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Sample records for food composition table

  1. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Food Composition Tables of Japan and the Nutrient Table/Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    A global food composition database has been constructed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) based on food composition tables from every country in the world. To improve this database, the FAO has organized the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS). The most recent version of the food composition table for Japan was published by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and is presented in three books: "Standard Tables of Food Composition Japan-2010-," "Fatty Acid Composition of Foods-2005-," and "Amino Acid Composition of Foods-2010-." The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- (Energy, General Components, Minerals, Vitamins, etc. Section; Fatty Acids Section; Amino Acids Section; Carbohydrates Section) will be published in 2015 and is expected to play an important role as one of the main tables of the East Asia food composition tables.

  3. Table of Phenylalanine Content of Foods: Comparative Analysis of Data Compiled in Food Composition Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Claudia Marquim F; Araújo, Wilma M C; Marquez, Ursula M Lanfer; Akutsu, Rita; Nakano, Eduardo Y

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the phenylalanine (Phe) content of foods is essential for managing the diet of patients with phenylketonuria. Data on the Phe content of foods are scarce and sometimes vary between different Food Composition Tables (FCT). Brazil created its own table of the Phe contents of fruits and vegetables based exclusively on the chemical analysis of protein content, considering that proteins contain 3-4% Phe (TCFA/ANVISA). This study compared the protein and Phe contents of vegetables and fruits provided by the TCFA/ANVISA with those listed in international food composition tables. The Phe content of 71 fruits and vegetables listed in TCFA/ANVISA was classified into four subgroups, and the Wilcoxon nonparametric test compared the Phe and mean protein contents provided by the FCTs. All tests considered the bilateral hypothesis, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The Spearman's correlation coefficient measured the statistical dependence between Phe and protein contents. The mean Phe content was 50 mg/100 g for 11 type-A vegetables; contents provided by most FCTs were positively correlated, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the Phe content of fruits by multiplying its protein content by 3%. For type-A, -B, and -C vegetables, 4% may be used.

  4. Advances in Food Composition Tables of Japan--Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Available Carbohydrate Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The new revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2015) will be published in 2015. The aim of the present paper is to share information on issues we have encountered during the revision. New analytical data on amino acid composition will be provided for approximately 230 foods, fatty acid composition for approximately 140 foods, and available carbohydrate (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) composition for approximately 340 foods. These data will be published separately as three supplements to the STFCJ 2015: amino acid tables, fatty acid tables, and available carbohydrate tables. Available carbohydrate tables will also provide polyol (sorbitol and mannitol) and organic acid (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, etc.) data. In the supplements, amino acid content will be adjusted for protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by a nitrogen to protein conversion factor, and fatty acid content adjusted for extractable lipid content, as in previous revisions. Available carbohydrate content, however, will be adjusted for water content. Values of protein content calculated as the sum of amino acid residues , lipid content expressed as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids , and available carbohydrate content will appear in the main tables of the STFCJ 2015. Protein, fat and available carbohydrate contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of FAO were applied instead of the acceptable methods. Online publication of Japanese and English versions of these tables, reference materials, and a retrievable food composition database is planned.

  5. Development of a regional food composition table for West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlmayr, Barbara; Charrondière, U Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the nutrient content of foods is fundamental for virtually all nutrition-related projects, programmes and policies. Low quality compositional data may lead to inappropriate policies and funds spent unnecessarily. Existing food composition tables (FCT) for most West African countries date back to 1960 and 1970 and contain in general few foods and components without documentation. As a result of the recommendations by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Nutrition forum and other high level meetings, FAO/INFOODS, WAHO/ECOWAS and Bioversity International developed the West African FCT. It contains 472 foods and 28 components. Emphasis was given to include data on food biodiversity by incorporating cultivars/varieties and underutilized foods. The West African FCT enables users to address diet-related health problems, strengthen local development, enhance trade and promote biodiversity. In addition it contributes to poverty alleviation in both rural and urban areas. The FCT needs to be updated regularly and it is the most recent example of INFOODS for regional food composition activities. Copyright © 2012 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Adapting an international food composition table for use in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Neumann, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to adapt an existing international food composition table, the International Minilist (IML), and related databases, for use in estimating dietary intakes for a study in Embu, Kenya in 1998¿2001. The IML, developed as part of the WorldFood Dietary Assessment System

  7. Adapting an international food composition table for use in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Neumann, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to adapt an existing international food composition table, the International Minilist (IML), and related databases, for use in estimating dietary intakes for a study in Embu, Kenya in 1998¿2001. The IML, developed as part of the WorldFood Dietary Assessment System i

  8. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  9. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  10. Putting food on the table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Putting food on the table: the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security Jeroen Candel Food security concerns and arguments have made a revival in European Union (EU) governance since the 2007-8 and 2010 global food price crises. This renaissa

  11. Putting food on the table

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Putting food on the table: the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security Jeroen Candel Food security concerns and arguments have made a revival in European Union (EU) governance since the 2007-8 and 2010 global food price crises. This renaissance of food security has been accompanied by increasing awareness among scholars and policymakers about high degrees of complexity, uncertainty, controversy, and cross-scale dynamics surrounding food security as well as consequent ...

  12. Food composition tables in resource-poor settings: exploring current limitations and opportunities, with a focus on animal-source foods in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Julia; Ferguson, Elaine; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Maulaga, Wende; Msuya, John; Alders, Robyn

    2016-11-08

    Animal-source foods (ASF) have the potential to enhance the nutritional adequacy of cereal-based diets in low- and middle-income countries, through the provision of high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients. The development of guidelines for including ASF in local diets requires an understanding of the nutrient content of available resources. This article reviews food composition tables (FCT) used in sub-Saharan Africa, examining the spectrum of ASF reported and exploring data sources for each reference. Compositional data are shown to be derived from a small number of existing data sets from analyses conducted largely in high-income nations, often many decades previously. There are limitations in using such values, which represent the products of intensively raised animals of commercial breeds, as a reference in resource-poor settings where indigenous breed livestock are commonly reared in low-input production systems, on mineral-deficient soils and not receiving nutritionally balanced feed. The FCT examined also revealed a lack of data on the full spectrum of ASF, including offal and wild foods, which correspond to local food preferences and represent valuable dietary resources in food-deficient settings. Using poultry products as an example, comparisons are made between compositional data from three high-income nations, and potential implications of differences in the published values for micronutrients of public health significance, including Fe, folate and vitamin A, are discussed. It is important that those working on nutritional interventions and on developing dietary recommendations for resource-poor settings understand the limitations of current food composition data and that opportunities to improve existing resources are more actively explored and supported.

  13. Deriving Extensional Spatial Composition Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Geresy, Baher; Abdelmoty, Alia I.; Ware, Andrew J.

    Spatial composition tables are fundamental tools for the realisation of qualitative spatial reasoning techniques. Studying the properties of these tables in relation to the spatial calculi they are based on is essential for understanding the applicability of these calculi and how they can be extended and generalised. An extensional interpretation of a spatial composition table is an important property that has been studied in the literature and is used to determine the validity of the table for the models it is proposed for. It provides means for consistency checking of ground sets of relations and for addressing spatial constraint satisfaction problems. Furthermore, two general conditions that can be used to test for extensionality of spatial composition tables are proposed and applied to the RCC8 composition table to verify the allowable models in this calculus.

  14. [Quality of data on folic acid content in vegetables included in several Spanish Food Composition Tables and new data on their folate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, A B; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Martínez, C; Periago, M J

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between adequate folate intake, adequate serum levels, and lowering the risk of suffering from cardiovascular diseases, neural tube defects, neural illness and some kind of cancers have been widely studied. Because of the expected health benefits, the consumption of foods with high folate content or enriched foods is increasing. Therefore, an adequate folate intake is important in order to reach acceptable serum levels. Reliable food composition data are necessary in order to evaluate and estimate the populations folate intake, elaborate diets and formulate recommended dietary intakes. For this reason, we revised folic acid data in Spanish Food Composition Tables (FCT). The quality of the data was evaluated and compared with other well-known international Food Composition Tables as well as with a high-resolution liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) validated in our laboratory. We evaluated all data about folate content, as well as all the information given like data origin, analytical method, sampling or original database. For the HPLC method, the food samples were incubated with hog kidney conjugase. After that, the samples were purified and concentrated by strong anion exchange (SAX), then the folate content was quantified by HPLC with a combination of two ultraviolet and fluorescence detectors. The evaluation and comparison of data was established according to some parameters, which define the quality of data, giving punctuation depending on the compliance with these parameters. The study of different sources showed that nutrients were different in definition, analysis method, units and expression of data, and that this fact could have a potential influence on TCA data values. In addition, it has been possible to show a wide variation in food number, name of these foods as well as the analysis of raw or cooked products with different composition. When the quality conditions were tested, the Spanish FCT had the lowest punctuation in folate

  15. Composite foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties

  16. FAO/INFOODS Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data Prior to the Publication of a User Table/Database, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food composition data play an essential role in many sectors, including nutrition, health, agriculture, environment, food labeling and trade. Over the last 25 years, International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has developed many international standards, guidelines and tools to obtain harmo...

  17. Food composition databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food composition is the determination of what is in the foods we eat and is the critical bridge between nutrition, health promotion and disease prevention and food production. Compilation of data into useable databases is essential to the development of dietary guidance for individuals and populat...

  18. Iodine intake by adult residents of a farming area in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and the accuracy of estimated iodine intake calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Chiba, Keiko; Watanabe, Takao; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Seki, Takako

    2016-11-01

    Iodine intake by adults in farming districts in Northeastern Japan was evaluated by two methods: (1) government-approved food composition tables based calculation and (2) instrumental measurement. The correlation between these two values and a regression model for the calibration of calculated values was presented. Iodine intake was calculated, using the values in the Japan Standard Tables of Food Composition (FCT), through the analysis of duplicate samples of complete 24-h food consumption for 90 adult subjects. In cases where the value for iodine content was not available in the FCT, it was assumed to be zero for that food item (calculated values). Iodine content was also measured by ICP-MS (measured values). Calculated and measured values rendered geometric means (GM) of 336 and 279 μg/day, respectively. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between calculated and measured values. The correlation coefficient was 0.646 (p < 0.05). With this high correlation coefficient, a simple regression line can be applied to estimate measured value from calculated value. A survey of the literature suggests that the values in this study were similar to values that have been reported to date for Japan, and higher than those for other countries in Asia. Iodine intake of Japanese adults was 336 μg/day (GM, calculated) and 279 μg/day (GM, measured). Both values correlated so well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, that a regression model (Y = 130.8 + 1.9479X, where X and Y are measured and calculated values, respectively) could be used to calibrate calculated values.

  19. Comparative study of fatty-acid composition of table eggs from the Jeddah food market and effect of value addition in omega-3 bio-fortified eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Aziz Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005, diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011, and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004 in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008. Lack of nutrient dense foods and the prevailing food related disorder of obesity (Popkin, 2001; Prentice, 2014 especially render egg as a choice food to be value-added for attaining nutritional security in Saudi Arabia and in effect reverse the increasing incidences of lifestyle diseases. Nutritional intervention through a commonly consumed food product would be an important step in improving the health of the people, and reducing health care costs. As eggs are a frequently consumed food item in Saudi Arabia, enriching them with omega-3 fatty acids would be an excellent way to alleviate the existing problems. A significant deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in the eggs was observed when the diet of hens was supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids from either flaxseed or fish oil source. Inadequacy of omega-3 fatty acids could thus be rectified by producing omega-3 enriched eggs from hens supplemented with flaxseed or fish oil source, and thus contribute toward better health choice of the consumer.

  20. Food composition database development for between country comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutritional assessment by diet analysis is a two-stepped process consisting of evaluation of food consumption, and conversion of food into nutrient intake by using a food composition database, which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. Most reports in the literature focus on minimizing errors in estimation of food consumption but the selection of a specific food composition table used in nutrient estimation is also a source of errors. We are conducting a large prospective study internationally and need to compare diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaires, in a comparable manner between different countries. We have prepared a multi-country food composition database for nutrient estimation in all the countries participating in our study. The nutrient database is primarily based on the USDA food composition database, modified appropriately with reference to local food composition tables, and supplemented with recipes of locally eaten mixed dishes. By doing so we have ensured that the units of measurement, method of selection of foods for testing, and assays used for nutrient estimation are consistent and as current as possible, and yet have taken into account some local variations. Using this common metric for nutrient assessment will reduce differential errors in nutrient estimation and improve the validity of between-country comparisons.

  1. The Slovenian food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korošec, Mojca; Golob, Terezija; Bertoncelj, Jasna; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Seljak, Barbara Koroušić

    2013-10-01

    The preliminary Slovenian food composition database was created in 2003, through the application of the Data management and Alimenta nutritional software. In the subsequent projects, data on the composition of meat and meat products of Slovenian origin were gathered from analyses, and low-quality data of the preliminary database were discarded. The first volume of the Slovenian food composition database was published in 2006, in both electronic and paper versions. When Slovenia joined the EuroFIR NoE, the LanguaL indexing system was adopted. The Optijed nutritional software was developed, and later upgraded to the OPEN platform. This platform serves as an electronic database that currently comprises 620 foods, and as the Slovenian node in the EuroFIR virtual information platform. With the assimilation of the data on the compositions of foods of plant origin obtained within the latest project, the Slovenian database provides a good source for food compositional values of consistent and compatible quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food composition activities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, Petro; Chetty, Joelaine; Danster-Christians, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council used the Bangkok Declaration, Thailand, 2009, as a guideline for their food composition activities. The vision is to build a comprehensive food composition database for the country. Activities are directed at increasing the number of food items with country-specific nutrient information; encouraging research organisations, universities and the food industry to become involved in nutrient data generation and the generation of yield factors for South African dishes. The introduction of the South African Food Data System (SAFOODS) website and a symposium were major food composition activities. Educating users on the correct application of food composition data is an important endeavour. The national South African Food Data Advisory Group (SAFDAG) formed in 2008, advises and supports food composition activities at SAFOODS. In conclusion, with the support of SAFDAG, SAFOODS activities are aimed at compiling a country-specific food composition database and promoting its scientific use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New nutritional data on traditional foods for European food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, H S; Vasilopoulou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Finglas, P

    2010-11-01

    There are many different cultures within Europe, each with its own distinct dietary habits. Traditional foods are the key elements that differentiate the dietary patterns of each country. Unfortunately, in most countries, there is little information on the nutritional composition of such foods. Therefore, there is a need to study traditional foods to preserve these elements of European culture and, if possible, enrich and improve dietary habits across the continent. The Traditional Foods work package within the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) project aimed to provide new nutritional data on traditional foods for use in national food composition tables. A EuroFIR consensus-based method with standardised procedures was applied for the systematic study of traditional foods and recipes in selected European countries. Traditional foods were selected on the basis of the EuroFIR definition of the term 'traditional food' and prioritized according to specific criteria. From the prioritized list, the five traditional foods per country to be investigated were selected to represent a full course meal. Protocols with guidelines for the recording of traditional recipes, the collection, preparation and distribution of laboratory samples, as well as quality requirements for laboratory selection, were developed to establish a common approach for use by all countries for the acquisition of reliable data. The traditional character of the selected foods has been documented and traditional recipes have been recorded. Chemical analyses to determine the nutritional composition of 55 traditional foods were performed and the data were evaluated and fully documented according to EuroFIR standards. Information on food description, the recipe, component identification, sampling plan, sample handling, analytical method and performance was collected for each of the 55 investigated traditional foods. This common methodology for the systematic study of traditional foods will enable

  4. Bioactivity and phenolic composition from natural fermented table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Mendes, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Nuno; Bento, Albino; PEREIRA, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twentyfour samples of naturally fermented table olives from the northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolic composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol being the most abundant. Total phenolic content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 μg mg−1 of extract. The IC50 values from the an...

  5. Review of food composition data for edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Persijn, Diedelinde; Rittenschober, Doris; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Edible insects are considered rich in protein and a variety of micronutrients, and are therefore seen as potential contributors to food security. However, the estimation of the insects' contribution to the nutrient intake is limited since data are absent in food composition tables and databases. Therefore, FAO/INFOODS collected and published analytical data from primary sources with sufficient quality in the Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp). Data were compiled for 456 food entries on insects in different developmental stages. A total of 5734 data points were entered, most on minerals and trace elements (34.8%), proximates (24.5%), amino acids (15.3%) and (pro)vitamins (9.1%). Data analysis of Tenebrio molitor confirms its nutritive quality that can help to combat malnutrition. The collection of data will assist compilers to incorporate more insects into tables and databases, and to further improve nutrient intake estimations. Copyright © 2015 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  7. Importance of food composition data to nutrition and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, I; Meyer, A L

    2010-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is one of the pillars of public health. Before developing and implementing effective intervention programmes to improve nutrition at the population level, it is important to know the nutritional situation of the target group. The estimation of nutrient intake from food consumption requires reliable data on food composition. These data are also the fundamentals of food-based dietary guidelines for healthy nutrition, containing the necessary information on food sources for different nutrients. Furthermore, food composition tables can provide information on chemical forms of nutrients and the presence and amounts of interacting components, and thus provide information on their bioavailability. For some nutrients such as vitamin A, vitamin E and niacin, the concept of equivalence has been introduced to account for differences in the availability and biological activity of different chemical forms. NON-NUTRITIVE FOOD COMPONENTS: Although most food composition tables focus on energy, macro- and micronutrients, interest in non-nutritive components is increasing. Considering the beneficial effects of biologically active secondary plant cell compounds such as polyphenols and carotenoids, more data on these are needed. On the other hand, there are a number of naturally occurring or 'man-made' non-nutritive substances with negative effects, and to control exposure, the main dietary sources must be known. Another aspect is contaminants, which could have detrimental effects on consumers' health. Among these are agrochemicals, industrial pollutants reaching the food chain and substances formed during food preparation. A valid risk assessment requires data on exposure, and thus on the contents of contaminants in foods. However, these data are highly variable and may significantly differ even within narrowly confined regions. CURRENT FOOD COMPOSITION DATABASES ARE FAR FROM COMPLETE: The fact that composition tables generally do not provide information about the

  8. Bioactivity and phenolic composition from natural fermented table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Mendes, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Nuno; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twenty-four samples of naturally fermented table olives from the northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolic composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol being the most abundant. Total phenolic content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 μg mg(-1) of extract. The IC50 values from the antioxidant activity methods tested varied between 0.30 and 1.66 mg mL(-1) for reducing power, and between 0.13 and 0.83 mg mL(-1) for DPPH. The results obtained in the antioxidant activity were extremely significantly correlated with the main phenolic compounds as well as with the total phenolic content. A principal component analysis allowed grouping the samples according to their phenolic composition and antioxidant potential. Table olive extracts were able to inhibit some pathogenic microorganisms, mainly Gram-positive bacteria. Higher antimicrobial inhibition was recorded in the extracts rich in phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant potential.

  9. Assigning glycemic index to foods in a recent Australian food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, J C Y; Barclay, A W; Brand-Miller, J C

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the compilation of a special edition of the AUSNUT2011-2013 food composition database that includes glycemic index (GI) values. A 6-step, systematic methodology was used to assign GI to 5644 foods included in AUSNUT2011-2013. A total of 1752 (31%) foods were assigned a GI of 0 owing to low carbohydrate content; 363 (6%) had a direct match in 1 of the 4 data tables used; 1738 (31%) were assigned the GI of a 'closely related' food item; 1526 (27%) were assigned the weighted mean GI of ingredients; 205 (4%) were assigned the median GI of their corresponding food subgroup; 49 (<1%) were assigned a GI of 0 because they were not a significant source of carbohydrate in typical diets; and 5 (<1%) were assigned a default GI. We propose that this database should be used for all future Australian GI research until a subsequent version/update is compiled.

  10. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  11. Influence of applying food composition table and foodstuff substitution method on nutritional status in patients with diabetic nephropathy undergoing peritoneal dialysis treatment%食物成分表及交换份法对糖尿病肾病腹膜透析患者营养状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 黄燕林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of applying food composition table and foodstuff substitution method on nutritional status in patients with diabetic nephropathy and undergoing peritoneal dialysis.Methods Forty patients with diabetic nephropathy,treated with peritoneal dialysis for over three months was included in this study.Under the guidance of the food composition table and foodstuff substitution method for six months,nutritional status was compared before and after treatment. Results There was a significant difference in HGS,triceps skin foId thickness(TSF),mid-arm circumference(MAC),midarm muscle circumference(MAMC),Hb,albumin(Alb),serum crcatinine after 6 mortths of intervention compared with those before intervention. Conclusions Food composition table and foodstuff substitution method can obviously impwve the nutritional status for patients with diabetic nephwpathy undergoing peritoneal dialysis and increase the patients'diet compliance as well.%目的 探讨食物成分表及交换份法对糖尿病肾病腹膜透析患者营养状况的影响.方法 选择40例糖尿病.肾病腹膜透析治疗超过3个月的患者,结合食物成分表及食物交换份法对其进行饮食管理,6个月后比较干预前后患者营养状况.结果 干预后人体测量学指标握力、皮下脂肪厚度、上臂中点围、上臂肌围与干预前相比,差异显著;患者血红蛋白、血清白蛋白、血肌酐与干预前比较,差异显著.结论 采用食物成分表及交换份法对糖尿病肾病腹膜透析患者实施健康教育后,能改善患者的营养状况,提高患者的饮食依从性.

  12. [Classification and the composition of food fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhanidze, I Z; Alasaniia, N Sh; Kontselidze, L A; Kharazi, N A; Bezhanidze, N V

    2009-06-01

    Fiber promotes the contractions that keep food moving through the intestine. Also, high-fiber foods expand the inside walls of the colon and eases the passage of waste. The food and fiber research was conducted. In the article, the classification and the composition of food fibers are presented. Multifunctional properties of food fiber in the process of digestion are discussed. The physiological value of food fibers for the human organism is stressed. Diets high in fiber during the entire life are recommended. If a person can't consume enough fiber in diet alone, certain stool softening and bulking agents are recommended. They can be very useful in preventing and treating digestive tract disorders. The analysis of high fiber food sources and world production and consumption of food fiber is also presented.

  13. On A Semi-Automatic Method for Generating Composition Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    Originating from Allen's Interval Algebra, composition-based reasoning has been widely acknowledged as the most popular reasoning technique in qualitative spatial and temporal reasoning. Given a qualitative calculus (i.e. a relation model), the first thing we should do is to establish its composition table (CT). In the past three decades, such work is usually done manually. This is undesirable and error-prone, given that the calculus may contain tens or hundreds of basic relations. Computing the correct CT has been identified by Tony Cohn as a challenge for computer scientists in 1995. This paper addresses this problem and introduces a semi-automatic method to compute the CT by randomly generating triples of elements. For several important qualitative calculi, our method can establish the correct CT in a reasonable short time. This is illustrated by applications to the Interval Algebra, the Region Connection Calculus RCC-8, the INDU calculus, and the Oriented Point Relation Algebras. Our method can also be us...

  14. Selection of a food classification system and a food composition database for future food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ireland, J.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J.; Charrondière, U.R.; Moller, A.; Smithers, G.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To harmonize food classification and food composition databases, allowing comparability of consumption at both food and nutrient levels in Europe. Design: To establish the level of comparability at the food level, the EFCOSUM group benefited from the work already carried out within other

  15. Selection of a food classification system and a food composition database for future food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ireland, J.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J.; Charrondière, U.R.; Moller, A.; Smithers, G.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To harmonize food classification and food composition databases, allowing comparability of consumption at both food and nutrient levels in Europe. Design: To establish the level of comparability at the food level, the EFCOSUM group benefited from the work already carried out within other

  16. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  17. Improving food composition data quality: Three new FAO/INFOODS guidelines on conversions, data evaluation and food matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrondiere, U Ruth; Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Haytowitz, David

    2016-02-15

    Food composition data play a key role in many sectors and the availability of quality data is critically important. Since 1984, the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has been working towards improving food composition data quality and availability, including the development and updating of standards, guidelines and tools for food composition. FAO/INFOODS has recently published three comprehensive guidelines to improve and harmonise the compilation of data: (1) Guidelines for Food Matching, (2) Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data prior to Publication of a User Table/Database, and (3) Guidelines for Converting Units, Denominators and Expressions. This article describes their content and development processes. Their adoption, along with additional ones planned for the future by FAO/INFOODS, should further improve the quality of published food composition data, which in turn can lead to more accurate nutrient intake estimates and more precise food labels, as well as better-targeted programs and policies. Copyright © 2015 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Securing food from field to table: what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Food security has emerged as one of the most pressing socio-economic and health issues of our time. While the formal processes of international and national governance are short-changing the need for action, an increasing number of professional science-based organisations are rallying to reduce the presence and risks of food insecurity. Examples are the Food in Health Security Network (FIHS) for the Asia Pacific region and the 'Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People’ initiative of the World Council on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health. The common denominator is the threat to ecosytems which are intrinsic to food and health systems. To increase their prospects for sustainability and health promotion, coordinated partnerships between agriculture and health as well as other sectors are imperative.

  19. Nutritional composition of common vegetarian food portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Menal-Puey

    Full Text Available Introduction: A vegan diet can meet nutritional requirements if it is well planned. In this sense, vegans should be advised to choose alternatives to animal products and to select the appropriate respective serving size of them. The nutritional value of traditional plant foods portions is well known, however, the vegetarian market offers other products whose chemical composition is less known, as they are not widely consumed by the population. It is necessary to know both, the nutrient content of portions of these foods, and bioavailability of these nutrients in plant food diets. Objectives: This work aims to refine the available information about the nutritional contribution to the diet of a healthy adult of the main common vegan foods portions. In addition, some points about bioavailability of the most relevant nutrients are discussed, and alternatives proposed to improve nutrient utilization. Methods: Composition data of common vegan foods per 100 g were searched from food composition database, and serving size nutrient composition was calculated. Nutritional data were compared to European dietary reference values for nutrient intakes for adult population, and bioavailability of the most important nutrients was discussed.

  20. Market Competition and the Health Composition of Manufactured Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Réquillart, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    There has been surprisingly little research to date on the supply-side role of food manufacturers on equilibrium health outcomes for consumers. In this letter we consider an oligopoly model in which food processors choose the health composition of manufactured food. We show that price competition between food processors leads to unhealthy food composition in the market equilibrium, even under circumstances in which consumers know food composition is unhealthy. Taxes on manufactured food decre...

  1. Capacity building in food composition for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette

    2013-10-01

    Capacity building in food and nutrition involves more than formal training and individual development. Such a process is long term and continues, requiring lasting mentorship, coaching and leadership development, including individual commitment to continued self-development. It expands to include the development of knowledge and skills of an individual within his/her organizational or institutional arrangements, and requires buy-in and support from his/her institution or organization, as well as other funding bodies involved in agriculture and health. It needs to be supported by government and be part of the regional and international agenda for agriculture and health. Under the auspices of International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS), an African Network of Food Data Systems (AFROFOODS) was established in September 1994, and a number of training courses, educational and scientific publications, posters, presentations and visits were hosted, organized and delivered with the aim to build enthusiasm, long term commitment and capacity in food composition within the AFROFOODS region. Formal training and human resource development were the major focus to take food composition forward in Africa. Significant progress was made in food composition activities, but constraints including lack of organizational and institutional commitment and financial support are straining the pace of progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Wwww of... - Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment...: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities As required in §§ 63.5800...

  3. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle C; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2016-08-05

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to "Back of Pack" data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss.

  4. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle C.; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A.; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to “Back of Pack” data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss. PMID:27527214

  5. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  6. Market Competition and the Health Composition of Manufactured Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F; Réquillart, Vincent

    2016-12-04

    There has been surprisingly little research to date on the supply-side role of food manufacturers on equilibrium health outcomes for consumers. In this letter we consider an oligopoly model in which food processors choose the health composition of manufactured food. We show that price competition between food processors leads to unhealthy food composition in the market equilibrium, even under circumstances in which consumers know food composition is unhealthy. Taxes on manufactured food decrease the healthiness of manufactured foods whenever improved consumer health increases the price elasticity of food demand. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...

  8. Calidad de los datos del contenido en ácido fólico en vegetales recogidos en varias tablas de composición de alimentos españolas, y nuevos datos sobre su contenido en folatos Quality of data on folic acid content in vegetables included in several spanish food composition tables and new data on their folate content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Olivares

    2006-02-01

    revised folic acid data in Spanish Food Composition Tables (FCT. The quality of the data was evaluated and compared with other well-known international Food Composition Tables as well as with a high-resolution liquid chromatographic method (HPLC validated in our laboratory. We evaluated all data about folate content, as well as all the information given like data origin, analytical method, sampling or original database. For the HPLC method, the food samples were incubated with hog kidney conjugase. After that, the samples were purified and concentrated by strong anion exchange (SAX, then the folate content was quantified by HPLC with a combination of two ultraviolet and fluorescence detectors. The evaluation and comparison of data was established according to some parameters, which define the quality of data, giving punctuation depending on the compliance with these parameters. The study of different sources showed that nutrients were different in definition, analysis method, units and expression of data, and that this fact could have a potential influence on TCA data values. In addition, it has been possible to show a wide variation in food number, name of these foods as well as the analysis of raw or cooked products with different composition. When the quality conditions were tested, the Spanish FCT had the lowest punctuation in folate content data. That is because the Spanish FCT did not use a validated method to quantify folic acid in foods (Direct method of FCT elaboration, but they used folate content data from others FCT (Indirect method of FCT elaboration. These data manifest the importance of getting a consensus method to determine folate content in foods with the aim to obtain a FCT with reliable folate data.

  9. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged.

