also considered, including appropriate prioritisation criteria.

  11. Studies on the Evaluation Methods for the Food Quality with a Non-contact type Capacitance Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumiya, Tadaoki; Hagura, Yoshio

    Changes of capacitance and temperature of ethyl alcohol, hamburger and dough with cheese filling were measured with specially-made measuring devices during the freezing and thawing. The results of measurement of capacitance and temperature suggest a linear correlation for ethyl alcohol as a single constituent substance. The adequate correlation is too estimated from the results of food samples, though the capacitance of food sample varies greatly at the start and end of freezing and thawing process. It has been demonstrated that the quality or physical condition of food sample can be determined easily by the measurement of capacitance using the specially-made devices. Also the quality or physical condition of food can be determined easily by the non-contact and non-destructive measurements of capacitance. A variety application of the present technique is conceivable for the process control of the freezing and thawing foods.

  12. A comparison of the effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation on antioxidants present in food-contact polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Crowson, Andrew; Leathard, D.A. (Sheffield City Polytechnic (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary details have been reported of studies of the effects of progressive doses of gamma irradiation on the extractable levels of hindered phenol antioxidants (Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010) and also the hindered phosphite stabiliser, Irgafos 168, present in a range of food contact polymers. Electron-beam irradiation offers an alternative approach for the radiation treatment of pre-packaged foods as an on-line process, provided that due consideration is given to the energy of the incident radiation and to the thickness of the package. It was of interest to establish whether the two irradiation processes had similar effects on the extent of destruction of antioxidants present in food contact polymers. Preliminary details are now reported of a comparison of the effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation on the extent of destruction of Irganox 1076, Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168 present in polypropylene and low density polyethylene (LDPE) samples. (author).

  13. Six Open Questions about the Migration of Engineered Nano-Objects from Polymer-Based Food Contact Materials: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar, Maryam; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Löschner, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    in detection and characterization of ENOs in migration studies and the suitability of the most frequently used analytical techniques are discussed. Further, this review questions the suitability of standard food simulants and migration test conditions for FCMs as well as of conventional mathematical migration......The use of nanomaterials in food contact applications has created enormous interest in recent years. The potential migration of engineered nano-objects (ENOs) from food contact materials (FCMs) is one of the most important concerns regarding potential human exposure to ENOs and health risks....... Current research focusing on FCMs has often reached inconsistency regarding migration of ENOs. The scope of this critical review is to give a concise overview of the most relevant aspects of the subject, and to identify and discuss the major open questions in relation to migration of ENOs from FCMs...

  14. [Determination of 46 plasticizers in food contact polyvinyl chloride packaging materials and their migration into food simulants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunhai; Bo, Haibo; Duan, Wenzhong; Jia, Haitao; Chen, Ruichun; Ma, Yusong; Ai, Lianfeng

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 46 plasticizers in food contact polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging materials and their migration into food simulants, i. e. water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol and olive oil. Plasticizers in the PVC packaging materials, aqueous food simulants and olive oil food simulants were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) approaches, respectively. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified using the external standard method. The cal-ibration curves were linear in the ranges of 0.1-2.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.9910-0. 999 9. The limits of detection were from 0. 005 mg/kg to 0. 05 mg/kg ( S/N = 5 ). The recoveries at 3 spiked levels were 69.51%-107. 21% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs n = 6) ranged from 3.53% to 18.95%. These results show that this method is fast, sensitive and accurate for the qualitative and quantitative determination of plasticizers in food contact plastic products and 4 types of food simulants.

  15. 32 CFR 635.36 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Victim and Witness Assistance Procedures § 635.36 Notification. (a) In addition to providing crime victims and witnesses a DD Form 2701, law enforcement personnel must ensure...) Social services, when necessary. (3) Procedures to contact the staff judge advocate victim/witness...

  16. Migration modelling from food-contact plastics into foodstuffs as a new tool for consumer exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R

    2005-10-01

    One important aspect within the European Union's public healthcare is the exposure of consumers to undesirable chemicals in the diet. Food-contact materials (FCM) are one potential contamination source and therefore of particular interest for food exposure assessment. On the other hand, scientific investigations concerning the migration potential and behaviour of food-packaging materials have demonstrated that diffusion in and migration from FCM are foreseeable physical and, in principle, mathematically describable processes. Because of this situation and the current state-of-the-art in migration science, a research project was initiated within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission. This project, with the acronym 'FOODMIGROSURE' (European Union Contract No. 'QLK1-CT2002-2390') started on 1 March 2003, was due to last 3 years and had the participation of nine European project partners (see the project website: www.foodmigrosure.org). The aim of the project was to extend currently existing migration models (which have been demonstrated to be applicable for less complex matrices such as food simulants) to foodstuffs themselves. In this way, the project aims to provide a novel and economic tool for estimation of consumer exposure to chemicals migrating from food-contact plastic materials under any actual contact conditions. In addition, the project aims to increase knowledge of the mechanisms of diffusion of organic compounds in foodstuffs and provide data on the partitioning effects between FCM and foods. Today the latter aspect is increasingly regarded as a fundamental influence parameter for migration into foods. Based on the project achievements, a much better scientific basis is available to allow scientifically appropriate amendments of European Union Directive 85/572/EEC as well as to support further developments with the so-called Plastics Directive 2002/72/EC. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work

  17. Evaluation of Three Swabbing Devices for Detection of Listeria monocytogenes on Different Types of Food Contact Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Lahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes can adhere to different types of food contact surfaces within a food processing environment. Therefore, environmental sampling devices should be capable of detecting unacceptable contamination. In this study, a sponge-stick, foam spatula and an environmental swab were evaluated on their ability to detect low concentrations of L. monocytogenes on different types of food contact surfaces. A cocktail of four L. monocytogenes serotypes was inoculated with a concentration of 100 CFU/250 cm2 onto stainless steel (SS, high density polyethylene (HDPE and rubber surfaces in a 250 cm2 area. Immediately after inoculation and after 1 h exposure, the surfaces were swabbed with the different swabbing devices. The results of the study show only minor differences in the ability of the swabbing devices to detect L. monocytogenes. All devices were capable to detect the contamination immediately after inoculation. However, when the surfaces were allowed to air-dry for 1 h, L. monocytogenes was undetected in 11.1% of the samples (n = 27 with the sponge stick, in 7.4% of the samples (n = 27 with the foam spatula and in 3.7% of the samples (n = 27 with the environmental swab, especially on SS surfaces. The detection ability of the different devices for L. monocytogenes can be concluded to be rather high on different types of food contact surfaces.

  18. Study of the partition coefficients Kp/f of seven model migrants from LDPE polymer in contact with food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Tongchat, Chinawat; Franz, Roland

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameters such as temperature and type of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film on the log Kp/f values of seven model migrants in food simulants. Two different types of LDPE films contaminated by extrusion and immersion were placed in contact with three food simulants including 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil under several time-temperature conditions. Results suggest that most log Kp/f values are little affected by these parameters in this study. In addition, the relation between log Kp/f and log Po/w was established for each food simulant and regression lines, as well as correlation coefficients, were calculated. Correlations were compared with data from real foodstuffs. Data presented in this study could be valuable in assigning certain foods to particular food simulants as well as predicting the mass transfer of potential migrants into different types of food or food simulants, avoiding tedious and expensive laboratory analysis. The results could be especially useful for regulatory agencies as well as for the food industry.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of monomers in polyesters for food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenz, Fabrian; Linke, Susanne; Simat, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Polyesters (PESs) are gaining more importance on the food contact material (FCM) market and the variety of properties and applications is expected to be wide. In order to acquire the desired properties manufacturers can combine several FCM-approved polyvalent carboxylic acids (PCAs) and polyols as monomers. However, information about the qualitative and quantitative composition of FCM articles is often limited. The method presented here describes the analysis of PESs with the identification and quantification of 25 PES monomers (10 PCA, 15 polyols) by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis. Accurate identification and quantification were demonstrated by the analysis of seven different FCM articles made of PESs. The results explained between 97.2% and 103.4% w/w of the polymer composition whilst showing equal molar amounts of PCA and polyols. Quantification proved to be precise and sensitive with coefficients of variation (CVs) below 6.0% for PES samples with monomer concentrations typically ranging from 0.02% to 75% w/w. The analysis of 15 PES samples for the FCM market revealed the presence of five different PCAs and 11 different polyols (main monomers, co-monomers, non-intentionally added substances (NIAS)) showing the wide variety of monomers in modern PESs. The presented method provides a useful tool for commercial, state and research laboratories as well as for producers and distributors facing the task of FCM risk assessment. It can be applied for the identification and quantification of migrating monomers and the prediction of oligomer compositions from the identified monomers, respectively.

  20. Polarised light stress analysis and laser scatter imaging for non-contact inspection of heat seals in food trays

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Michael; Dudbridge, Michael; Duckett, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces novel non-contact methods for detecting faults in heat seals of food packages. Two alternative imaging technologies are investigated; laser scatter imaging and polarised light stress images. After segmenting the seal area from the rest of the respective image, a classifier is trained to detect faults in different regions of the seal area using features extracted from the pixels in the respective region. A very large set of candidate features, based on statistical informa...

  1. Evidence of Absence: Estrogenicity Assessment of a New Food-Contact Coating and the Bisphenol Used in Its Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ana M; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Maier, Mark S; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Maffini, Maricel V

    2017-02-07

    Consumer concerns about exposure to substances found in food contact materials with estrogenic activity (EA) have created substantial demand for alternatives. We assessed the potential EA of both a new bisphenol monomer used to synthesize polymeric coatings for metal food-contact applications and the nonintentionally added substances (NIAS) that may migrate into food. We evaluated tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF) using in vitro and in vivo assays. We extracted the polymeric coating using food simulants ethanol (50% v/v) and acetic acid (3% w/v) and measured migration using tandem liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) and LC time-of-flight MS for TMBPF and NIAS, respectively. We also tested migrants for EA using the E-SCREEN assay. TMBPF did not show estrogenic activity in the uterotrophic assay and did not alter puberty in male and female rats or mammary gland development in female rats. Neither TMBPF nor the migrants from the final polymeric coating increased proliferation of estrogen-sensitive MCF7 cells. TMBPF did not show estrogen-agonist or antagonist activity in the estrogen receptor-transactivation assay. TMBPF migration was below the 0.2 parts per billion detection limit. Our findings provide compelling evidence for the absence of EA by TMBPF and the polymeric coating derived from it and that human exposure to TMBPF would be negligible.

  2. Sensitive detection of major food allergens in breast milk: first gateway for allergenic contact during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Vargas, C; Maroto, A S; Díaz-Perales, A; Villaba, M; Casillas Diaz, N; Vivanco, F; Cuesta-Herranz, J

    2015-08-01

    Food allergy is recognized as a major public health issue, especially in early childhood. It has been hypothesized that early sensitization to food allergens maybe due to their ingestion as components dissolved in the milk during the breastfeeding, explaining reaction to a food, which has never been taken before. Thus, the aim of this work has been to detect the presence of the food allergens in breast milk by microarray technology. We produced a homemade microarray with antibodies produced against major food allergens. The antibody microarray was incubated with breast milk from 14 women collected from Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital. In this way, we demonstrated the presence of major foods allergens in breast milk. The analysis of allergens presented in breast milk could be a useful tool in allergy prevention and could provide us a key data on the role of this feeding in tolerance induction or sensitization in children.

  3. Commonly Used Disinfectants Fail To Eradicate Salmonella enterica Biofilms from Food Contact Surface Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, M.(Rice University, Houston, TX, 77005, USA); Morris, D; De Lappe, N.; O'Connor, J.; Lalor, P.; Dockery, P.; Cormican, M

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the second most common cause of food-borne illness worldwide. Contamination of surfaces in food processing environments may result in biofilm formation with a risk of food contamination. Effective decontamination of biofilm-contaminated surfaces is challenging. Using the CDC biofilm reactor, the activities of sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride were examined against an early (48-h) and relatively mature (168-h) Salmonella biofilm. All 3 agents res...

  4. Emergency Notification Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouros, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In higher education, the IT department is often the service provider for the institution's emergency notification system (ENS). For many institutions, the complexity of providing emergency notification to students, faculty, and staff makes using a local, on-premise solution unrealistic. But finding the right commercially hosted technical solution…

  5. Harmonizing exposure metrics and methods for sustainability assessments of food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Niero, Monia

    2016-01-01

    , like LCA, finally facilitates including exposure to chemicals as a sustainable packaging design issue. Results were demonstrated in context of the pilot-scale Product Environmental Footprint regulatory method in the European Union. Increasing recycled content, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions...... by selecting plastics over glass, and adding chemicals with a design function were identified as risk management issues. We conclude developing an exposure framework, suitable for sustainability assessments commonly used for food packaging, is feasible to help guide packaging design to consider both......We aim to develop harmonized and operational methods for quantifying exposure to chemicals in food packaging specifically for sustainability assessments. Thousands of chemicals are approved for food packaging and numerous contaminates occur, e.g. through recycling. Chemical migration into food...

  6. Cancer notification in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  7. Cancer notification in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  8. Chromatographic analysis of water and wine samples for phenolic compounds released from food-contact epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C; Larroque, M

    1997-02-01

    Food-contact epoxy resins can release phenolic compounds such as phenol, m-cresol, bisphenol F, bisphenol A, 4-tert-butylphenol, bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) into foodstuffs. A validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorometric detection is described for the simultaneous analysis of these compounds in wine and mineral water. Sample preparation by solid-liquid extraction enables detection limits of 2.5 micrograms/L in wine and 0.25 microgram/L in mineral water to be achieved. Recovery rates are close to 100%, except for BFDGE and BADGE (around 60% in wine and 75% in mineral water).

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of residual isocyanate monomers in plastics intended for food contact use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damant, A P; Jickells, S M; Castle, L

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the analysis of 10 isocyanates in polyurethane articles and laminates intended for food use. Residual isocyanates are extracted by dichloromethane with concurrent derivatization by 9-(methylaminomethyl)anthracene. The resultant derivatives are analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Separation of the isocyanates was studied and optimized. Quantitation uses 1-naphthyl isocyanate as internal standard and standard addition to the food package. Validation demonstrated the method to have good precision (+/- 2-5%) and recovery (83-95%) for samples spiked with isocyanates at 0.1 mg/kg. The limit of detection was 0.03 mg/kg. Analysis of 19 commercial polyurethane or laminate food packages demonstrated that the method was not prone to interferences. Residues of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate were detected in 5 packages and ranged from 0.14 to 1.08 mg/kg.

  10. 43 CFR 2.60 - Request for notification of existence of records: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for notification of existence of... RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.60 Request for notification of existence... describing a system requires individuals to contact more than two officials concerning the existence...

  11. 25 CFR 700.271 - Requests for notification of existence of records: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requests for notification of existence of records... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 700.271 Requests for notification of existence of records... requires that an individual contact more than two officials concerning the existence of records in...

  12. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID Washington...

  13. 中俄两国进出口食品近年来的贸易概况及通报情况%Trade and notification situation on food import and export between China and Russia in recent years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂雪梅; 李立; 孙利; 高飞

    2013-01-01

    Since Russia entered into the world trade organization (WTO) in December 2011, Russian reg-ulations have gradually been geared to international conventions. This would help China to expand its food export trade to Russia, and provide a broader market for Chinese food export trade . This article analyzed the food import-export trade situation between China and Russia in 2007~2011, and described Russian food notifi-cation status from the EU and China. It could help China to face up to the current trade status between China and Russia, and to provide reference for food export trade to Russia, which would contribute to the Si-no-Russian trade development.%  俄罗斯自2011年12月加入世界贸易组织后,其各项法规政策正逐步与国际接轨,这必将更有利于中国扩大对俄罗斯的食品出口贸易,为我国食品的出口贸易提供一个更加广阔的市场。本文对2007~2011年中俄两国的食品进出口贸易情况进行了简要分析,并对欧盟和我国对俄罗斯的食品通报情况进行了阐述,这将有助于我国正视中俄两国贸易现状,为对俄食品出口贸易提供借鉴,促进中俄贸易正常发展。

  14. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  15. [Determination of bisphenol A from toys and food contact materials by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Jianguo; Zhang, Huiling; Zheng, Lisha; Chen, Jing

    2012-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in toys and food contact materials. The BPA was extracted with Soxhlet extraction method from the sample and reacted with acetic anhydride. The final product was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To achieve the optimum derivatization performance, the derivatization time and dosage of derivatization reagent etc. were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the final product was stable and the peak shape was good. The linearity of the derivative was good in the range of 0.05 to 50 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) above 0.999. The recoveries ranged from 80% to 93% at the spiked levels of 0.05, 1.00, 10.00 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.7%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 10 microg/kg. The method is accurate and has high recovery. The method is suitable for the inspection of bisphenol A in toys and food contact materials.

  16. A novel safety assessment strategy for non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in carton food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Sander; Rennen, Monique; Leeman, Winfried; Houben, Geert; Muilwijk, Bas; van Acker, Frederique; Krul, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges in food contact materials research is to prove that the presence of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) is not a safety issue. Migration extracts may contain many unknown substances present at low concentrations. It is difficult and time-consuming to identify all these potential NIAS and concurrently to assess their health risk upon exposure, whereas the health relevance at low exposure levels might not even be an issue. This paper describes a scientifically based, but pragmatic safety assessment approach for unknown substances present at low exposure levels in food contact matrices. This complex mixture safety assessment strategy (CoMSAS) enables one to distinguish toxicologically relevant from toxicologically less relevant substances, when related to their respective levels of exposure, and allows one to focus on the substances of potential health concern. In particular, substances for which exposure will be below certain thresholds may be considered not of health relevance in case specific classes of substances are excluded. This can reduce the amount of work needed for identification, characterisation and evaluation of unknown substances at low concentration. The CoMSAS approach is presented in this paper using a safety assessment of unknown NIAS that may migrate from three carton samples.

  17. A comprehensive NMR methodology to assess the composition of biobased and biodegradable polymers in contact with food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Audrey [Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Département Chimie et Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, 78197 Trappes Cedex (France); INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 91300 Massy (France); Merlet, Denis [Université Paris-Sud Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, Equipe de RMN en Milieu Orienté, Bat. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Ducruet, Violette [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 91300 Massy (France); Lyathaud, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.lyathaud@lne.fr [Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Département Chimie et Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, 78197 Trappes Cedex (France)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodological approach by NMR was developed to assess the safety of food contact materials. • Additives from PLA were rapidly identified by an automatic NMR methodology coupled with dedicated database. • Quantitative NMR (qNMR) allowed to quantify 12 additives in three types of polylactide. • qNMR is as sensitive as chromatographic methods to quantify additives in PLA. - Abstract: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology was assessed regarding the identification and quantification of additives in three types of polylactide (PLA) intended as food contact materials. Additives were identified using the LNE/NMR database which clusters NMR datasets on more than 130 substances authorized by European Regulation No. 10/2011. Of the 12 additives spiked in the three types of PLA pellets, 10 were rapidly identified by the database and correlated with spectral comparison. The levels of the 12 additives were estimated using quantitative NMR combined with graphical computation. A comparison with chromatographic methods tended to prove the sensitivity of NMR by demonstrating an analytical difference of less than 15%. Our results therefore demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed NMR methodology for rapid assessment of the composition of PLA.

  18. Simultaneous chromatographic analysis of photoinitiators and amine synergists in food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M A; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, A; Sendón, R; Bustos, J; Santillana, M I; Paseiro, P

    2014-07-01

    Photoinitiators (PIs) are components of UV-cured inks widely used in printing of food packaging. These substances can migrate into food and may be a hazard to human health. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been used for analysis of PIs and amine synergists in food packaging. Analysis was performed with a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm × 3.2 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) with a binary mobile phase gradient prepared from acetonitrile and Milli-Q water. The flow rate was 0.5 mL min(-1). The method enables separation of fourteen PIs and amine synergists in a single run. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Excellent sensitivity (LODs ≤ 1.56 μg dm(2)) and appropriate repeatability (RSD (n = 10) <0.9%) were achieved. Different types of food packaging material including plastic films, cardboard, and cans were analyzed and PIs were detected in 47% of the samples tested (n = 17). Positive samples were confirmed by use of LC-MS-MS in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode.

  19. Comparative exposure to DEHP from food contact materials: application of the product intake fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    the product intake fraction (PiF: g intake/g in product) – a metric accounting for human intake of chemical mass per unit of mass embodied within a product. PiF of ingestion of DEHP is estimated from empirical data for PET water bottles on the order of 1E-7 through 1E-5 and for food handling gloves from 1E-6...... for rice and 1E-3 for radishes. The uncertainty is related to unknown information (chemical content in FCM), circumstances of use (e.g. food item), and any analytical uncertainty. Using PiF, maximum allowable concentrations of DEHP within water bottles and gloves were calculated with respect to regulatory...... thresholds. A hypothetical average PiF for the FCM sector was calculated via production volume and oral exposure doses estimated from NHANES data. In both cases the indication was gloves may contribute more to DEHP exposure when used with certain food items than bottled water. DEHP content in gloves greater...

  20. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  1. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  2. 9 CFR 500.5 - Notification, appeals, and actions held in abeyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification, appeals, and actions held in abeyance. 500.5 Section 500.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RULES OF PRACTICE § 500.5 Notification, appeals, and actions held in abeyance....

  3. [Characterization of silver nanoparticles migration from package materials destined for contact with foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, V V; Krasnoiarova, O V; Pridvorova, S M; Zherdev, A V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Kazydub, G V; Popov, K I; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    There was studied migration of artificial silver nanoparticles from polyethylene films destined for package of such foods as bread and poultry into model media reproducing physico-chemical properties and composition of said products. Modification of films was performed by 5- or 10-fold spraying of silver nanoparticles on the surface of package material. Model media were composed from water, alcohol and plant oil according to US FDA and Russian Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being official recommendation. Nanoparticles were detected in model media by means of transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. Quantification of silver in nanoparticles migrating from films was performed by mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The results obtained showed that silver migrated from films into test media in form of nanoparticles with mean diameter close to 10-20 nm. Migrated particles were partially aggregated to complexes with dimension about 50 nm with degree of aggregation depending on media composition. Quantification showed that amounts of silver nanoparticles migrating in foods did not exceed save level of this nanomaterial consumption even in aggravated conditions when almost all volume of product was consumed in form packaged in films modified with nanosilver.