  10. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Portuguese food composition database quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M; Castanheira, I P; Dantas, M A; Porto, A A; Calhau, M A

    2010-11-01

    The harmonisation of food composition databases (FCDB) has been a recognised need among users, producers and stakeholders of food composition data (FCD). To reach harmonisation of FCDBs among the national compiler partners, the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence set up a series of guidelines and quality requirements, together with recommendations to implement quality management systems (QMS) in FCDBs. The Portuguese National Institute of Health (INSA) is the national FCDB compiler in Portugal and is also a EuroFIR partner. INSA's QMS complies with ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardisation/International Electrotechnical Commission) 17025 requirements. The purpose of this work is to report on the strategy used and progress made for extending INSA's QMS to the Portuguese FCDB in alignment with EuroFIR guidelines. A stepwise approach was used to extend INSA's QMS to the Portuguese FCDB. The approach included selection of reference standards and guides and the collection of relevant quality documents directly or indirectly related to the compilation process; selection of the adequate quality requirements; assessment of adequacy and level of requirement implementation in the current INSA's QMS; implementation of the selected requirements; and EuroFIR's preassessment 'pilot' auditing. The strategy used to design and implement the extension of INSA's QMS to the Portuguese FCDB is reported in this paper. The QMS elements have been established by consensus. ISO/IEC 17025 management requirements (except 4.5) and 5.2 technical requirements, as well as all EuroFIR requirements (including technical guidelines, FCD compilation flowchart and standard operating procedures), have been selected for implementation. The results indicate that the quality management requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 in place in INSA fit the needs for document control, audits, contract review, non-conformity work and corrective actions, and users' (customers

  12. [Chemical composition, dietary fiber and mineral content of frequently consumed foods in northwest Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, M I; Caire, G; Sánchez, A; Valencia, M E

    1995-06-01

    Nutrient composition in foods is very important specially in evaluation of nutritional status in populations. In this study the proximate composition, dietary fiber (DF) and mineral content of 15 frequently consumed foods in Northwest Mexico were determined. The procedures used were AOAC (1984) official methods, chemical-enzymatic method for DF and atomic absorption spectrophometry for minerals. Foods were grouped into cereals, legumes, meat and dairy products, fat was the most variable component in all foods (0,41 to 21,1 g/100 g). Fired beans (Phaseolus vulgaris: variedad pinto) had the highest DF content (9,21 g/100g); as is basis). Sodium among the minerales was also highly variable mainly due to the addition of salt during preparation of foods, except in corn tortillas were salt is not added. In contrast wheat flour tortillas had the highest sodium content of the foods analysed. Fresh white cheese had the highest calcium content (563 mg/100g). The meat group had the highest content of Fe and Zn (2,4-5,4 and 4,2-5,4 mg/100 g respectively). This study has provided information with current analytical techniques of important foods in northwest Mexico that will contribute to food composition tables in Latin America.

  13. Governance of the table: Regulation of food and eating practices in residential care for young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Deirdre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how food and eating practices are governed in residential care for young people and who or what governs the table in residential care centres. The governance of everyday food and eating practices in residential care is multifaceted and conducted on multiple levels by external and internal authority and regulation. This paper draws on Coveney’s 2008 theory on ‘the government of the table’ that builds on the Foucauldian perspective of governmentality to explore the interplay between internal and external regulation, which in turn highlights the tensions between institutional and homely aspects of residential care. The approach taken involves an exploratory, sequential mixed-methods design of focused ethnography in five centres, a survey of ninety-two social care practitioners working in the field and a review of Health Information and Quality Authority inspection reports.

  14. Anthropometric Characteristics, Body Composition and Somatotype of 9-12 Years Old Table Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Behdari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of top-level male table tennis players, to compare the first 12 top-level table tennis players with the lower ranked players, and to establish profile chart for total of 112 top-level table tennis players. A total of 112 top-level table tennis players, aged between 9 and 12 years participated in this study. The athletes were divided into three groups, the first 12 (Group A, n=12 and the lower ranked players (Group B, n=47 and (Group C, n=53. In the analysis and comment of the data, One Way Variance Analysis (ANOVA Test were used. There were no significant differences in anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype among the groups. A mesomorph – endomorph somatotype was registered for total of 112 top-level table tennis players. But analysis, taking into account, revealed a balanced ectomorph somatotype for the first 12 players, and a mesomorph - ectomorph somatotype for B group and a mesomorph - endomorph somatotype for C group. Although the influence of anthropometric characteristics on table tennis performance is not clear yet, it seems obvious that a mesomorph - ectomorph predominance can play a decisive role in any sport, On the other hand, high levels of body fat could have a negative effect on sport performance. Regarding to somatotype assessment, balanced ectomorph was the most important component in the first 12 players. In the present study, a greater body fat mass were observed lower ranked players than first 12 players

  15. Recent achievements in food composition information of traditional foods from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, H. S.; Sanches-Silva, A.; Albuquerque, T.G.; Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E.; D'Antuono, L.F.; P. Finglas

    2013-01-01

    Comunicação oral a convite. Objectives: A trend towards the rediscovering of traditional foods has emerged as a reaction to the impact of globalization, in order to protect and maintain the diversity of regional food and agricultural traditions. Research in food composition, particularly traditional foods, is essential to understand their implications in human health and trace recommendations for an improved diet. One of the aims within EuroFIR (European Food Information Resource) and BaSe...

  16. FODMAPs: food composition, defining cutoff values and international application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Jane; Barrett, Jacqueline; Scarlata, Kate; Catsos, Patsy; Gibson, Peter R; Muir, Jane G

    2017-03-01

    The low-FODMAP diet is a new dietary therapy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome that is gaining in popularity around the world. Developing the low-FODMAP diet required not only extensive food composition data but also the establishment of "cutoff values" to classify foods as low-FODMAP. These cutoff values relate to each particular FODMAP present in a food, including oligosaccharides (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols (mannitol and sorbitol), lactose, and fructose in excess of glucose. Cutoff values were derived by considering the FODMAP levels in typical serving sizes of foods that commonly trigger symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome, as well as foods that were generally well tolerated. The reliability of these FODMAP cutoff values has been tested in a number of dietary studies. The development of the techniques to quantify the FODMAP content of foods has greatly advanced our understanding of food composition. FODMAP composition is affected by food processing techniques and ingredient selection. In the USA, the use of high-fructose corn syrups may contribute to the higher FODMAP levels detected (via excess fructose) in some processed foods. Because food processing techniques and ingredients can vary between countries, more comprehensive food composition data are needed for this diet to be more easily implemented internationally. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  18. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  19. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kovalskys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  20. Development of Ultra-Light Composite Material to Build the Platform of a Shaking Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botero-Jaramillo Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developments of the last decades in the area of ultra-light materials, their application in the construction of the platform of the new one direction hydrau- lic shaking table was proposed, with capacity of one ton and frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 4.0 Hz for the Geotechnical Laboratory of the Institute of Engineering, UNAM. The aim was to replace the heavy conventional steel platforms, used in shaking tables, by a composite material based on wood and Kevlar, hence reducing its weight and optimizing the hydraulic equipment capacity available in the labora- tory. Accordingly, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the stress-strain behavior of composite materials under monotonically increasing load. This research involved the determination of the adequate proportions of the different constituent materials and manufacturing techniques that best suit the needs and available resources.

  1. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  2. A novel processed food classification system applied to Australian food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, S A; Lacy, K E; Grimes, C A; Woods, J; Campbell, K J; Nowson, C A

    2017-08-01

    The extent of food processing can affect the nutritional quality of foodstuffs. Categorising foods by the level of processing emphasises the differences in nutritional quality between foods within the same food group and is likely useful for determining dietary processed food consumption. The present study aimed to categorise foods within Australian food composition databases according to the level of food processing using a processed food classification system, as well as assess the variation in the levels of processing within food groups. A processed foods classification system was applied to food and beverage items contained within Australian Food and Nutrient (AUSNUT) 2007 (n = 3874) and AUSNUT 2011-13 (n = 5740). The proportion of Minimally Processed (MP), Processed Culinary Ingredients (PCI) Processed (P) and Ultra Processed (ULP) by AUSNUT food group and the overall proportion of the four processed food categories across AUSNUT 2007 and AUSNUT 2011-13 were calculated. Across the food composition databases, the overall proportions of foods classified as MP, PCI, P and ULP were 27%, 3%, 26% and 44% for AUSNUT 2007 and 38%, 2%, 24% and 36% for AUSNUT 2011-13. Although there was wide variation in the classifications of food processing within the food groups, approximately one-third of foodstuffs were classified as ULP food items across both the 2007 and 2011-13 AUSNUT databases. This Australian processed food classification system will allow researchers to easily quantify the contribution of processed foods within the Australian food supply to assist in assessing the nutritional quality of the dietary intake of population groups. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards.

  4. Progress with a global branded food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Excess energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt from processed and fast foods are a major cause of chronic disease worldwide. In 2010 The Food Monitoring Group established a global branded food composition database to track the nutritional content of foods and make comparisons between countries, food companies and over time. A protocol for the project was agreed and published in 2011 with 24 collaborating countries. Standardised tools and a website have been developed to facilitate data collection and entry. In 2010 data were obtained from nine countries, in 2011 from 12 and in 2012 data are anticipated from 10 additional countries. This collaborative approach to the collation of food composition data offers potential for cross-border collaboration and support in developed and developing countries. The project should contribute significantly to tracking progress of the food industry and governments towards commitments made at the recent UN high level meeting on chronic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Analysis of dietary iron intakes of pregnant and lactating women based on food composition databases from China and US].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Zhixu; Song, Chenglin; Zhang, Man; Li, Xiaocheng

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the difference between estimations on dietary iron intake based on the China and US food composition databases. Total 368 records of 24-h dietary recall on mid-term pregnant women and lactating rural women were analyzed for their iron intakes with the China Food Composition Table 2002 and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference release 25, respectively. The values of dietary iron intake derived from two composition databases were compared statistically. The dietary iron intakes of total 368 dietary records estimated with China and US databases were (24.37 +/- 9.66) mg and (16.20 +/- 9.13) mg respectively (with paired t test, t = 20.081, P food classification, the most significant differences were with dairy products, fishes, fruits, meats and cereals, with ratios of (10.66 +/- 2.24), (5.10 +/- 5.51), (3.01 +/- 2.26), (3.01 +/- 7.85) and (2.33 +/- 0.77), respectively. Only iron intake values from tuberous crops and soy products had inverse ratio as (0.83 +/- 0.50) and (0.75 +/- 0.53). The averaged dietary iron intake value for total records was very close to the reported national levels when estimated with the China Food Composition Table 2002, but much decreased when estimated with US food composition database with values as only approximately 66% of reported levels.

  6. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  7. Mineral composition of commonly consumed ethnic foods in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Santosh; Garduño-Diaz, Sara D.; Marletta, Luisa; Shahar, Danit R.; Ireland, Jane D.; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; de Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnic foods are an integral part of food consumption in Europe contributing towards the overall nutrient intake of the population. Food composition data on these foods are crucial for assessing nutrient intake, providing dietary advice and preventing diseases. Objective To analyse selected minerals in authentic and modified ethnic foods commonly consumed in seven EU member states and Israel. Design A list of ethnic foods commonly consumed in selected European countries was generated, primary samples collected and composite sample prepared for each food, which were analysed for dietary minerals at accredited laboratories. Methods for sampling, analysis, data scrutiny and documentation were based on harmonised procedures. Results New data on 128 ethnic foods were generated for inclusion in the national databases of seven EU countries and Israel within the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR), an EU Network of Excellence. The Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and I contents of 39 foods is presented for the first time in this study. Conclusion The data will serve as an important tool in future national and international food consumption surveys, to target provision of dietary advice, facilitate implementation of policies and inform policymakers, health workers, food industry and researchers. PMID:22768018

  8. Mineral composition of commonly consumed ethnic foods in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Khokhar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic foods are an integral part of food consumption in Europe contributing towards the overall nutrient intake of the population. Food composition data on these foods are crucial for assessing nutrient intake, providing dietary advice and preventing diseases. Objective: To analyse selected minerals in authentic and modified ethnic foods commonly consumed in seven EU member states and Israel. Design: A list of ethnic foods commonly consumed in selected European countries was generated, primary samples collected and composite sample prepared for each food, which were analysed for dietary minerals at accredited laboratories. Methods for sampling, analysis, data scrutiny and documentation were based on harmonised procedures. Results: New data on 128 ethnic foods were generated for inclusion in the national databases of seven EU countries and Israel within the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR, an EU Network of Excellence. The Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and I contents of 39 foods is presented for the first time in this study. Conclusion: The data will serve as an important tool in future national and international food consumption surveys, to target provision of dietary advice, facilitate implementation of policies and inform policymakers, health workers, food industry and researchers.

  9. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  10. New food composition data on selected ethnic foods consumed in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, S; Marletta, L; Shahar, D R; Farre, R; Ireland, J D; Jansen-van der Vliet, M; De Henauw, S; Finglas, P

    2010-11-01

    Reliable data on the composition of foods is needed to better understand individual diets, measure nutrient intakes and provide nutritional guidance for improving the health of the populations. Ethnic foods are becoming increasingly popular among all European consumers, and are the main source of nutrients in the diets of ethnic groups. However, there is limited information on the nutrient composition of ethnic foods in Europe. The objective of this study therefore was to generate new and reliable data on ethnic foods using harmonised methods for chemical analyses. New data on 128 ethnic foods were generated for inclusion in the national databases within the European Food Information Resource Network of Excellence through participants from France, Israel, Spain, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom. In each selected country, the list of prioritized foods and key nutrients, methods of analyses and quality assurance procedure were harmonised. This paper presents the nutrient composition of 40 ethnic foods consumed in Europe. The nutrient composition of the foods varied widely because of the nature and variety of foods analysed, with energy content (kcal) ranging between 24 (biteku-teku, Blegium) and 495 (nachos, Italy) per 100 g of edible food. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were generally higher in most ethnic foods consumed in Italy and Spain compared with ethnic foods of other countries. The new data were scrutinised and fully documented for inclusion in the national food composition databases. The data will aid effective diet and disease interventions, and enhance the provision of dietary advice, in all European consumers.

  11. Updated folate data in the Dutch Food Composition Database and implications for intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient values are influenced by the analytical method used. Food folate measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or by microbiological assay (MA) yield different results, with in general higher results from MA than from HPLC. This leads to the question of how to deal with different analytical methods in compiling standardised and internationally comparable food composition databases? A recent inventory on folate in European food composition databases indicated that currently MA is more widely used than HPCL. Since older Dutch values are produced by HPLC and newer values by MA, analytical methods and procedures for compiling folate data in the Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO) were reconsidered and folate values were updated. This article describes the impact of this revision of folate values in the NEVO database as well as the expected impact on the folate intake assessment in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS). The folate values were revised by replacing HPLC with MA values from recent Dutch analyses. Previously MA folate values taken from foreign food composition tables had been recalculated to the HPLC level, assuming a 27% lower value from HPLC analyses. These recalculated values were replaced by the original MA values. Dutch HPLC and MA values were compared to each other. Folate intake was assessed for a subgroup within the DNFCS to estimate the impact of the update. In the updated NEVO database nearly all folate values were produced by MA or derived from MA values which resulted in an average increase of 24%. The median habitual folate intake in young children was increased by 11-15% using the updated folate values. The current approach for folate in NEVO resulted in more transparency in data production and documentation and higher comparability among European databases. Results of food consumption surveys are expected to show higher folate intakes when using the updated values.

  12. Updated folate data in the Dutch Food Composition Database and implications for intake estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Westenbrink

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Nutrient values are influenced by the analytical method used. Food folate measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC or by microbiological assay (MA yield different results, with in general higher results from MA than from HPLC. This leads to the question of how to deal with different analytical methods in compiling standardised and internationally comparable food composition databases? A recent inventory on folate in European food composition databases indicated that currently MA is more widely used than HPCL. Since older Dutch values are produced by HPLC and newer values by MA, analytical methods and procedures for compiling folate data in the Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO were reconsidered and folate values were updated. This article describes the impact of this revision of folate values in the NEVO database as well as the expected impact on the folate intake assessment in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS. Design: The folate values were revised by replacing HPLC with MA values from recent Dutch analyses. Previously MA folate values taken from foreign food composition tables had been recalculated to the HPLC level, assuming a 27% lower value from HPLC analyses. These recalculated values were replaced by the original MA values. Dutch HPLC and MA values were compared to each other. Folate intake was assessed for a subgroup within the DNFCS to estimate the impact of the update. Results: In the updated NEVO database nearly all folate values were produced by MA or derived from MA values which resulted in an average increase of 24%. The median habitual folate intake in young children was increased by 11–15% using the updated folate values. Conclusion: The current approach for folate in NEVO resulted in more transparency in data production and documentation and higher comparability among European databases. Results of food consumption surveys are expected to show higher folate intakes

  13. Assurance of Quality Data for Food Composition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, provides USDA’s Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference (SR), the foundation of most other food composition databases and includes information on about 130 components in approximately 7100 foods. Assessing the validit...

  14. Composition of pigments and colour changes in green table olives related to processing type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Eva; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Brownish colourations in Natural green table olives (non-treated with alkali) make this product less attractive to consumers than Spanish-style green table olives (treated with alkali), which develop a more appreciated bright golden-yellow colour. These colour differences were studied in relation to changes in the composition of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, as well as polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO) activity. Natural green olives showed a different chlorophyll profile than Spanish-style. However, all the chlorophyll pigments formed in both processing types were Mg-free derivatives (mostly pheophytins) with similar colourations, ranging from grey to green brownish. In the carotenoid fraction no appreciable differences were found between both processing types. The fruit's brownish colour was mainly due to polymeric substances with a size of >1000 daltons and polyphenolic nature, resulting from an enzymatic oxidation by PPO of the o-diphenolic compounds present in the fresh fruits.

  15. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Annabel K; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User's also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user's understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered.

  16. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel K Clancy

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11 and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User's also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user's understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered.

  17. Do we really know the composition of our foods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Martínez de Victoria Muñoz

    Full Text Available We are currently witnessing important changes in the feeding patterns of the world population, especially in developing countries. These changes are leading to higher incidence of overweight, obesity, and non-communicable chronic diseases. These changes are influenced by a series of factors regarding the food, the individual, and the environment, which determine the selection of foods to buy and consume. The knowledge of our foods, such as their composition and the technological and cooking processes, among others, is important given their impact on the nutritional status and health. One of the key steps in the decision of what foods we incorporate to our diet is the time spent for shopping. Therefore, it would be important to develop standardized and computerized systems for food classification that connected to databases of foods composition could bring real time information about nutrients and energy content, as well as other food components. The most developed system so far is LanguaL ("Langua aLimentaria". We should also be knowledgeable on how cooking modifies not only the orosensorial properties but also the nutritional and health aspects of foods. Nowadays it is almost essential to also be informed about the foods we consume out of our homes, such as in collective canteens or restaurants given the work and school timetables, as well as leisure time.

  18. FAO/INFOODS food composition database for biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth Charrondière, U; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Rittenschober, Doris; Mouille, Beatrice; Nilsson, Emma; Medhammar, Elinor; Olango, Temesgen; Eisenwagen, Sandra; Persijn, Diedelinde; Ebanks, Kristy; Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Burlingame, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Nutrient content can vary as much between different varieties of the same foods, as they do among different foods. Knowledge of varietal differences can therefore mean the difference between nutrient adequacy and inadequacy. The FAO/INFOODS food composition database for biodiversity has been developed with analytical data for foods described at the level of variety, cultivar and breed, and for underutilized and wild foods. It contains 6411 food entries and values for 451 components together with the bibliographic references and other information. The database is in MS Excel format and can be downloaded free-of-charge from the INFOODS website http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. It is intended to annually publish new editions, making these data available for national and regional food composition databases. This database could be used to raise the awareness, promote and investigate food biodiversity and help to better estimate nutrient intakes. Copyright © 2012 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. FoodCASE: A system to manage food composition, consumption and TDS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Karl; Weber, David; Norrie, Moira

    2018-01-01

    Food and nutrition scientists, nowadays, need to manage an increasing amount of data regarding food composition, food consumption and Total Diet Studies (TDS). The corresponding datasets can contain information about several thousand different foods, in different versions from different studies. FoodCASE is a system that has been developed to manage these different datasets. It also support flexible means of linking between datasets and generally provide support for the different processes involved in the acquisition, management and processing of data. In this paper, the most important concepts to implement existing guidelines and standards for proper food data management are presented, as well as different use cases of data import and proofs of concepts demonstrating the ability to manage data in FoodCASE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a European food composition data interchange platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Simone; Pakkala, Heikki; Finglas, Michael Paul

    2012-06-01

    Food composition data (FCD) comprises the description and identification of foods, as well as their nutrient content, other constituents, and food properties. FCD are required for a range of purposes including food labeling, supporting health claims, nutritional and clinical management, consumer information, and research. There have been differences within and beyond Europe in the way FCD are expressed with respect to food description, definition of nutrients and other food properties, and the methods used to generate data. One of the major goals of the EuroFIR NoE project (2005 - 10) was to provide tools to overcome existing differences among member states and parties with respect to documentation and interchange of FCD. The establishment of the CEN’s (European Committee for Standardisation) TC 387 project committee on Food Composition Data, led by the Swedish Standards Institute, and the preparation of the draft Food Data Standard, has addressed these deficiencies by enabling unambiguous identification and description of FCD and their quality, for dissemination and data interchange. Another major achievement of the EuroFIR NoE project was the development and dissemination of a single, authoritative source of FCD in Europe enabling the interchange and update of data between countries, and also giving access to users of FCD.

  1. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  2. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  3. The material histories of food quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    This article argues for material histories of food. In recent decades food historians have tended to emphasize the cultural factors in consumption, in addition to the already well-established social, political and economic perspectives, but what is still missing is the stuff in foodstuffs. With reference in particular to milk and wine, the suggestion here is that physical and chemical composition is a major influence in what we might call the biographies of particular items of food and drink. Product characteristics are rarely static for long and today's mass-produced bread is different from that of the past, but then so are the flour, the yeast, and the even the butter that is spread on it. Adulteration was a particularly interesting aspect of composition in the nineteenth century and was the key to the emergence of two different traditions of understanding and valuing food quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedagogies That Explore Food Practices: Resetting the Table for Improved Eco-Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carol E.; Barter, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    As health threats appear with increasing regularity in our food systems and other food crises loom worldwide, we look to rural areas to provide local and nutritious foods. Educationally, we seek approaches to food studies that engage students and their communities and, ultimately, lead to positive action. Yet food studies receive only generic…

  5. Chemical composition and food uses of teff (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2018-01-15

    Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a cereal native to Ethiopia and Eritrea. It has an excellent adaptability to harsh environmental conditions and plays an important role in food security. In recent years, teff is becoming globally popular due to the attractive nutritional profile such as gluten free and high dietary fiber content. This review documents the recent advances in the genetic diversity, nutritional composition and food uses of teff grain. The attractive nutrients of teff include protein, dietary fiber, polyphenols, and certain minerals. Whole grain teff flour becomes increasingly important in healthy food market, and has been used to produce various gluten free food items such as pasta and bread. Efforts have been made to enhance the sensory quality of teff based products. There is great potential to adapt teff to the other parts of the world for healthy food and beverage production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Marie; Holasova, Marie; Maskova, Eva

    2013-10-01

    The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database (FCDB) was launched on http://www.czfcdb.cz in December 2010 as a main freely available channel for dissemination of Czech food composition data. The application is based on a complied FCDB documented according to the EuroFIR standardised procedure for full value documentation and indexing of foods by the LanguaL™ Thesaurus. A content management system was implemented for administration of the website and performing data export (comma-separated values or EuroFIR XML transport package formats) by a compiler. Reference/s are provided for each published value with linking to available freely accessible on-line sources of data (e.g. full texts, EuroFIR Document Repository, on-line national FCDBs). LanguaL™ codes are displayed within each food record as searchable keywords of the database. A photo (or a photo gallery) is used as a visual descriptor of a food item. The application is searchable on foods, components, food groups, alphabet and a multi-field advanced search. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. General method and thermodynamic tables for computation of equilibrium composition and temperature of chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Vearl N; Gordon, Sanford; Morrell, Virginia E

    1951-01-01

    A rapidly convergent successive approximation process is described that simultaneously determines both composition and temperature resulting from a chemical reaction. This method is suitable for use with any set of reactants over the complete range of mixture ratios as long as the products of reaction are ideal gases. An approximate treatment of limited amounts of liquids and solids is also included. This method is particularly suited to problems having a large number of products of reaction and to problems that require determination of such properties as specific heat or velocity of sound of a dissociating mixture. The method presented is applicable to a wide variety of problems that include (1) combustion at constant pressure or volume; and (2) isentropic expansion to an assigned pressure, temperature, or Mach number. Tables of thermodynamic functions needed with this method are included for 42 substances for convenience in numerical computations.

  8. Vitamin composition of ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ireland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin analyses are particularly important for estimating dietary intakes, determining nutritional status and regulating food labelling. Due to the increased popularity of ethnic foods, the vitamin composition of these foods is required to ensure that national food databases are up-to-date.Objectives: The key objective of this study was to generate new and reliable data on the contents of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A (all trans-retinol, D3 & E (α-tocopherol and those that are water-soluble (vitamins B6, B12, C, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin in ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe.Design: Thirty commonly-consumed ethnic foods in Europe (from Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, and the UK were analysed using harmonised methodologies for identification of representative foods, sampling, data scrutiny and documentation to generate reliable data. Analyses were carried out using International standard methods. Results: Certain vitamins were present in appreciable amounts: β-carotene in tayer leaves (7919µg/100g, thiamin in frik dry (0.24mg/100g, riboflavin in mbinzo worms (0.79mg/100g, and niacin in commercial soy patty (17.5mg/100g. However, retinol, pantothenic acid, vitamins D and B12 were below detectable levels in the majority of the foods analysed.Conclusions: The majority of the foods contained most of the water-soluble vitamins but lacked fat-soluble vitamins. However, these preliminary data represent only a small number of foods per country and so no conclusions about vitamin imbalances can be drawn. Additional data are required on a much wider range of commonly-consumed ethnic foods to make firm conclusions about adequacy of diets.

  9. Validation of a sampling plan to generate food composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammán, N C; Gimenez, M A; Bassett, N; Lobo, M O; Marcoleri, M E

    2016-02-15

    A methodology to develop systematic plans for food sampling was proposed. Long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil were selected to validate the methodology in Argentina. Fatty acid profile in all foods, proximal composition, and calcium's content in milk were determined with AOAC methods. The number of samples (n) was calculated applying Cochran's formula with variation coefficients ⩽12% and an estimate error (r) maximum permissible ⩽5% for calcium content in milks and unsaturated fatty acids in oil. n were 9, 11 and 21 for long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil respectively. Sample units were randomly collected from production sites and sent to labs. Calculated r with experimental data was ⩽10%, indicating high accuracy in the determination of analyte content of greater variability and reliability of the proposed sampling plan. The methodology is an adequate and useful tool to develop sampling plans for food composition analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of composition on physical properties of food powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an influence of raw material composition and technological process applied on selected physical properties of food powders. Powdered multi-component nutrients were subjected to the process of mixing, agglomeration, coating, and drying. Wetting liquids ie water and a 15% water lactose solution, were used in agglomeration and coating. The analyzed food powders were characterized by differentiated physical properties, including especially: particle size, bulk density, wettability, and dispersibility. The raw material composition of the studied nutrients exerted a statistically significant influence on their physical properties. Agglomeration as well as coating of food powders caused a significant increase in particle size, decreased bulk density, increased apparent density and porosity, and deterioration in flowability in comparison with non-agglomerated nutrients.

  11. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  12. Farm to Table and beyond: Helping Students Make Sense of the Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Pamela; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Contento, Isobel; Crabtree, Margo

    2008-01-01

    It is not enough for students to acquire knowledge about how food is produced and processed; they must also come to understand the biological and environmental contexts in which food production, processing, and transportation take place. Through diagramming, students begin to understand that our food system has a series of interacting parts and…

  13. Cholesterol analysis of Korean eat-out foods for national food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Farhana; Jeong, Beom-Gyun; Jung, Jiyoung; Quines, Venus; Chun, Jiyeon

    2017-06-01

    Information on cholesterol intake through restaurant meal is of high concern because of increasing eat-out population. Since nutrient labeling is not mandatory for restaurant food in Korea, cholesterol database on restaurant menu is unavailable. This study was performed to construct regional and national cholesterol database on primary Korean restaurant foods including 30 soup/stew, 24 rice dishes, and 27 noodles. From 2009 to 2012, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety collected total 5832 foods (81 food types ×6 regions ×12 restaurants) nationwide and then 486 composites representing food types and regions were prepared for cholesterol analysis. Cholesterol contents of 486 composite samples were highly affected by recipe, food type, seasonality of ingredients, and geographical location, showing the range of 1.1-143.0, 1.5-85.1, and 0.4-62.2 mg/100 g for soup/stew, rice dishes, and noodles, respectively. The highest cholesterol value was observed in Al-tang (spicy fish roe soup) while Maemil-guksu (buckwheat noodle in beef stock) showed the lowest among all samples. Most foods contain relatively low cholesterol content, but the serving size and consumption frequency of dishes should be considered in order not to exceed the recommended daily intake limit (300 mg cholesterol). Saponification coupled with gas chromatography applied for cholesterol analysis was reliable based on accuracy (95% > recovery) and precision (repeatability foods, which can be utilized for assessments of cholesterol intake in the current Korean diet.

  14. Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Fred; Hemery, Youna; Price, Ruth; Anson, Nuria Mateo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades substantial attention has been given to the role of dietary fiber in health and disease, in particular diabetes, cardiovascular disease, intestinal health, and some types of cancer. As a result the food industry started to add back fiber to refined foods and develop fiber rich foods. Scientists suggested that whole grain foods are superior to foods enriched with fibers obtained/synthesized using enzyme treatment, and thermal or chemical processing because the content of bioactive components and micronutrients in whole grain is more abundant. This triggered interest in how to isolate the micronutrient rich aleurone fiber fraction from wheat. Aleurone is a single cell layer at the inner site of the bran. It contains most of the minerals, vitamins, phenolic antioxidants, and lignans of the wheat grain. Novel milling and dry-fractionation techniques have recently allowed for full-scale separation of aleurone cells from the other layers of wheat bran, yielding a fiber rich concentrate which potentially contains many of the "whole grain kernel bioactives," which recently have been used in a variety of studies. The present review highlights available data on aleurone isolation, composition, intestinal physiology, and its metabolism and potential health benefits as well as its use in food.

  15. Can diet composition affect behaviour in dogs? : food for thought

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, G

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of food goes beyond the basic provision of energy and essential nutrients for the maintenance of physical health. Studies in rats, pigs, and human subjects have shown that behaviour and mood can be influenced by specific nutrients consumed. The research described in this thesis aimed to evaluate the impact of dietary composition on two physiological systems involved in the regulation of canine behaviour. In other studies it has been shown that physical activity of pigs can be ...

  16. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul J.M.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Design: Weighed food records and

  17. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered.

  18. The use of summary statistics for sample size allocation for food composition surveys and an application to the potato group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Yasui, Akemi

    2011-11-01

    To give a quantitative guide to sample size allocation for developing sampling designs for a food composition survey, we discuss sampling strategies that consider the importance of each food; namely, consumption or production, variability of composition, and the restrictions within the available resources for sample collection and analysis are considered., Here we consider two strategies: 'proportional' and 'Neyman' are discussed. Both of these incorporate consumed quantity of foods, and we review some available statistics for allocation issues. The Neyman optimal strategy allocates less sample size for starch than proportional, because the former incorporates variability in the composition. Those strategies improved accuracy in dietary nutrient intake more than equal sample size allocation. Those strategies will be useful as we often face sample size allocation problems, wherein we decide whether to sample 'five white potatoes and five taros or nine white and one taros'. Allocating sufficient sample size for important foodstuffs is essential in assuring data quality. Nevertheless, the food composition table should be as comprehensive as possible.

  19. COMPOSITION OF THE CLUSTERS ANDBIOCHEMISTRY OF FLORA, NIZINA AND ANYUTA TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of the mechanical composition of clusters, the chemical composition of grape juice and fresh grapes and wine tasting evaluation of three varieties of table. We have identified the following uvologic indicators of clusters of cultivars Flora, Nisina and Anyuta: structure - 90.0; 91.5; 87.3; addition - 8.0; 6.6; 10.8; structural - 6.4; 5.4; 8.1; berries - 17.6; 15.0; 10.4. In the studied berries of grape varieties the mass concentrations of sugars and titratable acids were in the range 18,1-23,5 and 0,73-0,78 g/100 cm3 respectively. The combination of sweetness and acidity causes high taste properties of grapes. In grape berries of Flora and Nizina the concentration of fructose was two times more than glucose. Differences in the content wine, malic, lemon and succinic acids in berries varieties of Flora and Nizina were insignificant. In the berries of Anyuta variety, the concentration of lemon and succinic acids was more, malic was less than other varieties. Most of the studied varieties of berries contain malic and wine acids. More of cations of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium then in other varieties and it contain less than Anyuta berries. The difference in the content of various cations in the berries of varieties of Flora and Nizina is negligible. Tasting score of fresh grape of Flora variety was 7.0, Nisina - 7.8 and Aniyta - 7.6 points

  20. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutch, Bente [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)], E-mail: bd@mil.au.dk; Dyerberg, Jorn [Capio Diagnostic, a.s., Nygaardsvej 32, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Centre of Primary Health Care, Box 1001, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Aschlund, Ejner; Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2007-10-01

    Objectives: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probably increase their frequency of these diseases. However, since the 1970s it has become evident that the marine-based Inuit diet also contains high levels of potentially toxic lipophilic organic pollutants and heavy metals. Since these two food related opposing health effects appear to be inseparable, the phenomenon has been known as 'The Arctic Dilemma'. However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional and modern meals in Greenland concerning the dietary composition, nutrients, and health indicators among the consumers. Study design: The present study was a cross-sectional dietary survey as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment, Human Health Programme (AMAP). These results were compared with older dietary surveys in Greenland. Methods: Dietary components, fatty acids, and nutrients in 90 local meals collected by duplicate portion method in Uummannaq town, north Greenland 2004 and in Narsaq, south Greenland 2006, were compared with 177 duplicate meals sampled in the village of Igdslorsuit, Uummannaq, district, 1976 and also compared with other dietary studies in Greenland 1953-1987. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, and body mass index, BMI) and blood lipids were measured as health indicators among the participants. Results: Between the traditional foods sampled or analysed 30-50 years ago and the modern food from 2004 to 2006, significant differences were found in the dietary composition. The percentage of local food had decreased, to a present

  1. Pectin content and composition from different food waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Bruggeman, Geert; Bosch, Montse; Petrusan, Janos; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, 26 food waste streams were selected according to their exploitation potential and investigated in terms of pectin content. The isolated pectin, subdivided into calcium bound and alkaline extractable pectin, was fully characterized in terms of uronic acid and other sugar composition, methylation and acetylation degree. It was shown that many waste streams can be a valuable source of pectin, but also that pectin structures present a huge structural diversity, resulting in a broad range of pectin structures. These can have different physicochemical and biological properties, which are useful in a wide range of applications. Even if the data could not cover all the possible batch by batch and country variabilities, to date this represents the most complete pectin characterization from food waste streams ever reported in the literature with a homogeneous methodology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars (‘Toyoshiro’, ‘Kitahime’, ‘Snowden’ and ‘Poroshiri’ were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  3. The relevance of food composition data for nutrition surveys in rural Tibet: pilot study in the context of Kashin-Beck Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermience, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease (KBD is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy. This disease principally occurs in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People's Republic of China. The etiology of the disease remains obscure although environmental factors are assumed to be involved. Diet, in particular, differentiates the rural community, affected by KBD, from the other communities (nomads and city-dwellers, who remain unaffected. In anticipation of a nutrition survey, this study aimed to measure the mineral content (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Al, Sr, Mo, Cd, As, Pb, Hg, Cr, and Co of eight Tibetan staple foods and to compare the results against two food composition tables (FCTs. Foods were sampled in twenty households selected from both an endemic and a non-endemic area of rural Tibet. Ten minerals involved in bone metabolism were measured using atomic and molecular spectrometric methods. Results revealed that a very limited number of food/constituent pairs showed a variation in mineral composition during a single year of testing for a given region. In addition, results showed significant differences in mineral content between the endemic and the non-endemic area, especially for wheat flour. Following our analysis of the mineral content of the Tibetan food samples, results were statistically compared with similar foods listed in two food composition tables: the USDA National Nutrient Database (USDA Food Search for Windows, Version 1.0, database version SR23, and the China Food Composition Table (book 1, 2nd edition. More than 50 to 60% of p-values < 0.05 were highlighted, suggesting the inappropriateness of using FCTs as a reference for nutrition surveys in rural Tibet, and emphasizing the need for analysis of traditional foods. Differences were found to be more or less marked depending on the element considered, and calcium content seemed to show the greatest difference. Although it is obviously too early for definite

  4. Separate Tables: Segregation, Gentrification, and the Commons in Birmingham, Alabama's Alternative Food and Agriculture Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Henson, Zachary Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Birmingham, Alabama has a long history of racial conflict and segregation. This dissertation investigates that how that history has shaped space in the region and the consequences of that spatial production on the current alternative food and agriculture movement. Specifically, I analyze three processes that produce Birmingham's racialized space - capital accumulation, racialization, and commoning. I first look at how Birmingham's segregated space shapes the initiatives of the alternative ...

  5. Cultural difference on the table: food and drink and their role in multicultural team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Means, A.; MacKenzie Davey, Kate; Dewe, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Multicultural teams are increasingly common and provide a challenge to achieving the integration associated with greater effectiveness. The vague and abstract nature of many definitions of culture can make the difficulties in acknowledging and addressing difference challenging. This longitudinal study of a multicultural team follows the anthropological roots of cultural studies to focus on the material role of food and drink in team development. In an empirical, ethnographically oriented stud...

  6. Nutrition Labeling and Portion Size Information on Children's Menus in Fast-Food and Table-Service Chain Restaurants in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Wake, Yvonne; Zick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Methods: Children's menus were assessed…

  7. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  8. Composição centesimal e valor calórico de alimentos de origem animal Proximate food composition and caloric value of foods from animal origen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A.F.S TORRES

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre composição de alimentos são importantes para inúmeras atividades, porém são escassos ou inexistentes em nosso país. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o valor calórico dos alimentos de origem animal comumente usados na dieta: carne, leite e ovos a fim de compará-los com os dados das tabelas de composição centesimal mais utilizadas por profissionais da área. Observou-se que de um modo geral, ocorrem variações entre os valores das tabelas consultadas e os analisados, sendo estes menores para ovos, seguidos de laticínios, carnes suínas, carnes bovinas e aves. Salientamos portanto, a importãncia de obtenção dados sobre a composição de alimentos condizentes com diferenças regionais do Brasil, visto que a maioria das tabelas disponíveis são compilações de dados internacionais.Proximate food composition data are very important to any professionals of food science and human nutrition area. In Brazil they are rare or do not exist. The food composition of items, of animal origin, usually consumed in the diet: meat, milk e eggs, were analyzed in order to determine their caloric value. After that they were compared with the data in the Tables of Food Composition (TFC commonly used to our professionals. It was observed that there are smaller differences in the values obtained for eggs, than milk, pork, beef, chicken. Although significant difference was not detected between determined caloric values and the ones from TFC, these report should be considered to professionals that use the TFC.

  9. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  10. Reduction of the reversible circuits gate complexity without using the equivalent replacement tables for the gate compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zakablukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study of this paper is reversible logic circuits. The irreversibility of computation can lead in the future to significant energy loss during the calculation process. Reversible circuits can be widely used in devices operating under conditions of limited computational resources.Presently, the problem of reversible logic synthesis is widely studied. The task a synthesis algorithm can face with is to reduce the gate complexity of synthesized circuit. One way to solve this problem is to use equivalent replacement tables for the gate compositions. The disadvantage of this approach is that it is necessary to build replacement tables, it takes a long time to find the replacement in the table, and there is no way to build an appropriate universal replacement table for arbitrary reversible circuit. The aim of this paper is to develop the solution for the problem of gate complexity reduction for the reversible circuits without using equivalent replacement tables for the gate compositions.This paper makes a generalization of the k-CNOT gate for the case of zero value at some of the gate control inputs. To describe such gates it suggests using a set of direct control inputs and a set of inverted ones. A definition of the independence of two reversible gates is introduced. Two independent gates standing next to each other in the circuit can be swapped without changing the circuit result transformation. Various conditions of the independence of two reversible gates are considered including conditions imposed to the set of direct control inputs and the set of inverted ones. It is proved that two gates are independent if there is, at least, one common control input, which differs only by the type (direct or inverted.Various equivalent replacements of two k-CNOT gates compositions and its conditions imposed to the set of direct control inputs and to the set of inverted ones are considered. The proof of correctness for such replacements is

  11. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Albert

    Full Text Available Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort, and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  12. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial f...

  14. Table for two: The effects of familiarity, sex and gender on food choice in imaginary dining scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb-Smith, Amanda; Brindal, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Existing research suggests that eating behaviours may be used to modify self-presentation and that process may be different for women compared to men. We aimed to assess how people make different food choices in situations of varying self-presentation demand. Via an online survey, eligible participants (n = 216; 64% female: not on a restrictive diet or severely obese/underweight) were allocated to one of four experimental conditions manipulating the familiarity (close friend v acquaintance) and sex of an eating companion (same v opposite sex). All participants were asked to imagine they were eating out with one of the manipulated companions, and were presented with a menu and asked to order items. Menu choices were used to calculate the total kilojoules ordered, percentage of kilojoules from fats and number of low-fat options selected. To assess differences in impression management, participants completed the Paulhus Deception scale. Despite successful manipulation checks, analyses of covariance (controlling for levels of hunger) revealed no main or interaction effects for familiarity and sex composition for any of the menu choice outcomes assessed. Impression management scores differed for sex composition (main effect only) with participants who imagined dining with someone of the same gender (M = 2.05, SE = 0.90) having higher impression management scores than those imagining dining with an opposite sex companion (M = 1.27, SE = 0.83). We found preliminary support that gender composition could alter impression management demands but this did not translate to differences in food choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of the South African Food Composition Database, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FQM provides information on the weights of foods, measured with household .... in the fortification of food and the level of fortification may differ from country to country. ... inadequate intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc has been documented.

  16. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Discussion on the methodology for determining food waste in household waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2011-01-01

    Food waste has become an increasingly discussed topic in recent years. However, there is little authoritative data on food waste quantities and composition and systematic and comparable data are missing. Household waste composition analyses, which are often carried out routinely at regular or irregular intervals, provide an opportunity for obtaining data about food waste at both local and regional levels. The results of prior waste composition studies are not really comparable due to the different classifications, definitions and methods used; in addition, these are mostly insufficiently described and not reproducible by a third party. The aim of this paper is to discuss a methodology for determining the proportion of food waste in household waste composition studies, by analysing specific problems and possible solutions. For that purpose, findings from the literature are analysed and the approach and results of a composition analysis of residual waste of a stratified sample (urban, rural area) are presented. The study suggests that in order to avoid a significant loss of information, waste should not be sieved before sorting and packed food waste should be classified into the relevant food waste category together with its packaging. The case study showed that the overall influence of the proportion of food packaging included in the food waste category, which amounted to only 8%, did not significantly influence the results and can therefore be disregarded. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Composite Field Multiplier based on Look-Up Table for Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa W. Paryasto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a secure cryptosystem requires operations involving hundreds of bits. One of the most recommended algorithm is Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. The complexity of elliptic curve algorithms and parameters with hundreds of bits requires specific design and implementation strategy. The design architecture must be customized according to security requirement, available resources and parameter choices. In this work we propose the use of composite field to implement finite field multiplication for ECC implementation. We use 299-bit keylength represented in GF((21323 instead of in GF(2299. Composite field multiplier can be implemented using different multiplier for ground-field and for extension field. In this paper, LUT is used for multiplication in the ground-field and classic multiplieris used for the extension field multiplication. A generic architecture for the multiplier is presented. Implementation is done with VHDL with the target device Altera DE2. The work in this paper uses the simplest algorithm to confirm the idea that by dividing field into composite, use different multiplier for base and extension field would give better trade-off for time and area. This work will be the beginning of our more advanced further research that implements composite-field using Mastrovito Hybrid, KOA and LUT.

  19. Glycaemic index values in the Finnish food composition database: an approach to standardised value documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, N E; Similä, M E; Pakkala, H; Korhonen, T; Männistö, S; Valsta, L M

    2010-11-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is used to describe the blood glucose-raising potential of carbohydrate-containing foods. Only a few descriptions of the addition of GI values to national food composition databases (FCDBs) exist. We tested whether the value documentation framework established within the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network could be used for GI values when adding them to the Finnish FCDB. The list of foods requiring GI values was based on the National FINDIET 2007 Survey data and extended with foods encoded in a food-frequency questionnaire used in other nationally representative studies. The minimum quality of GI measurements was verified when gathering values from various sources, using earlier defined criteria. If a measured GI value for a food was directly available, or could be imputed or estimated, the value was added to the Finnish FCDB and documented using core standard vocabularies of EuroFIR. The GI values of composite foods were calculated using recipe calculation software. A total of 2210 foods required a GI value. GI values for 1322 foods were available and added to the FCDB. The remaining 888 foods were composite foods and received a GI value through recipe calculation. The standard vocabularies describing the origin of the GI values, the methods used in their derivation and their qualitative characteristics were suitable for GI values. GI values can be added to FCDBs and documented using terms similar to those used for traditional food composition data. Standardised value documentation may provide transparency for GI database compilation processes.

  20. Copepod recruitment and food composition : Do diatoms affect hatching success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    was fed several different diets while egg production and hatching success were monitored. The diet was analysed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Both egg production and hatching were found to be affected by the nutritional quality of the food. Hatching was also highly dependent...

  1. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  2. FoodSwitch: A Mobile Phone App to Enable Consumers to Make Healthier Food Choices and Crowdsourcing of National Food Composition Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Trevena, Helen; Goodsell, Chester; Ng, Ka Hung; Webster, Jacqui; Millis, Audra; Goldstein, Stan; Hugueniot, Orla; Neal, Bruce

    2014-08-21

    Front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FoPL) schemes can help consumers understand the nutritional content of foods and may aid healthier food choices. However, most packaged foods in Australia carry no easily interpretable FoPL, and no standard FoPL system has yet been mandated. About two thirds of Australians now own a smartphone. We sought to develop a mobile phone app that would provide consumers with easy-to-understand nutrition information and support the selection of healthier choices when shopping for food. An existing branded food database including 17,000 Australian packaged foods underpinned the project. An iterative process of development, review, and testing was undertaken to define a user interface that could deliver nutritional information. A parallel process identified the best approach to rank foods based on nutritional content, so that healthier alternative products could be recommended. Barcode scanning technology was identified as the optimal mechanism for interaction of the mobile phone with the food database. Traffic light labels were chosen as the preferred format for presenting nutritional information, and the Food Standards Australia New Zealand nutrient profiling method as the best strategy for identifying healthier products. The resulting FoodSwitch mobile phone app was launched in Australia in January 2012 and was downloaded by about 400,000 users in the first 18 months. FoodSwitch has maintained a 4-plus star rating, and more than 2000 users have provided feedback about the functionality. Nutritional information for more than 30,000 additional products has been obtained from users through a crowdsourcing function integrated within the app. FoodSwitch has empowered Australian consumers seeking to make better food choices. In parallel, the huge volume of crowdsourced data has provided a novel means for low-cost, real-time tracking of the nutritional composition of Australian foods. There appears to be significant opportunity for this approach

  3. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates.

  4. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF DANDELIONS AND ITS POTENTIAL AS HUMAN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two thirds of the world’s populations are suffering from protein malnutrition and about 36 million people die every year due to hunger. Expansion of present agriculture practices into marginal land is not expected to solve the problem of increasing the food supply. New methods of feeding the ever increasing world population must be developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the dandelion leaves as a source of supplemental protein. Protein was extracted from the dandelion leaves by blending them after pH and moisture adjustment, squeezing the resultant pulp through filter press and coagulating the filtrate with acid and heat. The effects of pH, moisture content, pressure and temperature on the ex-tractability and quality of protein were investigated. A mass balance was performed on dry matter and protein contents during the extraction steps. Proximate analysis was performed on the extracted leaf protein and the amino acid profile of the protein curd was determined. The best results of the protein dissolution during the blending step were obtained at pH of 8.25 and moisture content of 96%. Firm protein curd with light green chalky color was obtained at 3.5 pH and 80°C. The protein content of dandelion leaves was 4.70% while the protein content of the curd was 15.93% on wet basis and 55.43% on a dry basis. The best leaf protein could be obtained from the young leaves in good conditions. The results showed that dandelion leaves offer a good source of supplementary protein compared to vegetable and fruits. The amino acid composition of dandelion protein seems to be better than most seed proteins and compares favorably with animal proteins. The protein cake at a pH of 4 had the keeping quality of cheese. Drying the protein cake did not impair the nutritional value but made it hard, dry and gritty. The non extractable protein remained in the fibre and liquor, both have economic values as feed for ruminants and growth

  5. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Harmonised procedures for producing new data on the nutritional composition of ethnic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokhar, S.; Gilbert, P.A.; Moyle, C.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition databases provide important data that can be used in a variety of ways to improve the nutritional quality of food and the health of the populations. The multicultural nature of European populations, together with increased travel and the globalisation of the food supply, has led...... composition databases. To achieve this goal, specific standards and mechanisms were developed to sample and analyse foods to harmonise procedures. Given the anticipated usage of the data it was essential that they were representative of the foods consumed in the country or region and that proper sampling...... procedures of the foods were employed. The most important nutrients were prioritised and analysed by selected accredited laboratories. The analytical methods selected were appropriate to fulfil the requirements of the resulting data. Quality assurance measures (ISO 17025, CRMs, IQC) were in place...

  7. Composition of key offensive odorants released from fresh food materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    A refrigerator loaded with a variety of foods without sealed packaging can create quite an olfactory nuisance, and it may come as a surprise that fresh foods emit unpleasant odorants just as those that are decaying. To learn more about nuisance sources in our daily lives, we measured a list of 22 compounds designated as the key offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur, nitrogenous, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and carbonyls) from nine types of common food items consumed in S. Korea: raw beef, raw fish, spam, yolks and albumin of boiled eggs (analyzed separately), milk, cheese, onions, and strawberries. The odor intensity (OI) of each food item was computed initially with the aid of previously used empirical equations. This indicates that the malodor properties of target foods tend to be governed by a few key odorants such as VFA, S, and N compounds. The extent of odorant mixing of a given food was then evaluated by exploring the correlation between the human olfaction (e.g., dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio) and the odor potential determined indirectly (instrumentally) such as odor activity value (OAV) or sum of odor intensity (SOI). The overall results of our study confirm the existence of malodorant compounds released from common food items and their contribution to their odor characteristics to a certain degree.

  8. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut. The objective of the study was to determine the waste generation and composition of food waste generated by the premise. Food waste collected from the premise once a week and tested for moisture content and density. The results demonstrated that Makanan Ringan Mas Industry generated more raw food waste compared to processed food waste. Banana peels recorded the highest amount at 27.15kg per month compared to other food waste. To conclude, banana peels were found to be the highest component in the food waste composition by Makanan Ringan Mas Industry whereas breadfruit peels were found to be the lowest.

  9. Convenience food in the diet of children and adolescents: consumption and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Ute; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Rode, Tabea; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-02-01

    Despite an increasing trend towards the use of convenience food, there is to date little debate on it in the nutritional sciences. In the present study, we present and evaluate data on consumption frequencies and composition of savoury convenience food in German families using data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. The DONALD Study is an ongoing, longitudinal (open cohort) study (started 1985), collecting detailed data on diet, development, and metabolism in infants, children and adolescents. Dietary intake was measured by yearly repeated 3 d weighed dietary records (n 1558) in 554 subjects (278 boys; 276 girls), 3-18 years old, between 2003 and 2006. A total of 1345 (86%) 3 d dietary records mentioned consumption of at least one convenience food. Convenience food consumption (percentage of total food intake, g/d) increased with age from approximately 3% in the 3-8 year olds to 7% in 14-18-year-old boys and 5% in 14-18-year-old girls (P Convenience foods contributed more to total fat (g/d) (P convenience-food products recorded by our sample had on average fourteen ingredients; 4% were flavourings and 16% were food additives. In conclusion, convenience foods were widely consumed by our sample of German children and adolescents and their consumption increased with age. The composition of convenience food was characterised by a high fat content and a high number of flavourings and food additives.

  10. Copepod recruitment and food composition : Do diatoms affect hatching success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to differentiate between factors controlling the hatching success of copepod eggs. Factors that could affect viability of eggs; viz food quality, female condition and external factors were investigated. In a series of experiments the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana...... was fed several different diets while egg production and hatching success were monitored. The diet was analysed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Both egg production and hatching were found to be affected by the nutritional quality of the food. Hatching was also highly dependent...

  11. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in selected total diet food composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Churchill, Robin; Dabeka, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 μg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 μg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 μg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 μg/g), fresh pork (6.9 μg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 μg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 μg/g), roast beef (1.3 μg/g), lamb (1.2 μg/g), and organ meats (0.20 μg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.

  12. Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... products used in human diet during food shortage period in Burkina Faso .... cool temperature until required successively for analysis. Proximate ..... as blood pres- sure, fluid balance and blood volume regulation (sodium);.

  13. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Dyerberg, Jørn; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probably...... Nordic Nutrient Recommendations in 2004 and 2006. Vitamin A, B(1), (B(2)), B(12), iron, iodine, phosphorus, and selenium contents were correlated with n-3 content, whereas vitamin C, folate, and calcium contents were not and the same time very low. In the traditional food, especially from the villages...... resulting in less adequate nutrient coverage but at the same time lower contaminant load. Thus, we recommend not to increase the consumption of local products beyond the present level but rather to improve the quality of the imported food. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct-1...

  14. Correction of the carbohydrate composition of specific foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern society and the rapid pace of life, in the last few years have significantly changed people's attitude to their own health. Promotion of healthy lifestyles has shaped consumers interest in balanced nutrition. The modern man is a new approach to the selection of products. The development and change of modern food market puts producers the task of finding new technological and product solutions, one of which is the establishment deliveries of the new generation of “functional foods” and products of “special purpose”. The development and change of modern food market are forced to pay attention to some aspects of strategic development. Development strategy needs to be innovative. The outcome of the innovation process is the creation of a competitive product, which is a product of the process. In the food industry such an innovative process is the creation and production of products of functional and specialized purpose. Today's realities dictate the need for an innovative approach not only to the technology of food production, but also to search for new approaches in the promotion of goods for the consumer market. Enterprises committed to the production of natural food functional products and therefore are committed to using natural plant materials and derived functional food ingredients. Considered range innovation new functional ingredients for food industry enterprises engaged in the production of enriched and specialized products (phospholipids, inulin, erythritol, maltodextrin, isomaltulose, pea fiber, pea protein, pea protein isolate, as well as their impact on the human body. Special attention is paid to phospholipids, as they belong to the group of essential substances, which are indispensable for a person and enter the body solely through food. Therefore, the introduction into the human diet products with functional ingredients is an important element of nutrition of the population.

  15. Hybrid nanocellulose/nanoclay composites for food packaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon

    to larger spherulite sizes, which had a more significant impacton water diffusion and transparency reduction but also showed an increased water sorption. Finally, it was found that cellulose nanofibers reduced water diffusion to an extent similar to C30B (21% vs.27%), while hybrid composites showed 49......% decrease, albeit CNF based composites showed increased water sorption (7% for PLA/CNF 1% composite and 9% for PLA/CNF 1%/C30B 1% when compared with neat PLA).The reduced diffusivity of the hybrid nanocomposites suggested that the material was promising for active packaging, since low diffusivity leads....../gCNF and hybrid PLA/CNF/C30B composites were prepared and evaluated on controlled release applications. It was established that the surface modification of CNF greatly enhanced the dispersion of the gCNF and that carvacrolloaded hybrid composites showed a decreased release rate, high ductility and a reduced WVTR...

  16. Composição química de alimentos: implicações na prevenção da aterosclerose Chemical food composition: implications for atherosclerosis prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol de alimentos adquiridos no mercado brasileiro, com tabelas de referência mais usadas no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol de 41 alimentos mais usados na alimentação em nosso meio e modos de preparo, utilizando-se metodologias específicas e comparadas com as informações das tabelas adotadas pela Unicamp e UNIFESP. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de colesterol encontrado no queijo parmesão foi de 100,7 mg/100 g; já na tabela da UNIFESP foi de 68 mg/100 g (p OBJECTIVE: To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. METHODS: The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. RESULTS: According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p < 0.05, higher content in the former. This study table found a cholesterol content 31% lower (94 mg/100 g vs. 123 mg/100 g, p < 0.05 for yellow cheese. For whole milk, we found a 52% difference regarding cholesterol content, while the difference for saturated fat ranged from 1.4 g/100 g in Unicamp table to 2.130 g/100 g in our study table (p < 0.05. For some food items, no statistically significant differences were found among the tables. However, when a 1,800-calorie diet was prescribed, the discrepancies among the tables and lack of information resulted in clinically relevant differences in dietary recommendations. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in food fat content between the fatty acid and cholesterol content formally analyzed and the content shown on commonly used tables, and

  17. Dietary fibre: challenges in production and use of food composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Brunt, Kommer; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem

    2013-10-01

    Dietary fibre is a heterogeneous group of components for which several definitions and analytical methods were developed over the past decades, causing confusion among users and producers of dietary fibre data in food composition databases. An overview is given of current definitions and analytical methods. Some of the issues related to maintaining dietary fibre values in food composition databases are discussed. Newly developed AOAC methods (2009.01 or modifications) yield higher dietary fibre values, due to the inclusion of low molecular weight dietary fibre and resistant starch. For food composition databases procedures need to be developed to combine 'classic' and 'new' dietary fibre values since re-analysing all foods on short notice is impossible due to financial restrictions. Standardised value documentation procedures are important to evaluate dietary fibre values from several sources before exchanging and using the data, e.g. for dietary intake research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of food composition data in the Choices International Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Léon; Roodenburg, Annet J C

    2016-02-15

    Food composition data have extensively been used in the Choices International Programme: they formed the basis of both criteria development and nutrient intake modeling. Criteria were developed for key nutrients linked to non communicable diseases by an independent scientific committee. The criteria can be used for the logo assignment on food products, in order to stimulate producers to improve their products and to stimulate consumers to purchase these products. Insights in steps of development of the criteria for the Choices program illustrates the importance of food composition data in this process. Modeling studies with the criteria for the Dutch Choices program showed an improved nutrient intake profile if consumers would choose products fulfilling the criteria of the Dutch logo as part of their diets. The role and availability of food composition databases in the development of the criteria and the modeling studies is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanocellulose fibers applied in PLA composites for food packaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon; Garciad, A.; Mericer, C.

    and nanoclay resulted in highly transparent films with good termomechanical properties. Furthermore, the combination of nanocellulose and nanoclay led to a faster crystallization (80% reduced half crystallization time). In addition, hybrid composites was identified as an effective way to improve the barrier...... of this research project has been to improve the permeability of PLA by use of nanocellulose or by combination of nanocellulose and nanoclay in PLA composites. The cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were extracted from sisal fibers using an optimized up-scalable three-step chemical protocol. Composites with both CNF...

  20. Can diet composition affect behaviour in dogs? : food for thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of food goes beyond the basic provision of energy and essential nutrients for the maintenance of physical health. Studies in rats, pigs, and human subjects have shown that behaviour and mood can be influenced by specific nutrients consumed. The research described in this thesis aimed

  1. Use of the South African Food Composition Database System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Margarine, hard brick Brand name 2 level teaspoons. 10:00. Apple, with ... information on the weight of the food in grams is also available,. e.g. when the ..... measure for vitamin A is retinol equivalents (RE) in the SAFOOD, while in the DRIs it ...

  2. Harmonised information exchange between decentralised food composition database systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, Heikki; Christensen, Tue; Martínez de Victoria, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Access Protocol, Web Service Description Language and Extensible Markup Language (XML). A specifically constructed EuroFIR search facility (eSearch) was designed for end users. The EuroFIR eSearch facility compiles queries using a specifically designed Food Data Query Language and sends a request...

  3. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) produces high-quality data for USDA food composition databases: Two decades of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytowitz, David B; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food composition databases (FCDB) through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. NFNAP employs statistically valid sampling plans, the Key Foods approach to identify and prioritize foods and nutrients, comprehensive quality control protocols, and analytical oversight to generate new and updated analytical data for food components. NFNAP has allowed the Nutrient Data Laboratory to keep up with the dynamic US food supply and emerging scientific research. Recently generated results for nationally representative food samples show marked changes compared to previous database values for selected nutrients. Monitoring changes in the composition of foods is critical in keeping FCDB up-to-date, so that they remain a vital tool in assessing the nutrient intake of national populations, as well as for providing dietary advice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  5. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p′- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  6. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Produces High-Quality Data for USDA Food Composition Databases: Two Decades of Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    For nearly 20 years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) food composition databases through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. This manuscript d...

  7. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  8. A scope classification of data quality requirements for food composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Karl; Hinterberger, Hans; Weber, David; Norrie, Moira

    2016-02-15

    Data quality is an important issue when managing food composition data since the usage of the data can have a significant influence on policy making and further research. Although several frameworks for data quality have been proposed, general tools and measures are still lacking. As a first step in this direction, we investigated data quality requirements for an information system to manage food composition data, called FoodCASE. The objective of our investigation was to find out if different requirements have different impacts on the intrinsic data quality that must be regarded during data quality assessment and how these impacts can be described. We refer to the resulting classification with its categories as the scope classification of data quality requirements. As proof of feasibility, the scope classification has been implemented in the FoodCASE system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers...... and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity......, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire...

  10. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Annette eFagerlund; Solveig eLangsrud; Even eHeir; Maria Ingeborg Mikkelsen; Trond eMøretrø

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition or benzalkonium chloride efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticu...