  4. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P. [Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Tavares, C.J. [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Azeredo, J., E-mail: jazeredo@deb.uminho.pt [Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO{sub 2}) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO{sub 2} coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light – fluorescent and incandescent – and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO{sub 2} coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 10{sup 6} CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 10{sup 7} on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO{sub 2} coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly

  5. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C. J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light - fluorescent and incandescent - and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 106 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 107 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne pathogens and

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  7. Multiple testing of food contact materials: a predictive algorithm for assessing the global migration from silicone moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, Marc; Vloeberghs, Daniel; Van Elsen, Liesbeth; Baeyens, Willy; Goeyens, Leo

    2012-09-15

    For reasons of food safety, packaging and food contact materials must be submitted to migration tests. Testing of silicone moulds is often very laborious, since three replicate tests are required to decide about their compliancy. This paper presents a general modelling framework to predict the sample's compliance or non-compliance using results of the first two migration tests. It compares the outcomes of models with multiple continuous predictors with a class of models involving latent and dummy variables. The model's prediction ability was tested using cross and external validations, i.e. model revalidation each time a new measurement set became available. At the overall migration limit of 10 mg dm(-2), the relative uncertainty on a prediction was estimated to be ~10%. Taking the default values for α and β equal to 0.05, the maximum value that can be predicted for sample compliance was therefore 7 mg dm(-2). Beyond this limit the risk for false compliant results increases significantly, and a third migration test should be performed. The result of this latter test defines the sample's compliance or non-compliance. Propositions for compliancy control inspired by the current dioxin control strategy are discussed.

  8. User acceptance of mobile notifications

    CERN Document Server

    Westermann, Tilo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an alternative approach to studying smartphone-app user notifications. It starts with insights into user acceptance of mobile notifications in order to provide tools to support users in managing these. It extends previous research by investigating factors that influence users’ perception of notifications and proposes tools addressing the shortcomings of current systems. It presents a technical framework and testbed as an approach for evaluating the usage of mobile applications and notifications, and then discusses a series of studies based on this framework that investigate factors influencing users’ perceptions of mobile notifications. Lastly, a set of design guidelines for the usage of mobile notifications is derived that can be employed to support users in handling notifications on smartphones.

  9. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process RPC Cobelplast used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process RPC Cobelplast (EU register No RECYC099) which is based on the Bandera® technology. The input of the process is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, post-consumer washed a...

  11. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision i...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  12. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinker do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat foods poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  13. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food and placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinkers do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  14. 78 FR 79460 - Notification of GSA Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ....S. Postal Service to: ATTN: Mr. Harold Hendrick, Strategic Planning and Performance Management... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Harold Hendrick, Strategic Planning and Performance Management Division, Office of... ADMINISTRATION Notification of GSA Strategic Plan AGENCY: Office of the Chief Financial Officer, U.S. General...

  15. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  16. 78 FR 63989 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection Process for Nonvoting Industry Representatives and Request...

  17. 国内外食品标签通报研究现状及对策%Analysis of WTO-TBT (SPS) Food Labeling Notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔琳琳; 周小理; 周一鸣

    2012-01-01

    通过对2001黏~2012年WTO—TBT(SPS)食品标签通报数量和内容的统计、研究和分析得到:虽通报数量随时间整体成上升趋势,但波动性较大;每年都有WTO中新成员国发出通报,但各大洲、各国食品标签管理约束力度仍不平衡;以食品标签法规标准或预包装食品标签通则为基础,具体项目为补充,特别关注营养标签。显然,顺应食品种类变化的发展才是食品标签管理今后的发展趋势,对食品标签的认识和培养相应的人才是发展我国法规标准的重要途径。%Statistical analyze the informing of the number and content about WTO-TBT (SPS) food labels in the2001-2012. It informs quantity with time integral into an upward trend, but the fluctuation is bigger. Every year, WTO New Member States issued a notice, but on all continents and countries food labeling management still lopsidedly. Basis for food labeling regulations standard or pre-packaged food labels general, specific projects for added, specially, nutrition labels. Apparently, with the food species development, the food labeling management needs to change. It is important to know food labels knowledge and develop the talents for developing Chinese regulations and standards.

  18. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limit local notification to the SPOC, local government representatives, and local news media. For all... begins the time period of local notification when it sends written notification to the state SPOC...

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the substance adipic acid dihydrazide, CAS No 1071-93-8, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA’s Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF deals with the risk assessment of the additive adipic acid dihydrazide, CAS No 1071-93-8, FCM substance No 987 for use as a crosslinker for acrylic polymer with keto side groups coated on polyolefins and adhesives in laminates made from plastics. The coating is not for direct food contact but used in inner layers of plastics laminates which are intended to be used for all types of foodstuffs at all time-temperature conditions applicable according to the laminate’s properties. Specific migration of the substance was measured from a coated low-density polyethylene (LDPE film, the substance was not detectable (limit of detection (LOD 0.019 mg/kg with the food simulants 3 % acetic acid, 10 % ethanol for 10 days at 40 °C and isooctane for 2 days at 20 °C. According the in vitro and in vivo studies available the substance is not considered genotoxic. Based on an in vivo micronucleus test, the substance is not considered to be clastogenic/aneugenic under the tested conditions. The CEF Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the consumer if the substance is used as a crosslinker for non-self-supporting coatings on polyolefins and adhesives for laminates not in direct contact with food and its migration does not exceed 0.050 mg/kg food.

  20. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  1. Ambient ionization-accurate mass spectrometry (AMI-AMS) for the identification of nonvisible set-off in food-contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, Karim; Ackerman, Luke K; Begley, Timothy H

    2012-02-29

    Set-off is the unintentional transfer of substances used in printing from the external printed surface of food packaging to the inner, food-contact surface. Ambient ionization-accurate mass spectrometry (AMI-AMS) detected and identified compounds from print set-off not visible to the human eye. AMI mass spectra from inner and outer surfaces of printed and nonprinted food packaging were compared to detect and identify nonvisible set-off components. A protocol to identify unknowns was developed using a custom open-source database of printing inks and food-packaging compounds. The protocol matched print-related food-contact surface ions with the molecular formulas of common ions, isotopes, and fragments of compounds from the database. AMI-AMS was able to detect print set-off and identify seven different compounds. Set-off on the packaging samples was confirmed using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of single-sided solvent extracts. N-Ethyl-2(and 4)-methylbenzenesulfonamide, 2,4-diphenyl-4-methyl-1(and 2)-pentene, and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were present on the food-contact layer at concentrations from 0.21 to 2.7 ± 1.6 μg dm⁻², corresponding to nearly milligram per kilogram concentrations in the packaged food. Other minor set-off compounds were detected only by AMI-AMS, a fast, simple, and thorough technique to detect and identify set-off in food packaging.

  2. Cyclic oligomers in polyamide for food contact material: quantification by HPLC-CLND and single-substance calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimrich, M; Bönsch, M; Nickl, H; Simat, T J

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic oligomers are the major substances migrating from polyamide (PA) food contact materials. However, no commercial standards are available for the quantification of these substances. For the first time the quantification of cyclic oligomers was carried out by HPLC coupled with a chemiluminescence nitrogen detector (CLND) and single-substance calibration. Cyclic monomer (MW = 226 Da) and dimer (MW = 452 Da) of PA66 were synthesised and equimolar N detection of CLND to synthesised oligomers, caprolactam, 6-aminohexanoic acid (monomers of PA6) and caffeine (a typical nitrogen calibrant) was proven. Relative response factors (UVD at 210 nm) referring to caprolactam were determined for cyclic PA6 oligomers from dimer to nonamer, using HPLC-CLND in combination with a UVD. A method for quantification of cyclic oligomer content in PA materials was introduced using HPLC-CLND analysis and caffeine as a single nitrogen calibrant. The method was applied to the quantification of cyclic PA oligomers in several PA granulates. For two PA6 granulates from different manufacturers markedly different oligomer contents were analysed (19.5 versus 13.4 g kg⁻¹). The elution pattern of cyclic oligomers offers the possibility of identifying the PA type and differentiating between PA copolymers and blends.

  3. Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, J; Gialagkolidou, K; Gogou, M; Mavridou, O; Blatsiotis, N; Ritzoulis, C; Likotrafiti, E

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the potential use of oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in liquid soap for hand washing and for food contact surface cleaning. Oregano essential oil (O.E.O.) was emulsified in liquid detergent solution. This was challenge tested against a commercial antimicrobial soap in hand washing trials using natural flora. Soap with O.E.O. was as effective as the commercial antimicrobial soap at reducing aerobic plate count on the hands and more effective than plain soap with no additives. Cloths wetted with soap with O.E.O. were used to clean three different surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens. For three of the four pathogens, the addition of 0·5% v/v O.E.O. to the soap solution enhanced cleaning performance and also reduced bacterial survival on the cloth after cleaning. Oregano essential oil (0·5%) is effective as an antimicrobial additive to detergent solutions for hand washing and surface cleaning. This preliminary study has shown that oregano essential oil is a potential alternative to antimicrobials used in various detergents, such as chloroxylenol and triclosan, which can have adverse environmental and health effects. Further development could lead to a commercial product. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process SOREPET GR based on EREMA Basic technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process SOREPET GR (EU register No RECYC073 which is based on the EREMA Basic technology. The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles and containing no more than 5 % PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated in a continuous reactor under vacuum before being extruded. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the continuous reactor is the critical step that determines the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are well defined and are temperature, pressure and residence time. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below the modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for infants and 0.15 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for toddlers. The Panel concluded that recycled PET obtained from the process is not of safety concern when used to manufacture articles intended for food contact materials applications in compliance with the conditions as specified in the conclusion of the opinion.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, palladium metal and hydrogen gas, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances palladium metal (CAS No 7440-05-3, FCM No 993 and hydrogen gas (CAS No 1333-74-0, FCM No 1038, which are intended to be used as an oxygen scavenger in packages of foods and beverages at room temperature or below. The active article is designed as a gas permeable but liquid impermeable laminated pad, which is placed within a cap or closure or as an adhesive label on tray lids. The palladium metal is not in direct contact with the food being separated from it by different layers of passive materials. The specific migration of palladium metal into conventional food simulants was not detected at the limit of quantification of 0.6 µg/kg. Palladium was considered to be non genotoxic and of no toxicological concern under a low exposure level resulting from a concentration up to 50 µg/kg food in a previous evaluation (EFSA CEF Panel, 2012. Based on these previously drawn conclusions and given the intended conditions of use leading to non-detectable migration, the CEF Panel concluded that the active substances palladium and hydrogen do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as an oxygen scavenger in packages for foods and beverages at room temperatures or below. Palladium should not be in direct contact with food and should be incorporated in a passive structure impermeable to liquids which prevents the migration at detectable levels.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “INTERSEROH Step 1” used to recycle polypropylene cratesfor use as food contact material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF provides a scientific opinion dealing with the safety evaluation of the recycling process “INTERSEROH Step 1” with the EC register number RECYC069. The process recycles pre-washed damaged food contact re-usable polypropylene crates (RPC which have been used in a closed and controlled product loop into new recycled polypropylene crates. Through this process, cleaned damaged crates are firstly ground into flakes, which are further blended with virgin polypropylene (PP or used up to 100% to manufacture new recycled crates. The Panel considered that repeated grinding and injection moulding of PP crates which is part of the recycling process, under conditions described by the applicant, is not of safety concern. The Panel concluded that the input of the process “INTERSEROH Step 1” originates from a product loop which is in a closed and controlled chain designed to ensure that only materials and articles which have been intended for food contact are used and that any contamination can be ruled out when run under the conditions described by the applicant. The recycling process “INTERSEROH Step 1” is therefore able to produce recycled PP suitable for manufacturing PP crates intended to be used in contact with whole fruits and vegetables as requested by the applicant.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “INTERSEROH Step 2” used to recycle polypropylene crates for use as food contact material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process “INTERSEROH Step 2”, EU register number RECYC070. The process recycles pre-washed damaged food contact re-usable polypropylene crates (RPC or parts of crates which have been used in a closed and controlled product loop into new recycled crates. Through this process, pre-washed damaged RPC and parts of crates are ground into flakes. The flakes are compounded, extruded into pellets then used up to 100 % for the production of new recycled PP crates by injection moulding. The Panel considered that repeated grinding and injection moulding of PP crates which is part of the recycling process, under conditions described by the applicant, is not of safety concern. The Panel concluded that the input of the process “INTERSEROH Step 2” originates from a product loop which is in a closed and controlled chain designed to ensure that only materials and articles which have been intended for food contact are used and that any contamination can be ruled out when run under the conditions described by the applicant. The recycling process “INTERSEROH Step 2” is therefore able to produce recycled PP suitable for manufacturing PP crates intended to be used in contact with whole fruits and vegetables at room temperature or below.

  8. Alert Notification System Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurganus, Joseph; Carey, Everett; Antonucci, Robert; Hitchener, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Alert Notification System Router (ANSR) software provides satellite operators with notifications of key events through pagers, cell phones, and e-mail. Written in Java, this application is specifically designed to meet the mission-critical standards for mission operations while operating on a variety of hardware environments. ANSR is a software component that runs inside the Mission Operations Center (MOC). It connects to the mission's message bus using the GMSEC [Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC)] standard. Other components, such as automation and monitoring components, can use ANSR to send directives to notify users or groups. The ANSR system, in addition to notifying users, can check for message acknowledgements from a user and escalate the notification to another user if there is no acknowledgement. When a firewall prevents ANSR from accessing the Internet directly, proxies can be run on the other side of the wall. These proxies can be configured to access the Internet, notify users, and poll for their responses. Multiple ANSRs can be run in parallel, providing a seamless failover capability in the event that one ANSR system becomes incapacitated.

  9. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services.

  10. NotifEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Vetek, Akos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of interactive eyewear in public. We introduce NotifEye, an application that allows a person to receive social network notifications on interactive glasses while walking on a busy street. The prototype uses a minimalistic user interface (UI) for interactive glasses...

  11. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although ...... on Food. Based on this group ADI, the use as sodium diacetate as a flavouring substance at the current levels of dietary intake raises no safety concern.......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...... in principle it would be possible to evaluate sodium diacetate via the Procedure, the Panel considered that this is not necessary, since the substance and its dissociation products are covered by the group ADI for acetic acid and sodium acetate, including sodium diacetate, derived by the Scientific Committee...

  13. 77 FR 47853 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... pediatric diseases or conditions, (3) the ethics, design, and analysis of clinical trials related to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Notification From Industry Organizations... Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113], a steviol glycoside. The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. Since a comprehensive and adequate...... toxicological database, including human studies, is available for steviol glycosides, the Panel based its evaluation of rebaudioside A on a comparison of the ADI of 4 mg/kg bw, expressed as steviol, established by EFSA, with the estimated dietary exposure figures based on the MSDI and mTAMDI approaches...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food place...

  16. Analytical application of solid contact ion-selective electrodes for determination of copper and nitrate in various food products and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardak, Cecylia; Grabarczyk, Malgorzata

    2016-08-02

    A simple, fast and cheap method for monitoring copper and nitrate in drinking water and food products using newly developed solid contact ion-selective electrodes is proposed. Determination of copper and nitrate was performed by application of multiple standard additions technique. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by comparing them using the anodic stripping voltammetry or spectrophotometry for the same samples. In each case, satisfactory agreement of the results was obtained, which confirms the analytical usefulness of the constructed electrodes.

  17. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market

    OpenAIRE

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg− 1, which is lowe...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “PETUK SSP” for production of recycled post-consumer PET for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process PETUK SSP, EC register number RECYC004. Through this process, washed PET flakes are dried, extruded into pellets then fed to a solid state polymerisation (SSP reactor where high temperature and long residence time are applied under vacuum. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the SSP is the critical step that determines the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of this critical step are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time. It was demonstrated, by means of the challenge test, that the recycling process under evaluation is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the Panel considered that the recycling process PETUK SSP is able to reduce any foreseeable accidental contamination of the post-consumer food contact PET to a concentration that does not give rise to concern for a risk to human health if:

    1. it is operated under conditions that are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test used to measure the decontamination efficiency of the processes and
    2. the input is washed and dried post-consumer PET flakes originating from materials and articles that have been manufactured in accordance with the Community legislation on food contact materials containing no more than 5% of PET from non-food consumer applications.

    The Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from the process PETUK SSP intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  20. A new approach to calibration and determination of selected trace elements in food contact polymers by LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Monica; Nunes, Matheus A G; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M M; Müller, Edson I; Dressler, Valderi L

    2017-08-01

    A calibration strategy using porous nylon disks and reference solutions is proposed for the first time for matrix matching and determination of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sr and Zn in polymers by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Polymer samples commonly used in contact with food were analyzed. The procedure consists on the use of porous nylon disks as support for a dried droplet reference solution. Calibration in the range of 0.50-190μgg(-1) for Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sr and Zn and from 0.30-9.0μgg(-1) for As was used. Laser and ICP-MS instrument conditions were evaluated in order to achieve the best signal-to-background ratio. The radiofrequency power and carrier gas flow rate were fixed at 1300W and 1.25Lmin(-1), respectively. Spot size, repetition rate, scan line speed and laser fluency were set to 100µm, 20Hz, 100µms(-1) and 17.9Jcm(-2), respectively, as the established conditions for analysis of standards and samples. By using these conditions, limits of detection, estimated considering B+3s (where B is the value of the blank and s is the standard deviation of 10 measurements of the blank), ranged from 0.09μgg(-1) ((208)Pb) to 1.09 ((53)Cr) and 0.05μgg(-1) ((208)Pb) to 2.10 ((53)Cr) for calibration with and without (13)C as internal standard (IS). In spite to the use of nylon for matrix matching of different polymeric matrices, the normalization with (13)C as IS was also evaluated. The precision of the method is relatively good (RSDICP-MS after sample decomposition by microwave induced combustion (MIC) is relatively good. The suitability of the proposed method resulted in direct and reliable analyses of polymer samples with a simplified or unnecessary sample preparation step. In addition, the calibration with dried droplet reference solutions may be considered a promising procedure in view of its advantages to other forms of calibration, as the use of CRM or the preparation of synthetic standards. The use of porous nylon disks

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation of food contact plastics on the extent of migration of hindered phenol antioxidants into fatty food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Leathard, D.A.; Smith, Christine

    1988-06-20

    In view of the interest in the use of gamma irradiation to extend the storage life of pre-packaged foods a report is made on the effects of gamma radiation on the migration of Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010, antioxidants present in food packaging plastics, into synthetic triglyceride fatty-food simulant HB307 and iso-octane. The extent of migration was assayed by h.p.l.c. techniques. Migration into HB307 and iso-octane decreased steadily as irradiation progressed suggesting that gamma irradiation of packaging materials helps to prevent the contamination of food by antioxidants in the packaging. (U.K.).

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the “Phoenix - LNOc” process used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process Phoenix – LNOc process (EU register number RECYC028. The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried flakes are grinded into small particle size powder, and then powder is compacted into pellets which fed into a reactor at high temperature under inert gas flow. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the three steps, the pulverisation, the compaction and the decontamination are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are well defined and are particle size for the pulverisation (step 2, time, pressure and pellet size for the compaction (step 3 and temperature, dry air flow and the residence time for the decontamination (step 4. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for infants and 0.15 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for toddlers. The Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process is not of safety concern when used to manufacture articles intended for food contact material applications in compliance with the conditions as specified in the conclusion of the opinion.

  3. Using of Ratio Analysis for Identification of Opportunities within the Early Notification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ordys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of ratio analysis as a part of early warning and notification systems to identify potential opportunities. The basic issues related to ratio analysis and early notification systems are introduced. In order to exemplify the problem the article presents the analysis of 19 food sector companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange basing on the Altmans classic Z-score model.

  4. Nano-enhanced food contact materials and the in vitro toxicity to human intestinal cells of nano-ZnO at low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claonadh, Niall O; Casey, Alan; Mukherjee, Sanchali Gupta; Chambers, Gordon [Nanolab Research Centre, Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland); Lyons, Sean; Higginbotham, Clement, E-mail: Niall.OClaonadh@DIT.ie, E-mail: Alan.Casey@DIT.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Westmeath (Ireland)

    2011-07-06

    Nano Zinc Oxide (nZnO) has been shown to display antimicrobial effects which have lead to its application in a number of areas such as antimicrobial surface coatings, anti bacterial wound dressings and more recently in polymer composite systems for use in food contact materials. Concerns have been raised due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in food packaging stemming from the possibility of repeated low dose direct exposure, through ingestion, primarily due to degradation and nanoparticle leaching from the polymer composite. To address these concerns, composites consisting of nZnO and polyethylene were formed using twin screw extrusion to mimic commercial methods of food contact material production. A leaching study was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in order to determine the concentration of nZnO leached from the composite. Composite stability studies were performed and a leached nZnO concentration was evaluated. This concentration range was then utilised in a series of tests aimed at determining the toxicity response associated with nZnO when exposed to an intestinal model. In this study two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, HT29 (ATCC No: HTB-38) and SW480 (ATTC No: CCL-228), were employed as a model to represent areas exposed by ingestion. These lines were exposed to a concentration range of nZnO which incorporated the concentration leached from the composites. The cytotoxic effects of nZnO were evaluated using four cytotoxic endpoints namely the Neutral Red, Alamar Blue, Coomassie Blue and MTT assays. The results of these studies are presented and their implications for the use on nano ZnO in direct food contact surfaces will be discussed.

  5. Nano-enhanced food contact materials and the in vitro toxicity to human intestinal cells of nano-ZnO at low dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claonadh, Niall Ó.; Casey, Alan; Lyons, Sean; Higginbotham, Clement; Gupta Mukherjee, Sanchali; Chambers, Gordon

    2011-07-01

    Nano Zinc Oxide (nZnO) has been shown to display antimicrobial effects which have lead to its application in a number of areas such as antimicrobial surface coatings, anti bacterial wound dressings and more recently in polymer composite systems for use in food contact materials. Concerns have been raised due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in food packaging stemming from the possibility of repeated low dose direct exposure, through ingestion, primarily due to degradation and nanoparticle leaching from the polymer composite. To address these concerns, composites consisting of nZnO and polyethylene were formed using twin screw extrusion to mimic commercial methods of food contact material production. A leaching study was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in order to determine the concentration of nZnO leached from the composite. Composite stability studies were performed and a leached nZnO concentration was evaluated. This concentration range was then utilised in a series of tests aimed at determining the toxicity response associated with nZnO when exposed to an intestinal model. In this study two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, HT29 (ATCC No: HTB-38) and SW480 (ATTC No: CCL-228), were employed as a model to represent areas exposed by ingestion. These lines were exposed to a concentration range of nZnO which incorporated the concentration leached from the composites. The cytotoxic effects of nZnO were evaluated using four cytotoxic endpoints namely the Neutral Red, Alamar Blue, Coomassie Blue and MTT assays. The results of these studies are presented and their implications for the use on nano ZnO in direct food contact surfaces will be discussed.