  11. FAO/INFOODS e-Learning Course on Food Composition Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrondiere, U Ruth; Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Nicodemi, Chiara; Bruggeling, Peter; Petracchi, Cristina

    2016-02-15

    The FAO/INFOODS e-Learning Course on Food Composition Data was developed to close existing knowledge gaps on food composition of professionals working with those data. It covers the important aspects of food composition, is based on instructional design, is highly interactive and comprises 14 lessons of approximate 10h duration. It was developed primarily for usage in universities, but also suits self-paced learning and blended learning programmes. It is available at: http://www.fao.org/infoods/infoods/training/en/ free-of-charge in English, as on-line version or CD-ROM. Feedback from users was very positive and universities start to incorporate it into their curricula. The translation into other languages and the implementation of a certification and assessment programme are envisaged. e-Learning is cost-effective and reaches a wide audience. The course is expected to contribute to the improved data quality, usage, generation, publication and appreciation of food composition data. Copyright © 2014 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in Norhwest Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Caire-Juvera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54, and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47, boiled beef (score = 75 and hamburger (score = 82. The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91 and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%. Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%. Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  13. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunha, Diogo thimoteo da; Gonçalves, Hélida Ventura Barbosa; Lima, Aline Fátima Andrade de; Martins, Paula Andrea; Rosso, Veridiana Vera de; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas.Methods...

  14. Determination of phenolic compositions and quality characteristic of some local Turkish table grape varieties cultivated in Egirdir/Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargin Seckin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the phenolic substances and antioxidant activities of 11 local grape cultivars (Burdur Dimriti, Siyah Gemre, Ak Gemre, Antep Büzgülü, Şam Büzgülü, Kuş Yüregi, Ak Dimrit, Marzımat, Senirkent Dimriti, Devegözü, Tilki Kuyrugu grown in Egirdir/Isparta province of Turkey by the means of High Performance Liquid Chromatog- raphy (HPLC and also were evaluated for their yield and quality characterics. Burdur Dimriti, Antep Büzgülü, Şam Büzgülü cultivars were evaluated good for yield and table consumption. Ak Gemre, Marzımat, Devegözü, Ak Dimrit, Senirkent Dimriti and Kuş Yüregi varieties were evaluated good for must production. Gallic acid, cafeic acid, p-cumaric acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, kaemferol, myricetin, rutin hydrate, resveratrol, quercetin were determined in berry samples of 11 cultivars. Phenolic substances varied between 0 and 101.466 μg/ml in frozen berry samples varying to grape variety. Some of the cultivars can be evaluated as a good source of resveratrol, gallic acid, quercetin, and catechin. Antep Büzgülü, Burdur Dimriti, Kuş Yüregi, Senirkent Dimriti, Siyah Gemre were evaluated hopeful phenolic sources for further studies. Further detailed studies will be planned about phenolic and antioxidant compositions of these hopeful local varieties according to research results.

  15. Elemental composition of Jamaican foods 1: a survey of five food crop categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andrea; Fung, Leslie Hoo; Lalor, Gerald; Rattray, Robin; Vutchkov, Mitko

    2005-02-01

    The concentrations of 27 elements in Jamaican food categories consisting of fruit, legumes, leafy and root vegetables and other root crops are reported. The main analytical techniques used were neutron activation analysis and flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results are compared, where possible, with values from Denmark, the United Kingdom, the United States and Nigeria, and with some regulatory limits. Over 75% of the results for antimony, arsenic, barium, cerium, thorium and uranium were below the respective sample detection limits but even among these, some of the maximum values observed indicate that further examination may be useful for those foods grown in the regions of highest uptake and consumed in large amounts. The other elements reported are bromine, cadmium, calcium, caesium, cerium, chromium, copper, europium, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, sodium, strontium, thorium, uranium, and zinc. Many of these elements occur at concentration levels above those reported from the other countries but it seems unlikely that most of these will contribute significantly to public health risk. However, at this stage cadmium clearly appears to be the element of greatest concern in the Jamaican food chain. The observed range of cadmium concentrations suggests that factors such as land selection, coupled perhaps where necessary, with suitably modified agricultural practices, is a feasible way to reduce the cadmium content of certain local foods.

  16. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  17. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha TCE; Laswai, H S; Tetens, I

    2000-01-01

    About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age of five suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediate cause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of some home made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania to supply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommended in the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards for cereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruels and plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac- 1, Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, were chemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density. Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercial weaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. When compared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standards specifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaning foods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energy balance. Many of the foods were low in fat. Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high in crude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the most common deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. In spite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaning foods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonable percentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrients and energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towards increasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaning foods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral rich

  18. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia-Xuan; Htin, Nanda M; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-04-20

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor and oxygen barrier properties compared to many petroleum-derived ones. A key challenge is, therefore, to simultaneously enhance both the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of the PLA food packaging. To address this issue, we design a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film, which utilizes an impermeable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the core barrier and commercial PLA films as the outer protective encapsulation. The synergy between the barrier and the protective encapsulation results in a significant 87.6% reduction in the water vapor permeability. At the same time, the oxygen permeability is reduced by two orders of magnitude when evaluated under both dry and humid conditions. The excellent barrier properties can be attributed to the compact lamellar microstructure and the hydrophobicity of the rGO core barrier. Mechanistic analysis shows that the large rGO lateral dimension and the small interlayer spacing between the rGO sheets have created an extensive and tortuous diffusion pathway, which is up to 1450-times the thickness of the rGO barrier. In addition, the sandwiched architecture has imbued the PLA-rGO composite film with good processability, which increases the manageability of the film and its competency to be tailored. Simulations using the PLA-rGO composite food packaging film for edible oil and potato chips also exhibit at least eight-fold extension in the shelf life of these oxygen and moisture sensitive food products. Overall, these qualities have demonstrated the high potential of a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film for food packaging applications.

  19. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intuitive Eating, Diet Composition, and the Meaning of Food in Healthy Weight Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, TeriSue; Hawks, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating (an anti-dieting, hunger-based approach to eating) has been popularized as a viable approach to healthy weight management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food. The convenience sample included 343 students enrolled in a general education…

  1. Dietary fibre: Challenges in production and use of food composition data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, S.; Brunt, K.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a heterogeneous group of components for which several definitions and analytical methods were developed over the past decades, causing confusion among users and producers of dietary fibre data in food composition databases. An overview is given of current definitions and analytical

  2. Assessing Dietary Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides by LCIMS/MS of Food Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method Commercially-obtained vegetables, chips, cereal, meat, and other solid food products were homogenized together to create composited control matrices at 1%, 5%, and 100/0 fat content. Lyophilized homogenates were spiked with 7 pyrethroids, 6 degradation products, bisphen...

  3. Mutandabota, a Food Product from Zimbabwe: Processing, Composition and Socioeconomic Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated processing technology, composition, and socioeconomic significance of mutandabota, a food product made by mixing cow's or goat's milk with dry baobab fruit pulp. Mutandabota production is a gendered activity dominated by women. Nutrient content was (g 100 g(-1) w.b) protein 4.8 ± 1, fat

  4. Influence of Breed, Parity and Food Intake on Chemical Composition of First Colostrum in Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zarcula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish the influence of breed, parity and food intake on chemical composition of first colostrum. We observed that fat, proteins, lactose and dry matter were higher in cows from second and third lactation compared to those in fourth lactation. Cow's breed also influenced the colostrum composition, superior quality being obtained in case of Romanian White and Black comparing Holstein Friesian cows. The unbalanced energo-proteic ratio had a negative impact on chemical composition of first colostrum.

  5. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-06-01

    Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Weighed food records and duplicate portions of all foods consumed during one day were collected. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin A were assessed by: (i) estimating the nutrient intake from weighed food records based on an adjusted TACAM (a-TACAM); and (ii) chemical analysis of the duplicate portions. Agreement between the two methods was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman plots. Bamako, Mali. Apparently healthy non-pregnant, non-lactating women (n 36) aged 15-36 years. Correlation coefficients between estimated and analysed values ranged from 0·38 to 0·61. At population level, mean estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly for carbohydrates (203·0 v. 243·5 g/d), Fe (9·9 v. 22·8 mg/d) and vitamin A (356 v. 246 µg retinol activity equivalents). At individual level, all estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly; the differences tended to increase with higher intakes. The a-TACAM is sufficiently acceptable for measuring average intakes of macronutrients, Ca and Zn at population level in low-intake populations, but not for carbohydrate, vitamin A and Fe intakes, and nutrient densities.

  6. 21 CFR 890.3750 - Mechanical table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical table. 890.3750 Section 890.3750 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3750 Mechanical table. (a) Identification. A mechanical table is a device intended for medical purposes that has a flat surface that can...

  7. The Differences of Food Compositions in Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Andarini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, especially obesity in adolescent, is a worldwide health problem needing much of our attention because it can continue to be obesity in adulthood. About 50% obese adolescents grew up to be obese adults. It was a concern since it is one of risk factor associated with cardiovascular events including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and stroke. Visceral obesity is correlated with diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, pro-inflammation, and abnormal metabolism. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obese adolescents in Malang and to identitfy the differences in food compositions between metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic adolescents. METHODS: Prevalence of obesity was determined by assessing BMI in 20 Senior and Junior High Schools. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using IDF criteria; waist circumference of >80cm and >90cm for female and male, respectively, and increased triglyceride and decreased HDL concentration levels. The food composition was assessed using food recalls, and then regression linier test was done to define the correlation between food intake and the components of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The prevalence of adolescent obesity in Malang had reached 3.32%, with the prevalence of obesity in male subjects higher than in female subjects, i.e. 54.1% compared to 45.9%. The boys had higher mean for height and weight than the girls did, however, the BMI was higher in girls rather than boys. The difference of fat in food composition was significantly higher for the metabolic groups (p=0.031, but the carbohydrate did not significantly differ between the two groups (p=0.407. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adolescent obesity in Malang had reached 3.32%, with the prevalence of 54.1% in male and 45.9% in female. From the statistics test, fat intake showed a significant difference between metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome groups, but other food compositions didn

  8. Macronutrient Composition of Menu Offerings in Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-10-01

    A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time. Additionally, macronutrient composition was compared in menu items newly introduced in 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Analyses, conducted in January 2016, controlled for restaurant and were stratified by menu categories. Overall, there was a 22-calorie reduction in food items from 2012 to 2014. Beverages had a 46-calorie increase, explained by an increase in calories from sugar (12 calories) and saturated fat (16 calories). Newly introduced main courses in 2014 had 59 calories fewer than those on 2012 menus, explained by a 54-calorie reduction in unsaturated fat, while other macronutrient content remained fairly constant. Newly introduced dessert items in 2014 had 90 calories more than those on 2012 menus, explained primarily by an increase of 57 calories of sugar. Overall, there were relatively minor changes in menu items' caloric and macronutrient composition. Although declines in caloric content among newly introduced fast food main courses may improve the public's caloric intake, it appears that the macronutrient composition of newly introduced items did not shift to a healthier profile. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The meaning of functional trait composition of food webs for ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Dominique; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2016-05-19

    There is a growing interest in using trait-based approaches to characterize the functional structure of animal communities. Quantitative methods have been derived mostly for plant ecology, but it is now common to characterize the functional composition of various systems such as soils, coral reefs, pelagic food webs or terrestrial vertebrate communities. With the ever-increasing availability of distribution and trait data, a quantitative method to represent the different roles of animals in a community promise to find generalities that will facilitate cross-system comparisons. There is, however, currently no theory relating the functional composition of food webs to their dynamics and properties. The intuitive interpretation that more functional diversity leads to higher resource exploitation and better ecosystem functioning was brought from plant ecology and does not apply readily to food webs. Here we appraise whether there are interpretable metrics to describe the functional composition of food webs that could foster a better understanding of their structure and functioning. We first distinguish the various roles that traits have on food web topology, resource extraction (bottom-up effects), trophic regulation (top-down effects), and the ability to keep energy and materials within the community. We then discuss positive effects of functional trait diversity on food webs, such as niche construction and bottom-up effects. We follow with a discussion on the negative effects of functional diversity, such as enhanced competition (both exploitation and apparent) and top-down control. Our review reveals that most of our current understanding of the impact of functional trait diversity on food web properties and functioning comes from an over-simplistic representation of network structure with well-defined levels. We, therefore, conclude with propositions for new research avenues for both theoreticians and empiricists.

  10. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  11. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michelle R; Bartsch, Lynn A; Richardson, William B; Vallazza, Jon M; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p 63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of cyanobacteria exceeded 9% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. Areas dominated by cyanobacteria may not provide sufficient food quality to promote or sustain mussel growth.

  12. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon M.; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p 63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of cyanobacteria exceeded 9% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. Areas dominated by cyanobacteria may not provide sufficient food quality to promote or sustain mussel growth. PMID:28267810

  13. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p 63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of cyanobacteria exceeded 9% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. Areas dominated by cyanobacteria may not provide sufficient food quality to promote or sustain mussel growth.

  14. Fries or a fruit bag? Investigating the nutritional composition of fast food children's meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy

    2012-02-01

    The impact of children's fast food meals on their daily nutritional requirements has not been assessed in Australia. Analysis of the nutritional composition of children's meals from six fast food chains was conducted. The energy, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of all children's meals from the chains were assessed against the fast food industry-defined nutrient criteria for healthy meals and children's recommended daily nutritional requirements, as defined by the Nutrient Reference Values and the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia. Overall children's fast food meals are high in saturated fat, sugar and sodium. Only 16% and 22% of meals met the industry's nutrient criteria for children aged 4-8 and 9-13 years, respectively. Seventy-two percent of fast food meals exceeded 30% of the daily energy recommendations for 4 year old children, and 90% of meals exceeded 30% of the upper limit for sodium for children aged 4-8. Some meals also exceeded the upper limit for sodium and daily saturated fat recommendations for children aged 4-8 years. Reformulation of children's meals to improve their nutritional composition and revision of the industry's nutrient criteria to align with children's dietary requirements are urgently needed.

  15. Table Manners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Good table manners are more than about proper eating,it’s about being kind and considerate of others.Although table manners are different from country to country,they still share some similarities both in good and bad table manners.

  16. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work What is Food Banking? Started by John van Hengel in late 1960s in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Good food going to waste due to defect packaging or near expiration date. Distributed... algorithm for the capacitated clustering problem, International Transactions in Operational Research, 6, pp. 665|678. Labbe M, Peeters D & Thisse JF, 1995, Location on networks, chapter 7, pp. 551|617, Ball MO, Magnanti TL, Monma CL & Nemhauser GL (Eds...

  17. Effect of macronutrient composition on short-term food intake and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Searching the conditions for a table-like shape of the magnetic entropy in the magnetocaloric LBMO2.98/LBMO2.95 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'nassri, R.

    2016-11-01

    The conditions to obtain a table-like behavior of the entropy change, on the composite system (LBMO_{2.98})_{1-x}/(LBMO_{2.95})x, have been investigated from the isothermal magnetic entropy change versus temperature curves Δ S(T) of La2/3Ba1/3MnO2.98 and La2/3Ba1/3MnO2.95 materials. The latters are characterized by Curie temperatures ( TC) values (310 K for La2/3Ba1/3MnO2.98 and 292 K for La2/3Ba1/3MnO2.95 around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the isothermal magnetic entropy change Δ S(T) has been calculated for the composite system with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . The optimum magnetocaloric effect (MCE) properties, i.e., a Δ S(T) curve with table-like shape, have been found in the temperature interval of 293-309 K for the composite with x = 0.48 at 1 T. The Δ S(T) of the composite comes close to a constant value of 1.73(7)J/(kg ·K). A large refrigerant capacity value of ˜ 66.4(9) J/kg is obtained in a wide temperature span over 16 K. This composite can be used as the working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator. These results make the (LBMO_{2.98})_{0.52}/(LBMO_{2.95})_{0.48} system a promising material for practical magnetic refrigeration using a lower field (1 T), which is much easier to generate by permanent magnets, than higher fields, like 2 T.

  19. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A radiologic...

  20. Determination of the mineral composition of foods by infrared spectroscopy: a review of a green alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Simon; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of mineral composition of foods involves, in most cases, the use of long and tedious sample preparation, which consumes acids and reagents and sometimes requires the use of expensive instrumentation. This is the main reason for the search for direct analytical procedures, based on the use of infrared sample spectra and chemometrics, to model the signals in order to determine the presence of essential and trace toxic elements in foods. The state-of-the-art of the research in this field has been established in the present review article from the critical evaluation of articles available in the literature. Chemometric methods employed and their validation, together with a discussion about the different techniques used for signal acquisition, were evaluated for their ability to predict new sample composition.

  1. Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing

  2. Analysis of Food Composition of Yellowstripe Trevally (Selaroidesleptolepis In Paciran Waters, Lamongan, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Candra Pratiwi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciran is one of the regions in East Java with great fisheries potential.  Yellow Stripe Trevally is well known for its abundance in waters and categorized as high economic value within fisheries commodity. The abundance of yellow stripe trevally highly depends on food availability within its living habitat. The aim of this study was to analyze yellow stripe trevally food composition and its relationship with plankton abundance. The result of this study shows that phytoplankton abundance (21,600x103cell/m3 was found higher than zooplankton abundance (9.093x103ind/m3. The highest abundance of phytoplankton was found in Bacillariophycae (21,552x103 cell/m3 and the lowest was found in Coscinodiscophyceae (48.197x103 cell/m3. Between two classes of zooplankton found in this study, the abundance of Maxillopoda class (8.184x103ind/m3 was found higher than Oligotriceae class (0.909x103ind/m3. The composition of plankton in the stomach of yellow stripe trevally have similar pattern with the compositions of plankton in the waters.Based on the calculation of electivity index, there were seven genus that have a value 0food options of yellow stripe trevally. The selected food compositions were devided into six genus of phytoplankton, those were Asterolampra sp, Coscinodiscus sp, Cyclotella sp, Dinophysis sp, Oscillatoria. sp, Pleurosigma sp, Prorocentrum sp, and a zooplankton genus, Calanus sp. The result of main component analysis shows that water clarity parameter had significant impact on the water quality, while pH was correlated with phytoplankton abundance within in the Paciranwaters.

  3. Implementing the EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories as accessible resources of food composition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Ian; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Westenbrink, Susanne; Presser, Karl; Infanger, Esther; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    The EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories are being developed as accessible collections of source documents, including grey literature, and the food composition data reported in them. These Repositories will contain source information available to food composition database compilers when selecting their nutritional data. The Document Repository was implemented as searchable bibliographic records in the Europe PubMed Central database, which links to the documents online. The Data Repository will contain original data from source documents in the Document Repository. Testing confirmed the FoodCASE food database management system as a suitable tool for the input, documentation and quality assessment of Data Repository information. Data management requirements for the input and documentation of reported analytical results were established, including record identification and method documentation specifications. Document access and data preparation using the Repositories will provide information resources for compilers, eliminating duplicated work and supporting unambiguous referencing of data contributing to their compiled data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing the availability of food to control feral pigeons: changes in population size and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, Juan C; Montalvo, Tomás; Pascual, Jordi; Peracho, Victor

    2017-02-01

    As feeding by humans is one of the main food resources to pigeons (Columba livia), there is general agreement that public education that aims to reduce the food base may be the most feasible way to reduce pigeon abundance. However, except for the classic example of Basel, the method has rarely been tested or implemented. We provide results from a 1 year study in the city of Barcelona where we tested the effect of public education on pigeon population abundance and composition. The quantity of food provided by people to pigeons was significantly reduced during the study. Feral pigeon density was reduced by 40% in the two experimental districts, but no variation was detected in the control district. Detailed analyses in one of the districts showed that the reduction was mainly related to the reduction in food availability but not to culling. Pigeons captured at the end of the experiment were larger than at the start of the study, but body condition was reduced. Results show the effectiveness of public information to manage feral pigeon populations in a large city, and that control operations can exert important selection pressure on the population, leading to changes in population composition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Voluntary fortification with folic acid in Spain: An updated food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2016-02-15

    Folic acid (FA) is a key vitamin in the prevention of many diseases including neural tube defects. In Spain, only voluntary FA food fortification is allowed and there is a lack of compositional data to assess the contribution of these products to population's dietary folate intakes. Since 2007, our group has been compiling and updating a FA fortified food composition database. FA levels were obtained from retailers in Madrid and information provided by manufacturers. FA was also quantified by an affinity chromatography-HPLC method. In the present study we recorded 375 products. Our results show a high variability in the declared FA levels amongst different products, and food groups, which is also dependant on the commercial brand. FA overages are commonly added by manufacturers to some fortified products. FA content label claims are missing in 64% of products. This database is a useful tool to manage FA fortified foods data but it is necessary to continuously update it for the sound evaluation and monitoring of population's FA dietary intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of chemical composition and peroxide value in unground pet foods by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, M; Righi, F; Meneghesso, M; Manfrin, D; Ricci, R

    2016-12-20

    The massive development of the pet food industry in recent years has lead to the formulation of hundreds of canine and feline complete extruded foods with the objective of meeting both the needs of the animals and numerous demands from pet owners. In the meantime, highly variable raw material compositions and the industry's new production techniques oblige manufacturers to monitor all phases of the extrusion process closely in order to ensure the targeted composition and quality of the products. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of infrared technology (visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer; 570-1842 nm) in predicting the chemical composition and peroxide value (PV) of unground commercial extruded dog foods. Six hundred and forty-nine commercial extruded dog foods were collected. For each product, an unground aliquot was analysed by infrared instrument while a second aliquot was sent to a laboratory for proximate analysis and PV quantification. The wide range of extruded dog food typologies included in the study was responsible for the wide variability observed within each nutritional trait, especially crude fibre and ash. The mean value of the 208 pet foods sampled for PV quantification was 17.49 mEq O2 /kg fat (min 2.2 and max 94.10 mEq O2 /kg fat). The coefficients of determination in cross-validation of NIRS prediction models were 0.77, 0.97, 0.83, 0.86, 0.78 and 0.94 for moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) respectively. PV prediction was less precise, as demonstrated by the coefficient of determination in cross-validation (0.66). The results demonstrated the potential of NIRS in predicting chemical composition in unground samples, with lower accuracy for moisture and ash, while PV prediction models suggest use for screening purposes only. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  8. Table-like magnetocaloric effect of Fe{sub 88−x}Nd{sub x}Cr{sub 8}B{sub 4} composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.W.; Zheng, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Franco, V. [Departamento Física de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Montemayor, R.; Liu, Z.W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, D.C., E-mail: medczeng@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-09-15

    The narrow working temperature range due to the sharp magnetic entropy change |ΔS{sub M}| peak and large thermal or magnetic hysteresis restricts the practical application of magnetocaloric materials. In this work, the table-like magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was obtained in the multilayer composite of Fe{sub 88−x}Nd{sub x}Cr{sub 8}B{sub 4} alloys with various Nd substitutions for Fe (x=5, 8, 10, 12, and 15), which were prepared by arc-melting followed by melt-spinning. The substation of Nd was found to enhance the glass-forming ability. For the alloys with Nd substitution from 5 at% to 15 at%, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) ranged from 322 K to 350 K and the peak value of |ΔS{sub M}| remained almost constant, 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under an applied field of 0–5 T. The composite with various Nd contents was prepared by stocking the ribbons layer by layer. The |ΔS{sub M}| of the composite approached a nearly constant value of ∼3.2 J/(kg K) in a field change of 0–5 T in a wide temperature span over 40 K, resulting in large refrigerant capacity value of >408 J/kg. This |ΔS{sub M}| value was much larger than the previous reported Fe-based amorphous composite Fe{sub 78−x}Ce{sub x}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}. This composite can be used as the working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator around room temperature. - Highlights: • The T{sub C} ranges from 322 K to 350 K when increasing Nd substitution from 5 to 15 at%. • |ΔS{sub M}| remains relatively constant, about 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under H=0–5 T. • RC decreases from 93 to 78 J/kg in a field change of 1.5 T when Nd increasing. • Table-like MCE ,|ΔS{sub M}| ~3.2J/kg K under 0–5 T, appeared in the composite. • A wide working temperature range (40 K) and enhanced RC (>408J/kg) were obtained in the composite.

  9. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the "Pampa del Tamarugal", Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ(13)C and δ(18)O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  10. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the “Pampa del Tamarugal”, Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ13C and δ18O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  11. Water relations and foliar isotopic composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil. an endemic tree of the Atacama Desert growing under three levels of water table depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGarrido

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the Pampa del Tamarugal, Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference were selected and groups of 4 individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and midday water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ13C and δ18O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behaviour and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P

  12. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  13. Adding glycaemic index and glycaemic load functionality to DietPLUS, a Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Wai, Tony Ng Kock; Arshad, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.

  14. DIGESTION IN AN ECTOTHERMIC HERBIVORE, THE GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA-IGUANA) - EFFECT OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND BODY-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV

    1992-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the effect of food composition and body temperature on digestive efficiency was investigated in the lizard Iguana iguana on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). In a series of experiments the animals were kept in cages with a temperature gradient and different foods were offere

  15. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y. [Forming Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore); Lee, M.W. [Food Innovation and Resource Centre, Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore); Thian, E.S., E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  16. Interaction between staining and degradation of a composite resin in contact with colored foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Soares-Geraldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite resins might be susceptible to degradation and staining when in contact with some foods and drinks. This study evaluated color alteration and changes in microhardness of a microhybrid composite after immersion in different colored foods and determined whether there was a correlation between these two variables. Eighty composite disks were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10: kept dry; deionized water; orange juice; passion fruit juice; grape juice; ketchup; mustard and soy sauce. The disks were individually immersed in their respective test substance at 37 ºC, for a period of 28 days. Superficial analysis of the disk specimens was performed by taking microhardness measurements (Vickers, 50 g load for 45 seconds and color alterations were determined with a spectrophotometer (CINTRA 10- using a CIEL*a*b* system, 400-700 nm wavelength, illuminant d65 and standard observer of 2º at the following times: baseline (before immersion, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Both variables were also submitted to Pearson's correlation test (p < 0.05. The passion fruit group underwent the greatest microhardness change, while the mustard group suffered the greatest color alteration. Significant positive correlation was found between the two variables for the groups deionized water, grape juice, soy sauce and ketchup. Not all color alteration could be associated with surface degradation.

  17. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases.

  18. Testing the Capacity of a Multi-Nutrient Profiling System to Guide Food and Beverage Reformulation: Results from Five National Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Mölenberg, Famke; Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Wratten, Craig; Sharif, Sahar; Vieux, Florent; Lehmann, Undine; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-04-21

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS 'Pass' if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium). In a modelling scenario, all NNPS Fail products were 'reformulated' to meet NNPS standards. Overall, a third (36%) of all products achieved the NNPS standard/pass (inter-country and inter-category range: 32%-40%; 5%-72%, respectively), with most products requiring reformulation in two or more nutrients. The most common nutrients to require reformulation were SFA (22%-44%) and TF (23%-42%). Modelled compliance with NNPS standards could reduce the average content of SFA, Na and AS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively) at the food supply level. Despite the good potential to stimulate reformulation across the five countries, the study highlights the need for better data quality and granularity of food composition databases.

  19. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  20. An investigation into the nutritional composition and cost of gluten-free versus regular food products in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, L; Madden, A M; Fallaize, R

    2017-08-29

    The gluten-free (GF) food market has expanded considerably, although there is limited comparative evidence for the nutritional quality and cost of GF food products. The present study aims to compare the nutrient composition and cost of GF and gluten-containing (regular) foods across 10 food categories in the UK. Nutritional information and the cost of GF foods available in the UK (n = 679) and comparable regular foods (n = 1045) were systematically collected from manufacturer and supermarket websites. Foods were classified using UK front-of-pack labelling for content of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt and nutrient content, and cost per 100 g were identified and compared between GF and regular foods. Overall, more GF foods were classified as containing high and medium fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt than regular foods, although this was not universally consistent. More GF bread and flour products contained high fat and sugar, whereas fewer GF crackers contained high fat and sugar compared to regular foods. High salt content was found more frequently in GF than regular products. On average, GF products were 159% more expensive than regular (£0.44/100 g versus £1.14/100 g). GF items were also more likely to be lower in fibre and protein content than regular foods. Differences exist in the nutritional composition of GF and regular food. GF food is unlikely to offer healthier alternatives to regular foods, except for those who require a GF diet for medically diagnosed conditions, and it is associated with higher costs. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  2. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  3. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rachel; Knight, Annemarie; Asante, Matilda; Thomas, Jane; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26) and London (n=57) was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001), fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005), and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, pwholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities. PMID:26610275

  4. Using plate mapping to examine sensitivity to plate size in food portions and meal composition among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David; Sobal, Jeffery

    2012-12-01

    People eat meals rather than nutrients or food groups. Plate size may influence meal size, meal composition, and food type. To examine effects of plate size on meals, we developed a method we label plate mapping. A quasi-experimental study asked university students to accurately draw what they would like to eat for dinner on either a 9″ or 11″ paper plate. Coding plate drawings for total meal size revealed that students drew an average of 26% more food on larger plates. When plates were coded for meal composition we found that the biggest three food portions drawn by students were bigger on 11″ plates, with 70% of the overall difference in food area occurring in the biggest food. Participants drew bigger portions of vegetables on larger plates, while other food types showed little change in mean size. Gender moderated plate sensitivity for food types: women drew 36% bigger vegetable portions than men on larger plates. Smaller plates may lead to smaller meal sizes, but plate size may differentially influence composition of meals for men and women. These findings suggest plate mapping can be used to reflect meal conceptualizations and assess sensitivity to plate size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  6. Putting Food on the Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    JOURNALIST Deng Fei never imagined there were children in China so poor that they could not afford lunch. So when a visiting teacher from Shaba Primary School in Qianxi County in southwest China's Guzhou Province told him that many students were going hungry over the noontime break, he decided to leave Beijing and have a look.

  7. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gibson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective: To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design: An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26 and London (n=57 was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results: Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001, fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005, and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, p<0.001 and a significantly lower energy from carbohydrate (52.2±7.7 vs. 61.5±9.3%, p<0.001. Dietary fibre intake was significantly higher in the UK-Ghanaian diet compared to the native Ghanaian diet (8.3±3.1 vs. 6.7±2.2 g/1,000 kcal, p=0.007. There was significantly less energy, macronutrients, and fibre derived from traditional foods post-migration. Non-traditional foods including breakfast cereals, wholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions: Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities.

  8. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

  9. Increase the elongation at break of poly (lactic acid) composites for use in food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadi, Ahmed M.

    2017-05-01

    Poly (3-hydroxy butyrate) (PHB), cellulose nano crystal (CNC) and a plasticizer (TBC) are mixed together with PLLA with the aim to increase the elongation at break for use in the food packing sector. Spherical (CNC) and fibril nano crystal (CNF) were prepared by hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in distilled water, and then stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 15 days and ultrasonic treatment without using any acids as green method. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were studied using POM, DSC, WAXD, SEM and tensile testing, respectively. DSC demonstrated that the addition of PHB, CNC and TBC to PLLA matrix lead to reduce Tg, TCC and Tm than pure PLLA. FT-IR verified that the carbonyl group C=O appeared broad and some peaks in the PLLA composites 5, 6 and 7 shifted from 3.98 × 108 to 4.07 × 108 Hz, at 3.54 × 108 to 3.44 × 108 Hz, at 3.19 × 108 to 3.13 × 108 Hz. Mechanical testing shows that pure PLLA is brittle, and the elongation at break of PLLA composites reaches up to 205%, making it suitable to use in food packaging.

  10. Increase the elongation at break of poly (lactic acid) composites for use in food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-hadi, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    Poly (3-hydroxy butyrate) (PHB), cellulose nano crystal (CNC) and a plasticizer (TBC) are mixed together with PLLA with the aim to increase the elongation at break for use in the food packing sector. Spherical (CNC) and fibril nano crystal (CNF) were prepared by hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in distilled water, and then stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 15 days and ultrasonic treatment without using any acids as green method. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were studied using POM, DSC, WAXD, SEM and tensile testing, respectively. DSC demonstrated that the addition of PHB, CNC and TBC to PLLA matrix lead to reduce Tg, TCC and Tm than pure PLLA. FT-IR verified that the carbonyl group C=O appeared broad and some peaks in the PLLA composites 5, 6 and 7 shifted from 3.98 × 108 to 4.07 × 108 Hz, at 3.54 × 108 to 3.44 × 108 Hz, at 3.19 × 108 to 3.13 × 108 Hz. Mechanical testing shows that pure PLLA is brittle, and the elongation at break of PLLA composites reaches up to 205%, making it suitable to use in food packaging. PMID:28466854

  11. Amino Acid compositions of 27 food fishes and their importance in clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal; Mahanty, Arabinda; Ganguly, Satabdi; Sankar, T V; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N; Akhtar, M S; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K K; Laxmanan, P T; Sharma, A P

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

  12. Body mass, composition, and food intake in rabbits during altered acceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovich, M. J.; Smith, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mature male Polish rabbits were subjected to varying gravitational fields in an animal centrifuge in order to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deacceleration on body mass, body composition, and food intake. The acceleration field intensity was increased by 0.25-G increments to a maximum of 2.5 G at intervals which permitted physiological adaptation at each field. Control animals of the same age were maintained at earth gravity under identical conditions of constant-light environment at a room temperature of 23 + or - 5 C. It is shown that increasing the acceleration-field intensity leads to a decrease in body mass. The regulated nature of this decreased body mass is tested by the response to an additional three-day fasting of animals adapted physiologically to 2.5 G. Ad libitum food intake per kg body mass per day tends to increase in chronically accelerated animals above 1.75 G. Increase in water content in centrifuged animals after physiological adaptation to 2.5 G is the result of decreasing body fat. Body mass and food intake returned to the precentrifuged levels of control animals within six weeks after cessation of centrifugation.

  13. Recovery of Salmonella spp. from refrigerated preenrichment cultures of dry food composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aoust, J Y; Sewell, A M; McDonald, C

    1995-01-01

    Refrigerated preenrichment 72 h and selective enrichment cultures arising from 25 g analytical units of dry foods can be used to increase the analytical flexibility and productivity of laboratories for the detection of foodborne Salmonella spp. by AOAC method 994.04. Results of this intralaboratory study using artificially contaminated dry foods validate the extended application of the refrigerated preenrichment approach to dry food composites (375 g). All samples found to be contaminated by AOAC/Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods were identified readily from the homologous, refrigerated preenrichment broth cultures. This extended application of the refrigeration approach was recently adopted First Action by AOAC and was included as a modification to method 994.04. In addition, ancillary work on the diagnostic value of prolonged (48 h) incubation of lysine iron (LI) agar as described in the AOAC Official Method 967.26 led to a recommendation that the 48 h period of incubation be revoked in favor of a 24 h incubation of inoculated LI medium.

  14. CHANGES IN THE QUANTATIVE COMPOSITION OF AMINO ACIDS DURING BATONNAGE IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF WHITE TABLE WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovets U. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of amino acids of white table wines depending on the yeast strain, continuous contact of wine with yeast biomass and the presence of lees stirring are presented. The dynamics of amino acids, which affect wine organoleptic characteristics and the formation of wine defects, specifically, tyrosine, methionine, threonine and lysine is shown. Conducted researches made it possible to divide the amino acids into three groups depending on the carrying out the batonnage or lack of it. The first group consisted of amino acids, the concentration of which practically has not changed in the presence or lack of stirring. The second and third groups include amino acids, the concentration of which increased and decreased, respectively during batonnage. The stirring of the wine with yeast biomass facilitated to the activation of mass transfer processes between cell and medium, and the access of air lead to oxidation of some amino acids and the change of its concentration. The absence of stirring influenced to a slight increase in the concentration of such amino acids as cystine, cysteine, β-phenylalanine, serine, α-alanine, leucine and glutamic acid. The experimental data allowed to arrange amino acids in a row depending on the speed of release into the medium: ά-aminobutyric acid > glutamic acid > α-alanine > leucine

  15. Associations between food consumption patterns and saliva composition: Specificities of eating difficulties children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzel, Martine; Truntzer, Caroline; Neyraud, Eric; Brignot, Hélène; Ducoroy, Patrick; Lucchi, Géraldine; Canlet, Cécile; Gaillard, Ségolène; Nicod, Florian; Nicklaus, Sophie; Peretti, Noël; Feron, Gilles

    2017-02-06

    Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories. Complete datasets were obtained for 16 ED and 16 C subjects (median age 4.7y and 5.0y, respectively) and the statistical link between salivary and dietary characteristics was studied by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Overall, ED children showed as expected lower consumption frequency scores and higher food selectivity. The two groups of children differed in "diet/saliva" associations. Some distinctive salivary variables were common to both groups of children. For example, carbonic anhydrase 6 and the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets and drinks were positively associated with the MFA axis 1 in C children, but oppositely associated in ED children. Specifically for ED children, abundant salivary proteins (cystatins, amylase, amylase fragments) and some metabolites (amino acids, galactose, lactate) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of sauces & seasonings, bread & cereal products, ready-to-eat meals, fish, biscuits & sweets, drinks and potatoes. Specifically for C children, several proteins (serum albumin, haptoglobin, Igκ, apolipoprotein A-1, α-1 antitrypsin) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets, milk & dairy products, drinks, fruit, meat and vegetables. This study demonstrates that the

  16. A Border vs. Nonborder Comparison of Food Environment, Poverty, and Ethnic Composition in Texas Urban Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Salilnas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal was to examine the relationship between the food environment and selected socioeconomic variables and ethnic/racial makeup in the eight largest urban settings in Texas so as to gain a better understanding of the relationships among Hispanic composition, poverty and urban foodscapes, comparing border to non-border urban environments. Methods: Census-tract level data on (a socioeconomic factors, like percentage below the poverty line and number of households on foodstamps, and (b ethnic variables, like percent of Mexican origin and percent foreign born, were obtained from the U.S. Census. Data at the census-tract level on the total number of healthy (e.g., supermarkets and less-healthy (e.g., fast food outlets food retailers were acquired from the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment Index (mRFEI. Variation among urban settings in terms of the relationship between mRFEI scores and socioeconomic and ethnic context was tested using a mixed-effect model, and linear regression was used to identify significant factors for each urban location. A jackknife variance estimate was used to account for clustering and autocorrelation of adjacent census tracts.Results: Average census-tract mRFEI scores exhibited comparatively small variation across Texas urban settings, while socioeconomic and ethnic factors varied significantly. The only covariates significantly associated with mRFEI score were percent foreign born and percent Mexican origin. Compared to the highest-population county (Harris, which incorporates most of Houston, the only counties that had significantly different mRFEI scores were Bexar, which is analogous to San Antonio (2.12 lower, El Paso (2.79 higher, and Neuces, which encompasses Corpus Christi (2.90 less. Significant interaction effects between mRFEI and percent foreign born (El Paso, Tarrant – Fort Worth, Travis – Austin, percent Mexican origin (Hidalgo – McAllen, El Paso, Tarrant, Travis, and percent living

  17. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  18. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  19. Biofilm matrix composition affects the susceptibility of food associated staphylococci to cleaning and disinfection agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eFagerlund

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition or benzalkonium chloride efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2, and S. saprophyticus (2. The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of benzalkonium chloride both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five benzalkonium chloride susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding benzalkonium chloride efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of benzalkonium chloride than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or

  20. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  1. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives: To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation regarding their 1 carbohydrate composition, 2 viscosity and water solubility index (WSI, and 3 sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods: The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results: The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion: The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low

  2. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... foods. The dietary role of edible spiders needs to be further explored. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531....

  3. Effects of organic composition on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Jin, Yiying; Borrion, Aiduan; Li, Hailong; Li, Jinhui

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) has been widely investigated, however, little is known about the influence of organic composition on the FW digestion process. This study aims to identify the optimum composition ratios of carbohydrate (CA), protein (CP) and lipid (EE) for maintaining high methane yield and process stability. The results show that the CA-CP-EE ratio was significantly correlated with performance and degradability parameters. Controlling the CA-CP-EE ratio higher than 1.89 (CA higher than 8.3%, CP lower than 5.0%, and EE lower than 5.6%) could be an effective way to maintain stable digestion and achieve higher methane production (385-627mL/gVS) and shorter digestion retention (196-409h). The CA-CP-EE ratio could be used as an important indicator for digestion performance. To effectively evaluate organic reduction, the concentration and removal efficiency of organic compositions in both solid phases and total FW should be considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials.

  5. The important role of food composition in policies and programmes for better public health: A South African case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette; Pretorius, B

    2018-01-01

    Most governments have committed to the set of Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations (UN) to be achieved by 2030. Subsequently the governments have drafted, or are in process of drafting, policies and programmes which aim to answer to these global requests. South Africa provides a unique case study: despite economic growth, undernutrition has not improved when compared to other industrialised nations, while at the same time, diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity have exponentially increased. Access to healthy food is a constitutional right of all South Africans, and towards increasing food security and improving population health, various policies, programmes and regulations have been developed and implemented by the government to rectify the situation. The paper presents an overview of food composition within these public health policies, programmes and regulations and unpacks the important role of accurate food composition data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan-Li; Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  7. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  8. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. PMID:27579217

  9. A systematic review of food composition tools used for determining dietary polyphenol intake in estimated intake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine; Guan, Vivienne; Kent, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Translating food intake data into phytochemical outcomes is a crucial step in investigating potential health benefits. The aim of this review was to examine the tools for determining dietary-derived polyphenol intakes for estimated intake studies. Published studies from 2004 to 2014 reporting polyphenol food composition information were sourced with 157 studies included. Six polyphenol subclasses were identified. One quarter of studies (n=39) reported total flavonoids intake with 27% reporting individual flavonoid compounds. Assessing multiple compounds was common with approximately 10% of studies assessing seven (n=13), six (n=12) and five (n=14) subclasses of polyphenol. There was no pattern between reported flavonoids compounds and subclass studied. Approximately 60% of studies relied on publicly accessible food composition data to estimate dietary polyphenols intake with 33% using two or more tools. This review highlights the importance of publicly accessible composition databases for estimating polyphenol intake and provides a reference for tools available globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the relationship between the food environment and adult diabetes prevalence by county economic and racial composition: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Leone, Lucia A

    2017-08-09

    Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, "Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?" If the answer was "yes" individuals were classified as having diabetes. Retail food outlets included grocery stores, supercenters, farmer's markets, full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Counties were categorized as "high-poverty" or "low-poverty". Counties were categorized as low ( 31.0%) percent minority residents. Multiple linear regression models estimated the association between retail food outlets and diabetes, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between retail food outlets and county racial composition. Regression models were conditioned on county economic composition. Data were analyzed in 2016. Density of retail foods outlets varied greatly by county economic and racial composition; counties with medium-minority populations had the least access to grocery stores and the highest access to fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Low poverty/low-minority population counties had the greatest access to farmer's markets and grocery stores. For low poverty/low-minority counties, grocery stores were associated with decreased of diabetes prevalence. Supercenters were associated with an increase in diabetes prevalence for high-poverty/low-minority counties. Only low poverty/medium-minority counties had a statistically significant relationship between farmer's markets and diabetes prevalence. Fast food restaurants were found to be positively associated with diabetes prevalence in all

  11. Effect of food simulating liquids on release of monomers from two dental resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: The elution of residual monomers from cured dental composites to oral cavity has a harmful effect on human health and can affect their clinical durability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of eluted monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA from two types of composites (Gradia and P60 after exposure to food simulating liquids such as ethanol (25, 50, 75 % and heptane 50 % for 24 hours and 7 days. "nMaterials and Methods: Forty specimens of each composite were prepared. Equal numbers of each composite were immersed in tubes containing 2cc volumes of 25, 50, 75 % ethanole and 50 % heptane. The amount of eluted monomers in standard condition such as Bis-GMA, TEGDMA and UDMA was measured by GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy and results were statistically analysed by three way and one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significancy. "nResults: The results showed that Gradia released more TEGDMA than P60. In assessing the effect of environment, the result showed that ethanol caused releasing monomers more than heptane and the concentration rate of 75 % ethanole resulted in most releasing of monomers. In assessing the effect of time, the observation showed that more monomers were released 7 days compared to 24 hours. Bis-GMA and UDMA were not detected in any solutions in these conditions. "nConclusion: Ethanole caused more release of monomers than heptane and 75 % ethanole released the most amount of monomers. Gradia released more amount of TEGDMA than P60.

  12. Phylogenetic composition of host plant communities drives plant-herbivore food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Pyszko, Petr; Abe, Tomokazu; Libra, Martin; Kotásková, Nela; Šigut, Martin; Kumar, Rajesh; Kaman, Ondřej; Butterill, Philip T; Šipoš, Jan; Abe, Haruka; Fukushima, Hiroaki; Drozd, Pavel; Kamata, Naoto; Murakami, Masashi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-05-01

    Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food webs. Further, we identify specific patterns in three insect guilds with different life histories and discuss the role of host plant phylogeny in maintaining their diversity. We studied herbivore assemblages in three temperate forests in Japan and the Czech Republic. Sampling from a canopy crane, a cherry picker and felled trees allowed a complete census of plant-herbivore interactions within three 0·1 ha plots for leaf chewing larvae, miners, and gallers. We analyzed the effects of host phylogeny by comparing the observed food webs with randomized models of host selection. Larval leaf chewers exhibited high generality at all three sites, whereas gallers and miners were almost exclusively monophagous. Leaf chewer generality dropped rapidly when older host lineages (5-80 myr) were collated into a single lineage but only decreased slightly when the most closely related congeneric hosts were collated. This shows that leaf chewer generality has been maintained by feeding on confamilial hosts while only a few herbivores were shared between more distant plant lineages and, surprisingly, between some congeneric hosts. In contrast, miner and galler generality was maintained mainly by the terminal nodes of the host phylogeny and dropped immediately after collating congeneric hosts into single lineages. We show that not all levels of host plant phylogeny are equal in their effect on structuring plant-herbivore food webs. In the case of generalist guilds, it is the phylogeny of deeper

  13. Discrepancy between the composition of some commercial cat foods and their package labelling and suitability for meeting nutritional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosper, E C; Raubenheimer, D; Machovsky-Capuska, G E; Chaves, A V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if the label information and nutrient composition of commercial cat foods are accurate and compliant with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) and if they meet the nutritional requirements of an adult cat. A chemical analysis of 10 wet and 10 dry commercial cat foods labelled as 'nutritionally complete' for the adult cat was performed. The results were compared with the package composition values, the Australian Standard and the unique dietary requirements of the cat. In addition, the results of the chemical analysis were compared with the nutrient requirements published by the Association of the American Feed Control Officials and the National Research Council. When compared with the Australian Standard, 9 of the 20 cat foods did not adhere to their 'guaranteed analysis' and 8 did not adhere to the standards for nutrient composition. Also, various deficiencies and excesses of crude protein, crude fat, fatty acid and amino acid were observed in the majority of the cat foods. The results of this study highlight a need for an improved method of ensuring that label information and nutrient composition are accurate and comply with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) to ensure the adult cat's unique dietary requirements are being met by commercial adult cat food. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6140 - Medical chair and table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 880.6140 Medical chair and table. (a) Identification. A medical chair or table is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a chair or table without wheels and not electrically powered... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical chair and table. 880.6140 Section...

  15. Effect of food simulating liquids on surface hardness of two dental resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Decreasing the hardness of dental restorative composites after curing in oral environment can influence their clinical durability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of food-simulating liquids such as 25%, 50%, 75 % ethanol and 50 % heptane on surface hardness of two composites - (Gradia and P60 after curing and immersing time of 24 hours and 7 days."nMaterials and Methods: 45 specimens of each composite were prepared in a stainless steel mold with 6 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. 5 specimens of each composite were tested for microhardness immediately after curing as the control group. The other specimens of each composite were randomly divided into eight groups. Each specimen was immersed in one of the following solutions 25%, 50%, 75 % ethanol and 50 % heptane for either 24 hours or 7 days. Then the specimens were taken out of the solutions and washed and dried and transferred to the refrigerator until performing the test. In standard conditions, surface microhardness of specimens was evaluated by the microhardness device based on Vickers. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA 3 way ANOVA and Tukey Post Hoc tests. The level of significance was set at p<0.05."nResults: Surface hardness of P60 composite was higher than that of Gradia. An analysis of variance in gradia and p60 showed significant difference between the control and all the other groups (P<0.05 except the 25% ethanol (P=0.514. After 24 hours all the solutions had significant effect on Gradia (P<0.05 except 50% and 75% ethanol (P=0.793. After 7 days all the solutions had significant effect on Gradia except 50% and 25% ethanol (P=0.385and 50% and 75% ethanol (P=0.150 According to P60 after both 24 hours and 7 days all the solutions had significant effect on the hardness. 50 % heptane increased the hardness (P=0.00. 75% ethanol significantly decreased the hardness (P=0.000 followed by 50% (P=0.001 and 25% ethanol (P=0.007."nConclusion: Based on the

  16. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845, which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%, with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%. The larval lipid content (37.87% was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%. The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.

  17. Myrtus communis essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities against food spoilage pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Miladi, Ramzi; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2014-04-01

    Myrtus communis is a typical plant of the Mediterranean area, which is mainly used as animal and human food and, in folk medicine, for treating some disorders. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties of the essential oils of Myrtus communis (McEO), as well as its phytochemical composition. The GC/MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 17 compounds. Myrtenyl acetate (20.75%), 1,8-cineol (16.55%), α-pinene (15.59%), linalool (13.30%), limonene (8.94%), linalyl acetate (3.67%), geranyl acetate (2.99%), and α-terpineol (2.88%) were the major components. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also investigated on several microorganisms. The inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of bacterial strains were in the range of 16-28 mm and 0.078-2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the McEO against Gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than against Gram-negative. It also exhibited remarkable activity against several fungal strains. The investigation of the mode of action of the McEO by the time-kill curve against Listeria monocytogenes (food isolate) showed a drastic bactericidal effect after 5 min using a concentration of 312 μg/ml. These results evidence that the McEO possesses antimicrobial properties, and it is, therefore, a potential source for active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Migration studies from paper and board food packaging materials. 1. Compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Offen, C P; Baxter, M J; Gilbert, J

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 32 paper and board materials intended for food contact has been undertaken. Sample composition was analysed to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate to foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses such as aqueous and fatty foods, and use at ambient and elevated temperatures, were obtained from industry. The samples were examined in their unfinished state, even where the final form would have included lamination to plastics, printing, or other treatments. A comprehensive and systematic analytical approach was applied which included determination of volatiles by headspace GC-MS, extraction using water, ethanol and chloroform with subsequent analysis by GC-MS and HPLC, and multi-element screening by ICP-MS. The solvent extracts were also weighed to determine the total amount of material available for migration. A large number of volatile substances were identified with alkyl and aryl aldehydes predominating in the majority of samples. Substances identified in solvent extracts included 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), di-tert-butylphenol, benzophenone, 4,4'-bis(dimethyl amino) benzophenone (Michler's ketone), triphenyl methane, bicyclohexylphenylphenanthrene carboxylic acid (and its methyl ester) and abietic acid. Levels of these substances were however generally below 1 mg/kg paper. Of the inorganic elements, arsenic and mercury were not detected above the limits of determination of 1.8 and 0.4 mg/kg respectively in any of the 10 samples examined. Cadmium was detected in teabag tissue and in unbleached Kraft paper at 0.3 mg/kg. Chromium was present in seven samples at 1.1-7.8 mg/kg, whilst lead was present in nine of the 10 samples at levels ranging from 0.3 to 5.9 mg/kg.

  19. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Roswall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective: The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI. The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design: The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29–49 years at baseline (1991–1992. The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results: Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI, but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions: Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI.

  20. Completeness of nutrient declarations and the average nutritional composition of pre-packaged foods in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Ma, Guansheng; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Trevena, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Increasing consumption of pre-packaged foods is likely an important driver of diet-related diseases in China. From January 2013 it became mandatory to provide a standardised nutrient declaration on pre-packaged foods in China. We collected data on pre-packaged foods from large chain supermarkets in Beijing in 2013, examined the completeness of the nutrient declaration of core required nutrients and summarised the average nutritional composition of 14 different major food groups. We also illustrated the potential use of the data by comparing sodium levels. Photos of 14,279 pre-packaged foods were collected from 16 chain supermarkets in Beijing. Data for 11,489 products were included in the evaluation of nutrient declarations and data for 10,048 in the summary analysis of average nutritional composition. Compliant nutrient declarations were displayed by 87% of products with 88% of foods displaying data for each of energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate and sodium. Nutrients not required by the Chinese regulation were infrequently reported: saturated fat (12%), trans fat (17%) and sugars (11%). Mean sodium levels were higher in Chinese products compared to UK products for 8 of 11 major food categories, often markedly so (e.g. 1417 mg/100 g vs. 304 mg/100 g for convenience foods). There has been substantial uptake of the recently introduced Chinese nutrition labelling regulation which should help consumers to choose healthier foods. As the comparison against corresponding data about sodium from the United Kingdom shows, the nutrient data can also be used to identify broader opportunities for improvement of the food supply.

  1. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Churruca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  2. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  3. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account. PMID:26184289

  4. Food structure is critical for optimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    Much nutrition policy is nutrient-based, supported by extensive nutrient science and food nutrient composition tables and recommendations for dietary evaluation. There are no comparable instruments for food structure. This constitutes a policy and practice gap since food is valued for its textural properties and not simply its chemistry. The structurally-important 'dietary fibre' at first proved of greater interest for its chemistry than its physico-chemistry even to health scientists and workers. As food chemistry became evidently complex, especially for phytonutrients, food-based dietary guidelines became an imperative and were launched by FAO and WHO in Cyprus in 1995. Food-health relationships, after weaning, are best articulated in terms of the achievement of dietary diversity, predicated partly on how intact foods are or in what way they are prepared. Cooking itself has health-promoting characteristics. Even with identical chemistry, food structure makes a major difference to biological and health outcomes. With evidence that food structure contributes to the matrix that food provides for nutrient delivery, and also to gut microbiomic profile and integrity, concern has grown about overly-processed food and health outcomes. The definition and categorisation of 'ultra-processed foods' is now a work-in-progress. Future public health nutritional and clinical nutrition developments will take account of food structure. To these ends, food composition tables will need to provide information like particle size and viscosity. Dietary recommendations will need to take account of food structure, as is the case for Brazil whose first step is "Make natural or minimally processed foods the basis of your diet".

  5. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on structure of adhesive composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H; Mueller, H J

    1995-02-01

    This work evaluates the degradation of three adhesive/composite systems (Tenure/Marathon One. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 and Optibond/Herculite XRV) upon immersion in 75% ethanol solution and in an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir). Shear bond strength (SBS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) specimens were employed for this study. For the SBS specimens, the bonded interface and composite were exposed to food and oral simulating fluids at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. A similar control series was stored in air. DTS specimens were stored in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. The SBS specimens were sheared to failure. Small quantities of bonding resin were removed from the tooth side of the fractured surface and from the non-fractured fractured end of the composite for Fourier transform infrared microscopic evaluation. Similar scrapings were taken from DTS specimen surfaces. The infrared absorbance intensity (AI) of the major peaks was measured as a function of storage time and ratioed against the aromatic C = C (1609.4 cm-1) peak. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The AI of major peaks was similar for the materials stored either in air or in Moi-Stir for all testing periods. Storage in ethanol caused the AI of aliphatic C = C (1638 cm-1) and of O-H (approximately 3500 cm-1) bonds to significantly decrease (30-50%) for specimens of bonding resin while the AI of C = O bonds (1730 cm-1) increased (60-120%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  7. Biotechnology and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Biotechnology, in general terms, is the science and engineering of using living organisms for making useful products such as pharmaceuticals, foods , fuels...chemicals, materials or in waste treatment processes and clinical and chemical analyses. It encompases the prosaic form of using yeast cells to make...ductile component of the composite. Table 1. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, Cermets, and Abalone Shell •if KIC Hardness MPa MPam 1n 2 /2 Mohs KIlN

  8. Proximate Composition Energy Content And Sensory Properties Of Complementary Foods Produced From Blends Of Sorghum And African Yam Bean Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available the proximate composition energy content and sensory properties of complementary foods prepared from sorghum and African yam bean flour blends were investigated. The sorghum flour SF was blended with African yam bean flour AYBF in the ratios of 9010 8020 7030 6040 and 5050 and used for the production of complementary foods. The complementary foods produced were evaluated for proximate composition energy content and sensory qualities using standard methods. The proximate composition of the samples showed that the protein content of the complementary foods increased gradually with increased level of African yam bean flour addition from 8.64 in 9010 SF AYBF to 13.44 in 5050 SF AYBF samples while carbohydrate decreased. In the same vein the energy content of the samples also increased with increased supplementation with African yam bean flour from 368.84KJ100g in 9010 SF AYBF to 382.98KJ100g in 5050 SF AYBF. The sensory evaluation carried out on different samples of complementary food after reconstitution into gruels with boiling water showed that the formulation prepared from 100 sorghum flour used as control was most acceptable by the judges and also differed significantly pamp88040.05 from the other samples in flavour texture and taste. However the sample fortified with 50 African yam bean flour was scored highest in colour.

  9. Structure of protein emulsion in food impacts intestinal microbiota, caecal luminal content composition and distal intestine characteristics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Douard, Véronique; Mat, Damien; Koeth, Fanny; Goustard, Bénédicte; Mayeur, Camille; Mondot, Stanislas; Hovaghimian, Anais; Le Feunteun, Steven; Chaumontet, Catherine; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Michon, Camille; Fromentin, Gilles; Blachier, François; Leclerc, Marion

    2017-05-17

    Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion. LFE diet led to higher abundance, when compared to the GCE, of Lactobacillaceae (Lactobacillus reuteri) in the ileum, higher β-diversity of the caecum mucus-associated bacteria. In contrast, the LFE diet led to a decrease in Akkermansia municiphila in the caecum. This coincided with heavier caecum content and higher amount of isovalerate in the LFE group. LFE diet induced an increased expression of (i) amino acid transporters in the ileum (ii) glucagon in the caecum, together with an elevated level of GLP-1 in portal plasma. However, these intestinal effects were not associated with modification of food intake or body weight gain. Overall, the structure of protein emulsion in food affects the expression of amino acid transporters and gut peptides concomitantly with modification of the gut microbiota composition and activity. Our data suggest that these effects of the emulsion structure are the result of a modification of protein digestion properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  11. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and 20 phthalates in composite food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Dabeka, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective GC-MS method was developed and used for simultaneous analysis of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 20 selected phthalates in the food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study. At least one of the 21 target chemicals was detected in 141 of the 159 different food composite samples analysed. However, only seven of the 21 target chemicals were detected, with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DEHA being detected most frequently, in 111 and 91 different food composite samples, respectively, followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (n = 44), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) (32), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) (27), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) (3), and di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) (1). Levels of DEP (di-ethyl phthalate), DiBP, DBP, BBzP and DCHP were low, in general, with average concentrations of 9.63, 8.26, 23.2, 12.4 and 64.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Levels of DEHA and DEHP varied widely, ranging from 1.4 to 6010 ng g(-1) and from 14.4 to 714 ng g(-1), respectively. High levels of DEHA were found mainly in the composite samples where the individual food items used to prepare the composite were likely packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping film, while the highest DEHP levels were found in the vegetable and fruit samples.

  12. [Prevalence survey of using characteristics of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims on food labels in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Zhang, Lishi; Fan, Yongxiang; Yan, Weixing

    2013-09-01

    To understand the using characteristics of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims on food labels in China. To get the label samples from different size of supermarket by taking photos in Beijing, and also samples were provided by provincial quality technical supervision, et al. Then extracted the claims from the label samples, classified the samples by determined food categories, and analyzed the using characteristics of these claims. The constituent ratio of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims were 29.48%, 2.24%, 29.21%, 31.81% among all the samples. The constituent ratio of snacks (16.11%) was maximum among all the samples using quality claims, and grain and its products (36.00%) for quantity claims, meat and meat products (22. 09%) for origin claims, snacks (27.04%) for composition claims. "Nature, Natural" (48.63%) was the most used claims among all the samples using quality claims, "Exaggerated capacity" (44.00%) was the most for quantity claims, "Product of , From, Manufactured in" (34.36%) was the most for origin claims, and "Pure, 100% , All" (38.03%) was the most for composition claims. The using of quality, quantity, origin, and composition claims is frequently on food labels in China, and a lot of studies should be taken on this field, government should also enact regulations to regulate the use of this claims.

  13. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  14. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray. 868.6100 Section 868.6100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... tray. (a) Identification. An anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray is a device intended to store...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  16. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew

  17. Food composition influences metabolism, heart rate and organ growth during digestion in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Poul Secher; Enok, Sanne; Overgaard, Johannes; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Digestion in pythons is associated with a large increase in oxygen consumption (SDA), increased cardiac output and growth in visceral organs assisting in digestion. The processes leading to the large postprandial rise in metabolism in snakes is subject to opposing views. Gastric work, protein synthesis and organ growth have each been speculated to be major contributors to the SDA. To investigate the role of food composition on SDA, heart rate (HR) and organ growth, 48 ball pythons (Python regius) were fed meals of either fat, glucose, protein or protein combined with carbonate. Our study shows that protein, in the absence or presence of carbonate causes a large SDA response, while glucose caused a significantly smaller SDA response and digestion of fat failed to affect metabolism. Addition of carbonate to the diet to stimulate gastric acid secretion did not increase the SDA response. These results support protein synthesis as a major contributor to the SDA response and show that increased gastric acid secretion occurs at a low metabolic cost. The increase in metabolism was supported by tachycardia caused by altered autonomic regulation as well as an increased non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) tone in response to all diets, except for the lipid meal. Organ growth only occurred in the small intestine and liver in snakes fed on a high protein diet.