  6. Attachment and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 at different temperatures, on various food-contact surfaces encountered in beef processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourou, Dimitra; Beauchamp, Catherine Simpson; Yoon, Yohan; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Nychas, George-John E; Sofos, John N

    2011-10-03

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 attached to beef-contact surfaces found in beef fabrication facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. This study evaluated E. coli O157:H7 attachment, survival and growth on food-contact surfaces under simulated beef processing conditions. Stainless steel and high-density polyethylene surfaces (2×5cm) were individually suspended into each of three substrates inoculated (6log CFU/ml or g) with E. coli O157:H7 (rifampicin-resistant, six-strain composite) and then incubated (168h) statically at 4 or 15°C. The three tested soiling substrates included sterile tryptic soy broth (TSB), unsterilized beef fat-lean tissue (1:1 [wt/wt]) homogenate (10% [wt/wt] with sterile distilled water) and unsterilized ground beef. Initial adherence/attachment of E. coli O157:H7 (0.9 to 2.9log CFU/cm(2)) on stainless steel and high-density polyethylene was not affected by the type of food-contact surface but was greater (ptemperature. Notably, attachment occurred not only at a temperature representative of beef fabrication areas during non-production hours (15°C), but also during cold storage (4°C) temperatures, thus, rendering the design of more effective sanitation programs necessary.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilm on food-contact surfaces by sequential treatments of aqueous chlorine dioxide and drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Hong, Ayoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Rhee, Min Suk; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-11-17

    We investigated the efficacy of sequential treatments of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide and drying in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms formed on stainless steel, glass, plastic, and wooden surfaces. Cells attached to and formed a biofilm on wooden surfaces at significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher levels compared with other surface types. The lethal activities of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) against E. coli O157:H7 in a biofilm on various food-contact surfaces were compared. Chlorine dioxide generally showed greater lethal activity than NaOCl against E. coli O157:H7 in a biofilm on the same type of surface. The resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to both sanitizers increased in the order of wood>plastic>glass>stainless steel. The synergistic lethal effects of sequential ClO₂ and drying treatments on E. coli O157:H7 in a biofilm on wooden surfaces were evaluated. When wooden surfaces harboring E. coli O157:H7 biofilm were treated with ClO₂ (200 μg/ml, 10 min), rinsed with water, and subsequently dried at 43% relative humidity and 22 °C, the number of E. coli O157:H7 on the surface decreased by an additional 6.4 CFU/coupon within 6 h of drying. However, when the wooden surface was treated with water or NaOCl and dried under the same conditions, the pathogen decreased by only 0.4 or 1.0 log CFU/coupon, respectively, after 12 h of drying. This indicates that ClO₂ treatment of food-contact surfaces results in residual lethality to E. coli O157:H7 during the drying process. These observations will be useful when selecting an appropriate type of food-contact surfaces, determining a proper sanitizer for decontamination, and designing an effective sanitization program to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 on food-contact surfaces in food processing, distribution, and preparation environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of foodstuffs with ethanol-water mixtures with regard to the solubility of migrants from food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annika; Bach, Aurélie; Driffield, Malcolm; Paseiro Losada, Perfecto; Mercea, Peter; Tosa, Valer; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Today most foods are available in a packed form. During storage, the migration of chemical substances from food packaging materials into food may occur and may therefore be a potential source of consumer exposure. To protect the consumer, standard migration tests are laid down in Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. When using those migration tests and applying additional conservative conventions, estimated exposure is linked with large uncertainties including a certain margin of safety. Thus the research project FACET was initiated within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission with the aim of developing a probabilistic migration modelling framework which allows one (1) to calculate migration into foods under real conditions of use; and (2) to deliver realistic concentration estimates for consumer exposure modelling for complex packaging materials (including multi-material multilayer structures). The aim was to carry out within the framework of the FACET project a comprehensive systematic study on the solubility behaviour of foodstuffs for potentially migrating organic chemicals. Therefore a rapid and convenient method was established to obtain partition coefficients between polymer and food, KP/F. With this method approximately 700 time-dependent kinetic experiments from spiked polyethylene films were performed using model migrants, foods and ethanol-water mixtures. The partition coefficients of migrants between polymer and food (KP/F) were compared with those obtained using ethanol-water mixtures (KP/F's) to investigate whether an allocation of food groups with common migration behaviour to certain ethanol-water mixtures could be made. These studies have confirmed that the solubility of a migrant is mainly dependent on the fat content in the food and on the ethanol concentration of ethanol-water mixtures. Therefore dissolution properties of generic food groups for migrants can be assigned to those of ethanol-water mixtures. All foodstuffs (including dry

  9. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Filippi, L; Marvin, H J P

    2009-05-01

    The SAFE FOODS project undertakes to design a new approach towards the early identification of emerging food safety hazards. This study explored the utility of notifications filed through RASFF, the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, to identify emerging trends in food safety issues. RASFF information and alert notifications published in the four-year period of July 2003-June 2007 were assigned to categories of products and hazards. For chronological trend analysis, a basic time unit of three months was chosen. Data within each hazard category were analyzed for chronological trends, relationships between product and hazard categories, regions of origin, and countries filing the notifications. Conspicuous trends that were observed included a rise in the incidence of food contact substances, particularly 2-isopropyl-thioxanthone, as well as of chemical substances migrating from utensils and fraud-related issues. Temporary increases were noted in the incidences of the unauthorized dye Para Red, genetically modified organisms, the pesticide isophenfos-methyl, and herring worm, Anisakis simplex. National and European authorities themselves have signaled these conspicuous trends and taken measures. It is recommended to add complementary data to RASFF data, including safety assessments, risk management measures, background data on hazards and surveillance patterns, for a holistic approach towards early identification of emerging hazards.

  10. Six open questions about the migration of engineered nano-objects from polymer-based food-contact materials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Maryam; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Loeschner, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    The use of nanomaterials in food-contact applications has created enormous interest in recent years. The potential migration of engineered nano-objects (ENOs) from food-contact materials (FCMs) is one of the most important concerns regarding potential human exposure to ENOs and health risks. Current research focusing on FCMs has often reached inconsistency regarding migration of ENOs. The scope of this critical review is to give a concise overview of the most relevant aspects of the subject, and to identify and discuss the major open questions in relation to migration of ENOs from FCMs. This includes the very fundamental questions whether ENOs can migrate from FCMs at all and what the potential release mechanisms of ENOs could be. The inconsistency of findings from experimental studies is highlighted based on the example of silver nanoparticle migration from polymer-based FCMs. Challenges in the detection and characterisation of ENOs in migration studies and the suitability of the most frequently used analytical techniques are discussed. Further, this review questions the suitability of standard food simulants and migration test conditions for FCMs as well as of conventional mathematical migration models. Considerations regarding the risk for consumers associated with migrating ENOs from FCMs are discussed.

  11. In vitro toxicity assessment of extracts derived from sol-gel coatings on polycarbonate intended to be used in food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séverin, Isabelle; Lionti, Krystelle; Dahbi, Laurence; Loriot, Catherine; Toury, Bérangère; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Polycarbonate is a widely used polymer in food contact applications all around the world. However, due to the potential release of Bisphenol A (BPA) during repeated washing cycles, its use becomes compromised as BPA is known for being an endocrine disruptor for rodents. In order to tackle this issue, sol-gel coatings based on organoalkoxysiloxane were developed on PC, to act as a physical barrier. To this end, two sol-gel systems based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and 3-glycidyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPTES), three common sol-gel precursors, were prepared. The coatings derived from the latter two systems were then studied with regards to their potential toxicity in vitro. Migration tests were performed in food simulants, and the maximal migration was obtained in ethanol 10% (v/v) for one system and in isooctane for the other one. In vitro genotoxicity was assessed with the Ames test (OECD 471) and the micronucleus assay (OECD 487), and no genotoxic effect was observed. Moreover, the estrogenic activity of the extracts was studied with a transcriptional activation assay using transient transfection in human cells; none of the extracts was found estrogenic. These negative in vitro results are highly promising for the future use of these new barrier coating formulations onto food contact materials.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure to the substance from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  13. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “FOOD RePET FGI. H.”, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process FOOD RePET FGI. H., EU register No RECYC106. The input of the process is hot washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried flakes are fed into a reactor at high temperature, crystallised, vacuum extruded, re-crystallised and dried under hot air flow. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the crystallisation, extrusion and recrystallisation steps are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are temperature, air flow and residence time in step 2, temperature, vacuum and residence time in step 3, and temperature, air flow and residence time in step 4. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. The Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from the process FOOD RePET FGI. H. when used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature is not considered of safety concern. Trays made of this recycled PET should not be used in microwave and conventional ovens.

  15. 77 FR 32642 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification: Powered Patient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...: Powered Patient Transport AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and... premarket notification requirements for powered patient transport devices commonly known as stairlifts...: Richard Keller, on behalf of Bruno Independent Living Aids, Inc., for powered patient transport...

  16. 21 CFR 516.137 - Notification of decision regarding eligibility for indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... indexing. 516.137 Section 516.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Notification of decision regarding eligibility for indexing. (a) Within 90 days after the filing of a request for a determination of eligibility for indexing based on § 516.129(c)(7)(i), or 180 days for a...

  17. 77 FR 32644 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification: Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...: Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and..., Inc., for wheelchair elevator devices (commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical...

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured...... at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise...

  19. Influence of different sanitizers on food contaminant bacteria: effect of exposure temperature, contact time, and product concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Augusto Beltrame

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of four Sanitizers - peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium, and organic acids - was tested in this work using different bacteria recognized as a problem to meat industry, Salmonella sp., S. aureus, E. coli and L. monocytogenes. The effects of sanitizer concentration (0.2, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.4%, at different temperatures (10 and 45 °C and contact time (2, 10, 15, 18 and 25 minutes were evaluated. Tests in an industrial plant were also carried out considering previously obtained results. In a general way, peracetic acid presented higher efficiencies using low concentration (0.2% and contact time (2 minutes at 10 °C. The tests performed in industrial scale showed that peracetic acid presented a good performance in concentration and contact time lower than that suggested by the suppliers. The use of chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium led to reasonable results at the indicated conditions, and organic acids were ineffective under concentration and contact time higher than those indicated by the suppliers in relation to Staphylococcus aureus. The results, in general, show that the choice for the most adequate sanitizer depends on the microorganism contaminant, the time available for sanitizer application, and also on the process cost.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “Holfeld Diamat” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process Holfeld Diamat (EC register number RECYC076 which is based on the Diamat ® technology. The input of the process is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, post-consumer washed and dried PET flakes are mixed up to 50 % with virgin PET flakes before being heated in a crystallisation reactor (step 2 and extruded under vacuum into sheets (step 3. After having examined the challenge tests provided, the Panel concluded that the decontamination in the two consecutive extruders step 3 is the critical step for the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are well defined and are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.15 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for toddlers. Therefore, the recycled PET obtained from the process Holfeld Diamat intended for the manufacture of recycled thermoformed trays and containers made with up to 50 % recycled post-consumer PET and intended for contact for long term storage at room temperature with all types of foodstuffs except packaged water is not considered of safety concern.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “PKR”, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process PKR, EC register number RECYC009. The input of the PKR is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, dried flakes are extruded into pellets which are then pre-crystallised before being fed to a batch solid state polymerization (SSP reactor where high temperature and long residence time are applied under vacuum. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the decontamination at SSP batch reactor is the critical step that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of this critical step are well defined and are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time. The operating parameters of this step in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill, is not considered of safety concern.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “Cumapol”, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process Cumapol, EC register number RECYC085. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET articles mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried PET flakes are extruded under vacuum and pelletised. The pellets are crystallised and solid state polymerised (SSP in a continuous reactor at high temperature under inert gas flow. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the three steps, the decontamination in the vented extruder (step 2 the crystallisation and pre-heating (step 3 and the decontamination in a continuous SSP reactor (step 4 are the critical steps for the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time for the extrusion step 2, the temperature, the pressure, the gas flow and the residence time for crystallisation and pre-heating step 3 and the temperature, the gas flow and the residence time for the SSP step 4. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “APPE supercycle CP” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process APPE Supercycle CP (EU register No RECYC066. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried PET flakes are extruded under vacuum and pelletised (step 2. The pellets are crystallised at high temperature under vacuum (step 3 and further decontaminated in a solid state polymerisation reactor (SSP at high temperature under vacuum. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the three steps, the extrusion (step 2, the crystallisation (step 3 and the decontamination in the SSP reactor (step 4 are the critical steps for the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control their performance are the temperature, the gas flow, the pressure and the residence time. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended to be used at up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process "APPE Supercycle B" used to recycle PET for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process APPE Supercycle B (EU register No RECYC065. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried PET flakes are further dried at high temperature, extruded under vacuum and pelletised. The pellets are crystallised and then solid state polymerised (SSP in a reactor at high temperature under vacuum. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the crystallisation (step 4 and the decontamination in the SSP reactor (step 5 are the critical steps for the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control their performance are the temperature, pressure and residence time. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended to be used at up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “Aliplast Buhler B” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process Aliplast Buhler B (EU register number RECYC044. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated to the decontamination temperature and subsequently are further decontaminated in a continuous countercurrent reactor under high temperature and inert gas flow. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the third step, the decontamination in continuous countercurrent reactor for solid state polymerisation (SSP is the critical step that determines the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are the temperature, the inert gas flow and the residence time. The operating parameters of this step in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the recycled PET obtained from this process, intended to be used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill, is not considered of safety concern.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process "MKF-Ergis", used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process MKF-Ergis, EU register number RECYC021. The input for the process (step 1 is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 1 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. The washed and dried flakes are crystallised (step 2 and then extruded at high temperature under vacuum into films (step 3. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the crystallisation (step 2 and the extrusion (step 3 are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control their performance are well defined and are temperature, gas flow and residence time for the crystallisation and temperature, vacuum and residence time for the extrusion. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those used in the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern. Trays made of this recycled PET should not be used in microwave and conventional ovens.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process SOREPET, based on Buhler B technology, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process SOREPET (EU register No RECYC072. The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated to the decontamination temperature and subsequently are further decontaminated in a continuous countercurrent reactor under high temperature and inter gas flow. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the third step, the decontamination in continuous countercurrent reactor for solid state polymerisation (SSP is the critical step that determines the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are the temperature, the inert gas flow and the residence time. The operating parameters of this step in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below the modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. The Panel concluded that recycled PET obtained from the process, intended to be used up to 100 % for manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all type of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hot fill, is not considered of safety concern.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “RPC Cobelplast” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process RPC Cobelplast (EU register No RECYC099 which is based on the Bandera® technology. The input of the process is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, post-consumer washed and dried PET flakes are mixed with typically 50 % virgin PET flakes before being extruded under vacuum into sheets. Having examined the challenge tests provided, the Panel concluded that the decontamination in the extruder under vacuum degassing is the critical step for the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are well defined and are temperature, pressure and residence time. The operating parameters of this step in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the recycled PET obtained from the process RPC Cobelplast intended for the manufacture of recycled thermoformed trays and containers made with up to 100 % recycled post-consumer PET and intended for contact for long term storage at room temperature with all types of foodstuffs is not considered of safety concern.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “MOPET ®” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process MOPET ®, EC register number RECYC001. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET articles mainly bottles containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried PET flakes are extruded in a twin-screw extruder to amorphous pellets before being crystallised and solid state polymerised in a batch reactor. After having examined the challenge tests provided, the Panel concluded that, although the extrusion (step 2 contributes significantly to the overall decontamination efficiency, the decontamination in the batch SSP reactor (step 3 is the critical step that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are well defined and are the temperature, the pressure, the residence time and the inert gas flow. The operating parameters of this step in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “MOPET-FLAKE” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process MOPET-FLAKE (EU register number RECYC038. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried PET flakes are being crystallised and solid state polymerised in a batch reactor. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the crystallisation and solid state polymerisation (step 2 is the critical step that determines the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control its performance are well defined and are the temperature, the residence time, the pressure and the inert gas flow. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended to be used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern. The trays made of the recycled PET are not intended to be used and should not be used either in microwave or in conventional oven.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “Phoenix - ESPS”, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process Phoenix – ESPS process (EU register No RECYC035. The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles and containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried flakes are ground into small particle size powder, this powder is then fed into a reactor at high temperature under inert gas flow for decontamination. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the pulverisation and the decontamination are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are particle size for the pulverisation (step 2, temperature, dry air flow and residence time for the decontamination (step 3 and these are well defined. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those used in the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended to be used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hot-fill is not considered of safety concern.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “RPET Nosinyec”, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process RPET Nosinyec, EC register number RECYC082. The input of the process is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 5% of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this process, washed and dried flakes are extruded into pellets, pre-crystallised then pre-crystallised pellets are fed into a reactor at high temperature under vacuum in which they are further crystallised and solid-state polymerised (SSP. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the extrusion and the decontamination in the batch SSP reactor are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are well defined and are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time both for the extrusion (step 2 and the SSP (step 4. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from this process intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “ILPA”, based on Starlinger Decon technology, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process ILPA (EU register No RECYC105 which is based on the Starlinger Decon technology. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles and trays, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this technology washed and dried PET flakes are pre-heated before being solid state polymerised (SSP in a continuous reactor at high temperature under vacuum and gas flow. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the pre-heating (step 2 and the decontamination in the continuous SSP reactor (step 3 are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control their performance are well defined and are the temperature, the pressure, the residence time and the gas flow for step 2 and 3. Under these conditions, it was demonstated that the recycling process under evaluation, is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the recycled PET obtained from this process intended to be used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill, is not considered of safety concern.

  14. 29 CFR 2400.5 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT § 2400.5 Notification. (a) Notification of systems. The following procedures permit... records. This notice shall contain the following information: (i) System name and location; (ii)...

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 (FGE.300): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance was not conside...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission R...

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 61 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  20. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whitening agents in food-contact paper and board by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingguo; Chen, Lisong; Fu, Wusheng; Qiu, Hanquan

    2015-02-01

    4,4'-Diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C(18) column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R(2) ≥ 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective.

  1. Identification and quantification of oligomers as potential migrants in plastics food contact materials with a focus in polycondensates - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, M.; de Voogt, P.; Franz, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last years the variety of food and beverage packaging has increased with the development of new plastic materials and (co)polymer modifications. Oligomers which are always present in polymers evoke attention as potential migrants, from a qualitatively and quantitatively viewpoin

  2. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 82, Revision 1 (FGE.82Rev1): Consideration of Epoxides evaluated by the JECFA (65 th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for four substances, the information is adequate; but for the substance [FL-no: 07.170] further information on stereoisomerism is required....

  3. 食品接触材料中多环芳烃在食品模拟物中的迁移规律研究%Migration rule of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food contact materials to food simulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚奇辉; 张进; 沈航

    2012-01-01

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS), we researched for migration rule of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food contact materials to 4 simulants of water, acetic acid (volume fraction 3%), ethanol (volume fraction 10%) and isooctane. The purpose was to study the relationship ofmigration amount with migraion time, food simulant temperature, food simulant properties. The results showed that the nature of food simulant has prominence influence on migration action, migration quantity increases with temperature rising and time increasing.%采用气相色谱-质谱联用法,对食品接触材料中多环芳烃在水、乙酸(体积分数为3%)、乙醇(体积分数为10%)和异辛烷等4种食品模拟物中的迁移规律进行了研究,研究迁移量与实验的温度、时间和模拟物属性等参数的关系。结果表明:模拟物的属性对迁移行为有显著影响,迁移量随温度的升高和时间的增加而变大。

  4. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and norovirus surrogate in suspension and on food-contact surfaces using pulsed UV light (pulsed light inactivation of food-borne viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Julie; Morales-Rayas, Rocío; Anoman, Marie-Natacha; Lamhoujeb, Safaa

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inactivation of murine norovirus (MNV-1) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) by pulsed ultraviolet (UV) light. MNV-1 was used as a model for human norovirus. Viral suspensions of about 10(6) PFU/ml were exposed to pulses of UV light for different times and at different distances in a Xenon Steripulse device (model RS-3000C). Inactivation studies were also carried out on 1-cm(2) stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride disks with 10(5) PFU/ml. Inactivation of MNV-1 and HAV at 10.5 cm from the UV source was greater on inert surfaces than in suspension. The presence of organic matter (fetal bovine serum) reduced the effectiveness of pulsed light both in suspension and on surfaces. However, 2-s treatment in the absence of FBS completely inactivated (5 log reduction) the viral load at different distances tested, whether in suspension (MNV-1) or on disks (MNV-1 and HAV). The same treatment in the presence of fetal bovine serum (5%) allowed a reduction of about 3 log. This study showed that short duration pulses represent an excellent alternative for inactivation of food-borne viruses. This technology could be used to inactivate viruses in drinking water or on food-handling surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 47 CFR 4.11 - Notification and initial and final communications outage reports that must be filed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Notification shall provide: The name of the reporting entity; the date and time of onset of the outage; a brief... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for... and contact telephone number by which the Commission's technical staff may contact the...

  6. Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B

    2015-01-01

    During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.

  7. Using the bioluminescence and microbiological contact methods in sustaining a proper hygienic level in food processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Cais-Sokolińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of bioluminescence applied to monitor the state of hygiene in a dairy processing plant was assessed in relation to the results of conventional microbiological methods. The used blotting tests were Envirocheck Contact DC with Agar CASO medium with added neutralizers. The analysed object was the surface of a beam stirrer in a fermentation tank. Swabs were collected following tank washing and disinfection after the completion of 15 production cycles. A high degree of correlation r = 0.91 was obtained at the reliability of comparison β = 0.906. The analysis of probability of distribution confirmed the feasibility of bioluminescence. Boundary values (112 and 171 RLU were determined for bioluminescence for three object cleanliness ranges, based on microbial counts (cfu/cm2. Over 13% surfaces were classified as conditionally clean (Alert.