  18. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  19. Fatty acid composition at the base of aquatic food webs is influenced by habitat type and watershed land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn; Bartsch, Michelle; Nelson, J. C.; Veldboom, Jason A.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats) and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because all metazoans require certain FAs for proper growth and development that cannot be produced de novo, including many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here we sampled three habitat types (river, rivermouth and nearshore zone) in 11 tributaries of Lake Michigan to assess the amount of FA in seston and primary consumers of seston. We hypothesize that among-system and among-habitat variation in FAs at the base of food webs would be related to algal production, which in turn is influenced by three land cover characteristics: 1) combined agriculture and urban lands (an indication of anthropogenic nutrient inputs that fuel algal production), 2) the proportion of surface waters (an indication of water residence times that allow algal producers to accumulate) and 3) the extent of riparian forested buffers (an indication of stream shading that reduces algal production). Of these three land cover characteristics, only intense land use appeared to strongly related to seston and consumer FA and this effect was only strong in rivermouth and nearshore lake sites. River seston and consumer FA composition was highly variable, but that variation does not appear to be driven by the watershed land cover characteristics investigated here. Whether the spatial variation in FA content at the base of these food webs significantly influences the production of economically important species higher in the food web should be a focus of future research.

  20. Fatty acid composition at the base of aquatic food webs is influenced by habitat type and watershed land use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Larson

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because all metazoans require certain FAs for proper growth and development that cannot be produced de novo, including many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Here we sampled three habitat types (river, rivermouth and nearshore zone in 11 tributaries of Lake Michigan to assess the amount of FA in seston and primary consumers of seston. We hypothesize that among-system and among-habitat variation in FAs at the base of food webs would be related to algal production, which in turn is influenced by three land cover characteristics: 1 combined agriculture and urban lands (an indication of anthropogenic nutrient inputs that fuel algal production, 2 the proportion of surface waters (an indication of water residence times that allow algal producers to accumulate and 3 the extent of riparian forested buffers (an indication of stream shading that reduces algal production. Of these three land cover characteristics, only intense land use appeared to strongly related to seston and consumer FA and this effect was only strong in rivermouth and nearshore lake sites. River seston and consumer FA composition was highly variable, but that variation does not appear to be driven by the watershed land cover characteristics investigated here. Whether the spatial variation in FA content at the base of these food webs significantly influences the production of economically important species higher in the food web should be a focus of future research.

  1. Effects of the Physical Form of the Diet on Food Intake, Growth, and Body Composition Changes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F.; Lana C DeMars; LuAnn K. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed t...

  2. Proximate composition of plant origin traditional foods from Black Sea Area Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, T.G.; Costa, H. S.; A. Sanches-Silva; Fontes, T.; Mota, C.; Santos, M; Vasilopoulou, E; Trichopoulou, A.; D’Antuono, F.; Alexieva, I.; Fedosova, K.; Karpenko, D.; Kilasonia, Z.; Kocaoglu, B.; Koval, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the European Project BaSeFood (Sustainable Exploitation of Bioactive Components Black Sea Area traditional foods), thirty-three traditional foods from six Black Sea Area Countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) were selected and prepared according to the traditional recipe, ingredients and traditional preparation methods. The aim is to promote and preserve traditional foods and to produce new and reliable data of the overall nutritiona...

  3. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K.; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E.; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia Xuan; Htin, Nanda M.; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G.; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor

  4. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K.; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E.; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia Xuan; Htin, Nanda M.; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G.; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor

  5. Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Joshua M; McClure, Heather H; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Charlton, Karen E; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Naidoo, Nirmala; Kowal, Paul

    2017-07-05

    Our objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556). Adjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition. In adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P food insecurity. Those who were severely food insecure had greater odds of being underweight (OR = 1.36, P food insecurity explained 4.7%-29.7% of the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition, depending on the variables considered. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that food insecurity is a mechanism linking social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in India. These analyses contribute to a better understanding of processes leading to variation in body composition, which may help enhance the design of interventions aimed at improving population nutritional status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines.

  7. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children.

  8. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Srivastava, Diane S

    2010-09-01

    1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between cross-ecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions.

  9. Application of ethnic food composition data for understanding the diet and nutrition of South Asians in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Santosh; Ashkanani, Fatemah; Garduño-Diaz, Sara D; Husain, Wafaa

    2013-10-01

    Lack of food composition data, recipe information and portion sizes for ethnic foods are commonly reported problems for dietary assessment of ethnic minority groups. One of the main aims of this study was to use food composition data to validate portion sizes, identify important sources of nutrients and describe the characteristics of the South Asian diet. The top five ethnic foods containing highest levels of selected nutrients were lamb balti (3mg/100g iron), lamb kebab (3.2mg/100g zinc), mixed dhal (62μg/100g folate), fish curry (1.4μg/100g vitamin D), ghee (968μg/100g retinol) and toor dhal (9.1g/100g dietary fibre). Typical adult South Asian diets included traditional cereals (chapatti, rice and paratha) and low consumption of meat dishes; with vegetable curries contributing most towards energy intake. A higher consumption of full fat milk and fruit juices by toddlers and school children were observed when compared with the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of the UK.

  10. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-function physical therapy table. (a) Identification. A multi-function physical therapy table is a device...

  11. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fitness and food environments around junior high schools in Taiwan and their association with body composition: Gender differences for recreational, reading, food and beverage exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsou, Hui-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    School environments may contribute to adolescent behavior, reproductive physiology and body composition (BC). The Nutritional and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010) for 1458 junior high school students was geo-mapped for 30 school environs. Facilities for physical activity (fitness centers, gymnasia and sports stadiums, activity centers and parks), sedentary activities (reading material rental shops (RMRS), internet cafes) and food and beverage outlets (FBOs) were calculated as weighted numbers within 1000m of schools. Multiple linear regressions were used to predict BC variable z-scores. For boys, higher fitness center densities and, for girls, gymnasia and sports stadiums were associated with less abdominal fatness. For girls, body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were greater when RMRS density was higher as was TSF with internet café density. Where there were no FBOs, boys' WC and TSF were less with more parks, but girls were shorter and WC more adverse. With greater RMRS density and no FBOs, girls still had increased WC/Hip ratio, and less mid-arm muscle circumference. Boys' findings were more evident after considering puberty. Physical activity facilities (differently by gender), food and beverage outlets absence for boys and low reading material rental shop density for girls increase the likelihood of healthier body composition.

  13. Assessing and improving the quality of vitamin data in food composition databases

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark A.; Finglas, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    The EuroFIR (European Food Information Resource; www.eurofir.org) project has developed the first comprehensive pan-European Food Data Platform, using state-of-the-art database linking. Data from 25 countries are available online (www.eurofir. org) and include vitamin contents of an extensive range of over 27,000 foods. The datasets have been compiled based on a technical standard developed within the project and this standardisation of data allows effective management, updating, extending, a...

  14. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Colour Stability of Nano Hybrid Composite Resin in Commonly Used Food Colourants in Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjan, Girija S; Varma Kanumuri, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in colour stability of aesthetic restorations. So far few studies have been reported. Aim This study was designed to investigate the effects of different common food colourants i.e., Turmeric and Carmoisine (orange red dye) consumed by patients in Asian countries on a recent nano hybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods A total of sixty disk shaped specimens measuring 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared. The samples were divided into two groups {Z 100 (Dental restorative composite) Filtek Z 250 XT (Nano hybrid universal restorative)}. Baseline colour measurement of all specimens were made using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIE L*a*b* system. Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva and different experimental solutions containing food colourants (carmoisine solution and turmeric solution) for three hours per day at 37°C. Colour measurements were made after 15 days. Colour difference (ΔE*) was calculated. Mean values were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multiple range test by Tukey Post-hoc test procedure was employed to identify the significant groups at 5% level. Results Z 100 showed minimum staining capacity when compared to Z 250 XT in both the colourant solutions. Conclusion The nanohybrid composite resin containing TEGDMA showed significant colour change when compared to that of microhybrid composite resin as a result of staining in turmeric and carmoisine solution. PMID:28274047

  15. Effects of age, sex, prior experience, and intraspecific food variation on diet composition of a tropical folivore (Phasmetodea: Phasmatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandlin, E.A.; Willig, M.R. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Recent attention in ecology has focused on factors that influence the foraging behavior of herbivores. We evaluated responses to different arrays of food plants exhibited by an abundant folivore within the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico. Previous work indicates that the walkingstick Lamponius portoricensis Rehn forages on a limited array of plant species and selects habitats that contain high densities of Piper treleaseanum Britton Wilson. We designed three separate experiments to evaluate (1) if walkingsticks of different ages or of different sex have different food preferences, (2) if previous exposure to only one food type affects subsequent diet composition, and (3) if walkingsticks distinguish among leaves of different quality from the same plant. Four plants [Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne Planch, Piper hispidum Sw., P. treleaseanum, and Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud.] known to be forage for this insect were used in food choice experiments. Multi- variate analyses revealed that, at different ages, males and females exhibit different patterns of consumption. Likewise, preexposure to only one food influences subsequent diet differently depending upon preexposure regime and sex. In addition, preferences are shown for different qualities of leaves within single forage species. In particular, lower (older) leaves of P. treleaseanum are preferred, whereas leaves of D. arboreus and U. baccifera are eaten indiscriminately. These results are consistent with the contention that herbivores forage within nutritional constraints. In addition, walkingsticks distinguish between plant species, recognize differences in leaf quality associated with age or position, and modify their diet to reflect past experience.

  16. Voluntary Folic Acid Fortification Levels and Nutrient Composition of Food Products from the Spanish Market: A 2011-2015 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, María Lourdes; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-03-05

    Folic acid (FA) is a synthetic compound commonly added for voluntary fortification of food products in many European countries. In our country, food composition databases (FCDB) lack comprehensive data on FA fortification practices and this is considered a priority research need when undergoing nutritional assessment of the population. A product inventory was collected and updated by visiting retail stores in Madrid Region, conducting online supermarket searches, and by the provision of food label information by manufacturers. Euro-FIR FCDB guidelines for data compilation and harmonization were used. The FCDB, compiled between 2011 and 2015, includes FA as well as macro and micronutrient data from 338 fortified foodstuffs. As compared to previous FCDB updates (May 2010), 37 products have ceased to declare added FA in their labels, mainly yogurt and fermented milk products. The main food subgroup is 'breakfast cereals' (n = 95, 34% of total). However, the highest average FA fortification levels per recommended serving were observed in the 'milk, milk products, and milk substitutes' group at ≥35% FA Nutrient Reference Values (NRV, 200 µg, EU Regulation 1169 of 2011) (60-76.3 µg FA per 200 mL). Average contribution to the FA NRV per food group and serving ranged between 16%-35%. Our data show a minor decrease in the number of FA fortified products, but vitamin levels added by manufacturers are stable in most food groups and subgroups. This representative product inventory comprises the main FA food source from voluntary fortification in our country. It is therefore a unique compilation tool with valuable data for the assessment of dietary intakes for the vitamin.

  17. Voluntary Folic Acid Fortification Levels and Nutrient Composition of Food Products from the Spanish Market: A 2011–2015 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, María Lourdes; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) is a synthetic compound commonly added for voluntary fortification of food products in many European countries. In our country, food composition databases (FCDB) lack comprehensive data on FA fortification practices and this is considered a priority research need when undergoing nutritional assessment of the population. Methods. A product inventory was collected and updated by visiting retail stores in Madrid Region, conducting online supermarket searches, and by the provision of food label information by manufacturers. Euro-FIR FCDB guidelines for data compilation and harmonization were used. Results. The FCDB, compiled between 2011 and 2015, includes FA as well as macro and micronutrient data from 338 fortified foodstuffs. As compared to previous FCDB updates (May 2010), 37 products have ceased to declare added FA in their labels, mainly yogurt and fermented milk products. The main food subgroup is ‘breakfast cereals’ (n = 95, 34% of total). However, the highest average FA fortification levels per recommended serving were observed in the ‘milk, milk products, and milk substitutes’ group at ≥35% FA Nutrient Reference Values (NRV, 200 µg, EU Regulation 1169 of 2011) (60–76.3 µg FA per 200 mL). Average contribution to the FA NRV per food group and serving ranged between 16%–35%. Conclusion. Our data show a minor decrease in the number of FA fortified products, but vitamin levels added by manufacturers are stable in most food groups and subgroups. This representative product inventory comprises the main FA food source from voluntary fortification in our country. It is therefore a unique compilation tool with valuable data for the assessment of dietary intakes for the vitamin. PMID:28273872

  18. Voluntary Folic Acid Fortification Levels and Nutrient Composition of Food Products from the Spanish Market: A 2011–2015 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folic acid (FA is a synthetic compound commonly added for voluntary fortification of food products in many European countries. In our country, food composition databases (FCDB lack comprehensive data on FA fortification practices and this is considered a priority research need when undergoing nutritional assessment of the population. Methods. A product inventory was collected and updated by visiting retail stores in Madrid Region, conducting online supermarket searches, and by the provision of food label information by manufacturers. Euro-FIR FCDB guidelines for data compilation and harmonization were used. Results. The FCDB, compiled between 2011 and 2015, includes FA as well as macro and micronutrient data from 338 fortified foodstuffs. As compared to previous FCDB updates (May 2010, 37 products have ceased to declare added FA in their labels, mainly yogurt and fermented milk products. The main food subgroup is ‘breakfast cereals’ (n = 95, 34% of total. However, the highest average FA fortification levels per recommended serving were observed in the ‘milk, milk products, and milk substitutes’ group at ≥35% FA Nutrient Reference Values (NRV, 200 µg, EU Regulation 1169 of 2011 (60–76.3 µg FA per 200 mL. Average contribution to the FA NRV per food group and serving ranged between 16%–35%. Conclusion. Our data show a minor decrease in the number of FA fortified products, but vitamin levels added by manufacturers are stable in most food groups and subgroups. This representative product inventory comprises the main FA food source from voluntary fortification in our country. It is therefore a unique compilation tool with valuable data for the assessment of dietary intakes for the vitamin.

  19. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelst, van M.; Hesta, M.; Alexander, L.G.; Gray, K.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Laing, Du G.; Meulenaer, de B.; Goethals, K.; Janssens, G.

    2015-01-01

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for

  20. Ranking the microbiological safety of foods: A new tool and its application to composite products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella, P.; Cerf, O.; Hugas, M.; Koutsoumanis, K.P.; Nguyen-The, C.; Sofos, J.N.; Valero, A.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    A methodology based on the combination of two complementary approaches to rank microbiological risks in foods is presented. In the forward approach data on the pathogenicity of hazards and their behaviour in food during processing and following steps, up to consumption, are used in decision trees to

  1. Food intolerance, diet composition, and eating patterns in functional dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta Villas Boas; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Almeida, Jazon Romilson de Souza; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate dietary factors, food intolerance, and the body mass index data, as an indicator of nutritional status, in functional dyspepsia patients. Forty-one functional dyspepsia patients and 30 healthy volunteers answered a standardized questionnaire to identify eating habits and food intolerance, and then completed a 7-day alimentary diary. There was no significant difference in daily total caloric intake between patients and controls. Patients associated their symptoms with the ingestion of several foods, but in general maintained their regular intake, with the exception of a small reduction in the proportion of fat in comparison with controls (median 28 vs. 34%; P = 0.001). No patient was underweight. In conclusion, our results suggest that food intolerance has no remarkable influence on food pattern and nutritional status in most functional dyspepsia patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fat in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms.

  2. Composition-Based Prediction of Temperature-Dependent Thermophysical Food Properties: Reevaluating Component Groups and Prediction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David Martin; Frelka, John C; Heldman, Dennis Ray

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity) is an important component of process design for food manufacturing. Current models for prediction of thermophysical properties of foods are based on the composition, specifically, fat, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, water, and ash contents, all of which change with temperature. The objectives of this investigation were to reevaluate and improve the prediction expressions for thermophysical properties. Previously published data were analyzed over the temperature range from 10 to 150 °C. These data were analyzed to create a series of relationships between the thermophysical properties and temperature for each food component, as well as to identify the dependence of the thermophysical properties on more specific structural properties of the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Results from this investigation revealed that the relationships between the thermophysical properties of the major constituents of foods and temperature can be statistically described by linear expressions, in contrast to the current polynomial models. Links between variability in thermophysical properties and structural properties were observed. Relationships for several thermophysical properties based on more specific constituents have been identified. Distinctions between simple sugars (fructose, glucose, and lactose) and complex carbohydrates (starch, pectin, and cellulose) have been proposed. The relationships between the thermophysical properties and proteins revealed a potential correlation with the molecular weight of the protein. The significance of relating variability in constituent thermophysical properties with structural properties--such as molecular mass--could significantly improve composition-based prediction models and, consequently, the effectiveness of process design. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Les Tables de salon (Coffee Tables)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondina, Marisa; Gilbert, Rodrigue

    1977-01-01

    Terms for such things as furniture in English reflect function and are specific, not generic in nature. French equivalents are based on linguistic criteria. "Tables basses" or "tables de salon" are equivalents of "coffee tables"; they illustrate the tendency toward the generic of the French language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  4. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  5. Food insecurity, but not HIV-infection status, is associated with adverse changes in body composition during lactation in Ugandan women of mixed HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Collins, Shalean M; Khan, Hijab; Biribawa, Claire; Acidri, Daniel; Achoko, Winifred; Achola, Harriet; Ghosh, Shibani; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Young, Sera L

    2017-02-01

    Body composition is an important indicator of nutritional status and health. How body composition changes during 12 mo of breastfeeding in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unknown. We assessed whether HIV or food insecurity was associated with adverse postpartum body-composition changes in Ugandan women. A cohort of 246 women [36.5% of whom were HIV positive (HIV+) and were receiving ART] were followed to 12 mo postpartum. Repeated measures included weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, midupper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness [which allowed for the derivation of arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA)], breastfeeding, and individual food insecurity. Longitudinal regression models were constructed to assess associations between HIV and food insecurity and changes in body composition over time. At baseline, HIV+ women compared with HIV-negative women had a higher mean ± SD food-insecurity score (11.3 ± 5.5 compared with 8.6 ± 5.5, respectively; P composition outcomes, HIV was not associated with body composition (all P > 0.05), whereas food insecurity was inversely associated with body weight and BMI at 6, 9, and 12 mo and with AFA at 6 and 12 mo (all P food-insecurity score was associated with a 0.13-kg lower body weight (P composition changes are minimal during lactation. HIV is not associated with body composition; however, food insecurity is associated with changes in body composition during lactation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02922829 and NCT02925429. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  7. Effect of compositional alteration of food matrices and processing on availability of selected nutrients and bioactive components in rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2011-05-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.

  8. Analytical and compositional aspects of isoflavones in food and their biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Kulling, Sabine E.; Schwartz, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of analytical techniques used to determine isoflavones (IFs) in foods and biological fluids with main emphasis on sample preparation methods. Factors influencing the content of IFs in food including processing and natural variability are summarized and an insight...... on a range of health outcomes including atherosclerosis, breast, intestinal, and prostate cancers, menopausal symptoms, bone health, and cognition are reviewed on the basis of the available in vitro, in vivo animal and human data...

  9. Deep-frying food in extra virgin olive oil: a study by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance of the influence of food nature on the evolving composition of the frying medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Yusta, Andrea; Guillén, María Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Three series of fourteen deep-frying experiments on three foods of very different compositions were carried out using extra virgin olive oil as the original frying medium. The aim of the study was to establish how the nature of the food being fried influences the composition of the frying medium. The changes in the composition of the frying media referred to the evolution of molar percentage of the different kinds of acyl groups, as well as to the evolution of the concentration of newly formed compounds such as aldehydes, epoxystearyl groups, primary and secondary alcohols were monitored in a simultaneous way by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Changes due to hydrolytic processes were also considered. In addition, the evolution of the Iodine Value and percentage in weight of polar compounds was also analysed. The influence of food lipids migration to the frying medium on the composition of this latter was evidenced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nesfatin-1 in childhood and adolescent obesity and its association with food intake, body composition and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Ghada M; Yamamah, Gamal; Ibrahim, Amani; El-Lebedy, Dalia; Farid, Tarek M; Mahmoud, Rasha

    2014-01-10

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic peptide that controls feeding behavior and glucose homeostasis. However, there is little data that exists regarding nesfatin-1 secretion in obese children and young adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate serum nesfatin-1 in childhood and adolescent obesity and to study potential correlations with food intake, anthropometric indices, body composition and insulin resistance. Forty obese children and adolescents and 40 healthy control subjects were studied. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, dietary food intake was evaluated based on 3-days food record and body composition indices were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were measured. Fasting serum nesfatin-1 was quantitatively assayed by ELISA. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly higher in obese group (2.49±1.96 ng/ml) than in control group (0.70±0.81 ng/ml), P=0.001. Positive correlations with serum insulin (P=0.001), HOMA-IR (P=0.000), BMI-SDS (P=0.04), body fat % (P=0.000), fat mass (P=0.000), fat free mass (P=0.03), CHO % (P=0.000), and saturated fat % (P=0.01) were found. While significant negative correlation with protein % (P=0.000) was observed. In conclusion, our results denote that nesfatin-1 might have an important role in regulation of food intake and pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese children and young adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes; 1. table ronde - La composition des combustibles uses. L'aval du combustible et le retraitement, la gestion du plutonium et des autres matieres nucleaires. 2. table ronde - Separation-transmutation. 3. table ronde - Scenarii pour un inventaire des matieres et des dechets nucleaires a LT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  12. Assessing and improving the quality of food composition databases for nutrition and health applications in Europe: the contribution of EuroFIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finglas, Paul M; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

    2014-09-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe.

  13. Assessing and Improving the Quality of Food Composition Databases for Nutrition and Health Applications in Europe: The Contribution of EuroFIR123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finglas, Paul M.; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

    2014-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25469406

  14. Effect of food/oral-simulating liquids on dynamic mechanical thermal properties of dental nanohybrid light-cured resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouvoudi, Evangelia C; Sideridou, Irini D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the effect of food/oral simulating liquids on the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (viscoelastic properties) of current commercial dental light-cured resin composites characterized as nanohybrids. These nanohybrids were Grandio, Protofill-nano and Tetric EvoCeram. The properties were determined under dry conditions (1h at 37°C after light-curing) and also after storage in dry air, distilled water, artificial saliva SAGF(®) or ethanol/water solution (75 vol%) at 37°C for up 1, 7, 30 or 90 days. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis tests were performed on a Diamond Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer in bending mode. A frequency of 1Hz and a temperature range of 25-185°C were applied, while the heating rate of 2°C/min was selected to cover mouth temperature and the materials' likely Tg. Storage modulus, loss modulus and tangent delta were plotted against temperature over this period. The Tg of composites was obtained as the temperature indicated by tanδ peak. Moreover, the maximum height of tanδ peak, the width at the half of tanδ maximum and a parameter known as "ζ" parameter were determined. All composites analyzed 1h after light-curing and 1 day in air or in food/oral simulating liquids showed two Tg. All composites stored for 7, 30 or 90 days in any medium showed unique Tg value. Also among the various properties studied the most sensible in the structural changes of composites seems to be the Tg. Storage of composites in dry air at 37°C which is very close to their Tg (40°C) for 1 or 7 days caused post curing reactions, while storage for 30 or 90 days has no further effect on composites. Storage in water or artificial saliva 37°C for 1 or 7 days caused post curing reactions, while storage for 30 or 90 days seems to cause plasticization effect affecting some parameters analogously. Storage in ethanol/water solution (75vol%) 37°C for 1 or 7 days caused also post curing reactions, while storage for 30 or 90 days

  15. Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes.

  16. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues...

  17. Development of Antibacterial Composite Films Based on Isotactic Polypropylene and Coated ZnO Particles for Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Silvestre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing new films based on isotactic polypropylene (iPP for food packaging applications using zinc oxide (ZnO with submicron dimension particles obtained by spray pyrolysis. To improve compatibility with iPP, the ZnO particles were coated with stearic acid (ZnOc. Composites based on iPP with 2 wt % and 5 wt % of ZnOc were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and then filmed by a calender. The effect of ZnOc on the properties of iPP were assessed and compared with those obtained in previous study on iPP/ZnO and iPP/iPPgMA/ZnO. For all composites, a homogeneous distribution and dispersion of ZnOc was obtained indicating that the coating with stearic acid of the ZnO particles reduces the surface polarity mismatch between iPP and ZnO. The iPP/ZnOc composite films have relevant zinc oxide with respect to E. coli, higher thermal stability and improved mechanical and impact properties than the pure polymer and the composites iPP/ZnO and iPP/iPPgMA/ZnO. This study demonstrated that iPP/ZnOc films are suitable materials for potential application in the active packaging field.

  18. Diet-induced obesity in ad libitum-fed mice: food texture overrides the effect of macronutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Charles; Ludwig, Tobias; Scheundel, Ronny; Rink, Nadine; Bader, Bernhard L; Klingenspor, Martin; Daniel, Hannelore

    2013-04-28

    Diet-induced obesity in mice can be achieved through the use of diets with different macronutrient compositions and textures. We aimed at determining the contribution of macronutrient composition to obesity development and associated pathophysiological changes in mice. C57BL/6N mice were offered a control, a high-fat or a Western-style diet, either as pellet (H for hard) or with identical composition in powder form (S for soft), resulting in C-S, C-H, HF-H, HF-S, W-H and W-S groups, respectively. Body fat distribution, expression levels of selected target genes in adipose tissues, clinical chemistry and hormone concentration in the blood, as well as liver TAG content were measured. The most striking finding was that all mice fed the different powder diets developed obesity with similar weight gain, whereas among the mice fed the pellet diets, only those given the HF and W diets became obese. This allowed us to separate diet-specific effects from obesity-mediated effects. Irrespective of the food texture, the W diet induced a more severe hepatosteatosis and higher activities of serum transaminases compared with the two other diets. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis revealed that leptin and adiponectin levels were not affected by the dietary composition per se, whereas uncoupling protein 1 and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 levels were decreased by both dietary composition and changes in body weight. In conclusion, diets differing in macronutrient composition elicit specific pathophysiological changes, independently of changes in body weight. A diet high in both fat and sugars seems to be more deleterious for the liver than a HF diet.

  19. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression modeling performed on measurements of selected pesticides in composited duplicate diet samples allowed (1) estimation ...

  20. Jet Cooked Starch and Essential Oil Composites as Antimicrobial Coating on Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 76 million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States. Foodborne illness result from consumption of food contaminated with pathogens and its toxins. Essential oils such as cinnamon, garlic, oregano are known to possess antimicrobial properties. Stable aqueous star...

  1. Using Google Analytics to measure visitor statistics: The case of food composition websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, H.; Presser, K.; Christensen, Tue

    2012-01-01

    Measuring visitor statistics is a core activity for any website provider. However, the analytical methods have so far been quite limited, difficult, expensive, or cumbersome. Google Analytics (GA) offers a free tool for measuring and analysing visitor statistics. GA was tested on three food...... website providers to utilise either GA or another of the similar tools available....

  2. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  3. Baobab food products: a review on their composition and nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have published about baobab food products. Data on macronutrients, micronutrients, amino acids, and fatty acids were collected from literature for pulp, leaves, seeds, and kernels of the baobab tree. The results show that baobab pulp is particularly rich in vitamin C; consumption of

  4. Training aspects in the use and production of food composition databases. The EuroFIR experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Witthöft, C.; Busstra, M.C.; Elburg, L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of national food databases have been published on the internet. However, these internet databases can only be searched individually, and the data have been compiled at a national level, resulting in incompatibilities. To resolve these problems, the Network of Excellence EuroFIR

  5. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  6. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids, were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  7. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape.

  8. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  9. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Cunningham; Nguyen, Van; Paul Adorno; Veronique Droulez

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat coo...

  10. Analytical characterization of laser-generated copper nanoparticles for antibacterial composite food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longano, D; Ditaranto, N; Cioffi, N; Di Niso, F; Sibillano, T; Ancona, A; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A; Sabbatini, L; Torsi, L

    2012-05-01

    A new type of nanomaterial has been developed as antibacterial additive for food packaging applications. This nanocomposite is composed of copper nanoparticles embedded in polylactic acid, combining the antibacterial properties of copper nanoparticles with the biodegradability of the polymer matrix. Metal nanoparticles have been synthesised by means of laser ablation, a rising and easy route to prepare nanostructures without any capping agent in a liquid environment. As prepared, nanoparticle suspensions have been easily mixed to a polymer solution. The resulting hybrid solutions have been deposited by drop casting, thus obtaining self-standing antibacterial packages. All samples have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Ion release data have been matched with bioactivity tests performed by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) method (JIS Z 2801:2000) against Pseudomonas spp., a very common Gram-negative microbial group able to proliferate in processed food.

  11. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  12. Amount and metal composition of midgut gland metallothionein in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) after exposure to cadmium in the food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bach, Louise Thornhøj; Bjerregaard, Poul, E-mail: poul@biology.sdu.dk

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Crabs were fed with Cd in concentrations of 1.1–5.1 μg g⁻¹ food. • Metallothionein concentrations only increased at 5.1 μg g⁻¹. • Cd contents of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure. • A marked influence by the variable Cu contents on metal composition was recorded. • Digestive gland metallothionein is a poor biomarker for Cd exposure. - Abstract: Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the food affects the subcellular binding of cadmium with the shore crab Carcinus maenas as model organism. Approximately 80% of the assimilated cadmium was bound in the soluble fraction of the midgut gland and of this, 82% was found in the metallothionein fraction. Metallothionein synthesis was only induced at the highest exposure level. However, the number of cadmium atoms bound per molecule of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure, from approximately 0.18 in the control group to 1.4 in a group administered food containing 5.1 μg Cd g⁻¹. We noted a marked interaction between the presence of copper and zinc in the midgut gland and the binding of cadmium. The usefulness of crustacean midgut gland metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure at modest levels was questioned since exposures at levels producing significant increases in the tissue contents of the metal did not result in elevated concentrations of metallothionein in the midgut gland.

  13. Understanding External Plasticization of Melt Extruded PHBV-Wheat Straw Fibers Biodegradable Composites for Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Lucrezia; Berthet, Marie-Alix; Gontard, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to get further knowledge on the external plasticization mechanisms of melt extruded polyhydroxyl-3-butyrate-co-3-valerate (PHBV) when combined with wheat straw fibers (WSF). Different types of biodegradable substances, all authorized for food contact according to the European regulation, i.e., acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), glycerol triacetate (GTA) and (PEG) at different molecular weights, were tested at different percentages (5, 10 and 20 wt %). Thermal and mec...

  14. Dynamic experimentation on the confocal laser scanning microscope : application to soft-solid, composite food materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plucknett, K.P.; Pomfret, S.J.; Normand, V.; Ferdinando, D.; Veerman, C.; Frith, W.J.; Norton, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is used to follow the dynamic structural evolution of several phase-separated mixed biopolymer gel composites. Two protein/polysaccharide mixed gel systems were examined: gelatin/maltodextrin and gelatin/agarose. These materials exhibit 'emulsion-like' struc

  15. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  16. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on public health risks represented by certain composite products containing food of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This Opinion reviews the factors that affect microbial survival and growth in composite products, and in foods in general. It concludes that the main factors to be considered are: water activity, pH, temperature and duration of storage, processing, and intensity and duration of other non-thermal ......This Opinion reviews the factors that affect microbial survival and growth in composite products, and in foods in general. It concludes that the main factors to be considered are: water activity, pH, temperature and duration of storage, processing, and intensity and duration of other non...... and their ingredients, shelf-life conditions, and reliability of cooking by consumers to inactivate pathogens. The decision tools developed apply to all composite products considered by the mandate, as well as to all other foods....

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  18. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  20. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  1. Pension Insurance Data Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — Find out about retirement trends in PBGC's data tables. The tables include statistics on the people and pensions that PBGC protects, including how many Americans are...

  2. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  3. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  4. Body Composition and Energy Expenditure Predict Ad-Libitum Food and Macronutrient Intake in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Christopher M.; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. Methods In 184 humans (73F/111M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m2), FM index (FMI kg*m2;), and 24-hour e...

  5. Effects of food composition on the inactivation of foodborne microorganisms by chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekinderen, I; Devlieghere, F; Van Camp, J; Kerkaert, B; Cucu, T; Ragaert, P; De Bruyne, J; De Meulenaer, B

    2009-05-31

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a strong oxidizing agent that can be applied in solution as well as in the gaseous state. It has bactericidal, fungicidal and viricidal properties. Several food-related microorganisms, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, mould spores and Bacillus cereus spores were tested for their susceptibility to 0.08 mg/L gaseous ClO2 during 1 min at a relative humidity of 90%. In this screening, the resistance of the different groups of microorganisms towards gaseous ClO2 generally increased in the order Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and mould spores and Bacillus cereus spores. With this treatment, reductions of microbial numbers between 0.1 and 3.5 log cfu/cm2 could be achieved. The effects of the food components starch, fat, protein and NaCl on the antimicrobial activity of gaseous ClO2 were also evaluated. Soluble starch, corn oil, butter, whey protein isolate and NaCl were added in incremental concentrations to portions of an agar medium. Then, plates of the supplemented agars were inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes at numbers of 4 log cfu/cm2 and subsequently treated with ClO2. Both soluble starch and NaCl did not have an effect on the antimicrobial efficiency of ClO2. However, butter, corn oil or whey protein in the agar almost eliminated the antimicrobial effect of ClO2. In corn oil-water emulsions treated with gaseous ClO2 the peroxide value increased significantly, indicating the formation of primary oxidation products. Similarly, a treatment with ClO2 increased the protein carbonyl content and induced the transformation of SH-groups to -S-S-groups in whey protein. The findings suggest that gaseous ClO2 will be a highly effective decontaminating agent for carbohydrate-rich foods, but that it would be less effective for the decontamination of high-protein and fatty foods.

  6. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the 'Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L; Collins, Clare E

    2016-11-10

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0-5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children.

  7. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Alexander, Lucille G; Gray, Kerry; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; Du Laing, Gijs; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Goethals, Klara; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-06-28

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (Pcanning process (n 4) decreased Se Aiv (P =0·001), whereas extrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability.

  8. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, C M; Hohenadel, M G; Krakoff, J; Votruba, S B

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. In 184 humans (73 females/111 males; age 34.5±8.8 years; percentage body fat: 31.6±8.1%), we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI, kg m(-2)), FM index (FMI, kg m(-2)); and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3-day vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL) and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMENs). FFMI was positively associated with CAL (Pintake (all PFood and macronutrient intake are predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.

  9. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  10. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  11. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2013-01-01

    Apparently table tennis plays an important role in physics, not so much because physicists are interested in the theory of table tennis ball scattering, but probably because it provides useful breaks from their deep intellectual occupation. It seems that many of the greatest physicists took table tennis very seriously. For instance, Heisenberg could not even bear to lose a game of table tennis, Otto Frisch played a lot of table tennis, and had a table set up in his library, and Niels Bohr apparently beat everybody at table tennis. Therefore, as the CERN Table Tennis Club advertises on a poster for the next CERN Table Tennis Tournament: “if you want to be a great physicist, perhaps you should play table tennis”. Outdoor table at restaurant n° 1 For this reason, and also as part of the campaign launched by the CERN medical service “Move! & Eat better”, to encourage everyone at CERN to take regular exercise, the CERN Table Tennis Club, with the supp...

  12. Food Composition of the Snake-Eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans Ménétriés, 1832 (Reptilia: Sauria: Lacertidae from Gökçeada (Imbros, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Varol Tok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the food composition of the snake-eyed lizard (Ophisops elegans, from Gökçeada (Imbros, Çanakkale, Turkey. A total of 94 preys were determined in thedigestive systems of 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females examined in the study. Insects (67%constitute most of its food composition. Major prey groups in the food composition are included inAranea (13%, Lepidoptera (13%, Coleoptera (19%, and Homoptera (20% in numeric proportion.No significant difference was observed between sexes considering food composition.

  13. Carnitine administration reduces cytokine levels, improves food intake, and ameliorates body composition in tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, Alessandro; Molfino, Alessio; Seelaender, Marilia; Frascaria, Teresa; Bertini, Giuseppe; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Bollea, Maria Rosa; Citro, Gennaro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    Increased cytokine expression contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer anorexia?cachexia syndrome. Carnitine may reduce inflammation in chronic diseases. We tested the effects of L-propionylcarnitine (PC group) or saline (C group) on food intake (FI), body composition, and inflammatory status of MCA-sarcoma-bearing rats. On tumor appearance, rats were randomly assigned to daily i.p. injection of L-propionylcarnitine (250 mg/kgBW/d; n = 8) or saline (equal volume; n = 8). FI and fat-free mass wasting improved in PC rats only (p < .01 vs. controls). Cytokines? levels decreased in PC rats vs. controls (p < .02). Results suggest that carnitine may ameliorate cancer anorexia?cachexia, via reduction of the inflammatory status.

  14. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  15. Comparison between analyzed and calculated nutrient content of fast foods using two consecutive versions of the Danish food composition databank: FOODCOMP and FRIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling

    2017-01-01

    -to-eat fast foods were collected from fast food outlets, separated into their components and weighed. Typical components were bread, French fries, vegetables, meat and dressings. The fast foods were analyzed, and energy, protein, saturated fat, iron, thiamin, potassium and sodium contents were compared...

  16. Distortion of genetically modified organism quantification in processed foods: influence of particle size compositions and heat-induced DNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, Francisco; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-12-28

    Milling fractions from conventional and transgenic corn were prepared at laboratory scale and used to study the influence of sample composition and heat-induced DNA degradation on the relative quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food products. Particle size distributions of the obtained fractions (coarse grits, regular grits, meal, and flour) were characterized using a laser diffraction system. The application of two DNA isolation protocols revealed a strong correlation between the degree of comminution of the milling fractions and the DNA yield in the extracts. Mixtures of milling fractions from conventional and transgenic material (1%) were prepared and analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Accurate quantification of the adjusted GMO content was only possible in mixtures containing conventional and transgenic material in the form of analogous milling fractions, whereas mixtures of fractions exhibiting different particle size distributions delivered significantly over- and underestimated GMO contents depending on their compositions. The process of heat-induced nucleic acid degradation was followed by applying two established quantitative assays showing differences between the lengths of the recombinant and reference target sequences (A, deltal(A) = -25 bp; B, deltal(B) = +16 bp; values related to the amplicon length of the reference gene). Data obtained by the application of method A resulted in underestimated recoveries of GMO contents in the samples of heat-treated products, reflecting the favored degradation of the longer target sequence used for the detection of the transgene. In contrast, data yielded by the application of method B resulted in increasingly overestimated recoveries of GMO contents. The results show how commonly used food technological processes may lead to distortions in the results of quantitative GMO analyses.

  17. Thirty years of progress in harmonizing and compiling food data as a result of the establishment of INFOODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Charrondiere, U Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2016-02-15

    The International Network of Foods Data Systems (INFOODS) has provided leadership on the development and use of food composition data for over 30years. The mission of INFOODS is the promotion of international participation, cooperation and harmonization in the generation, compilation and dissemination of adequate and reliable data on the composition of foods, beverages, and their ingredients in forms appropriate to meet the needs of various users. Achievements include the development of guidelines and standards, increased capacity development in generating and compiling food composition data, a food composition database management system, improvements in laboratory quality assurance, and development of several food composition databases and tables. Recently, INFOODS has led efforts to define and document food biodiversity. As new foods and food components come into prominence, and as analytical methods evolve, the activities of INFOODS will continue to advance the quality and quantity of food composition data globally into the future. Copyright © 2015 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A distinct microbiota composition is associated with protection from food allergy in an oral mouse immunization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesner, Susanne C; Bergmayr, Cornelia; Pfitzner, Barbara; Assmann, Vera; Krishnamurthy, Durga; Starkl, Philipp; Endesfelder, David; Rothballer, Michael; Welzl, Gerhard; Rattei, Thomas; Eiwegger, Thomas; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Hartmann, Anton; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Untersmayr, Eva

    2016-12-01

    In our mouse model, gastric acid-suppression is associated with antigen-specific IgE and anaphylaxis development. We repeatedly observed non-responder animals protected from food allergy. Here, we aimed to analyse reasons for this protection. Ten out of 64 mice, subjected to oral ovalbumin (OVA) immunizations under gastric acid-suppression, were non-responders without OVA-specific IgE or IgG1 elevation, indicating protection from allergy. In these non-responders, allergen challenges confirmed reduced antigen uptake and lack of anaphylactic symptoms, while in allergic mice high levels of mouse mast-cell protease-1 and a body temperature reduction, indicative for anaphylaxis, were determined. Upon OVA stimulation, significantly lower IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 levels were detected in non-responders, while IL-22 was significantly higher. Comparison of fecal microbiota revealed differences of bacterial communities on single bacterial Operational-Taxonomic-Unit level between the groups, indicating protection from food allergy being associated with a distinct microbiota composition in a non-responding phenotype in this mouse model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value.

  20. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-16

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either 10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children.

  1. A comprehensive NMR methodology to assess the composition of biobased and biodegradable polymers in contact with food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Audrey [Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Département Chimie et Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, 78197 Trappes Cedex (France); INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 91300 Massy (France); Merlet, Denis [Université Paris-Sud Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, Equipe de RMN en Milieu Orienté, Bat. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Ducruet, Violette [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 91300 Massy (France); Lyathaud, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.lyathaud@lne.fr [Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Département Chimie et Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, 78197 Trappes Cedex (France)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodological approach by NMR was developed to assess the safety of food contact materials. • Additives from PLA were rapidly identified by an automatic NMR methodology coupled with dedicated database. • Quantitative NMR (qNMR) allowed to quantify 12 additives in three types of polylactide. • qNMR is as sensitive as chromatographic methods to quantify additives in PLA. - Abstract: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology was assessed regarding the identification and quantification of additives in three types of polylactide (PLA) intended as food contact materials. Additives were identified using the LNE/NMR database which clusters NMR datasets on more than 130 substances authorized by European Regulation No. 10/2011. Of the 12 additives spiked in the three types of PLA pellets, 10 were rapidly identified by the database and correlated with spectral comparison. The levels of the 12 additives were estimated using quantitative NMR combined with graphical computation. A comparison with chromatographic methods tended to prove the sensitivity of NMR by demonstrating an analytical difference of less than 15%. Our results therefore demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed NMR methodology for rapid assessment of the composition of PLA.

  2. Impact of food and fluid intake on technical and biological measurement error in body composition assessment methods in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary J; Byrne, Nuala

    2017-02-01

    Two, three and four compartment (2C, 3C and 4C) models of body composition are popular methods to measure fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in athletes. However, the impact of food and fluid intake on measurement error has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate standardised (overnight fasted, rested and hydrated) v. non-standardised (afternoon and non-fasted) presentation on technical and biological error on surface anthropometry (SA), 2C, 3C and 4C models. In thirty-two athletic males, measures of SA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) were taken to establish 2C, 3C and 4C models. Tests were conducted after an overnight fast (duplicate), about 7 h later after ad libitum food and fluid intake, and repeated 24 h later before and after ingestion of a specified meal. Magnitudes of changes in the mean and typical errors of measurement were determined. Mean change scores for non-standardised presentation and post meal tests for FM were substantially large in BIS, SA, 3C and 4C models. For FFM, mean change scores for non-standardised conditions produced large changes for BIS, 3C and 4C models, small for DXA, trivial for BOD POD and SA. Models that included a total body water (TBW) value from BIS (3C and 4C) were more sensitive to TBW changes in non-standardised conditions than 2C models. Biological error is minimised in all models with standardised presentation but DXA and BOD POD are acceptable if acute food and fluid intake remains below 500 g.

  3. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  4. Feeding periodicity, diet composition, and food consumption of subyearling rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Although winter is a critically important period for stream salmonids, aspects of the ecology of several species are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined the diel feeding ecology of subyearling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during winter in a central New York stream. Rainbow trout diet was significantly different during each 4-h interval and also differed from the drift and benthos. Feeding was significantly greater during darkness (i.e. 20:00 h – 04:00 h) than during daylight hours (i.e. 08:00 h – 16:00 h), peaking at 20:00 h. Daily food consumption (1.9 mg) and daily ration (3.4 %) during winter were substantially lower than previously reported for subyearling rainbow trout in the same stream during summer. These findings provide important new insights into the winter feeding ecology of juvenile rainbow trout in streams.

  5. Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwull-Schöne, Heidrun; Kiwull, Peter; Manz, Friedrich; Kalhoff, Hermann

    2008-02-01

    Alkali-enriched diets are recommended for humans to diminish the net acid load of their usual diet. In contrast, herbivores have to deal with a high dietary alkali impact on acid-base balance. Here we explore the role of nutritional alkali in experimentally induced chronic metabolic acidosis. Data were collected from healthy male adult rabbits kept in metabolism cages to obtain 24-h urine and arterial blood samples. Randomized groups consumed rabbit diets ad libitum, providing sufficient energy but variable alkali load. One subgroup (n = 10) received high-alkali food and approximately 15 mEq/kg ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with its drinking water for 5 d. Another group (n = 14) was fed low-alkali food for 5 d and given approximately 4 mEq/kg NH4Cl daily for the last 2 d. The wide range of alimentary acid-base load was significantly reflected by renal base excretion, but normal acid-base conditions were maintained in the arterial blood. In rabbits fed a high-alkali diet, the excreted alkaline urine (pH(u) > 8.0) typically contained a large amount of precipitated carbonate, whereas in rabbits fed a low-alkali diet, both pH(u) and precipitate decreased considerably. During high-alkali feeding, application of NH4Cl likewise decreased pH(u), but arterial pH was still maintained with no indication of metabolic acidosis. During low-alkali feeding, a comparably small amount of added NH4Cl further lowered pH(u) and was accompanied by a significant systemic metabolic acidosis. We conclude that exhausted renal base-saving function by dietary alkali depletion is a prerequisite for growing susceptibility to NH4Cl-induced chronic metabolic acidosis in the herbivore rabbit.

  6. Diet composition and food consumption rate of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena ) in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Heidi; Ross, Stine Dalmann; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Stomach content composition and prey-specific consumption rates of juvenile and adult harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were estimated from a data set including 339 stomachs collected over a 32 yr period (1980–2011) in the western Baltic Sea. The stomach contents were mainly hard parts of fish...... acquisition method. Yearly consumption rates for porpoises in the western Baltic Sea were obtained in three scenarios on the daily energy requirements of a porpoise in combination with an estimate including the 95% CLs of the porpoise population size. Cod of age groups 1 and 2 and intermediate-sized herring...

  7. Use of Spicesin Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this era of increased concern on safety of chemical food additives, natural methods of preservation and .... Table 2: Examples of spide flavours and their respective attributive chcnucals. ~. ..... the reaction of nutmeg varies from no_.

  8. CERN Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Table Tennis Club

    2014-01-01

    CERN Table Tennis Club Announcing CERN 60th Anniversary Table Tennis Tournament to take place at CERN, from July 1 to July 15, 2014   The CERN Table Tennis Club, reborn in 2008, is encouraging people at CERN to take more regular exercise. This is why the Club, thanks to the strong support of the CERN Staff Association, installed last season a first outdoor table on the terrace of restaurant # 1, and will install another one this season on the terrace of Restaurant # 2. Table tennis provides both physical exercise and friendly social interactions. The CERN Table Tennis club is happy to use the unique opportunity of the 60th CERN anniversary to promote table tennis at CERN, as it is a game that everybody can easily play, regardless of level. Table tennis is particularly well suited for CERN, as many great physicists play table tennis, as you might already know: “Heisenberg could not even bear to lose a game of table tennis”; “Otto Frisch played a lot of table tennis;...

  9. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  10. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%, limonene (11.50%, β-bourbonene (11.23%, cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%, trans-caryophyllene (1.04%, menthone (1.01%, menthol (1%, and terpinen-4-ol (0.99. The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL. Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  11. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  12. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, ad

  13. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  14. FOOD COMPOSITION AND NICHE CHARACTERISTIC OF GIANT FEATHERBACK (Chitala lopis, Bleeker 1851 IN KAMPAR RIVER, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on the diets of Chitala lopis in Kampar River, Riau Province based on study conducted from Mei 2009 to November 2010. Fish species were obtained from fishers using modified nets, traps, hooks and lines. Specimens were cold with cool box at the point of collection and transported to the laboratory. A total of 176 fish specimens were inspected and their stomach contents were examined. The month-wise collection and experiments were made to exhibit the seasonal variation in food preferences, and feeding habit of the fish. Frequency of occasion and numerical methods were used in this study. Results of denote that C. lopis fed on juvenile fish, shrimp, plant material, insects, worms, benthos, gravel and unidentified organism. The consumption of shrimp tends to increase due to giant featherback’s size, which relates to wider mouth, energy, location (water depth and gonad development, also there is an increase of shrimp consumption during dry season. In giant featherback, the percentage of consumed shrimps is associated with sex and season, meanwhile the consumption of small fish and plant material is related to fish’s size, sampling station and maturity index. Giant featherback tends to be more selective consuming certain food’s group while growing.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD INTAKE AND ITS FAT COMPOSITION ON INTESTINAL ECHOGENICITY IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Granger, L Abbigail; Oubre, Olivia; Shannon, Dylan; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Dogs presenting for ultrasonography due to suspected gastrointestinal disease might have residual ingesta and this could have an affect on the appearance of intestinal mucosa unrelated to pathology. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to determine effects of a recent meal consisting of the recommended daily fat content (meal 1) and a higher fat one (meal 2) on mucosal echogenicity in healthy dogs. Sixty client-owned and clinically healthy dogs were recruited. Two meals, one with 15% fat dry matter basis (meal 1) and a second with 1.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil added to result in a range of 41-63% fat dry matter basis (meal 2), were fed 1 week apart after a 12 h fast. Mucosal echogenicity scores were assigned at fasting, immediate postprandial and at 60 min after each meal. Duodenal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at 60 min (P dogs after food intake, regardless of fat content. This effect should be taken into consideration when increased mucosal echogenicity is identified in clinical patients. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Composition in Food Powder Using Point-Scan Raman Spectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Dhakal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used Raman spectral imaging coupled with self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA for identification of three components mixed into a complex food powder mixture. Vanillin, melamine, and sugar were mixed together at 10 different concentration level (1% to 10%, w/w into powdered non-dairy creamer. SMA was used to decompose the complex multi-component spectra and extract the pure component spectra and corresponding contribution images. Spectral information divergence (SID values of the extracted pure component spectra and reference component spectra were computed to identify the components corresponding to the extracted spectra. The contribution images obtained via SMA were used to create Raman chemical images of the mixtures samples, to which threshold values were applied to obtain binary detection images of the components at all concentration levels. The detected numbers of pixels of each component in the binary images was found to be strongly correlated with the actual sample concentrations (correlation coefficient of 0.99 for all components. The results show that this method can be used for simultaneous identification of different components and estimation of their concentrations for authentication or quantitative inspection purposes.

  17. Figuring out food labels. Young adults' understanding of nutritional information presented on food labels is inadequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Miri; Sela, Ruti; Zentner, Gary; Shoob, Hanna; Shai, Iris; Stein-Zamir, Chen

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional labelling of packaged foods, mandated by law, includes details of the food content and composition - information that can affect individual and public lifestyle decisions and health status. We studied the comprehension of food labels among 120 young adults (mean age 24.1 years) attending an international travel immunization clinic. Each participant was presented with 10 food packages of common local products and was interviewed regarding the label's content. Most subjects (77.5%) reported that they took note of the food labels; women, the more educated and those engaging regularly in physical exercise were more inclined to do so. Out of a possible 10 points the overall median comprehension score was 6.0 (mean 5.7±1.8). The nutritional table section of the food label was understood the best, and the nutritional declaration section the least. The subjects thought they understood the food labels better than they actually did; 43.9% stated that they understood them very well, whereas only 27.2% achieved high scores. This inadequate comprehension of food labels represents a missed opportunity to provide essential information necessary for healthy food choices at the individual level. A combination of strategies is necessary, including improving food labels (simplification and standardization) combined with targeted educational programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in tRNA gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-04-10

    Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Iron status in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women: relation to food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars;

    2004-01-01

    status in the elderly population. The objective was to evaluate iron status and the relationship with food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake in an elderly population in Copenhagen County. Participants in this health examination survey were 358 subjects (171 men, 187 women) 80 years...

  20. TABLE TENNIS CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    TABLE TENNIS CLUB

    2010-01-01

    2010 CERN Table Tennis Tournament The CERN Table Tennis Club organizes its traditional CERN Table Tennis Tournament, at the Meyrin club, 2 rue de livron, in Meyrin, Saturday August 21st, in the afternoon. The tournament is open to all CERN staff, users, visitors and families, including of course summer students. See below for details. In order to register, simply send an E-mail to Jean-Pierre Revol (jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch). You can also download the registration form from the Club Web page (http://www.cern.ch/tabletennis), and send it via internal mail. Photo taken on August 22, 2009 showing some of the participants in the 2nd CERN Table Tennis tournament. INFORMATION ON CERN TABLE TENNIS CLUB CERN used to have a tradition of table tennis activities at CERN. For some reason, at the beginning of the 1980’s, the CERN Table Tennis club merged with the Meyrin Table Tennis club, a member of the Association Genevoise de Tennis de Table (AGTT). Therefore, if you want to practice table tennis, you...

  1. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  2. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  3. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  4. Study of the physicochemical composition of pumpkin seeds flour as a food ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flour from the presscake in the production of Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca seed virgin oil has features that make it interesting for use in baked goods and pasta production because of its characteristic green color, intense flavor and nutritional benefits. To determine the nutritional composition of this new product, elaborations of flour were made with seeds from Uruguay and Europe. They were analyzed for moisture, fat content, protein, ash, fiber, sodium, vitamin B1, vitamin E, fatty acid profile, sterols, amino acids and total carbohydrates. Physicochemical and microbiological stability have been studied for 12 months at ambient conditions with the flour packaged with a polyethylene, polyester and aluminum tri-laminate. The flour is characterized as a vegetable protein product (48,3 % and as an important source of fiber (11 %. It has 21,7 % of lipids of which 38 % are MUFA and 53,4 % are PUFA, highlighting the oleic and linoleic acid contents what makes it desirable from nutritional and culinary standpoints. It features 3,7 mg of vitamin E per 100 g and 2967 mg / kg of sterols. In flour from the presscake in the production of pumpkin seed virgin oil acidity and moisture remains stable, while the fungi and yeasts number decrease during 12 months in ambient conditions used in this study, with trilaminate polyethylene aluminized polyester.

  5. Mechanical and thermal properties of promising polymer composites for food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah Ali, S. F.

    2016-07-01

    Blending starches with biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a route to make processable thermoplastics. When developing biodegradable polymer composites it is important to use high concentrations of starch for legislative and cost reasons. The addition of starch has a significant effect on all physical properties including toughness, elongation at break and the rheological behaviour of the melt. To enhance the physical properties, we used cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) as a cellulose derivative with high amylase starch and PCL blends. It is suggested that the PCL/starch/CAP blends are partially miscible. It was found that the yield tensile strengths of most PCL/Starch/CAP blends were higher than that of pure PCL itself. There was a big difference between glass transition temperature values of PCL/Starch/CAP blends and the pure PCL glass transition temperature which indicates that no phase separation occurs. Addition of CAP to starch and PCL blends improved the mechanical and thermal properties even at high content of starch.

  6. Tarhana as a traditional Turkish fermented cereal food. Its recipe, production and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglioglu, O

    2000-04-01

    As a fermented product tarhana is the dry form of yogurt-cereal mixture and represents an important part of the diets of many people in Turkey. It is prepared by mixing wheat flour, yogurt, yeast and a variety of cooked vegetables (tomatoes, onions, green pepper etc.), salt, and spices (mint, paprika) followed by fermentation for one to seven days. Generally one part yogurt is mixed with two parts of wheat flour (w/w). In commercial production there are two methods for tarhana making. First method is called straight method and ingredients in the recipe is mixed and kneaded, fermented, dried and finally sieved. Second method is called sour dough method that contains three steps, each one has a different recipe. Throughout fermentation lactic acid bacteria and yeast give the characteristic taste and flavour of tarhana by producing lactic acid, ethanol, carbondioxide and some other organic compounds. Organic acids composed in fermentation period lower the pH (3.4-4.2), and low moisture content (6-10%) is a poor medium for pathogens and spoilage organisms. The nutrient content of tarhana depends upon yogurt and flour ratios as well as some other ingredients, and it is also considered to be a useful high-protein dietary supplement with average 15% protein content. Addition of set yogurt due to high dry matter content and baker's yeast increase protein content and enhances it's amino acid composition.

  7. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition are associated with better potential spatial access to the ground-truthed food environment in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about spatial inequalities and potential access to the food environment in rural areas. In this study, we assessed the food environment in a 6-county rural region of Texas (11,567 km2) through ground-truthed methods that included direct observation and on-site Global Positioning System technology to examine the relationship between neighborhood inequalities (e.g., socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition) and network distance from all 101 rural neighborhoods to the nearest food store (FS). Neighborhood deprivation was determined from socioeconomic characteristics using 2000 census block group (CBG) data. Network distances were calculated from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supermarket, grocery, convenience, and discount store. Multiple regression models examined associations among deprivation, minority composition, population density, and network distance to the nearest FS. The median distance to the nearest supermarket was 14.9 km one way (range 0.12 to 54.0 km). The distance decreased with increasing deprivation, minority composition, and population density. The worst deprived neighborhoods with the greatest minority composition had better potential spatial access to the nearest FS. For >20% of all rural residents, their neighborhoods were at least 17.7 km from the nearest supermarket or full-line grocery or 7.6 km from the nearest convenience store. This makes food shopping a challenge, especially in rural areas that lack public transportation and where many have no vehicular access. Knowledge of potential access to the food environment is essential for combining environmental approaches and health interventions so that families, especially those in rural areas, can make healthier food choices.

  8. 弹性滑板复合隔震模型振动台试验研究%Study on shaking table test model in composite isolation with elastic sliding bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾剑辉; 辛晓鹏; 杨树标

    2012-01-01

    进行了复合隔震模型振动台试验,通过调整隔震层中弹性滑板支座数量,研究隔震层摩擦承压比的变化对结构基底剪力系数、位移反应及频谱特性的影响。试验结果表明,弹性滑板数量适中的复合隔震结构,在合理摩擦承压比范围内时,是一种隔震性能良好的隔震体系。%Shaking table tests on a model of composite isolation structure were performed.By adjusting the number of the elastic sliding bearings in the isolation layer,the influences of the change of friction bearing ratio on the shear coefficient of the model,displacement response and frequency spectrum characteristics were studied.The experimental results show that the composite isolation system has good performance when the number of elastic sliding bearings is moderate and the friction bearing ratio is reasonable.

  9. Biochemical composition of three algal species proposed as food for captive freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, C.M.; Orcutt, D.M.; Kreeger, D.A.; Parker, B.C.; Jones, V.A.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    To identify potential diets for rearing captive freshwater mussels, the protein, carbohydrate (CHO), and lipid contents of two green algae, Neochloris oleoabundans, Bracteacoccus grandis, and one diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were compared at different growth stages. The fatty acid and sterol composition were also identified. Protein was greatest (55-70%) for all species at late log growth stage (LL), and declined in late stationary (LS) growth. CHO was greatest at LS stage for all species (33.9-56.4% dry wt). No significant change in lipid levels occurred with growth stage, but tended to increase in N. oleoabundans. Mean lipid content differed significantly in the order: N. oleoabundans > P. tricornutum > B. grandis. Total fatty acids (TFA) were higher at LS stage compared to other stages in the two green algae, and stationary stage in the diatom. Mean unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as %TFA was significantly higher in N. oleoabundans than the other species. The green algae contained high percentages of C-18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while the diatom was abundant in C-16 saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and C-20 PUFA fatty acids. Growth stage had no effect on sterol concentration of any species. B. grandis showed significantly higher sterol levels than the other species except P. tricornutum at S stage. B. grandis was characterized by predominantly ??5, C-29 sterols, while N. oleoabundans synthesized ??5,7, ??5,7,22, and ??7, C-28 sterols. P. tricornutum produced primarily a ??5,22, C-28 sterol, and a small amount of a ??7,22, C-28 sterol.