  8. Effects of two organomodified clays intended to food contact materials on the genomic instability and gene expression of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Jordá-Beneyto, María; Cameán, Ana M; Jos, Ángeles

    2016-02-01

    Globally, food industries have made significant progress in order to increase the shelf-life of food products and have fewer economic losses. In this sense, the use of organomodified clays destined to be incorporated in polymer matrices play a novel role, leading to improved materials named nanocomposites with enhanced technological profiles. Due to the presence of these clays into the package, the safety of the consumers is a main concern. Cloisite(®)30B and Clay1 are two organomodified clays containing quaternary ammonium salts as modifiers, that can be potentially used to reinforce packaging polymers. Available toxicity data about these clays, specifically genotoxicity, is still limited and inconclusive in some aspects. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate both clays ability to induce genomic instability through the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN) and for the first time, their influence in the modulation of several genes involved in genotoxicity and cell death mechanisms. Overall, no genotoxicity response was obtained in any case at the conditions tested. On the other hand, significant expression changes were observed on the genes selected. Nevertheless, further studies are highly needed to elucidate and increase the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of clays toxicity.

  9. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unsafe food can also spread foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis and Campylobacter (pronounced: kam-pye-low-BAK-tur) ... Why Should I Care About Germs? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Cooking Tips and Resources Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays.

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... from dry eye now have a completely new, drug-free alternative to lubricating eye drops and topical ...

  12. Safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes used to produce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) intended for food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélémy, E; Spyropoulos, D; Milana, M-R; Pfaff, K; Gontard, N; Lampi, E; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The development of a scheme for the safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is described. The starting point is the adoption of a threshold of toxicological concern such that migration from the recycled PET should not give rise to a dietary exposure exceeding 0.0025 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), the exposure threshold value for chemicals with structural alerts raising concern for potential genotoxicity, below which the risk to human health would be negligible. It is practically impossible to test every batch of incoming recovered PET and every production batch of recycled PET for all the different chemical contaminants that could theoretically arise. Consequently, the principle of the safety evaluation is to measure the cleaning efficiency of a recycling process by using a challenge test with surrogate contaminants. This cleaning efficiency is then applied to reduce a reference contamination level for post-consumer PET, conservatively set at 3 mg kg(-1) PET for a contaminant resulting from possible misuse by consumers. The resulting residual concentration of each contaminant in recycled PET is used in conservative migration models to calculate migration levels, which are then used along with food consumption data to give estimates of potential dietary exposure. The default scenario, when the recycled PET is intended for general use, is that of an infant weighing 5 kg and consuming every day powdered infant formula reconstituted with 0.75 L of water coming from water bottles manufactured with 100% recycled PET. According to this scenario, it can be derived that the highest concentration of a substance in water that would ensure that the dietary exposure of 0.0025 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) is not exceeded, is 0.017 μg kg(-1) food. The maximum residual content that would comply with this migration limit depends on molecular weight and is in the range 0.09-0.32 mg kg(-1) PET for the typical surrogate contaminants.

  13. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20].

  14. Overall and specific migration from multilayer high barrier food contact materials - kinetic study of cyclic polyester oligomers migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Sara; Aznar, Margarita; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina; Henríquez, Luis; Taborda, Laura; Restrepo, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Most multilayer high barrier materials used in food packaging have a polyurethane adhesive layer in their structures. In order to assess the safety of these materials, it is important to determine the compounds intentionally added to the adhesives (IAS) as well as those non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). During the manufacture of polyurethane adhesives, some by-products can be formed, such as cyclic polyester oligomers coming from the reaction between dicarboxylic acids and glycols. Since these compounds are not listed in the Regulation 10/2011/EU, they should not be found in migration above 0.01 mg/kg of simulant. In this study two flexible multilayer packaging materials were used and migration was evaluated in simulant A (ethanol 10% v/v), simulant B (acetic acid 3% w/v) and simulant ethanol 95% v/v during 10 days at 60ºC. Identification and quantification of non-volatile compounds was carried out by UPLC-MS-QTOF. Most of migrants were oligomers such as cyclic polyesters and caprolactam oligomers. Overall migration and specific migration of adipic acid-diethylene glycol and phthalic acid-diethylene glycol were monitored over time and analysed by UPLC-MS-TQ. In most cases, ethanol 95% v/v was the simulant with the highest concentration values. Overall migration kinetics followed a similar pattern than specific migration kinetics.

  15. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2002-05-01

    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here.

  16. Food-contact epoxy resin: co-variation between migration and degree of cross-linking. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C; Larroque, M; Subirats, J T; Gérard, J F

    1998-04-01

    The study of epoxy resin composed of bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidylether (BFDGE) (base), and primary aliphatic polyamines (hardener), has confirmed the interest of measuring certain physical parameters in order to evaluate the density of cross-linking of the network and thus predict the risks of resin molecules migrating into foodstuffs. This suggestion had been made in a preceding study on an epoxy resin composed of bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE) and primary aromatic polyamines. Samples with different densities of cross-linking, obtained by subjecting the resin to different curing temperatures (5, 20, 50 and 90 degrees C) for 7 days, were studied. The density of cross-linking increased with curing temperature, as indicated by the increase in glass transition temperature, the increased stability of the rubber storage modulus E'rub (increase in cross-link nodes), the fall in relaxation enthalpies (reduction in physical ageing) and the decreased amplitude of the loss-factor tan delta (reduction in chain mobility). Maximum cross-linking was obtained in the resin cured at 90 degrees C (temperature above Tg infinity). Concurrently, tests of migration into different liquid food simultants (distilled water, distilled water/ethanol/acetic acid, distilled water/ethanol) revealed a considerable reduction in specific migrations of BADGE and BFDGE, and of unidentified peaks.

  17. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food contact surfaces in a meat-based broth and sensitivity to sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the capacity of adhesion, the detachment kinetic and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food services on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces (2 x 2 cm when cultivated in a meat-based broth at 28 and 7 ºC. It was also to study the efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/L and peracetic acid (30 mg/L in inactivating the bacterial cells in the preformed biofilm. S. aureus strains adhered in high numbers regardless the assayed surface kind and incubation temperature over 72 h. Cells detachment of surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. Number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted at all experimental systems already after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacity to adhere and form biofilm on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under different growth conditions. Moreover, the cells in biofilm matrix were resistant for total removal when submitted to the exposure to sanitizers.

  18. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food contact surfaces in a meat-based broth and sensitivity to sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; Meira, Quênia Gramile Silva; de Medeiros Barbosa, Isabella; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity of adhesion, the detachment kinetic and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food services on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces (2 × 2 cm) when cultivated in a meat-based broth at 28 and 7 °C. It was also to study the efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/L) and peracetic acid (30 mg/L) in inactivating the bacterial cells in the preformed biofilm. S. aureus strains adhered in high numbers regardless the assayed surface kind and incubation temperature over 72 h. Cells detachment of surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. Number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted at all experimental systems already after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacity to adhere and form biofilm on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under different growth conditions. Moreover, the cells in biofilm matrix were resistant for total removal when submitted to the exposure to sanitizers.

  19. Contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents , ...

  20. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-08-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node in an injection FIFO buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target compute node on behalf of an application on the origin compute node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying an address of a completion notification field in application storage for the application; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target compute node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that the transfer of the message is complete, including performing a local direct put operation to store predesignated notification data at the address of the completion notification field.

  1. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-02-15

    DMA transfer completion notification includes: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target node on behalf of an application on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying a packet header for a completion notification packet; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; sending, by the origin DMA engine, the completion notification packet to a local reception FIFO buffer using a local memory FIFO transfer operation; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in response to receiving the completion notification packet in the local reception FIFO buffer.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 301 (FGE.301): A sulphur substituted pyrimidin-derivative and its hydrochloride salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate two flavouring substances, 4-amino-5,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one [FL-no: 16.116] and 4-amino-5,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one...

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3 (FGE.11Rev3): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 11 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substances ......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all candidate substances....

  5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commissi...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub...... assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For five substances, the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture has to be specified further....

  8. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  9. Tenacity of human norovirus and the surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovirus during long-term storage on common nonporous food contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormann, Sascha; Heißenberg, Cathrin; Pfannebecker, Jens; Becker, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of human norovirus (hNV) to food via contaminated surfaces is highly probable during food production, processing, and preparation. In this study, the tenacity of hNV and its cultivable surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) on two common nonporous surface materials at two storage temperatures was directly compared. Virus titer reduction on artificially inoculated stainless steel and plastic carriers was monitored for 70 days at room temperature and at 7°C. Viruses were recovered at various time points by elution. Genomes from intact capsids (hNV, FCV, and MNV) were quantified with real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR, and infectivity (FCV and MNV) was assessed with plaque assay. RNase treatment before RNA extraction was used to eliminate exposed RNA and to assess capsid integrity. No significant differences in titer reduction were found between materials (stainless steel or plastic) with the plaque assay or the real-time quantitative RT-PCR. At room temperature, infectious FCV and MNV were detected for 7 days. Titers of intact hNV, FCV, and MNV capsids dropped gradually and were still detectable after 70 days with a loss of 3 to 4 log units. At 7°C, the viruses were considerably more stable than they were at room temperature. Although only MNV infectivity was unchanged after 70 days, the numbers of intact capsids (hNV, FCV, and MNV) were stable with less than a 1-log reduction. The results indicate that hNV persists on food contact surfaces and seems to remain infective for weeks. MNV appears to be more stable than FCV at 7°C, and thus is the most suitable surrogate for hNV under dry conditions. Although a perfect quantitative correlation between intact capsids and infective particles was not obtained, real-time quantitative RT-PCR provided qualitative data about hNV inactivation characteristics. The results of this comparative study might support future efforts in assessment of foodborne virus risk and food safety.

  10. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaie, A; Mergenthaler, C; Nasrat, A; Seddiq, M K; Mahmoodi, S D; Stevens, R H; Creswell, J

    2016-01-01

    In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won't receive proper care. From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification. We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125) were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified. While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can push towards the targets of the Stop TB

  11. Technical Regulations Comparative Analysis of Food Contact Materials in the Two Sides of the Taiwan Strait%海峡两岸食品接触材料技术法规对比分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖莺; 林睿; 普旭力; 董清木; 黄宗平

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the framework, sanitary standards, testing methodologies, etc. of technical regulations for food contact materials in the two sides of the Taiwan Strait were described. And differences on hygiene standards, material classification, food simulants, limited requirements and other aspects of food contact materials between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait were studied.%本文介绍了海峡两岸食品接触材料技术法规的框架、卫生标准和检验方法体系等情况,并对二者在食品接触材料卫生标准体系、材质分类、食品模拟物和限量要求等方面的差异进行了分析研究。

  12. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  13. 12 CFR 313.160 - Treasury notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treasury notification. 313.160 Section 313.160... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Mandatory Centralized Administrative Offset § 313.160 Treasury notification. (a... Treasury of all debts that are delinquent (over 180 days past due), as defined in the FCCS, to enable...

  14. 49 CFR 830.5 - Immediate notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NOTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS OR INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Initial Notification of Aircraft Accidents, Incidents, and... Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) office 1 when: 1 NTSB regional offices are located in the following cities...

  15. 5 CFR 179.304 - Notification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification procedures. 179.304 Section 179.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.304 Notification procedures. Before collecting any...

  16. 30 CFR 41.12 - Changes; notification by operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes; notification by operator. 41.12... OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Notification of Legal Identity § 41.12 Changes; notification by operator. Within 30 days after the occurrence of any change in the...

  17. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  18. General practitioners role in the notification of communicable diseases - study in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, C; Gilles, H; O'Brien, S; Mamo, J; Calleja, N

    2007-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) have an essential role in notification of communicable diseases. The main aim of the study described here was to assess the GPs' awareness of and attitudes towards the notification system in Malta, with special focus on infectious intestinal disease (IID). A questionnaire collecting demographic data, information on reporting practices, opinions on the existing notification system and suggestions for improvement was sent to 256 GPs working in either private or public health sector. In all, 150 GPs took part in the survey (response rate 58.6%). The responses revealed that Maltese GPs were aware of their obligations to notify communicable diseases but often did not report them, relying on the hospitals or laboratories to do so. The Disease Surveillance Unit (DSU) website and medical school training were the main sources of information on notification. Notification forms were obtained from health centres and usually kept at the place of work. Most GPs reported filling in the forms during the patients' visits. Private GPs tended to notify earlier than GPs working in public health centers. Among IID, food-borne illness was reported more frequently than person-to-person transmitted gastroenteritis and was considered to be of a higher priority with regard to public health importance (p<0.001). The survey highlighted also some areas for improvement, including need of feedback especially by direct communication or a newsletter.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “Schoeller Arca Systems”, used to recycle polypropylene and high-density polyethylene crates for use as food contact material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process “Schoeller Arca Systems”, EC register number RECYC075. The process recycles damaged food contact re-usable polypropylene (PP and high-density polyethylene (HDPE crates which have been used in a closed and controlled product loop into new recycled crates. Through this process, damaged crates are firstly ground into flakes which are further blended with virgin PP or HDPE or used at 100 % to manufacture new recycled PP and HDPE crates. The CEF Panel concluded that the input of the process “Schoeller Arca Systems” originates from a product loop which is in a closed and controlled chain ensuring that only materials and articles which have been intended for food contact are used and that any contamination can be ruled out when run under the conditions described by the applicant. The Panel considered that the repeated grinding and injection moulding of PP and HDPE crates, which is part of the recycling process, under conditions described by the applicant, is not of safety concern. Therefore the recycling process “Schoeller Arca Systems” is able to produce recycled PP and HDPE suitable for manufacturing crates intended to be used in contact at room temperature or below with meat, whole fruits and vegetables as requested by the applicant.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “CO.N.I.P.” used to recycle polypropylene and polyethylene crates for use as food contact material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process “CO.N.I.P.”, EC register number RECYC040. The process recycles single use food contact polypropylene (PP and high-density polyethylene (HDPE crates which have been used in a closed and controlled product loop into new recycled crates. Through this process, single use crates are firstly ground into flakes which may be used as such or further processed by extrusion or densification into granules. Recycled flakes or granules are used with or without blending with PP or HDPE offcuts or scrap to manufacture new recycled PP and HDPE crates by injection moulding. The Panel concluded that the input of the process “CO.N.I.P.” originates from a product loop which is in a closed and controlled chain ensuring that only materials and articles which have been intended for food contact are used and that any contamination can be ruled out when run under the conditions described by the applicant. The recycling process “CO.N.I.P.” is therefore able to produce recycled PP and HDPE suitable for manufacturing PP and HDPE crates intended to be used in contact with whole fruits and vegetables at room temperature or below as requested by the applicant.

  2. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given the

  3. 76 FR 78930 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Enforcement Policy... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and...

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Flavouring Group Evaluation 46, Revision 1 (FGE.46Rev1): Ammonia and three ammonium salts from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... in a wide range of food items up to very high amounts. Hydrogen sulphide is also reported to occur naturally in a wide range of food items. In its evaluation, the Panel as a default used the “Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake” (MSDI) approach to estimate the per capita intakes of the flavouring...... substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured at the use...

  5. The European system for the control of the safety of food-contact materials needs restructuring: a review and outlook for discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2017-09-01

    The present European system to assure the safety of migrates from food-contact materials (FCMs) needs improvement. It is proposed to implement better the self-control by the producers through improved official control and more attractive listing of approved substances and materials (the latter being subject of another discussion paper). The initial concept of a positive list for the substances used, a limit for the overall migration and regulation of compliance testing was recognised as insufficient long ago, as it does not properly cover reaction products (including oligomers) and impurities. It also turned out to be unrealistic to cover all 17 types of FCMs owing to lack of resources by the authorities. Therefore, European Union legislation shifted the focus to the compliance work carried out by the business operators (in-house documentation and declaration of compliance). However, this approach has not been properly implemented. This is partly due to lack or unsuccessful control by authorities. A suitable structure of this control still needs to be built. It is proposed that specialised document-collection centres working with dedicated tools harmonised throughout Europe be created. Further, since most migrating substances are not listed, the toxicological evaluation reported by industry must be checked by risk-assessment authorities. Finally, effective and harmonised measures are needed to react in case of non-compliance. The currently large gap between the legal requirements and reality must be bridged by introducing flexibility: authorised work plans by industry are proposed. It is also proposed to encourage certified private institutes to approve compliance work, driven by the attractive listing of approved materials and exploiting market forces. In the long run, the focus of the authorities might change from evaluating the substances used and regulating migration testing to the evaluation of the compliance work performed by industry, which means moving from

  6. Ubiquitous occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in bleached food contacting papers and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyin; Chen, Mo; Zhao, Fanrong; Mu, Di; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Jianying

    2015-06-16

    The occurrence of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and their six chlorinated byproducts were investigated in 74 food contacting papers (FCPs) from China, the U.S.A., Japan, and Europe using a sensitive dansylation LC-MS/MS method. BPA (paper production. The mean concentrations of monochloro-BPA (MCBPA), dichloro-BPA (DCBPA), trichloro-BPA (TCBPA), tetrachloro-BPA (TeCBPA), monochloro-NP (MCNP), and dichloro-NP (DCNP) in bleached FCPs were 0.019 ± 0.025, 0.0033 ± 0.0059, 0.0030 ± 0.0045, 0.0081 ± 0.019, 0.23 ± 0.46, and 0.066 ± 0.11 ng/g, respectively, much higher than those (0.0021 ± 0.0020 ng/g for MCBPA, 0.00068 ± 0.00076 ng/g for DCBPA,

  7. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care.

  8. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “PRT (recoSTAR PET-FG)” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2012-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process PRT (recoSTAR PET-FG) (EC register number RECYC050). The input of the process is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 5% of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through the process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated and crystallised in a continuous fir...

  10. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1 (FGE.300Rev1): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance,cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1...... (FGE.300Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is made due to a re-evaluation of the flavouring substance, cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115], as a 90-day dietary study in rats has become available...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RASFF NOTIFICATIONS CONCERNING SEAFOOD DURING THE YEAR 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Semeraro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The RASFF provides a useful database on food and hazard types and countries of origin. We focused on all of the weekly overviews during the year 2008 containing tables with data of seafood alert and information notifications and border rejections. Data have been parsed into an Excel spreadsheet file and stored into the following column headings: seafood, food preservation, reason for notifying or rejection, country of origin, reference number. Relationships between product and hazard categories, way of storing, country of origin have been assessed. The results have been shown by means of graphs. The aim of this paper is making a database with specific informations on seafood and correlated hazards and country of origin available for both studying historical trends and predicting future risks.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamidobenzene, CAS No. 745070-61-5, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the additive 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamidobenzene with the CAS No. 745070-61-5, the Ref. No 95420, the FCM Substance No 784, for use as a nucleating agent/clarifier at a maximum use level of 250 mg/kg in polyprolylene (PP. Final articles are intended to be used in contact with all type of foods for short term contact (1 hour at temperatures up to 100 ºC and/or for long term storage at ambient temperature or below. Specific migration of the substance into 3 % acetic acid, 10 % ethanol and olive oil, was measured to be up to 48 µg/kg, 79 µg/kg and 94 µg/kg, respectively. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests showed no evidence for a genotoxic potential of the substance. A 90-day dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no effects at any dose and the NOAEL was considered to be 961 mg/kg bw/day in males and 1104 mg/kg bw/day in females or higher. Therefore, the CEF Panel concluded that the substance 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamidobenzene does not raise a safety concern for the consumer if it is used in polyolefins and the migration does not exceed 5 mg/kg food.

  13. Barrier function and natural moisturizing factor levels after cumulative exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent: different outcomes in atopic and healthy skin and relevance for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Dapic, Irena; Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Fischer, Tobias W; Zillikens, Detlef

    2015-12-01

    Fruit-derived organic compounds and detergents are relevant exposure factors for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry. Although individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk for development of occupational contact dermatitis, there have been no controlled studies on the effects of repeated exposure to multiple irritants, relevant for the food industry, in atopic skin. The aim of the study was to investigate the outcomes of repeated exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent in AD compared to healthy volunteers. The volunteers were exposed to 2.0% acetic acid (AcA) and/or 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in controlled tandem repeated irritation test. The outcomes were assessed by measurements of erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) levels. In the AD volunteers, repeated AcA exposure led to barrier disruption and significant TEWL increase; no significant differences after the same exposure in the healthy controls were found. Repeated exposure to SLS and the irritant tandems enhanced the reactions and resulted in a significantly higher increase in TEWL in the AD compared to the control group. Cumulative irritant exposure reduced the NMF levels in both groups. Differences in the severity of irritant-induced barrier impairment in atopic individuals contribute to the risk for occupational contact dermatitis in result of multiple exposures to food-derived irritants and detergents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. LACK OF NOTIFICATION OF COMPULSORY NOTIFICATION DISEASES IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Griep

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This research encompasses the diseases of compulsory lack of notification inhospital settings and its interface with the Health Information System (Sistema de Informaçãode Saúde – SIS developed and implemented by the Welfare System in Brazil (Sistema Únicode Saúde – SUS. It tries to identify the elements epidemiology is based on, referring to itsaspects as basis for the development of epidemiologic monitoring actions of contagiousdiseases in the country. It focuses on the following question: what are the factors thatcontribute and/or determine the flaws in the process of notification for compulsory notificationdiseases? The results obtained through a questionnaire presented to the personnel responsiblefor the Hospital Infection Control Service (Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar showtheir lack of preparedness and technical knowledge, as well as their team’s, in relation to thedynamic functioning of the Epidemiologic Vigilance Service (Serviço de VigilânciaEpidemiológica. It points to the flaws due to the influence exerted by the public and/or privatecharacter of the institutions and considers the possibility of lack of commitment and responsibility of the multi-professional team in the maintenance of the preestablished flow. As aproposal, we present an adoption of continuous educational actions through the implementationof a Long Distance Post Graduation course, aiming for the development of new possibilities forthe teaching-learning process, characterized by the ongoing quest for new knowledge and focuson the student. The implementation of a local and municipal Permanent Habilitation Programmay complement the need for updating, as well as make the discussion of the cases and dataof the reality possible, thus aiming to adopt joined measures in order to cope with the presentedepidemiologic situations.

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94, Revision 2 (FGE.94Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  16. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  17. Notification: Office of Water Hotline Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 5, 2012. This memorandum is notification that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating a review of a Hotline complaint alleging misconduct by an Office of Water (OW) employee in the performance of duties.

  18. Vergi Hukukunda Tebligatta Yeni Bir Uygulama: Elektronik Tebligat(A Recent Implementation in Notification in Tax Law: Electronic Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YURTSEVER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tax-basis documents are to be notified to tax payers via various manners and methods. Timely notification is important on the basis of people given enough time and instruments for their right to legal remedies to be carried into effect. Notifications regarding tax collection are carried out according to Tax Precedure Law whereas notifications regarding tax trials for tax disputes are carried out according to Notification Law. In order to solve notification related problems, an analogy should be drawn between Tax Precedure Law and Notification Law. Also, in the case of notifications via traditional methods, it is seen that significant information for tax payers may not be delivered on time and therefore tax claim collections may be legally impossible. Within this framework, in order to provide timely taxation and complete the taxation procedure, by virtue of the development in IT, electronic notification in addition to the said notification methods should take place in regulations. It is obvious that electronic notification would be safer and faster in comparison to the physical notification methods. Notification taking days through traditinional notification methods could be received by the addressee via e-notification in such a swift way.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the substances (butadiene, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, styrene copolymer either not crosslinked or crosslinked with divinylbenzene or 1,3-butanediol dimethacrylate, in nanoform, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the additives (butadiene, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, styrene copolymer either not crosslinked or crosslinked with divinylbenzene or 1,3-butanediol dimethacrylate, in nanoform, (FCM substance Nos 998, 859 and 1043, intended to be used up to 10 % w/w as an impact modifier in rigid (unplasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC. The final material is intended to be used for contact with all food types, at room temperature or lower, for long time storage. The monomers constituting the copolymer are listed in Regulation (EU 10/2011. The migration from PVC of the low molecular weight fraction of the additive below 1000 Da was estimated to be about 0.009 mg/kg food. Considering that these low molecular weight oligomers are made from authorised monomers, which by reaction are expected to lack the reactive functional groups, they do not give rise to safety concern. The migration of the additive in nanoparticle form from the PVC was estimated, using conservative migration modelling, to be about 1 x 10-6 mg/kg food and so consumer exposure would be very low, if any. The CEF Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the consumer if the substances are used as additives individually or in combination at up to a total of 10 % w/w in rigid PVC used in contact with all food types at ambient temperature or below including long-term storage.

  20. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  1. Notification of transfusion transmitted infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Lincoln P; Tetali, Shailaja

    2008-01-01

    The National Blood Policy of India, 2002, advocates the disclosure of results of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) to blood donors. However, in the absence of well-defined notification processes, and in order to avoid serious consequences resulting from unguided disclosure, blood bank personnel discard blood that is TTI-positive. We report on a survey of 105 voluntary blood donors in Kerala. Only two out of three participants had filled the donor form in the last year. Only half were aware that the blood bank was supposed to inform them if they tested positive for TTI. Fifty-seven per cent of donors wanted to be informed every time they donated blood, irrespective of a positive or negative result.

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... in the present group have been reported to occur naturally in a wide range of food items. In its evaluation, the Panel as a default used the “Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake” (MSDI) approach to estimate the per capita intakes of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined...... the information provided by the European Flavour Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process LPR based on EREMA Advanced and Colortronic SSP ® technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process LPR (EU register No RECYC061 which is based on the EREMA advanced and Colortronic SSP ® technologies. The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles and containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated successively in two continuous reactors under vacuum before being extruded into pellets. After extrusion they are crystallised and solid state polymerized. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the four steps, the decontamination in two continuous reactors, extrusion, crystallisation and solid state polymerization are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are temperature, pressure, gas flow and residence time. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below the modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food derived from exposure scenario for infants and 0.15 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for toddlers. The Panel concluded that recycled PET obtained from LPR process is not of safety concern when used to manufacture articles intended for food contact materials applications in compliance with the conditions as specified in the conclusion of the opinion.

  4. Anticipated Notification of Sexual Partners following STD Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Segura, Eddy R.; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.

    2016-01-01

    Background New strategies to support partner notification (PN) are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions. Methods From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN. Results Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as “Very Likely” or “Somewhat Likely” to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54–0.75) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31–0.62) partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10–1.48) and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11–1.52). An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55–0.86). Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis. Discussion Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances. PMID:27685158

  5. Notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China Today’s now e-mall addresses for each editionare now in operation!So write! Share your views and comments with us,and with fellow subscribers.Dear Readers,Our email address, chinatoday@263.net, is defunct. We now have separateaddresses for each of our editions. They are:

  6. Rapid, non-destructive and non-contact inspection of solid foods by means of photothermal radiometry; thermal effusivity and initial heating coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertsen, A.; Bicanic, D.D.; Gielen, J.L.W.; Chirtoc, M.

    2004-01-01

    CO2-laser photothermal radiometry (PTR) was demonstrated to be suitable for the nondestructive and non-contact characterization (both optical and thermal) of solid phase agricultural commodities (fres vegetables, fruits) and confectionery products (candy).

  7. 30 CFR 41.11 - Notification by operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Notification of Legal Identity § 41.11 Notification by... of the legal identity of the operator in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b...) the Federal mine identification numbers of all other mines in which any corporate officer has a...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.30 - Notification of incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notification of incidents. 50-204.30 Section 50-204.30 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.30 Notification of incidents. (a) Immediate notification. Each...

  9. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction or...

  10. 16 CFR 318.3 - Breach notification requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breach notification requirement. 318.3... HEALTH BREACH NOTIFICATION RULE § 318.3 Breach notification requirement. (a) In general. In accordance... breach of security of unsecured PHR identifiable health information that is in a personal health...

  11. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  12. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  13. Blood donor notification and counseling: Our experience from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the response rate of transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results for the year 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is an observational descriptive study performed in our department over a period of 1 year. We evaluated the response rate of TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results over 1 year as per the existing strategy (three telephonic and two postal communications. Results: During the study period, among the annual donation of 15,322 units, 464 blood donors were found to be seroreactive. Of these 464 seroreactive cases, 47 were HIV positive, 284 were reactive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, 49 were Hepatitis C (HCV positive and 84 were VDRL reactive. The TTI-reactive donors (464 for various markers were contacted: 229 (49.4% telephonically and the remaining 235 (50.6% not contacted on phone were informed by post. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2% as only 225 donors reported (221 on the first, three on second and one on the third call for one to one counseling. The remaining four non-responders were - one HIV and three HBsAg reactive. The remaining 235 (50.6% reactive donors did not respond to any communication. Conclusion: Donor notification and post-donation counseling are an essential aspect of the blood bank that entails provision of information on serological status, assess the impact of test results on the donor and finally referral for medical care. As in our data only 49.4% of the blood donors could be contacted successfully, incomplete demographic details was the major limiting factor in communicating with rest. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2%. A large majority (94.75% of the notified donors in our study contacted their health care provider when given clear instructions to do so. These results are encouraging because they indicate that a major element of the

  14. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Francis J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not

  15. Facebook-augmented partner notification in a cluster of syphilis cases in Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul; Oyervides, Otilio; Grande, Katarina M; Prater, Daphne; Vann, Vannessa; Reitl, Irmine; Biedrzycki, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Public health professionals face many challenges in infectious disease cluster case identification and partner notification (PN), especially in populations using social media as a primary communication venue. We present a method using Facebook and social network diagram illustration to identify, link, and notify individuals in a cluster of syphilis cases in young black men who have sex with men (MSM). Use of Facebook was crucial in identifying two of 55 individuals with syphilis, and the cooperation of socially connected individuals with traditional PN methods yielded a high number of contacts per case. Integration of PN services for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as collaboration between the city and state information systems, assisted in the cluster investigation. Given that rates of syphilis and HIV infection are increasing significantly in young African American MSM, the use of social media can provide an additional avenue to facilitate case identification and notification.

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 3 (FGE.17Rev3): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, including seven additional substances considered in this Revision 3, using the Procedure...... in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro data available, genotoxic potential is indicated for the flavouring substances quinoxaline [FL-no: 14.147] and 2- methylquinoxaline [FL-no: 14.139]. Therefore, the Panel decided that the Procedure could not be applied to these two substances, until.......126, 14.127, 14.128, 14.129, 14.148, 14.161 and 14.170] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining substance [FL-no: 14.052], additional toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process FPR based on Starlinger Recostar PET IV+technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process FPR, EU register No RECYC039, which is based on the Starlinger Recostar PET IV+ technology. The input to the process is hot caustic washed PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles and containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed post-consumer PET flakes are dried with desiccant air at high temperature before being extruded at high temperature and vacuum into pellets. The amorphous pellets are crystallised and solid state polymerised. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the three steps, pre-drying and drying, extrusion and crystallisation and SSP are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are temperature, gas flow and residence time for the pre-drying and drying step 2, temperature, pressure and residence time for extrusion step 3 and crystallisation and SSP step 4. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below the conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. The Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from the process FPR intended to be used at up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern. The trays made of recycled PET are not intended to be used and should not be used in microwaves and ovens.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the following processes based on Starlinger Decon technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials: "Baltija Eco PET", "Eurocast", "Fernholz", "Formas y Envases" and "Klöckner Pentaplast"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling processes "Baltija Eco PET", "Eurocast", "Fernholz", "Formas y Envases", and "Klöckner Pentaplast" (EU register numbers RECYC0118, RECYC0111, RECYC0113, RECYC0115 and RECYC0121 respectively, which are all based on the same Starlinger Decon technology. The decontamination efficiency of all these processes was demonstrated using the same challenge test. The input of all the processes is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this technology washed and dried PET flakes are pre-heated before being solid state polymerised (SSP in a continuous reactor at high temperature under vacuum and gas flow. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the pre-heating (step 2 and the decontamination in the continuous SSP reactor (step 3 are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the processes. The operating parameters to control their performance are well defined and are temperature, pressure, residence time and gas flow for step 2 and 3. Under these conditions it was demonstrated that the recycling processes under evaluation, using a Starlinger Decon technology, are able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from these processes intended to be used at up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “Greenfiber” based on VACUREMA Prime ® technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process Greenfiber (EU register No RECYC108 which is based on the VACUREMA Prime ® technology. The input of the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this technology, washed and dried PET flakes are heated in a batch reactor under vacuum and then heated in a continuous reactor under vacuum before being extruded into pellets. Having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the decontamination in batch reactors and the decontamination in continuous reactor are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are well defined and are temperature, pressure and residence time. It was demonstrated that the recycling process under evaluation is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the recycled PET obtained from this process, intended to be used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill, is not considered of safety concern. Trays made of this recycled PET should not be used in microwave and conventional ovens.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the following processes based on BUHLER C technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials “Buhler C” and “FENC”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling processes ‘’Buhler C’’ and “FENC’’ (EC register numbers RECYC037 and RECYC083 respectively which are based on the same BUHLER C technology. The decontamination efficiency of these processes was demonstrated using the same challenge tests. The input of the BUHLER C technology is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers containing no more than 5% of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this technology, washed and dried flakes are dried and extruded in a ring extruder into pellets which are further crystallised in a reactor then fed into the Solid State Polymerisation (SSP reactor. After having examined the challenge tests provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the drying and crystallisation step and the SSP step are the most critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the processes. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are well defined and are the temperature and the residence time for the drying and crystallisation, and the temperature, the gas flow and the residence time for SSP. The operating parameters of these steps in the processes are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge tests. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling processes are able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from these processes intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “PRT (recoSTAR PET-FG” used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process PRT (recoSTAR PET-FG (EC register number RECYC050. The input of the process is washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles containing no more than 5% of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through the process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated and crystallised in a continuous first reactor under inert gas flow then heated in a second continuous reactor under inert gas flow before being extruded into pellets. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the drying and crystallisation (step 2 and the drying of the crystallised flakes (step 3 are the critical steps for the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control their performance are well defined and are the temperature, the gas flow and the residence time. The operating parameters of these steps in the process are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from the process intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the following processes based on Starlinger IV+ ® technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials“Visy” and “SIA EkoPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling processes Visy and SIA EkoPET (EU register numbers RECYC101 and RECYC102 respectively which are based on the same Starlinger IV+ ® technology. The decontamination efficiency of these processes was demonstrated using the same challenge test. The input of the processes is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. Through this technology, washed and dried PET flakes are dried and crystallised in a reactor, then extruded into pellets which are further crystallised in a second reactor. Crystallised pellets are then pre-heated in a third reactor and fed to the Solid State Polymerisation (SSP reactor. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the three steps, drying and crystallisation, extrusion and crystallisation and SSP are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the processes. The operating parameters to control their performance are the temperature, the gas flow and the residence time for the drying and crystallisation step, the temperature, the pressure and the residence time for extrusion and crystallisation and SSP steps. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling processes are able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore the Panel concluded the recycled PET obtained from these processes intended to be used up to 100 % for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the following processes based on Starlinger IV+ ® technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials “Preformia, STF, MPTS, PET to PET and Eco Plastic”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling processes Preformia, STF, MPTS, PET to PET and Eco Plastic (EC register numbers RECYC012, RECYC042, RECYC054, RECYC068 and RECYC080 respectively which are all based on the same STARLINGER IV+ ® technology. The decontamination efficiency of all these processes was demonstrated using the same challenge test. Through this technology, washed and dried post-consumer PET flakes are dried and crystallised in a reactor, then extruded under vacuum to provide pellets which are further crystallised in a second reactor. Crystallised pellets are then pre-heated in a third reactor and fed to the Solid State Polymerisation (SSP reactor. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the three steps, drying and crystallisation, extrusion and crystallisation and SSP are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the processes. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are the temperature, the gas flow and the residence time for the drying and crystallisation step, the temperature, the pressure and the residence time for extrusion and crystallisation and SSP steps. It was demonstrated by means of the challenge test that the recycling processes under evaluation using a Starlinger IV+ ® technology are able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore  the Panel considered that the recycling processes Preformia, STF, MPTS, PET to PET and Eco Plastic are able to reduce any foreseeable accidental contamination of the post-consumer food contact PET to a concentration that does not give rise to concern for a risk to human health  if:

    1. they are operated under conditions that are at least as severe as those obtained from  the challenge test used to measure the

    2. Gamma irradiation of food contact plastics: identification of tin-containing intermediates in the degradation of organotin-stabilised PVC by gamma irradiation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Allen, D.W.; Brooks, J.S.; Unwin, J.; McGuiness, J.D.

      1985-08-05

      A brief account is given of the use of radiation as a process for food preservation. In particular, the effect of radiation on food packaging plastic materials is considered. Results are presented for the effect of various doses of gamma radiation on PVC containing organotin stabilisers, showing the presence of varying amounts of intermediates and a steady increase in the amount of tin (IV) chloride. Thermal degradation produced only a trace of tin (IV) chloride, in contrast. The significance of the results is discussed.

    3. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

      2009-12-01

      The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

    4. EFSA CEF Penal (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 212, Revision 2 (FGE.212Rev2): α,β-Unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia;

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 24 flavouring substances from subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 212, Revision 2. The Panel concluded in ...

    5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 3 (FGE.06Rev3): Straight- and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and esters from chemical groups 1

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 50 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs...

    6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated, aldehydes, an ester of a hemiacetal and an orthoester of formic acid, from chemical groups 1, 2 and 4

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

    7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Ai ds (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 208 (FGE.208): Consideration of genotoxicity data on representatives for 10 alicyclic aldehydes with the α , β - unsaturation in ring / side - chain

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of one flavouring substance from subgroup 2.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 208. The Flavour Industry has provided a...

    8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3 (FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 3 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, the SCF Opinion on benzoic acid. Furthermore information on stereoisomeric composition for two substa...

    9. Medical devices; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; wheelchair elevator. Final order.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-03-04

      The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are used to provide a means for a person with a mobility impairment caused by injury or other disease to move from one level to another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption for this device that will provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device without submission of a premarket notification (510(k)). This exemption from 510(k), subject to these conditions, is immediately in effect for wheelchair elevators. All other devices classified under FDA's wheelchair elevator regulations, including attendant-operated stair climbing devices for wheelchairs and portable platform lifts, continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permitting the exemption of a device from the requirement to submit a 510(k).

    10. Kids with Food Allergies

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Stay in Touch Donate Get Support Kids with Food Allergies Search: Resources Recipes Community Home About KFA Programs ... AAFA KFA-AAFA Merger Contact Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy ...

    11. Finger Foods for Babies

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... or seed butters whole hot dogs and kiddie sausages (peel and cut these in very small pieces) ... Guide for Toddlers Food Safety for Your Family Healthy Eating Food Allergies Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

    12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

      use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have...

    13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 50, Revision 1 (FGE.50Rev1): Consideration of pyrazine derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to pyrazine derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.17Rev2 (2010)

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 41 flavouring substances....

    14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 51, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to alicyclic ketones secondary alcohols and related esters in FGE.09Rev3 (2011)

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 20 substances, the information is adequate....

    15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87, Revision 2 (FGE.87Rev2): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47Rev1 (2008)

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

      The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered for the substances evaluated through the Procedure and for all 19 substances, the information is adequate....

    16. 20 CFR 726.303 - Notification; investigation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-04-01

      ... INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.303 Notification; investigation. (a) If the Director determines that.... Such notice shall be sent by certified mail. (b) The Director shall also direct the operator to supply information relevant to the assessment of a penalty. Such information, which shall be supplied within 30 days...

    17. 38 CFR 75.117 - Notification.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... that were involved in the data breach (e.g., full name, Social Security number, date of birth, home... key changes to such reports and on demand personal access to credit reports and scores), if... conspicuous posting on the home page of VA's Web site and notification in major print and broadcast media...

    18. 50 CFR 665.444 - Notifications.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-10-01

      ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifications. 665.444 Section 665.444 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  1. Overview of Pre-Congestion Notification Encoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, G.; Chan, K.; Moncaster, T.; Menth, M.; Eardley, P.; Briscoe, B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN) is to protect the quality of service (QoS) of inelastic flows within a Diffserv domain. On every link in the PCN-domain, the overall rate of PCN-traffic is metered, and PCN-packets are appropriately marked when certain configured rates are exceeded.

  2. 40 CFR 279.73 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.73 Notification. (a) Identification numbers. A used oil fuel marketer subject to the requirements of this subpart who has not... requirements and obtain an EPA identification number. (b) A marketer who has not received an EPA...

  3. 47 CFR 76.94 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.94 Notification. (a) In order to exercise non-duplication rights pursuant to § 76.92, television stations shall notify each cable television system operator of the non-duplication sought in...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  5. Research advances on determination methods for perfluorinated compound in food contact materials%食品接触材料中全氟化合物检测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗世鹏; 商贵芹; 陈明

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds mainly contain perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfo-nate (PFOS) and their salt compunds. Perfluorinated compounds are one of the persistent organic pollutants, which are most difficult to be degraded at present. Perfluorinated compounds are widely used in the textile, paper, leather and other industries for their efficient hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. However, they have toxicities such as reproduction toxicity, genetic toxicity and developmental toxicity, and they can enter into people’s food through food contact materials and threaten people’s health. This paper described the over-view of perfluorinated compounds and the research progress on detection technologies for perfluorinated com-pounds in food contact materials.%  全氟化合物主要包括全氟辛酸(PFOA)、全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)及其盐类物质,是目前最难降解的持久性有机污染物之一。全氟化合物具有高效的疏水和疏油特性,因此被广泛地应用于纺织、造纸、皮革等行业。然而其具有生殖毒性、遗传毒性和发育毒性等多种毒性,可以通过食品接触材料进入人们的食品中,威胁着人们的身体健康。本文简述了全氟化合物的概况及其在食品接触材料中分析检测技术的研究进展。

  6. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry as a tool for identification of volatile migrants from autoadhesive labels used for direct food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, Elena; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA) are used to manufacture labels that are applied directly on the food. These adhesives could contain not only intentionally added compounds (IAS) to the adhesive formula but also non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), due to the impurities from the raw materials used, decomposition of the initial components or from chemical interactions between them. These compounds could migrate to the food and contaminate it. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/Q) and atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole hyphenated to a time of flight mass spectrometer (APGC-MS/Q-TOF) have been used for identification of unknown compounds and NIAS coming from a PSA. Seven compounds were identified by GC-MS/Q, and other eight compounds remained initially unknown. The structure of these eight new compounds was elucidated by working with the spectra obtained by APGC-MS/Q-TOF. Finally, two different migration studies were carried out. The first one with Tenax as solid food simulant in contact with the paper label containing the adhesive and the second one with isooctane filled in a natural pork intestine where the label containing the adhesive was applied on the external side. The results are shown and discussed.

  7. Meat and meat products – analysis of the most common threats in the years 2011-2015 in Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononiuk, Anna D.; Karwowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The key tool used in the European Union in order to eliminate the risks associated with the consumption of potentially hazardous food is RASFF - Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed Safety. The RASFF was established to increase accountability and strengthening cooperation between states of the European Union in the field of food safety control. The aim of this study was to explore the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2011 and December 2015 with a special emphasis on meat and meat products on the basis of notification from RASFF. The study analyzed notifications on the annual reports of the RASFF published by the European Commission and requests added to the portal RASFF in the period 01.01.2011 - 31.12.2015 on the category of “meat and meat products (other than poultry) and “poultry meat and poultry meat products”. Analysis included detailed information on each notification, such as the classification and date, hazard category, notifying country, country origin. The most common classifications of notification were ‘alert’ and ‘border rejection’. Generally, basis of this notifications were ‘company’s own check’ and ‘official control on the market’. Pathogenic microorganisms were the most often hazard of category in which the higher number of notifications concerned with Salmonella spp. Alert notification which is the most dangerous for consumers were the most common type of classification for notifications on ‘meat and meat product’ category. The most of notifications in category ‘poultry meat and poultry meat products’ were the result of border control. Pathogenic microorganisms were the reason for the huge number of notifications in studied product categories. Many of notifications were associated with products which origin countries were outside RASFF member states.

  8. Completeness and timeliness of Salmonella notifications in Ireland in 2008: a cross sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, Nathalie

    2010-09-22

    Abstract Background In Ireland, salmonellosis is the second most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. A new electronic system for reporting (Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting - CIDR) of Salmonella cases was established in 2004. It collates clinical (and\\/or laboratory) data on confirmed and probable Salmonella cases. The authors studied the completeness and the timeliness of Salmonella notifications in 2008. Methods This analysis was based upon laboratory confirmed cases of salmonella gastroenteritis. Using data contained in CIDR, we examined completeness for certain non-mandatory fields (country of infection, date of onset of illness, organism, outcome, patient type, and ethnicity). We matched the CIDR data with the dataset provided by the national Salmonella reference laboratory (NSRL) to which all Salmonella spp. isolates are referred for definitive typing. We calculated the main median time intervals in the flow of events of the notification process. Results In total, 416 laboratory confirmed Salmonella cases were captured by the national surveillance system and the NSRL and were included in the analysis. Completeness of non mandatory fields varied considerably. Organism was the most complete field (98.8%), ethnicity the least (11%). The median time interval between sample collection (first contact of the patient with the healthcare professional) to the first notification to the regional Department of Public Health (either a clinical or a laboratory notification) was 6 days (Interquartile 4-7 days). The median total identification time interval, time between sample collections to availability of serotyping and phage-typing results on the system was 25 days (Interquartile 19-32 days). Timeliness varied with respect to Salmonella species. Clinical notifications occurred more rapidly than laboratory notifications. Conclusions Further feedback and education should be given to health care professionals to improve completeness of reporting of non

  9. Completeness and timeliness of Salmonella notifications in Ireland in 2008: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormican Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ireland, salmonellosis is the second most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. A new electronic system for reporting (Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting - CIDR of Salmonella cases was established in 2004. It collates clinical (and/or laboratory data on confirmed and probable Salmonella cases. The authors studied the completeness and the timeliness of Salmonella notifications in 2008. Methods This analysis was based upon laboratory confirmed cases of salmonella gastroenteritis. Using data contained in CIDR, we examined completeness for certain non-mandatory fields (country of infection, date of onset of illness, organism, outcome, patient type, and ethnicity. We matched the CIDR data with the dataset provided by the national Salmonella reference laboratory (NSRL to which all Salmonella spp. isolates are referred for definitive typing. We calculated the main median time intervals in the flow of events of the notification process. Results In total, 416 laboratory confirmed Salmonella cases were captured by the national surveillance system and the NSRL and were included in the analysis. Completeness of non mandatory fields varied considerably. Organism was the most complete field (98.8%, ethnicity the least (11%. The median time interval between sample collection (first contact of the patient with the healthcare professional to the first notification to the regional Department of Public Health (either a clinical or a laboratory notification was 6 days (Interquartile 4-7 days. The median total identification time interval, time between sample collections to availability of serotyping and phage-typing results on the system was 25 days (Interquartile 19-32 days. Timeliness varied with respect to Salmonella species. Clinical notifications occurred more rapidly than laboratory notifications. Conclusions Further feedback and education should be given to health care professionals to improve completeness of reporting of

  10. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  11. Migration assessment and the 'Threshold of Toxicological Concern' applied to the safe-design of an acrylic adhesive for food contact laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, Elena; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina

    2017-03-23

    Adhesives are widely used in food packaging. The suitability of an acrylic adhesive used on food packaging has been studied. Six potential migrants have been identified using GC-MS and UPLC-QTOF. Five compounds were intentionally added (2-butoxyethanol and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) and TMDD ethoxylates). Moreover, one of the compounds identified as 2-(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl)malonic acid was a non-intenionally added substance (NIAS), that could be a methyl metacrylate derivative. This has demonstrated that the identification of compounds in food packaging is an essential step when the risk evaluation of the package is being studied. A migration study of the adhesive compounds from multilayers with the structure paper-adhesive-film was carried out. The films used for the multilayers were both non-biodegradable substrates (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and biodegradable substrates [polylactic acid (PLA) and Ecovio F2223® that is a mixture of biodegradable polyester with PLA]. All the non-volatile compounds, including the NIAS identified, migrated into the dry food simulant Tenax®. In fact the five compounds (surfactants) based on TMDD were found to migrate from all 5 laminates into Tenax® at levels from 0.05-0.6 mg/kg. The results showed that the lowest migration (0.01 mg/kg for 2-(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl)malonic acid to 0.07 for TMDD mg/kg) occured when the compounds passed through the PLA demostrating its functional barrier properties to these compounds. On the contrary, PE (migration values from 0.11 mg/kg for 2-(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl)malonic acid to 0.57 mg/kg for TMDD ethoxylate n=1 m=1) and Ecovio® (migration values from 0.1 mg/kg for 2-(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl)malonic acid to 0.56 mg/kg for TMDD ethoxylate n=1 m=1) showed the worst barrier properties to these compounds. To evaluate the migration results the threshold of toxicological concern strategy was applied. The

  12. 2009年欧盟食品及饲料类快速预警系统对华通报及近年变化情况分析%Analysis on notifications for Chinese products based on RASFF in 2009 and recent years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游雄; 吴丽燕; 曹丹; 徐向群

    2011-01-01

    食品及饲料类快速预警系统(RASFF)是欧盟监管当局为确保食品安全而采用的实时、快速而又有效的信息交流平台,已成为保护欧洲消费者不可或缺的工具.本文对2009年中国(大陆地区)产品RASFF通报情况及近年来通报内容的一些重要变化情况进行了统计和分析,包括通报数量、通报产品和通报原因等方面的变化,并对RASFF运行趋势与经验借鉴进行了探讨.%Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) is a real-time, rapid and efficient tool for information communication, which has been used successfully by European Union authorities to ensure the safety of food and feed. Based on the data and information from RASFF, notifications on Chinese products (in mainland area) in 2009 and recent years were summed up and analyzed. The operational mode and successful experiences of RASFF were also discussed. It was shown that the products most notified in 2009 from China mainland were food contact materials, nuts, nut products and seeds, cereals and bakery products, fruits and vegetables. The most hazard categories being notified were industrial migrated contaminants,mycotoxins, heavy metals and biocontaminants. The trends of changing notification numbers and categories of hazard products from 2005 to 2009 are analyzed, and the food safety construction in China is also discussed.

  13. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 73, Revision 2 (FGE.73Rev2). Consideration of alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.12Rev3 (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 18 substances, the information is adequate....

  14. Determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds in food-contact recycled-paper materials by focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, David; Fernández-Recio, Miguel Ángel; Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2012-09-15

    Focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) was applied to the determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food-contact recycled-paper materials. Recycled paper is a potential source of EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and their derivatives bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) are used for the production of epoxy resins employed in the formulation of printing inks. The FUSLE of bisphenol-type EDCs from packaging is reported for the first time. First, different extraction solvents were studied and methanol was selected. Then, the main FUSLE factors affecting the extraction efficiency (solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic irradiation power) were studied by means of a central composite design. The FUSLE conditions selected for further experiments were 20 ml of methanol at ultrasonic amplitude of 100% for 5s. Finally, the number of extraction cycles necessary for complete extraction was established in two. The analysis of the FUSLE extracts was carried out by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with electrospray ionization and the determination of the four analytes took place in only 4 min. The FUSLE and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was validated and applied to the analysis of different food-contact recycled-paper-based materials and packaging. The proposed method provided recoveries from 72% to 97%, repeatability and intermediate precision under 9% and 14%, respectively, and detection limits of 0.33, 0.16, 0.65 and 0.40 μg/g for BPA, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE, respectively. The analysis of paper and cardboard samples confirmed the presence of EDCs in these packaging.

  15. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salafranca, Jesús, E-mail: fjsl@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Clemente, Isabel, E-mail: isabelclemente1984@gmail.com [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Isella, Francesca, E-mail: Francesca.Isella@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bosetti, Osvaldo, E-mail: Osvaldo.Bosetti@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy)

    2015-06-09

    Highlights: • 13 different food-use multilayers unirradiated and gamma-irradiated were studied. • 60–80 compounds/sample were identified by SPME–GC–MS even after 8-month storage. • Volatile profile of air- and N{sub 2}-filled bags greatly differed after irradiation. • Principal component analysis classified the samples into 4 groups. • Migration from irradiated materials to vapor phase was much lower than EU limits. - Abstract: The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60–80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  16. Classified Ads Harvesting Agent and Notification System

    CERN Document Server

    Doomun, Razvi; Nadeem, Auleear; Aukin, Mozafar

    2010-01-01

    The shift from an information society to a knowledge society require rapid information harvesting, reliable search and instantaneous on demand delivery. Information extraction agents are used to explore and collect data available from Web, in order to effectively exploit such data for business purposes, such as automatic news filtering, advertisement or product searching and price comparing. In this paper, we develop a real-time automatic harvesting agent for adverts posted on Servihoo web portal and an SMS-based notification system. It uses the URL of the web portal and the object model, i.e., the fields of interests and a set of rules written using the HTML parsing functions to extract latest adverts information. The extraction engine executes the extraction rules and stores the information in a database to be processed for automatic notification. This intelligent system helps to tremendously save time. It also enables users or potential product buyers to react more quickly to changes and newly posted sales...

  17. TOWARDS MODELING DISEASE OUTBREAK NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag Azzedin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease outbreak detection, monitoring and notification systems play an important role in assessing threats to public health since disease outbreaks are becoming increasingly common world-wide. There are several systems in use around the world, with coverage of national, international and global disease outbreaks. These systems use different taxonomies and classifications for the detection and prioritization of potential disease outbreaks. In this paper, we study and analyze the current disease outbreak systems. Subsequently, we extract features and functions of typical and generic disease outbreak systems. We then propose a generic model for disease outbreak notification systems. Our effort is directed towards standardizing the design process for typical disease outbreak systems.

  18. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR.

  19. SENT SMS : School Event Notification Through SMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil G. Lumauag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are now considered as an essential part of people’s daily lives which is used for communication and provides diversified information. The use of mobile phone is not only limited to communication alone, but now used for subscription to value-added services like disaster warning, alert systems, and notifications. The development of School Event Notification Through SMS (SENT SMS is beneficial to students, teachers, and parents in receiving first-hand information from the school right into their mobile phone. With the use of SMS Notification, students will be notified with the upcoming events of the school, changes in schedule of events, and suspension of classes due to bad weather. Teachers will be notified for schedule of meetings, emergency meetings, and deadlines of requirements. Parents will also be informed about the school activities and be aware of the activities of their children in school. The system was tested and evaluated using ISO 9126 standard questionnaire for software quality characteristics such as functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. The result implies that the overall usefulness of the system is very effective, that is, it is highly functional, highly reliable, highly usable, highly efficient, highly maintainable and highly portable.

  20. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  1. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Prandini, A.; Filippi, L.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The SAFE FOODS project undertakes to design a new approach towards the early identification of emerging food safety hazards. This study explored the utility of notifications filed through RASFF, the European Commission¿s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, to identify emerging trends in food safet

  2. Effects of spicy foods on allergic contact dermatitis caused by cinnamic aldehyde%辛辣食物对肉桂醛引起的变应性接触性皮炎的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李周娜; 金哲虎

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨辛辣食物对肉桂醛引起的变应性接触性皮炎的影响.方法 小鼠连续灌胃辛辣食物后引出辛辣刺激体征;以肉桂醛为致敏物在小鼠皮肤上诱导、激发出变态反应,分别比较灌注辛辣食物的小鼠与灌注生理氯化钠溶液的小鼠皮肤上肉桂醛引起的变态反应强度的差异.结果 辛辣食物连续7d灌胃后,灌注辛辣食物的小鼠症状体征评分明显高于灌注生理氯化钠溶液的小鼠,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).肉桂醛引起的皮肤变态反应强度比较重,灌注辛辣食物的小鼠皮肤变态反应强度在24h、48 h评分显著高于灌注生理氯化钠溶液的小鼠皮肤变态反应,而在72 h评分两组比较,差异无统计学意义;在72 h组织病理评分中两组组织病理评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 按照实验所使用的剂量,辣椒、乙醇混合物能够在小鼠诱导出辛辣刺激的体征,辛辣食物会明显加重肉桂醛的皮肤变态反应强度.%Objective To evaluate the effect of spicy foods on allergic contact dermatitis caused by cinnamic aldehyde.Methods Sixty mice were equally divided into 3 groups,i.e.,blank control group,cinnamic aldehyde group and spicy food+cinnamic aldehyde group.Spicy foods (including alcohol and bush redpepper fruit) were intragastrically given for 7 days to induce irritation in the mice of spicy food+cinnamic aldehyde group.Then,the mice of innamic aldehyde group and spicy food +cinnamic aldehyde group were challenged by cinnamic aldehyde on the skin.The difference in allergic reaction intensity was compared between the cinnamic aldehyde group and spicy food +cinnamic aldehyde group.Results After 7-day intragastric administration of spicy foods,increased scores of symptom and sign were observed in the spicy food+cinnamic aldehyde group compared with the blank control group receiving intragastric sodium chloride physiological solution (P < 0.01 ).Intense allergic

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  4. 77 FR 27461 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Pediatric Information for X...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Pediatric Information for X-Ray Imaging Device Premarket Notifications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  5. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 3 (FGE.08Rev3): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. For the substan......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565....../2000. For the substances 2-methylpropane-2-thiol [FL-no: 12.174], methyl methanethiosulphonate [FL-no: 12.159], 2-methylbutane-2-thiol [FL-no: 12.172] and 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,3-oxathiane [FL-no: 16.057] there is an indication of a genotoxic potential in vitro. Therefore, in the absence of further genotoxicity data...

  7. 40 CFR 63.999 - Notifications and other reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.999 Notifications and other reports. (a) Performance test and flare... performance test and flare compliance assessment notifications and reports are specified in paragraphs (a)(1... intention to conduct a performance test or flare compliance assessment at least 30 days before such...

  8. 29 CFR 1650.206 - Notification to Treasury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification to Treasury. 1650.206 Section 1650.206 Labor... for the Collection of Debts by Federal Tax Refund Offset § 1650.206 Notification to Treasury. (a) When referring a debt to Treasury, EEOC will certify that the debt meets all of the requirements in §...

  9. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized...

  10. 46 CFR 161.013-17 - Manufacturer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer notification. 161.013-17 Section 161.013-17...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-17 Manufacturer notification. Each manufacturer certifying lights in accordance with the specifications of this subpart...

  11. 46 CFR 160.072-09 - Manufacturer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer notification. 160.072-09 Section 160.072-09... Manufacturer notification. (a) Each manufacturer certifying flags in accordance with the specifications of this... as long as the manufacturer continues to produce flags, and (3) Each time the design or...

  12. Adding Expressiveness to Smartwatch Notifications Through Ambient Illumination:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerber, Frederic; Gehring, Sven; Krüger, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    by providing an aggregation and filtering approach to better handle notifications. Furthermore, they investigated several display concepts based on a self-built smartwatch prototype equipped with twelve full-color LEDs to present notifications through ambient illumination. Derived from a user study with twelve...

  13. 34 CFR 5.61 - Notification of estimated fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of estimated fees. 5.61 Section 5.61... PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Fees and Charges § 5.61 Notification of estimated fees. If the estimated fees under this section total more than $25, or more than the maximum amount...

  14. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel has... advertisement no later than 45 days from the date the Fund receives notice of the incident and shall...

  15. 7 CFR 966.55 - Notification of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of regulation. 966.55 Section 966.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.55 Notification of regulation. The Secretary shall notify the committee...

  16. 7 CFR 959.55 - Notification of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of regulation. 959.55 Section 959.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.55 Notification of regulation. The Secretary shall promptly notify the...

  17. 9 CFR 118.2 - Method of detention; Notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of detention; Notifications. 118.2 Section 118.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.2 Method of detention; Notifications. An authorized representative of...

  18. 50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or consignee is personally notified or seizure is made pursuant to a search warrant, the...

  19. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations...

  20. 45 CFR 400.68 - Notification to local resettlement agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to local resettlement agency. 400.68 Section 400.68 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT... Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.68 Notification to local resettlement agency. (a) The State must...

  1. 12 CFR 745.13 - Notification to members/shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification to members/shareholders. 745.13 Section 745.13 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Notification to members/shareholders. Each insured credit union shall provide notice to its members...

  2. 32 CFR 732.18 - Notification of illness or injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Federal sources. The message will also request forwarding of the member's service and medical... NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.18 Notification of... adjudication authority serving the area of the source of care (§ 732.20). This notification is in addition...

  3. 22 CFR 72.4 - Notifications of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notifications of death. 72.4 Section 72.4... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.4 Notifications of death. The... legal representative (if any, and if different from the next of kin), of the death of a United...

  4. 77 FR 52698 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...: 18 AGM-65K2 MAVERICK All-Up- Round Missiles, 36 TGM-65K2 Captive Air Training Missiles, 3...

  5. 28 CFR 29.5 - Notification of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of law enforcement officials... REGULATIONS § 29.5 Notification of law enforcement officials. In addition to the actions enumerated in § 29.4... reasonable steps to ensure that law enforcement officials under its jurisdiction are familiar with the...

  6. 76 FR 40921 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and Radiology Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to..., MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA. A notification to the Federal...

  8. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 216, Revision 1 (FGE.216Rev1). Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated 2-Phenyl -2-Alkenals from Subgroup 3.3 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of five flavouring substances from subgroup 3.3 of FGE.19. In the Flavouring Group Evaluation 216 (FGE.216) additional genotoxicity...... of animals treated with 2-phenylcrotonaldehyde. Moreover, since the substance was genotoxic only without metabolic activation, it appears necessary to prove the absence of genotoxic effect locally in the gastro intestinal system using the Comet assay....

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  10. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4): primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters from chemical groups 1 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 12 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4), including two additional substances, using the Procedure in Commission...... of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 12 candidate substances....

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13 Rev2) Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 27 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Three of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2 (FGE.18Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters from chemical groups 6 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 32 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for six substances information is lacking....

  13. 12 CFR 12.5 - Notification by agreement; alternative forms and times of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exercise investment discretion shall give or send written notification at the time and in the form agreed... which the bank exercises investment discretion other than in an agency capacity shall give or send... transactions. (1) A national bank effecting a securities transaction for an account in which the bank exercises...

  14. 12 CFR 344.6 - Notification by agreement; alternative forms and times of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Notification by agreement. Accounts (except periodic plans) where the bank does not exercise investment... customer. (b) Trust accounts. Accounts (except collective investment funds) where the bank exercises... providing this information. (c) Agency accounts. Accounts where the bank exercises investment discretion in...

  15. The USGS Earthquake Notification Service (ENS): Customizable notifications of earthquakes around the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Lisa A.; Wald, David J.; Schwarz, Stan; Presgrave, Bruce; Earle, Paul S.; Martinez, Eric; Oppenheimer, David

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning of 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) introduced a new automated Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) to take the place of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) "Bigquake" system and the various other individual EHP e-mail list-servers for separate regions in the United States. These included northern California, southern California, and the central and eastern United States. ENS is a "one-stop shopping" system that allows Internet users to subscribe to flexible and customizable notifications for earthquakes anywhere in the world. The customization capability allows users to define the what (magnitude threshold), the when (day and night thresholds), and the where (specific regions) for their notifications. Customization is achieved by employing a per-user based request profile, allowing the notifications to be tailored for each individual's requirements. Such earthquake-parameter-specific custom delivery was not possible with simple e-mail list-servers. Now that event and user profiles are in a structured query language (SQL) database, additional flexibility is possible. At the time of this writing, ENS had more than 114,000 subscribers, with more than 200,000 separate user profiles. On a typical day, more than 188,000 messages get sent to a variety of widely distributed users for a wide range of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The purpose of this article is to describe how ENS works, highlight the features it offers, and summarize plans for future developments.

  16. 食品接触材料PVC中塑化剂迁移规律研究及迁移模型建立%Research on the migration regularity and the modeling building of plasticizers in food contact material PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珍妮; 苗宏健; 李敬光; 吴永宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究在不同食品模拟溶液下 PVC 中塑化剂的迁移规律。方法运用同位素内标稀释结合气相色谱质谱方法检测 PVC 中的塑化剂邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)和己二酸二辛酯(DEHA)。以3%乙酸、10%、20%、50%、95%乙醇作为食品模拟溶液,在25℃及40℃条件下对PVC中四种塑化剂的迁移情况进行研究。结果食品模拟溶液、温度对塑化剂迁移有影响;以Fick 第二扩散定律为依据,建立了 PVC 中塑化剂的迁移规律数学模型,得到了模型的重要参数。结论建立的模型可以提供有效的食品安全性评价。%ABSTRACT:Objective To study the migration rule of plasticizers from food contact material PVC under different food stimulants.Methods The content of plasticizer dilsobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di 2 ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), and dioctyl adipate (DEHA) from PVC were detected by gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry coupled with the isotope internal standard dilution. Migration behavior of plas-ticizer DIBP, DBP, DEHP, and DEHA intofood stimulants of 3% acetic acid and 10%, 20%, 50%, 95% ethanol was studied at 25℃ and 40℃.Results The food stimulants and temperature were proved to have effects on the migration of plasticizers. The mathematical models of four plasticizers’ migration which based by Fick’s 2nd law was established and the models’ important parameters were also achieved.Conclusion The estab-lished models can effectively provide the food safety assessment.

  17. Systemic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th (Th1 and Th2, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens’ distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  18. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-02-25

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  19. Systemic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th (Th1 and Th2, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens’ distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process “Petra Polimeri” used to recycle polypropylene trays and insert trays for use as food contact material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process “Petra Polimeri”, EC register number RECYC089. The process recycles polypropylene (PP trays and inserts trays which have been used for the transport, storage and display of whole, fresh fruits and vegetables at room temperature or below. Trays are returned by consumers and collected in specific containers at the point of sale and insert trays originate from a closed loop of distributors. After collection, trays and insert trays are sorted separately. Through this process, sorted trays and/or insert trays are ground into flakes, which are washed, dried and extruded into granules. This recycled material is used up to 30 % with virgin PP to manufacture new trays and insert trays intended for transport, storage and display of whole, fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered the specific use of the recycled trays and insert trays and the management of the input material as a critical process step. The Panel concluded that exposure of consumers to potential contaminants is unlikely and that the recycled PP obtained from the process Petra Polimeri is not of safety concern when i made with collected trays from specific containers at the point of sale along with a communication and/or insert trays from the retailer, trays and insert trays being collected and sorted separately; the sorting being positive and manual, and leading to more than 99.9 % PP trays and insert trays, and when ii intended to be used up to 30 % with virgin PP to manufacture new recycled trays and/or insert trays for contact with whole, fresh fruits and vegetables at room temperature or below.

  1. Determination of factors affecting role performance of contact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... technologies, ascertain the benefits of using contact farmers to disseminate innovation and ... Keywords: Contact farmer, proven technologies, agricultural innovation, Nigeria ...

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 2H-perfluoro-[(5,8,11,14-tetramethyl-tetraethyleneglycol ethyl propyl ether] CAS No 37486-69-4 for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel deals with the safety evaluation of the substance 2H-perfluoro-[(5,8,11,14-tetramethyl-tetraethyleneglycol ethyl propyl ether] (CAS No 37486-69-4, FCM substance No 903, for use as polymer production aid (PPA for manufacturing sintered and non-sintered (processed fluoropolymers. Finished articles are intended to be used for single and repeated contact with all kinds of foodstuffs at all temperatures. Residual content of the substance was not detected in sintered or processed (non-sintered articles at temperatures at or above 360 °C and was detected in fluoropolymers processed (non-sintered at 300 °C from which total mass transfer was calculated to be 13 µg/kg food. Based on migration modelling under highly conservative assumptions, estimated migration of the substance present at the measured residual level in articles processed (non-sintered at temperatures of 300 °C, is in the range of 1 µg/kg. For repeated use applications, migration at each following use will be considerably lower. Based on negative results from three adequately performed in vitro genotoxicity tests, the Panel considered that the substance is non-genotoxic. The CEF Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the consumer if the substance 2H-perfluoro-[(5,8,11,14-tetramethyl-tetraethyleneglycol ethyl propyl ether] is only used as a polymer production aid in the polymerisation of fluoropolymers intended for a repeated and single use materials and articles when sintered or processed (non-sintered at temperatures at or above 360 °C for at least 10 minutes or at higher temperatures for equivalent shorter times, b repeated use materials and articles only when processed (non-sintered at temperatures from 300 °C and up to 360 °C for at least 10 minutes.

  3. Effect of inoculum size, bacterial species, type of surfaces and contact time to the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated to non-inoculated beef fillets via food processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkana, E; Chorianopoulos, N; Grounta, A; Koutsoumanis, K; Nychas, G-J E

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated beef fillets to non-inoculated ones, through food processing surfaces. Three different levels of inoculation of beef fillets surface were prepared: a high one of approximately 10(7) CFU/cm(2), a medium one of 10(5) CFU/cm(2) and a low one of 10(3) CFU/cm(2), using mixed-strains of Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fillets were then placed on 3 different types of surfaces (stainless steel-SS, polyethylene-PE and wood-WD), for 1 or 15 min. Subsequently, these fillets were removed from the cutting boards and six sequential non-inoculated fillets were placed on the same surfaces for the same period of time. All non-inoculated fillets were contaminated with a progressive reduction trend of each pathogen's population level from the inoculated fillets to the sixth non-inoculated ones that got in contact with the surfaces, and regardless the initial inoculum, a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g between inoculated and 1st non-inoculated fillet was observed. S. Typhimurium was transferred at lower mean population (2.39 log CFU/g) to contaminated fillets than E. coli O157:H7 (2.93 log CFU/g), followed by L. monocytogenes (3.12 log CFU/g; P CFU/g) enhanced the transfer of bacteria to subsequent fillets compared to other materials (2.66 log CFU/g for SS and PE; P < 0.05). Cross-contamination between meat and surfaces is a multifactorial process strongly depended on the species, initial contamination level, kind of surface, contact time and the number of subsequent fillet, according to analysis of variance. Thus, quantifying the cross-contamination risk associated with various steps of meat processing and food establishments or households can provide a scientific basis for risk management of such products.

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 91, Re vision 2 (FGE.91Rev2): Consid eration of simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by the JECFA (53rd and 68th meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 44 simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by the JECFA at the 53rd and the 68th meeting. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach...

  5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 73, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, and esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.12Rev2 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 16 substances, the information is adequate....

  6. Enlargement of Axo-Somatic Contacts Formed by GAD-Immunoreactive Axon Terminals onto Layer V Pyramidal Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Adolescent Female Mice Is Associated with Suppression of Food Restriction-Evoked Hyperactivity and Resilience to Activity-Based Anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wable, Gauri Satish; Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Aoki, Chiye

    2016-06-01

    Many, but not all, adolescent female mice that are exposed to a running wheel while food restricted (FR) become excessive wheel runners, choosing to run even during the hours of food availability, to the point of death. This phenomenon is called activity-based anorexia (ABA). We used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to ask whether individual differences in ABA resilience may correlate with the lengths of axo-somatic contacts made by GABAergic axon terminals onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5P) in the prefrontal cortex. Contact lengths were, on average, 40% greater for the ABA-induced mice, relative to controls. Correspondingly, the proportion of L5P perikaryal plasma membrane contacted by GABAergic terminals was 45% greater for the ABA mice. Contact lengths in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated negatively and strongly with the overall wheel activity after FR (R = -0.87, P < 0.01), whereas those in the prelimbic cortex correlated negatively with wheel running specifically during the hours of food availability of the FR days (R = -0.84, P < 0.05). These negative correlations support the idea that increases in the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) terminal contact lengths onto L5P contribute toward ABA resilience through suppression of wheel running, a behavior that is intrinsically rewarding and helpful for foraging but maladaptive within a cage.

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2016. Scientific opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 400 (FGE.400): 3-(1- ((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) of EFSA was requested to deliver a scientific opinion on the implications for human health of the flavouring substance 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2...

  8. Characterization of estrogen and androgen activity of food contact materials by different in vitro bioassays (YES, YAS, ERα and AR CALUX) and chromatographic analysis (GC-MS, HPLC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl, Johannes; Kirchnawy, Christian; Osorio, Veronica; Grininger, Angelika; Richter, Alexander; Bergmair, Johannes; Pyerin, Michael; Washüttl, Michael; Tacker, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine active substances (EAS) show structural similarities to natural hormones and are suspected to affect the human endocrine system by inducing hormone dependent effects. Recent studies with in vitro tests suggest that EAS can leach from packaging into food and may therefore pose a risk to human health. Sample migrates from food contact materials were tested for estrogen and androgen agonists and antagonists with different commonly used in vitro tests. Additionally, chemical trace analysis by GC-MS and HPLC-MS was used to identify potential hormone active substances in sample migrates. A GC-MS method to screen migrates for 29 known or potential endocrine active substances was established and validated. Samples were migrated according to EC 10/2011, concentrated by solid phase extraction and tested with estrogen and androgen responsive reporter gene assays based on yeast cells (YES and YAS) or human osteoblast cells (ERα and AR CALUX). A high level of agreement between the different bioassays could be observed by screening for estrogen agonists. Four out of 18 samples tested showed an estrogen activity in a similar range in both, YES and ERα CALUX. Two more samples tested positive in ERα CALUX due to the lower limits of detection in this assay. Androgen agonists could not be detected in any of the tested samples, neither with YAS nor with AR CALUX. When testing for antagonists, significant differences between yeast and human cell-based bioassays were noticed. Using YES and YAS many samples showed a strong antagonistic activity which was not observed using human cell-based CALUX assays. By GC-MS, some known or supposed EAS were identified in sample migrates that showed a biological activity in the in vitro tests. However, no firm conclusions about the sources of the observed hormone activity could be obtained from the chemical results.

  9. How complete and accurate is meningococcal disease notification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, E; Ghebrehewet, S; Regan, M; Thomson, A P J

    2004-12-01

    Effective public health control of meningococcal disease (meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia) is dependent on complete, accurate and speedy notification. Using capture-recapture techniques this study assesses the completeness, accuracy and timeliness of meningococcal notification in a health authority. The completeness of meningococcal disease notification was 94.8% (95% confidence interval 93.2% to 96.2%); 91.2% of cases in 2001 were notified within 24 hours of diagnosis, but 28.0% of notifications in 2001 were false positives. Clinical staff need to be aware of the public health implications of a notification of meningococcal disease, and of failure of, or delay in notification. Incomplete or delayed notification not only leads to inaccurate data collection but also means that important public health measures may not be taken. A clinical diagnosis of meningococcal disease should be carefully considered between the clinician and the consultant in communicable disease control (CCDC). Otherwise, prophylaxis may be given unnecessarily, disease incidence inflated, and the benefits of control measures underestimated. Consultants in communicable disease control (CCDCs), in conjunction with clinical staff, should de-notify meningococcal disease if the diagnosis changes.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, used as carbon dioxide generators, together with liquid absorbers cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked, in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids deals with the safety evaluation of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330, CAS No 77-92-9, FCM Substance No 139 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, CAS No 144-55-8, FCM Substance No 21, which is intended to be used as a carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables. Depending on absorption capacity needed, pure cellulose or a mixture of cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked may be used as absorber. The Panel noted that if the active substances are used not in direct contact with food, but are placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, as carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of food such as fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables, does not raise a safety concern. The absorbent pads should be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  11. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  12. Lipstick Induced Contact Leucoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Lalit Kumar; Jain Suresh Kumar; Khare Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Lipstick is a commonly used cosmetic. Its use may sometimes lead to contact dermatitis. Contact leucoderma to lipsticks however, is not common. We report a patient developing contact leucoderma to lipstick in association with contact dermatitis.

  13. Lipstick Induced Contact Leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Lalit Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipstick is a commonly used cosmetic. Its use may sometimes lead to contact dermatitis. Contact leucoderma to lipsticks however, is not common. We report a patient developing contact leucoderma to lipstick in association with contact dermatitis.

  14. 塑料食包材料烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚迁移量的测定%Migration Determination of Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates in Plastic Food Contact Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 闫婧; 吕刚; 周磊

    2015-01-01

    A new analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for determining the migration of alkyl phenol ethoxylates from plastic food packaging materials into food simulants such as water , 3 % acetic acid solution (weight fraction), 10%ethanol solution (volume fraction), 95%ethanol solution (volume fraction)and olive oil. The contact with food simulants tests were carried out at 40 ℃ for 240 h. The anlalytes were separated on a C 18 column using 3 %acetonitrile -77 %methanol -20 %water (volume fraction) as mobile phase, and then detected by HPLC-MS/MS using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The recoveries for nonylphenol polyethoxylates varied from 72.9%to 104.6%with the relative standard deviations ranging from 1.5%to 11.2%. The recoveries for octylphenol polyethoxylates varied from 94.9 % to 113.9 % with the relative standard deviations ranging from 2.6%to 7.0%.%建立了高效液相色谱串联质谱法对塑料食品包装材料中烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚向食品模拟物迁移量的检测方法。使用5种食品模拟物:水、3%乙酸溶液(质量分数)、10%的乙醇溶液(体积分数)、95%的乙醇溶液(体积分数)和橄榄油。样品在40℃下浸泡240 h,以C18柱为分离柱,3%乙腈-77%甲醇-20%水为流动相分离,采用电喷雾串联四级杆进行检测。该方法对壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的平均回收率为72.9%~104.6%,相对标准偏差为1.5%~11.2%,对辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚的平均回收率为94.9%~113.9%,相对标准偏差为2.6%~7.0%。

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenylphthalimidine, CAS No. 6607-41-6, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the substance 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenylphthalimidine with the CAS No. 6607-41-6 and the FCM substance No 872, for use as a co-monomer for manufacturing polycarbonate polymers intended to be used for single and repeated contacts with all kinds of foodstuffs without restriction in time and temperature. Based on three in vitro genotoxicity tests and a mouse micronucleus test in vivo on the substance, the Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity of the substance. The CEF Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the consumer if 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenylphthalimidine is used as a co-monomer in polycarbonate copolymer and its migration does not exceed 0.05 mg/kg food. Potential migration of aniline, an impurity of the substance, should be in compliance with the restriction set in the Commission Regulation (EU No 10/2011, i.e. not detectable.

  16. The procedure for death notification--"In Person, In Time…".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Informing of a patient's death is difficult for physicians as well as patient's families. Breaking bad news is part of clinical experience of physicians and existential experience of patient's close relatives. The professional manner of death notification may effectively reduce the level of stress and other negative emotions in both parties involved. Special information procedures defining cardinal rules of professional death notification have been devised to help physicians in this process. One of them, created in the United States in the 1990s, is the communication protocol - "In Person, In Time" - Recommended Procedures for Death Notification", discussed in the present paper.

  17. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids) , 2016. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 90, Revision 1 (FGE.90Rev1): consideration of six substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.18Rev1 and FGE.75Rev1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of EFSA was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary...

  19. Effects of HIV status notification on reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Yugang; Jing Jun; Zhang Yanhui; Li Huasheng; Feng Liangui; Ning Zhen; Tan Hongzhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of HIV sexual transmission is much higher among people unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Only a few studies have indicated that the incidence of unsafe sex can be reduced when people know their HIV status.This study was to investigate this effect in China.Methods A cohort study consisting of two surveys was conducted at two different times among a group of people living with HIV/AIDS,whose status was newly diagnosed with HIV via sexual contact,in Shanghai,Chongqing,and Kunming.The first survey was conducted among 823 people tested positive for HIV before notifying them of the HIV status.The second survey was conducted among 650 HIV-positive people at six months following the first survey (after notification of HIV status).The scope of survey covered unsafe sex practices,number of unsafe sexual partners,and frequency of unsafe sexual behaviors over the prior six months.Unsafe sex is defined as unprotected anal or vaginal sex with partners who are HIV positive or whose HIV status is unknown.Results The proportion of unsafe sex was reduced by about 85% after HIV status notification.The risk of HIV sexual transmission was 15 times higher among persons unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Approximately 95% of new sexually transmitted HIV infections stemmed from 56% of the infected persons unaware of their HIV status in China.Conclusion Timely HIV status notification has the potential to significantly reduce unsafe sex among HIV-infected persons and reduce the risk for HIV transmission via unsafe sex.

  20. Towards a wide area alerting and notification system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McFerren, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of multiple phenomena, over wide geographic areas, into highly targeted, rich notifications/alerts, delivered to potentially large numbers of users over convenient communication channels. It can be deployed in a variety of scenarios that require functionality...

  1. notification of occupational diseases by general practitioners in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    miners have to be notified to the Medical Bureau for Occupa- tional Diseases in terms of the ... Factors influencing their reporting practice included lack of guidelines for ... notification system, adequate training and support of GPs, and timeous ...

  2. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  3. 42 CFR 456.437 - Notification of adverse decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified mental retardation professional, if applicable; (d) The Medicaid agency; (e) The recipient; and (f... Facilities Ur Plan: Review of Need for Continued Stay § 456.437 Notification of adverse decision. The UR plan...

  4. 5 CFR 581.302 - Notification of obligor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Compliance With Process § 581.302 Notification of obligor... 523 of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S. Code App. 501 et seq.). ...

  5. 9 CFR 439.60 - Notification and hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.60 Notification and hearings. Accreditation of any... applicable rules of practice, which will be adopted for the proceeding. Any such refusal, suspension,...

  6. USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System Description

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides plain-English description of the alert notification system that the USGS has adopted nationwide for characterizing the level of unrest and eruptive...

  7. Real-Time Multimission Event Notification System for Mars Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    As the Mars Relay Network is in constant flux (missions and teams going through their daily workflow), it is imperative that users are aware of such state changes. For example, a change by an orbiter team can affect operations on a lander team. This software provides an ambient view of the real-time status of the Mars network. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay Network. As part of MaROS, a feature set was developed that operates on several levels of the software architecture. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. The result is a real-time event notification and management system, so mission teams can track and act upon events on a moment-by-moment basis. This software retrieves events from MaROS and displays them to the end user. Updates happen in real time, i.e., messages are pushed to the user while logged into the system, and queued when the user is not online for later viewing. The software does not do away with the email notifications, but augments them with in-line notifications. Further, this software expands the events that can generate a notification, and allows user-generated notifications. Existing software sends a smaller subset of mission-generated notifications via email. A common complaint of users was that the system-generated e-mails often "get lost" with other e-mail that comes in. This software allows for an expanded set (including user-generated) of notifications displayed in-line of the program. By separating notifications, this can improve a user's workflow.

  8. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-07-27

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for direct memory access (`DMA`) transfer completion notification. Embodiments include determining, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node, whether a data descriptor for an application message to be sent to a target compute node is currently in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer in dependence upon a sequence number previously associated with the data descriptor, the total number of descriptors currently in the injection FIFO buffer, and the current sequence number for the newest data descriptor stored in the injection FIFO buffer; and notifying a processor core on the origin DMA engine that the message has been sent if the data descriptor for the message is not currently in the injection FIFO buffer.

  9. AIDS, partner notification and gender issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheimer, Galya M

    2002-01-01

    The interplay between public health, human rights, legal obligations and physicians' ethical concerns was revealed dramatically in Israel in recent cases involving reporting of the HIV positive status of patients. This paper reviews and critically analyses the decision-making process of Israeli Ethics Committees regarding HIV partner notification. One aim of this analysis is to suggest principles that may guide the decision in such cases. It is argued that the resolution concerning disclosure to partners be based on the Principle of Proportionality, taking into account the type of relationship between partner and patient, their cultural background and gender issues. The paper demonstrates the advantages of addressing such issues by professional multidisciplinary Ethics Committees, whose decisions can bring to bear the scope of relevant considerations.

  10. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-07-27

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for direct memory access (`DMA`) transfer completion notification. Embodiments include determining, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node, whether a data descriptor for an application message to be sent to a target compute node is currently in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer in dependence upon a sequence number previously associated with the data descriptor, the total number of descriptors currently in the injection FIFO buffer, and the current sequence number for the newest data descriptor stored in the injection FIFO buffer; and notifying a processor core on the origin DMA engine that the message has been sent if the data descriptor for the message is not currently in the injection FIFO buffer.

  11. Contact allergy to hair colouring products. The cosmetovigilance experience of 4 companies (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Tozer, Sarah; Rich, Kim; Hoting, Edo; Hollenberg, Detlef; Fuchs, Anne; Fautz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The post-marketing undesirable events to hair colouring products in the European Union notified to the cosmetovigilance departments of four major cosmetic companies were analysed (2003-2006). The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors. Alleged undesirable events (UEvs, all notifications prior to causality assessment), were compared to the respective undesirable effects (UEfs, reasonably attributable to product use). A detailed analysis was performed on notifications with manifestations compatible with allergic contact dermatitis. No time effect of UEvs and UEfs was shown, for all hair-dye associated notifications and for allergic contact dermatitis, for all hair colouring products together and by product type. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to direct hair colouring products was lower for all four companies compared to oxidative hair dyes. The reporting rates of UEfs were statistically higher in the UK for one of four companies. Past history of black henna tattoos appeared as a major risk factor for seriousness of allergic contact reactions.

  12. 21 CFR 107.240 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Cosmetic Act (the act)) that reasonably supports the conclusion that an infant formula that has... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  13. 77 FR 5171 - Further Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration to Incorporate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... importance. II. Legal Authority FDA is issuing this final rule under provisions of the Federal Food, Drug... response (22 hours for recordkeeping) \\3\\ from previously reported estimates relating to drugs and medical... notifications and records required for human drug, biological product, device, animal drug, food, cosmetic, and...

  14. EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 2 (FGE.23Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs......, 26 and 30, Annex I of the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present Flavouring Group Evaluation deals with 19 candidate substances, which are aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives. Four of the candidate substances are aliphatic ethers, one is an alicyclic...

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 5 (FGE.08Rev5): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since...... of a genotoxic potential in vitro. Therefore, in the absence of further genotoxicity data, the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to these five substances. For four substances, 3-mercaptooctanal [FL-no: 12.268], 3-mercaptodecanal [FL-no: 12.269], methanedithiol diacetate [FL-no: 12...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4 (FGE.08Rev4): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since......-no: 12.174], ethyl 2-mercapto-2-methyl propanoate [FL-no: 12.304] and 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,3- oxathiane [FL-no: 16.057] there is an indication of a genotoxic potential in vitro. Therefore, in the absence of further genotoxicity data, the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to these five...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

  18. Stop and think: Exploring mobile notifications to foster reflective practice on meta-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, smartphone users are constantly receiving notifications from applications that provide feedback, as reminders, recommendations or announcements. Nevertheless, there is little research on the effects of mobile notifications to foster meta-learning. This paper explores the effectiveness of m

  19. 47 CFR 1.9060 - Amendments, waivers, and dismissals affecting spectrum leasing notifications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... spectrum leasing notifications and applications. 1.9060 Section 1.9060 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9060 Amendments, waivers, and dismissals affecting spectrum leasing notifications and applications....

  20. Public Notification Instructions and Templates for the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed public notification (PN) templates to help with implementation of the PN Rule. This document aims to assist water systems with the Public Notification requirements specific to the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR).

  1. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  2. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  3. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids) , 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 65, Revisio n 1 (FGE.65Rev1 ) : Consideration of sulfur - substituted furan derivatives used as flavouring agents evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to a subgroup of substances within the group of ‘ Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side - chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14’ evaluated by JECFA in FGE.13Rev2 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 33 substances, the information is adequate....

  5. 49 CFR 577.5 - Notification pursuant to a manufacturer's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification pursuant to a manufacturer's decision... NOTIFICATION § 577.5 Notification pursuant to a manufacturer's decision. (a) When a manufacturer of motor... produced by the manufacturer contains a defect that relates to motor vehicle safety, or fails to conform...

  6. Stop and Think: Exploring Mobile Notifications to Foster Reflective Practice on Meta-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smartphone users are constantly receiving notifications from applications that provide feedback, as reminders, recommendations or announcements. Nevertheless, there is little research on the effects of mobile notifications to foster meta-learning. This paper explores the effectiveness of mobile notifications to foster reflection on…

  7. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for its facility in Louisville, Kentucky. The notification conforming to the...

  8. 1 CFR 425.2 - Procedures for notification of existence of records pertaining to individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for notification of existence of...'S COMMISSION ON WHITE HOUSE FELLOWSHIPS § 425.2 Procedures for notification of existence of records... be made in writing. (b) Requests for notification of the existence of a record should state, if...

  9. 25 CFR 700.273 - Request for notification of existence of records: Action on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for notification of existence of records: Action... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 700.273 Request for notification of existence of records... for notification of the existence of records shall be made by the Privacy Act Officer. (c) Form...

  10. 45 CFR 1115.3 - Procedures for notification of existence of records pertaining to individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for notification of existence of... § 1115.3 Procedures for notification of existence of records pertaining to individuals. (a) The systems... record exists. (b) Requests for notification of the existence of a record should specifically...

  11. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.].

  12. Enhanced, Partially Redundant Emergency Notification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Clark D.

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Emergency Notification System (JENS) software utilizes pre-existing computation and communication infrastructure to augment a prior variable-tone, siren-based, outdoor alarm system, in order to enhance the ability to give notice of emergencies to employees working in multiple buildings. The JENS software includes a component that implements an administrative Web site. Administrators can grant and deny access to the administrative site and to an originator Web site that enables authorized individuals to quickly compose and issue alarms. The originator site also facilitates maintenance and review of alarms already issued. A custom client/server application program enables an originator to notify every user who is logged in on a Microsoft Windows-based desktop computer by means of a pop-up message that interrupts, but does not disrupt, the user s work. Alternatively or in addition, the originator can send an alarm message to recipients on an e-mail distribution list and/or can post the notice on an internal Web site. An alarm message can consist of (1) text describing the emergency and suggesting a course of action and (2) a replica of the corresponding audible outdoor alarm.

  13. Fast notification architecture for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hahk

    2013-03-01

    In an emergency, since it is vital to transmit the message to the users immediately after analysing the data to prevent disaster, this article presents the deployment of a fast notification architecture for a wireless sensor network. The sensor nodes of the proposed architecture can monitor an emergency situation periodically and transmit the sensing data, immediately to the sink node. We decide on the grade of fire situation according to the decision rule using the sensing values of temperature, CO, smoke density and temperature increasing rate. On the other hand, to estimate the grade of air pollution, the sensing data, such as dust, formaldehyde, NO2, CO2, is applied to the given knowledge model. Since the sink node in the architecture has a ZigBee interface, it can transmit the alert messages in real time according to analysed results received from the host server to the terminals equipped with a SIM card-type ZigBee module. Also, the host server notifies the situation to the registered users who have cellular phone through short message service server of the cellular network. Thus, the proposed architecture can adapt an emergency situation dynamically compared to the conventional architecture using video processing. In the testbed, after generating air pollution and fire data, the terminal receives the message in less than 3 s. In the test results, this system can also be applied to buildings and public areas where many people gather together, to prevent unexpected disasters in urban settings.

  14. Notification of occupational disease and the risk of work disability:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Christensen, Michael V; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    a national register. Using Cox regression models, we analyzed notification and adjusted hazard ratios (HR (adj)) of work disability (defined as >12 weeks of social benefits during the first or second year of follow-up). RESULTS: Prior to notification, notified patients had higher levels of clinical...... of 564 patients were notified of an occupational disease when they were examined at baseline and 1740 patients were not. We obtained weekly information on sick payment, unemployment payment, disability pension, rehabilitation benefit, and other social benefits during the two years of follow-up from......, occupational, and social characteristics that predict poorer vocational prognosis. Analyses that adjusted for these differences showed an increased risk of work disability following notification for patients who were working when notified at baseline (HR (adj)1.46, 95% CI 1.17-1.82). No effect was seen...

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA. The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Compreh...

  16. Tuberculosis notification by private sector′ physicians in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A small proportion of physicians adhere to tuberculosis (TB notification regulations, particularly in the private sector. In most developing countries, the private sector has dominance over delivering services in big cities. In such circumstances deviation from the TB treatment protocol is frequently happening. This study sought to estimate TB notification in the private sector and settle on determinants of TB notification by private sector physicians. Methods: A population-based study has been conducted; private physicians at their clinics were interviewed. The total number of 443 private sectors′ physicians has been chosen by the stratified random sampling method. Appropriate descriptive analysis was used to describe the study′s participants. Logistic regression was used for bivariable and multivariable analysis. Results: The response rate of the study was 90.06 (399%. Among responders, who had stated that they were suspicious of TB over the recent year, 62 (16.45% stated that they reported cases of TB at least once during the same period. Having reporting requirements and the number of visited patients was significantly related to TB suspicious (odds ratio = 2.84, confidence interval: 1.62-5, P < 0.01. Workplace and access to relevant resources are associated with TB notification (P < 0.05. Conclusions: In poor resource settings with a high burden of TB, the public health administration can promote notification activities in the private sector by simple and quick interventions. It seems that a considerable fraction of private sector physicians, not all of them, will notify TB if they are provided with primary information and primary resources. To optimize the TB notification, however, intersectoral interventions are more likely to be successful.

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    . The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations in bacteria nor......The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared with the dietary exposure results...

  18. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins.

  20. Determination of Residue of Melamine in Food Contact Materials by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法检测食品接触材料中三聚氰胺的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旻实; 刘伟; 郑思远; 林柏玲

    2012-01-01

      A novel High-performance liquid chromatographic method of determination of residue of melamine was developed. Samples were extracted with 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid at 70℃ by ultrasonic extractor. The separation was performed on NH2 column at 30℃ and the mobile phase of acetonitrile (5mmol/L) with PBS (pH=6.5)(75:25, V/V) of isocratic elution was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with DAD detector. Under optimized condition, the calibration curves was linear from 0.2 to 100mg/L with LOD(S/N=3)of 0.02 mg/L for MEL . The method provided recoveries of 80%-99% in the spiked mass of 100μg, and the RSD was between 2.80%- 4.32%. A proportional relationship between residue of melamine in raw materials and migration of melamine in their molding articles was observed. The satisfied experimental results indicated that the proposed method can be directly used for the determination of residue of melamine in food contact materials and articles conveniently, rapidly and accurately.%  建立了一种用液相色谱技术检测分析食品接触材料中三聚氰胺残留量的方法.样品采用0.1 mol/L盐酸作为提取溶液,70℃水浴超声提取.色谱分离采用 NH2柱,流动相为 V(乙腈):V(5mmol/L 磷酸盐缓冲溶液,pH 6.5)=75:25,二极管阵列检测器检测.在优化条件下,三聚氰胺浓度在0.2-100 mg/L范围内与其峰面积线性关系良好,检出限(S/N=3)为0.02 mg/L.在100μg 的添加水平下,三聚氰胺的回收率在80-99%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)为2.80-4.32%.揭示了原料中三聚氰胺残留量与成型品的三聚氰胺迁移量的正相关关系.结果表明,该法简便、快速,可准确测定食品接触材料中三聚氰胺残留量.

  1. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  2. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lenses without a prescription in the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a ... no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted ...

  4. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  10. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  12. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha M Rathi; Preeji S Mandathara; Srikanth Dumpati

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  13. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on xylanase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Hallas-Møller, Torben

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a xylanase (endo-1,4-β-xylanase; EC 3.2.1.8) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... safety concern. Based on the genetic modifications performed, the manufacturing process, the compositional and biochemical data provided and the toxicological studies, this food enzyme does not raise safety concern under the intended conditions of use....

  14. Coral contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  15. Coral contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-04-16

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  16. Contact urticaria : Present scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological contact urticaria is a hypersensitivity reaction that appears on the skin following contact with an eliciting substance. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of this reaction have altered its classification, diagnosis, and treatment. We discuss classification, epidemiology, diagnosis, testing, and treatment options that are available to patients with contact urticaria.

  17. Types of Contact Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back to top ] Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) Contact Lenses Rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPs) are more durable ... Ortho-K) Orthokeratology, or Ortho-K, is a lens fitting procedure that uses specially designed rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses to change the ...

  18. Mixed lubricated line contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Faraon, Irinel Cosmin

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is essential that an engineer is able to predict friction.

  19. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  20. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... circuits are classified Secret. The hardware, software, and data identified are classified to protect... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... data, U.S. Government and contractor technical assistance and other related logistics support,...

  1. 77 FR 13564 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    .... The hardware, software, and data identified are classified to protect vulnerabilities, design and... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... data, U.S. Government and contractor technical assistance and other related logistics support. \\*\\...

  2. 76 FR 72180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... require travel of U.S. Government or contractor representatives to Malaysia on a temporary basis for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense...

  3. 76 FR 53533 - Notification of New Pricing Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... United States Mint Notification of New Pricing Methodology ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is implementing a new pricing methodology for its commemorative gold coins to mitigate the effect that fluctuating gold commodity costs has on the pricing of these products. The new pricing methodology...

  4. 40 CFR 372.45 - Notification about toxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 and 40 CFR... in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200, the notification must be attached to or otherwise incorporated... to be a trade secret under provisions of 29 CFR 1910.1200, the notice shall contain a...

  5. 36 CFR 1121.9 - Notification of dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of dispute. 1121.9 Section 1121.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... disagreement under § 1121.8, the Board shall clearly note any portion of the record which is disputed and...

  6. 76 FR 60471 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... friendly forces on an easy-to-understand relative position display. This proposed system will increase... this additional capability into its Air Force. The proposed sale of this weapon system will not alter... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security...

  7. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from airborne wind energy system developers and the public related to these systems so that the FAA...

  8. 5 CFR 1501.16 - Notification of individual concerned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1501.16 Section 1501.16 Administrative Personnel THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD § 1501.16 Notification of... furnished in each case to the person who is the subject thereof. ...

  9. 7 CFR 945.55 - Notification of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of regulation. 945.55 Section 945.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 945.55...

  10. 7 CFR 958.55 - Notification of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of regulations. 958.55 Section 958.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.55...

  11. 24 CFR 3282.404 - Notification pursuant to manufacturer's determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions § 3282.404 Notification pursuant to manufacturer... the manufacturer received the information. Consumer complaints or other information indicating the... satisfaction of the SAA or the Secretary, through such documentation as the SAA or the Secretary may...

  12. 19 CFR 181.73 - Notification of verification visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receipt, to the address of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer whose premises are to be visited... include: (1) The identity of the Customs office and officer issuing the notification; (2) The name of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer of the good, or producer of the material, whose premises are to...

  13. 32 CFR 324.9 - Notification of record's existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of record's existence. 324.9 Section 324.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... record's existence. All DFAS Privacy Act Officers shall establish procedures for notifying an...

  14. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  15. 7 CFR 65.300 - Country of origin notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 65.300 Country of origin... may be designated as Product of the United States, Country X, and (as applicable) Country Y. (2) For...

  16. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Republic of Singapore to contribute to regional security. Its contributions to counter-piracy...

  17. 78 FR 50045 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... its borders and littoral waters, as well as conduct counter- terrorism/counter-piracy operations....

  18. 17 CFR 242.504 - Notification to associated persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulation Ac-Analyst Certification § 242.504 Notification to associated persons. A broker or dealer shall notify any person with whom that broker or dealer is associated who publishes, circulates, or provides research reports: (a) Whether the broker or dealer maintains and enforces written policies and...

  19. 10 CFR 19.13 - Notifications and reports to individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notifications and reports to individuals. 19.13 Section 19.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NOTICES, INSTRUCTIONS AND REPORTS TO WORKERS: INSPECTION AND... should preserve this report for further reference. (b) Each licensee shall make dose...

  20. 78 FR 36534 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... representatives to travel to Thailand for a period of five weeks for equipment de-processing/fielding,...

  1. 78 FR 41040 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency.... Government and contractor representatives to travel to the region to support the program. There will be...

  2. 76 FR 61673 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security..., APX-72 Transponder, AN/ARN-147 VOR/ILS, AN/ARN-149 Receiver (ADF), HF-9000 HF Radio, ASN-150 Tactical... RADAR, ARC-210 UHF Radio, APX-72 Transponder, AN/ARN- 147 VOR/ILS, AN/ARN-149 Receiver (ADF), HF-9000...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1210 - What are the notification requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Notification of intent to comply (NIC). These procedures apply to sources that have not previously complied... complied with the NIC requirements of §§ 63.1210 and 63.1212(a), which were in effect prior to October 11... must include all of the following key activities and dates in your NIC: (A) The dates by which...

  4. 78 FR 699 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... goals and national security objectives of the United States by meeting the legitimate security and... dissemination. It can be either fixed or mobile. In addition to the shelter housing the operator...

  5. 34 CFR 668.114 - Notification of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of hearing. 668.114 Section 668.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Appeal Procedures for...

  6. 45 CFR 164.408 - Notification to the Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Notification in the Case of Breach of Unsecured Protected Health Information... of a breach of unsecured protected health information as provided in § 164.404(a)(2), notify the... unsecured protected health information involving 500 or more individuals, a covered entity shall, except as...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.502 - Tenant notifications and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3560.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Management and Disposition of Real Estate Owned (REO) Properties § 3560.502 Tenant notifications and assistance. Each tenant in an...

  8. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal landing... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2 Section 251.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL...

  9. 5 CFR 2634.803 - Notification of ethics agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of ethics agreements. 2634.803 Section 2634.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Ethics Agreements §...

  10. 40 CFR 172.48 - Data requirements for a notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172... methods used to genetically modify the microbial pesticide. (h) The identity and location of the gene... organisms. (d) Information on survival and the ability of the microbial pesticide to increase in...

  11. 78 FR 50047 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... for Purchase: 19 Mobile Troposcatter Radio Systems, 10 Mobile Microwave Radio Systems, spare and... Technology Contained in the Defense Article or Defense Services Proposed to be Sold: None (viii) Date...

  12. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Representatives, Transmittals 12-60 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy Mobile System Vehicles, 40 M60 RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy...

  13. 76 FR 66048 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Technology: 1. The AVENGER system is a lightweight, highly mobile, and transportable surface-to-air missile... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Representatives, Transmittals 11-38 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of...

  14. 78 FR 50043 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Representatives, Transmittals 12-67 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... Illuminator Radars, 216 MIM-23P HAWK Tactical Missiles, 2 Mobile Battalion Operation Centers (BOC), 3 HAWK...

  15. 78 FR 41036 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Representatives, Transmittal 13-40 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft 8 Mobile Ground Control Stations 48 Honeywell TPE331-10T...

  16. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... CONTACT: Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug...: Under section 409(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), we are giving... Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on request by DG SANCO. Addendum to FGE. 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85 and 87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... of commerce have also been considered and for eight stereoisomeric substances [FL-no: 06.040, 08.073, 09.371, 09.780, 10.050, 13.060, 13.161 and 16.039], the stereoisomeric composition has to be specified further....

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    ..., calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food...

  19. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  20. Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.

  1. The Usefulness and Feasibility of Mobile Interface in Tuberculosis Notification (MITUN) Voice Based System for Notification of Tuberculosis by Private Medical Practitioners – A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Banurekha; Thomas, Beena; Nair, Dina; Thiruvengadam, Kannan; Prashant, Suma; Kittusami, Sathyapriya; Vijayakumar, Harivanzan; Chidambaram, Meenachi; Shivakumar, Shri Vijay Bala Yogendra; Jayabal, Lavanya; Jhunjhunwala, Ashok; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a notifiable disease and health care providers are required to notify every TB case to local authorities. We conducted a pilot study to determine the usefulness and feasibility of mobile interface in TB notification (MITUN) voice based system for notification of TB cases by private medical practitioners. Methodology The study was conducted during September 2013 to October 2014 in three zones of Chennai, an urban setting in South India. Private clinics wherein services are provided by single private medical practitioners were approached. The steps involved in MITUN included: Registration of the practitioners and notification of TB cases by them through voice interactions. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires were administered to collect information on TB notification practices and feasibility of MITUN after an implementation period of 6 months. Results A total of 266 private medical practitioners were approached for the study. Of them, 184 (69%) participated in the study; of whom 11 (6%) practitioners used MITUN for TB notification. Reasons for not using MITUN include lack of time, referral of patients to government facility, issues related to patient confidentiality and technical problems. Suggestions for making mobile phone based TB notification process user-friendly included reducing call duration, including only crucial questions and using missed call or SMS options. Conclusion The performance (feasibility and usefulness) of MITUN voice based system for TB notification in the present format was sub-optimal. Perceived problems, logistical and practical issues preclude scale–up of notification of TB by private practitioners. PMID:26376197

  2. The Usefulness and Feasibility of Mobile Interface in Tuberculosis Notification (MITUN Voice Based System for Notification of Tuberculosis by Private Medical Practitioners--A Pilot Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banurekha Velayutham

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a notifiable disease and health care providers are required to notify every TB case to local authorities. We conducted a pilot study to determine the usefulness and feasibility of mobile interface in TB notification (MITUN voice based system for notification of TB cases by private medical practitioners.The study was conducted during September 2013 to October 2014 in three zones of Chennai, an urban setting in South India. Private clinics wherein services are provided by single private medical practitioners were approached. The steps involved in MITUN included: Registration of the practitioners and notification of TB cases by them through voice interactions. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires were administered to collect information on TB notification practices and feasibility of MITUN after an implementation period of 6 months.A total of 266 private medical practitioners were approached for the study. Of them, 184 (69% participated in the study; of whom 11 (6% practitioners used MITUN for TB notification. Reasons for not using MITUN include lack of time, referral of patients to government facility, issues related to patient confidentiality and technical problems. Suggestions for making mobile phone based TB notification process user-friendly included reducing call duration, including only crucial questions and using missed call or SMS options.The performance (feasibility and usefulness of MITUN voice based system for TB notification in the present format was sub-optimal. Perceived problems, logistical and practical issues preclude scale-up of notification of TB by private practitioners.

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220, Revision 1 (FGE.220Rev1): alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19: 3(2H)-Furanones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... genotoxic effects in germ cells, which theoretically may result in reduced reproductive capacity or in inheritable genetic damage. Reduced reproductive capacity and inheritable genetic damage are toxicological endpoints which differ from carcinogenicity and therefore, the negative results...... that the representative substance for subgroup 4.4b, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one [FL-no: 13.010], is unable to induce adverse effects both on male rat reproductive capacity and dominant lethality. On this basis, the Panel concludes that there is no concern for this substance to induce heritable genetic damage...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products... contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a... rigid gas permeable contact lens. This includes all solutions and tablets used together with rigid...

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the following processes based on VACUREMA Prime ® technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials “Lux PET”, “Jayplas”, “PolyQuest” and “CIER”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling processes LuxPET, Jayplas, PolyQuest and CIER (EC register numbers RECYC008, RECYC024, RECYC025 and RECYC027 respectively which are all based on the same VACUREMA Prime ® technology. The decontamination efficiency of all these processes was demonstrated using the same challenge test. Collected post-consumer PET bottles are processed into washed and dried flakes which are used as input of the VACUREMA Prime ® technology. Through this technology, washed and dried PET flakes are heated in a batch reactor under vacuum and then heated in a continuous reactor under vacuum before being extruded into pellets. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the two steps, the decontamination in batch reactors and the decontamination in continuous reactor are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the processes. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time. It was demonstrated by means of the challenge test that the recycling processes under evaluation using a VACUREMA Prime ® technology are able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore,  the Panel considered that the recycling processes LuxPET, Jayplas, PolyQuest and CIER are able to reduce any foreseeable accidental contamination of the post-consumer food contact PET to a concentration that does not give rise to concern for a risk to human health if:

    1. they are operated under conditions that are at least as severe as those obtained from  the challenge test used to measure the decontamination efficiency of the processes and
    2. the input is washed and dried post-consumer PET flakes originating from materials and articles that have been

    3. Food Poisoning

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

    4. Care-Seeking Behavior After Notification Among Young Women With Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections After Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Butz, Arlene M; Gaydos, Charlotte; Chung, Shang-En; Johnson, Betty H; Huettner, Steven; Trent, Maria

      2016-10-01

      Objective To determine the level of nurse case management and outreach required to notify young women with sexually transmitted infection (STI) positive test results after pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and percent seeking treatment. Participants (N = 153) were enrolled in a clinical trial of young women diagnosed with PID and followed for 3 months for recurrent STIs. Vaginal swabs were obtained at 1 and 3 months. All participants were notified of positive STIs at 1 and 3 months and treatment arranged. Data were analyzed with logistic regression for comparison of treatment status by number of nurse contacts. Results Over the 3-month period, 59 participants (38.6%) tested positive for one or more STIs and all received notification. Only 50% (19/38) of participants with STI at 1 month and 43% (16/37) at 3 months received treatment. Conclusions Despite the high notification rate of positive test results for young adults with recurrent STIs, many failed to seek treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

    5. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

      2006-07-04

      A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

    6. Introduction to contact mechanics

      CERN Document Server

      Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

      2000-01-01

      Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

    7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Meltem Önder

      2009-03-01

      Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

    8. Contact Quality in Participation

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

      2016-01-01

      We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...... to contribute to “an era of participation.” We describe a contact perspective in PD developed through a collaboration with body-oriented psychotherapeutic research that have specialized experiences in investigating open-minded contact and authentic meetings as body-related experiences....

    9. Colors and contact dermatitis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

      2014-01-01

      The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

    10. 9 CFR 500.4 - Withholding action or suspension with prior notification.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-01-01

      ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY... notification and the opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance because: (a) The HACCP system...

    11. Knowledge and Attitudes of Produce and Seafood Processors and Food Safety Educators Regarding Nonthermal Processes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.

      2016-01-01

      A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…

    12. Sutures and contact homology I

      CERN Document Server

      Colin, Vincent; Honda, Ko; Hutchings, Michael

      2010-01-01

      We define a relative version of contact homology for contact manifolds with convex boundary, and prove basic properties of this relative contact homology. Similar considerations also hold for embedded contact homology.

    13. Food packing optimization

      Science.gov (United States)

      1981-01-01

      The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

    14. Expedited Demolition Notification for 2nd Quarter CY 2012 Structures

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

      2012-06-18

      The National Nuclear Security Administration and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively the Permittees) are informing the New Mexico Environment Department Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the need to expedite the demolition of structures summarized in the enclosures. These structures have been identified to receive funding and be demolished prior to the 3rd Quarter Demolition Notification (June 30, 2012). This letter is a follow up to the email that was sent to the NMED-HWB on April 17, 2012. The enclosures attached to this letter satisfy the reporting requirements as outlined in Section 1.17 of the LANL Hazardous Facility Waste Permit (Permit). Demolition of buildings that appear on this list will not occur until 30 days after NMED has received this notification.

    15. A RFID-based Campus Context-Aware Notification System

      CERN Document Server

      Haron, Nazleeni S; Hasan, Mohd H; Ariffin, Mazeyanti M; Aziz, Izzatdin A

      2010-01-01

      This paper presents the design and development of a context-aware notification system for university students using RFID technology. This system is leveraging on the student's matrix card as the RFID tag (sensor), RFID reader and server as the processors and screen monitor at the various locations in the campus as the actuator of the output. This system aims to deliver urgent notifications to the intended students immediately at their respective locations. In addition, the system is also able to display personalized information based on the students' preferences and current location when accessing the system. The background of the study, the design approaches for this system and the preliminary evaluation of the prototype are presented in this paper. The evaluation results have indicated that the the proposed system is useful and easy to use.

    16. [New food allergies].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

      1999-09-25

      RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

    17. Screw bondgraph contact dynamics

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Visser, Martijn; Stramigioli, Stefano; Heemskerk, Cock

      2002-01-01

      This paper presents an elegant contact dynamics model in screw bondgraph form. It can model the contact between any two objects of finite curvature. It does so by defining a Gauss frame on the surfaces of both objects in the points that are closest to each other. Then it describes how the Gauss fram