  10. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  11. Brain response to images of food varying in energy density is associated with body composition in 7- to 10-year-old children: Results of an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; English, Laural K; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Wilson, Stephen J; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-08-01

    Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (>1.5kcal/g) and Low (food images, and Control images, in 36 children ages 7-10years. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multi-subject random effects general linear model (GLM) and two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for main effects of ED (High ED vs. Low ED) in a priori defined brain regions of interest previously implicated in energy homeostasis and reward processing. Pearson's correlations were then calculated between activation in these regions for various contrasts (High ED-Low ED, High ED-Control, Low ED-Control) and child body composition (FFM index, FM index, % body fat). Relative to Low ED foods, High ED foods elicited greater BOLD activation in the left thalamus. In the right substantia nigra, BOLD activation for the contrast of High ED-Low ED foods was positively associated with child FFM. There were no significant results for the High ED-Control or Low ED-Control contrasts. Our findings support literature on FFM as an appetitive driver, such that greater amounts of lean mass were associated with greater activation for High ED foods in an area of the brain associated with dopamine signaling and reward (substantia nigra). These results confirm our hypothesis that brain response to foods varying in energy content is related to measures of child body

  12. Frame-supported multi-ribbed composite wall shaking table test and numerical simulation analysis%框支密肋复合墙结构振动台试验与数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉阳; 袁泉

    2015-01-01

    The shaking table test of a frame-supported multi-ribbed composite wall structure model with proportion of 1 /6 was conducted.Using ABAQUS finite element software,the nonlinear finite element model of the structure was established.The seismic responses of the structure under several typical test working conditions were simulated numerically.Its acceleration,inter-story displacement angle,and structure failure status were chosen and analyzed,the results were compared with the test ones.The analysis results showed that the results of numerical simulation agree well with those of the shaking table model test;the reliability of the shaking table model test and the rationality of the numerical simulation were verified;and then the dynamic characteristics and the basic rules of seismic responses of the structure were obtained.The study results provided a basis for the further engineering practice and scientific study of the structure.%基于1/6比例框支密肋复合墙结构模型的振动台试验,采用 ABAQUS 有限元软件,建立该结构的非线性有限元模型,并对该结构在试验的几种典型工况下的地震反应进行数值模拟计算,选取了具有代表性的加速度、层间位移角、结构破坏形态等分析结果,与试验结果进行对比。分析结果表明:数值模拟与振动台模型试验吻合较好,证明了模型试验的可靠性和数值模拟的合理性,进而得出了本结构的动力特性与地震响应基本规律,为今后该结构的工程实践和科学研究提供了基础。

  13. Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J; Gietema, Jourik A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mensink, Manon G J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Ter Horst, Gert J; Reyners, Anna K L

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCS treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Fifty TCS, 1-7 years post-chemotherapy, and 50 age-matched healthy men participated. Taste and smell function were measured using taste strips and 'Sniffin' Sticks', respectively. Dietary intake was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was performed to measure body composition. Presence of metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism were assessed. TCS had a lower total taste function, a higher bitter taste threshold, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and more (abdominal) fat than controls (p < 0.05). No differences in smell function and dietary intake were found. Testosterone level was an important determinant of body composition in TCS (p = 0.016). Although taste function was impaired in TCS, this was not related to a different dietary intake compared to controls. Lower testosterone levels were associated with a higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat distribution in TCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  15. Effect of diet composition and mixture of selected food additives on the erythrocytic system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Metabolic processes of food additives which are “exogenous xenobiotics” are catalysed, primarily, by enzymes located in microsomes of hepatocytes affiliated to P-450 cytochrome superfamily, containing iron. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of diet composition and selected food additives on the erythrocyte system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats sorted into three equinumerous groups. For drinking animals received pure, settled tap water, animals from group III were receiving additionally an aqueous solution of sodium (nitrate, potassium nitrite, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and monosodium glutamate. Results. Ascertained a significant effect of changes in diet composition on the increase in hematocrit marker value and the count of red blood cells in blood of animals examined. Used food additives diminished hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and red blood cell count, diminishing also iron concentration in serum, the total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation with iron. Conclusions. Analysis of the results allowed ascertain adverse changes in values of the erythrocytic system markers, occurring under the influence of the applied mixture of food additives. Used food additives change the iron metabolism, most likely from the necessity of applied xenobiotics biotransformation by heme-containing monoxygenases of P-450 cytochrome.  

  16. Food Quality and Phytoplankton Community Composition in San Francisco Bay using Imaging Spectroscopy Data from the California HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Peacock, M. B.; Golini, A. N.; Cloern, J. E.; Senn, D. B.; Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay (SFB) is the largest estuary on the west coast of the United States. It is an important transition zone between marine, freshwater, and inland terrestrial watersheds. The SFB is an important region for the cycling of nutrients and pollutants and it supports nurseries of ecologically and commercially important fisheries, including some threatened species. Phytoplankton community structure influences food web dynamics, and the taxonomy of the phytoplankton may be more important in determining primary "food quality" than environmental factors. As such, estimating food quality from phytoplankton community composition can be a robust tool to understand trophic transfer of energy. Recent work explores phytoplankton "food quality" in SFB through the use of microscopy and phytoplankton chemotaxonomy to evaluate how changes in phytoplankton composition may have influenced the recent trophic collapse of pelagic fishes in the northern part of the SFB. The objective of this study is to determine if the approach can also be applied to imaging spectroscopy data in order to quantify phytoplankton "food quality" from space. Imaging spectroscopy data of SFB from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) was collected during the Hyperspectral Infrared (HyspIRI) Airborne Campaign in California (2013 - 2015) and used in this study. Estimates of ocean chlorophyll and phytoplankton community structure were determined using standard ocean chlorophyll algorithms and the PHYtoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) algorithms. These were validated using in situ observations of phytoplankton composition using microscopic cell counts and phytoplankton chemotaxonomy from the US Geological Survey's ship surveys of the SFB. The findings from this study may inform the use of future high spectral resolution satellite sensors with the spatial resolution appropriate for coastal systems (e.g., HyspIRI) to assess "food quality" from space.

  17. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  18. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN Table Tennis Tournament Saturday 20th August 2011 at 13.30 at the CERN/Meyrin TT club (underneath the Piscine de Livron, rue de Livron 2, 1217 Meyrin) Details: http://cern.ch/club-TableTennis Registration: jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch Open to all CERN staff, visitors, summer students, and families

  19. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  20. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN Table Tennis Tournament Saturday 20th August 2011 at 13.30 at the CERN/Meyrin TT club (underneath the Piscine de Livron, rue de Livron 2, 1217 Meyrin) Details: http://cern.ch/club-TableTennis Registration: jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch Open to all CERN staff, visitors, summer students, and families

  1. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  2. Precursors to overnutrition: the effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane' adults in lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition transitions are characterized by shifts in diet and activity levels that lead to changes in weight and body fatness over a relatively short time. Research has linked these nutritional shifts to socio-economic factors, including wealth and income. However, few studies have examined household spending patterns on market foods among subsistence populations, which may reveal food access, choice, and indicate household nutritional environment. This paper examines the relation between household monetary expenditures on "market" foods and measures of body composition among Tsimane', a forager-horticulturalist indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic and anthropometric surveys were conducted for adults (n = 1199) 16 years or older in 563 households in 40 Tsimane' villages in 2008. Results indicate that overweight status (19% of men and 24% of women) is more common than obesity (1% of men and 4% of women). Sixty-one percent (61%) of households reported purchasing market foods during the previous week. Multiple linear and logistic regressions suggest that men living in households in the top third of monetary expenditures on market foods had significantly higher BMI (0.69 kg/m(2); p = 0.027), weight (1.80 kg; p = 0.048), percent body fat (1.06%; p = 0.025), and probability of being overweight/obese (Odds ratio = 1.83; p = 0.042) than men in households that reported not spending money on market foods in the previous week. We discuss the possibility that the division of labor may help explain the differences between men and women in this sample. This research suggests household expenditures on market foods may mediate the relation between wealth and body composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  5. Genetic warfarin dosing: tables versus algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Brian S; Gage, Brian F; Johnson, Julie A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of genetic tables and formal pharmacogenetic algorithms for warfarin dosing. Pharmacogenetic algorithms based on regression equations can predict warfarin dose, but they require detailed mathematical calculations. A simpler alternative, recently added to the warfarin label by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is to use genotype-stratified tables to estimate warfarin dose. This table may potentially increase the use of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing in clinical practice; however, its accuracy has not been quantified. A retrospective cohort study of 1,378 patients from 3 anticoagulation centers was conducted. Inclusion criteria were stable therapeutic warfarin dose and complete genetic and clinical data. Five dose prediction methods were compared: 2 methods using only clinical information (empiric 5 mg/day dosing and a formal clinical algorithm), 2 genetic tables (the new warfarin label table and a table based on mean dose stratified by genotype), and 1 formal pharmacogenetic algorithm, using both clinical and genetic information. For each method, the proportion of patients whose predicted doses were within 20% of their actual therapeutic doses was determined. Dosing methods were compared using McNemar's chi-square test. Warfarin dose prediction was significantly more accurate (all p algorithm (52%) than with all other methods: empiric dosing (37%; odds ratio [OR]: 2.2), clinical algorithm (39%; OR: 2.2), warfarin label (43%; OR: 1.8), and genotype mean dose table (44%; OR: 1.9). Although genetic tables predicted warfarin dose better than empiric dosing, formal pharmacogenetic algorithms were the most accurate. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  7. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Changes in taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J; Gietema, Jourik A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mensink, Manon G J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Ter Horst, Gert J; Reyners, Anna K L

    2016-10-27

    Taste and smell changes due to chemotherapy may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight in testicular cancer patients (TCPs). This study investigates the taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCPs before, during, and up to 1 year after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Twenty-one consecutive TCPs participated. At baseline TCPs were compared to healthy controls (N = 48). Taste strips and 'Sniffin' Sticks' were used to determine psychophysical taste and smell function. Subjective taste, smell, appetite, and hunger were assessed using a questionnaire. Dietary intake was analyzed using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. A Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was performed to measure whole body composition. Compared to controls, TCPs had a lower smell threshold (P = 0.045) and lower preference for high fat sweet foods at baseline (P = 0.024). Over time, intra-individual psychophysical taste and smell function was highly variable. The salty taste threshold increased at completion of chemotherapy compared to baseline (P = 0.006). A transient decrease of subjective taste, appetite, and hunger feelings was observed per chemotherapy cycle. The percentage of fat mass increased during chemotherapy compared to baseline, while the lean mass and bone density decreased (P < 0.05). Coping strategies regarding subjective taste impairment should especially be provided during the first week of each chemotherapy cycle. Since the body composition of TCPs already had changed at completion of chemotherapy, intervention strategies to limit the impact of cardiovascular risk factors should probably start during treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth: a randomized trial in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Jutta K H; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan; Chea, Mary; Unni, Uma S; Makurat, Jan; Filteau, Suzanne; Wieringa, Frank T; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C; Berger, Jacques; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F; Roos, Nanna

    2015-04-01

    Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo, designed primarily to assess increments in fat-free mass by a deuterium dilution technique and change in plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Secondary endpoints were changes in anthropometric variables, including knee-heel length. Data were analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. There was no difference in fat-free mass increment in WF or WF-L compared with CSB+ [WF: +0.04 kg (95% CI: -0.20, 0.28 kg); WF-L: +0.14 kg (95% CI: -0.10, 0.38 kg)] or CSB++ [WF: -0.03 kg (95% CI: -0.27, 0.21 kg); WF-L: +0.07 kg (95% CI: -0.18, 0.31 kg)] and no effect on iron status. The 1.7-mm (95% CI: -0.1, 3.5 mm) greater increase in knee-heel length in WF-L than in CSB+ was not significant. No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary foods. The dietary role of edible spiders needs to be further explored. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  11. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R

    2012-01-01

    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  12. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  13. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  14. Lifestyle interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction: a systematic review of the effects of diet composition, food provision, and treatment modality on weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gareth R; Laitner, Melissa H; Perri, Michael G

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of (1) diet composition, (2) use of food provision, and (3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided.

  15. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( Pdiet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  16. Lifestyle Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Diet Composition, Food Provision, and Treatment Modality on Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Laitner, Melissa H.; Perri, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of 1) diet composition, 2) use of food provision, and 3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significant...

  17. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  18. Development and validation of a single collector ICPMS procedure to determine boron isotopeic compositions of water and food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Authenticity and provenance studies as well as issues in environmental- and geo-sciences are hot topics in nowadays isotope research. Elements being known for their natural isotopic variation, such as lead and strontium, are being used to assign the provenance of artefacts, food and other products. A recent study revealed the potential of boron (B) isotopes for delivering information on the provenance of crop plants. To offer alternative analytical instrumentations beside the classical TIMS procedures a single collector ICPMS procedure for B isotope analyses has been developed and validated. This procedure should enable more B isotope studies, as single collector ICPMS intruments are more widepread in the relevant laboratories compared to TIMS. The developed procedures for the determination of B isotopic compositions use a magnetic sector ICPMS and consist of one low resolution (LR) and one medium resolution (MR) procedure. The absolute standard deviation for the δ11B determination in three independently measured samples lies between 0.2 and 0.8 ‰ for the LR and between 0.3 and 1.5 ‰ for the MR. The expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of k=2 range between 1.4 and 1.6 ‰ for the LR and between 2.9 and 3.2 ‰ for the MR. The trueness, expressed as average deviation from the reference values, is less than 1.1 ‰ for LR and 0.8 ‰ for MR. To test the practicability of the procedure the matrix tolerance has been investigated. Using a measurement solution containing 100 µg/kg boron a matrix of 2 mg/kg of alkaline and earth alkaline elements was found as a limit for stable instrumental mass discrimination. Thus a highly efficient matrix separation is required, similar to TIMS. The developed procedure is well suited for the for B isotope studies of various matrices and especially the LR procedure offers relatively small uncertainties combined with high sample throughput.

  19. Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Waaland, Joseph Robert

    2012-09-01

    The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ω6 and C22:5 ω3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids with a ratio of ω6/ω3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Food Shortage Causes Differential Effects on Body Composition and Tissue-Specific Gene Expression in Salmon Modified for Increased Growth Hormone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Jason; Panserat, Stéphane; Welker, Thomas; Plagne-Juan, Elisabeth; Sakhrani, Dionne; Higgs, David A; Audouin, Florence; Devlin, Robert H; Overturf, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon possesses markedly increased metabolic rate, appetite, and feed conversion efficiency, as well as an increased ability to compete for food resources. Thus, the ability of GH-transgenic fish to withstand periods of food deprivation as occurs in nature is potentially different than that of nontransgenic fish. However, the physiological and genetic effects of transgenic GH production over long periods of food deprivation remain largely unknown. Here, GH-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and nontransgenic, wild-type coho salmon were subjected to a 3-month food deprivation trial, during which time performance characteristics related to growth were measured along with proximate compositions. To examine potential genetic effects of GH-transgenesis on long-term food deprivation, a group of genes related to muscle development and liver metabolism was selected for quantitative PCR analysis. Results showed that GH-transgenic fish lose weight at an increased rate compared to wild-type even though proximate compositions remained relatively similar between the groups. A total of nine genes related to muscle physiology (cathepsin, cee, insulin-like growth factor, myostatin, murf-1, myosin, myogenin, proteasome delta, tumor necrosis factor) and five genes related to liver metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase) were shown to be differentially regulated between GH-transgenic and wild-type coho salmon over time. These genetic and physiological responses assist in identifying differences between GH-transgenic and wild-type salmon in relation to fitness effects arising from elevated growth hormone during periods of long-term food shortage.

  1. [Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena

    2010-09-01

    For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table.

  2. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  3. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  4. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  5. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  6. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  7. Permit.LOA table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  8. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  9. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi—Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis—and three potential pathogenic food bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes—using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  12. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Broekhoven, Van Sarah; Huis, Van Arnold; Loon, Van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food manufacturin

  13. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Du, H.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.J.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consum

  14. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Du, H.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.J.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consum

  15. Mandatory food labeling of trans fat acids: qualitative analysis of the public consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernandes Davies

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the stakeholders and their contributions to the public consultation carried out with regard to the mandatory trans fat acids food labeling proposal in Brazil. Methodology thematic analysis of the documents. Results 25 stakeholders made suggestions regarding the proposed law, and the majority belonged to the food industry sector. The following issues were raised: lack of knowledge among the consumers about trans fat acids; lack of information about trans fat acids in food composition tables and infrastructure to analyse the trans fat content of foods; voluntary trans fat labelling. Conclusions The stakeholders addressed important issues, such as improving nutritional knowledge among the population. However, few stakeholders linked to consumers took part in the public consultation, which might lead to disproportionate influence of the food industry on the development of future food policies.

  16. Voluntary food fortification with folic acid in Spain: predicted contribution to children's dietary intakes as assessed with new food folate composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish market offers a significant number of folic acid (FA) voluntarily fortified foods. We analysed FA and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid ((6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu) content in ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (n=68) and cow's milk (n=25) by a previously validated affinity chromatography-HPLC method. Contribution to potential FA intakes for children aged 2-13years, was assessed using food consumption data from a representative nationwide study, folate Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI), and Upper Levels (UL). Results showed that at all food fortification levels obtained, fortified products provided more than tenfold FA than (6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu. For RTEC, the high fortification level provided 6-21%, per serving, of RDI and ⩽32% of ULs at 90th percentile of RTEC consumption (P90). Milk products fortified at the higher level reached on average 54-136% of RDI per serving and only exceeded UL at P90 of milk consumption in children aged 2-5years.

  17. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  18. Food groups associated with a composite measure of probability of adequate intake of 11 micronutrients in the diets of women in urban Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age.

  19. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species.

  20. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  1. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FOOD DIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Mark G. Brown

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, consumer demand for food diversity is measured by the entropy and Simpson indices for budget shares. Results show that consumer demand for food diversity is related to total food expenditures and household size and composition.

  2. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Table Tennis club and the Meyrin CTT are organizing two Table Tennis workshops from 2 to 6 July and from 20 to 24 August 2012 inclusive in Meyrin. A professional would be with your children from 14.00 pm to 18.00 pm: an instructor J + S category A. Training courses with specific themes, individual courses would be given depending on the level of the child’s game, “discoveries –table tennis games” courses and games with the robot. Other activities (stretching, relaxation). Afternoons (from 18 to 20 children): 40 CHF per workshop and per child. Evenings (from 18 to 20 adults): 60 CHF per workshop and per adult. For further information, please contact Mr. Monteil : Mobile: (+33) 06 61 31 70 47 E-mail: wilfried.monteil@free.fr.

  3. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong

    2011-01-01

    Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary....

  4. Fast Food in the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大龙

    2001-01-01

    The favorite food in the United States is the hamburger, a kind of round sandwich of cooked ground beef. The favorite place to buy a hamburger is a fast food restaurant. At fast food restaurants people order their food, wait a few minutes, and carry it to their tables themselves.

  5. Curative and preventive activity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite coatings containing antifungal food additives to control citrus postharvest green and blue molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Pérez-Gago, María B; Del Río, Miguel A; Palou, Lluís

    2009-04-08

    Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lipid components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated in vivo on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules, hybrid mandarins cv. Ortanique, and oranges cv. Valencia. Their curative and preventive activity against citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue molds (BM), caused by Penicillium digitatum (PD) or Penicillium italicum (PI), respectively, were determined. Fruits were artificially inoculated before or after the application of the coatings and incubated up to 7 days at 20 degrees C. Selected food preservatives included mineral salts, organic acid salts, parabens, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Inoculated but uncoated fruits were used as controls. For curative activity, HPMC-lipid edible composite coatings containing sodium benzoate (SB) were most effective in reducing the incidence and severity of GM on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules (86 and 90%, respectively). On this cultivar, the reduction in GM incidence by the SB-based coating was twice that of potassium sorbate (PS)-based coating. On mandarins cv. Ortanique, PS- and SB-based coatings reduced the incidence of GM and BM by more than 40 and 21%, respectively. However, the HPMC-lipid coating containing a mixture of PS and sodium propionate (PS + SP) exhibited a synergistic effect in the reduction of the incidence of GM (78%) and BM (67%). Coatings with parabens modestly reduced disease incidence and severity. On oranges cv. Valencia, coatings with food preservatives better controlled BM than GM. Coatings containing SB + PS and SB + SP reduced the incidence and severity of BM by 85% and 95%, respectively. PS- and SB- based coatings controlled GM more effectively than coatings formulated with other food preservatives. In every cultivar, fruit coated before inoculation did not show any incidence or severity reduction of both GM and BM (preventive activity). In every test, the antifungal action of the

  6. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system.

  7. Effect of food type and concentration on growth and fatty acid composition of early larvae of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) reared under laboratory conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, Susana

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted during the summer of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of early post yolk-sac European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) larvae reared under different food regimes. The fatty acid composition was used to assess nutritional condition of the larvae. Prey items used in the experiments were Gymnodinium sanguineum, Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons. Food type and concentration affected the growth of the larvae. Mixed diets composed of rotifers and copepod nauplii at high concentration resulted in higher anchovy larvae growth rates in comparison with single-prey diets using either rotifers or copepod nauplii. The addition of the dinoflagellate G. sanguineum (25-50cellsml -1) to the prey offered did not enhance significantly larval growth. Highest growth rates of anchovy larvae (0.28mmd -1) were obtained using high concentrations of a mixed diet, particularly the combination of rotifers and A. grani nauplii. Fatty acid composition at hatch was similar to the composition observed in the field, but during larvae ontogeny there was a marked decrease in the contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Such difference reflects the high requirements of these PUFA for larvae development, and suggests that the food offered failed to fulfill the larvae nutritional requirements. The growth rates obtained in our experiments were, overall, in the lower range of those observed in natural conditions. Taking into considerations the fact that larvae in the field are expected to encounter lower prey concentrations, we discuss the reasons for such disagreement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  9. Anthropometric, food intake differences and aplicability of low-cost instruments for the measurement of body composition in two distinct groups of individuals with short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Bizari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Short bowel syndrome is associated with weight loss due to nutrient, electrolyte and fluid malabsorption. In view of the pathophysiology of SBS, all patients would be expected to exhibit similar clinical signs and symptoms, whereas many variations occur probably due to the adaptive capacity of the remaining small intestine in order to compensate for the resected area. Objective: To determine whether there is a difference in nutritional status and food intake between patients receiving PNT, patients who do not receive PNT but are monitored on an ambulatory basis, and control subjects, and 2 to determine body composition by two different methods, i.e., electrical bioimpedance and skin fold measurement. Methods: This was a case-control study where the subjects were divided into three groups: parenteral group (PG - adults with a history of SBS intermittently using PNT; ambulatory group (AG - adults with a history of SBS who do not receive PNT; control group (CG - adults with no history of intestinal resections and/or use of PNT. The volunteers were submitted to measurements of body weight, height, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and assessment of food intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA with the aid of the SAS® 9.2. software, using the PROC GLM feature. The Student t-test was used to compare the instruments for the assessment of body composition, with the aid of the PROC TTEST feature of the SAS® 9.2 software. Results: Thirty-two volunteers, 19 women and 13 men, participated in the study. The PNT group consisted of 9 volunteers, 4 women and 5 men, with a mean (± SD age of 57 ± 9 years. The nutrition status and food intake were different between the groups. There was no difference in percent body fat measured by anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Large resections, as well as the resected portions, explain the greater nutritional impairment of

  10. Reduction in food away from home is associated with improved child relative weight and body composition outcomes and this relation is mediated by changes in diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Myra; Cahill Holland, Jodi; Lundeen, Delaney; Kolko, Rachel P; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Welch, R Robinson; Perri, Michael G; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2015-09-01

    Reducing consumption of food away from home is often targeted during pediatric obesity treatment, given the associations with weight status and gain. However, the effects of this dietary change on weight loss are unknown. Our aim was to evaluate associations between changes in dietary factors and child anthropometric outcomes after treatment. It is hypothesized that reduced consumption of food away from home will be associated with improved dietary intake and greater reductions in anthropometric outcomes (standardized body mass index [BMI] and percent body fat), and the relationship between food away from home and anthropometric outcomes will be mediated by improved child dietary intake. We conducted a longitudinal evaluation of associations between dietary changes and child anthropometric outcomes. Child diet (three 24-hour recalls) and anthropometric data were collected at baseline and 16 weeks. Participants were 170 overweight and obese children ages 7 to 11 years who completed a 16-week family-based behavioral weight-loss treatment as part of a larger multi-site randomized controlled trial conducted in two cohorts between 2010 and 2011 (clinical research trial). Dietary treatment targets during family-based behavioral weight-loss treatment included improving diet quality and reducing food away from home. The main outcome measures in this study were child relative weight (standardized BMI) and body composition (percent body fat). We performed t tests and bootstrapped single-mediation analyses adjusting for relevant covariates. As hypothesized, decreased food away from home was associated with improved diet quality and greater reductions in standardized BMI (Pdiet quality. Specifically, change in total energy intake and added sugars mediated the association between change in food away from home and standardized BMI, and change in overall diet quality, fiber, added sugars, and added fats mediated the association between change in food away from home and percent

  11. Nanocarbon-{[Na10(PrW10O36)]2·130H2O} composite to detect toxic food coloring dyes at nanolevel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Taposhree; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of adulterated and toxic food colors is important due to their potential toxicity and pathogenicity. Here, we repot an Ln-POM (lanthanide polyoxometalate) cluster, {[Na10(PrW10O36)]2·130H2O}, with carbon nano-onion (CNO) hybrid composite which is a highly efficient sensor for the rapid detection of toxic dyes like metanil yellow, auramine O, Orange II and in allura red (red 40) as low as 3.83; 4.73; 4.14 and 2.90 nmol ml-1 concentration, respectively, by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  12. Nanocarbon-{[Na10(PrW10O36)]2·130H2O} composite to detect toxic food coloring dyes at nanolevel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Taposhree; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring of adulterated and toxic food colors is important due to their potential toxicity and pathogenicity. Here, we repot an Ln-POM (lanthanide polyoxometalate) cluster, {[Na10(PrW10O36)]2·130H2O}, with carbon nano-onion (CNO) hybrid composite which is a highly efficient sensor for the rapid detection of toxic dyes like metanil yellow, auramine O, Orange II and in allura red (red 40) as low as 3.83; 4.73; 4.14 and 2.90 nmol ml-1 concentration, respectively, by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  13. Nanocarbon–{[Na10(PrW10O36]2·130H2O} composite to detect toxic food coloring dyes at nanolevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taposhree Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monitoring of adulterated and toxic food colors is important due to their potential toxicity and pathogenicity. Here, we repot an Ln–POM (lanthanide polyoxometalate cluster, {[Na10(PrW10O36]2·130H2O}, with carbon nano-onion (CNO hybrid composite which is a highly efficient sensor for the rapid detection of toxic dyes like metanil yellow, auramine O, Orange II and in allura red (red 40 as low as 3.83; 4.73; 4.14 and 2.90 nmol ml−1 concentration, respectively, by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  14. One Table Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are times when you want to celebrate, hold a formal business meeting or simply gather together with a few friends to eat and have a good time. One Table Restaurant offers you and your guests the perfect setting for every occasion,

  15. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  16. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  17. The MSSA consequence tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (MSSA) is the mechanism through which the U.S. Department of Energy is implementing a policy of graded safeguards. Under this concept, the level of protection provided to a target is proportional to the ''cost'' of the loss of the target. Cost is measured by use of the conditional risk equation in which the protection system ineffectiveness is multiplied by the consequence to society of a successful adversary attempt. The consequences which are used in the MSSA process were developed in the summer of the 1986 by a consensus of DOE personnel and contractors. There are separate consequence tables for theft of SNM, radiological sabotage. The consequence values in the tables were deliberately not cross-normalized. The consequence values in each table correspond to a societal or DOE cost, for example, the consequence values for SNM theft compared to a normalized estimate of the expected number of fatalities from a successful use of the stolen material times an estimate of the likelihood of successfully using the material. Consequence values for radiological sabotage correspond very roughly to a similar expected fatality level. Values for industrial sabotage are an estimate of the impact on DOE weapons production or impact on the nuclear weapons stockpile. Problems have arisen in the use of these tables and are discussed in the paper.

  18. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  19. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  20. Effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products (AFPBPs) using the biogas potential test. The AFPBPs were classified based on their chemical compositions (i.e., carbohydrate, protein and fat contents). The biogas and methane potentials of AFPBPs were calculated to range from 450 to 777 mL/g volatile solids (VS) and 260-543 mL/g VS, respectively. AFPBPs with high fat and protein contents produced significantly higher amounts of biogas than AFPBPs with high carbohydrate and low fat contents. The degradation rate was faster for AFPBPs with high carbohydrate contents compared to AFPBPs with high protein and fat contents. The lag phase and biogas production duration were lower when using ensiled AFPBPs than when using nonsilage AFPBPs. Among the four different silages tested, two silages significantly improved biogas production compared to the nonsilage AFPBPs.

  1. Chemical composition of the fruit of two species of tropical dry forest in the coastal region of Ecuador as food source for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrry Othón Intriago Mendoza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fodder species of trees in the coastal region of Manabí are an alternative food to cattle, especia-lly between the months of september and december when the pasture gets scarce. To evaluate their nutritional potential was made a compositional analysis of nutritional parameters to the fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Algarrobo and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Guasmo. Botanical characters of these trees and compositional analysis results are described. Furthermore, a comparison of these results with those obtained by other authors by con-sidering the values of protein, fat, fiber, ash and moisture is performed. For the environmental conditions of tropical dry forest, the guasmo presents higher contents of protein, fat, ash and fiber carob, although both species are important in the diet of herbivores, especially in dry seasons as providers of usable nutrients favoring animal nutrition

  2. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  3. Estimation of food composition of Hodotermes mossambicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae) based on observations and stable carbon isotope ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig T. Symes; Stephan Woodborne

    2011-01-01

    The diet of the harvester termite Hodotermes mossambicus was investigated at two sites with distinct dietary components: C4 grasses (δ13 C isotope values, -13.8‰to -14.0‰) and C3 plants (δ13C isotope values, -25.6‰ to -27.1‰). By comparing observations of food items carried into the colony by the termites and carbon isotope ratios of whole termites (that determined assimilated carbon), the relative proportion of the C3 and C4 plant food components of the termite diet was estimated. There was agreement between the observational data and stable carbon isotopic data, with grass representing approximately 93% of the diet of H, mossambicus at two study sites (urban and rural) on the South African highveld. However, when correcting for mass of food items, that is, C3 and C4, carried by termites, the proportion of grass (C4) in the diet may be underestimated.

  4. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  5. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs beneath individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, M.T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; van Hal, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Milauer, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  6. HIV and orientation of subsistence and commercial home gardens in rural Ghana: Crop composition, crop diversity and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Struik, P.C.; Price, L.L.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to explore differences and similarities in biodiversity in subsistence and commercial home gardens of HIV-positive and HIV-negative rural households in the Eastern Region of Ghana and their significance in household food security. Data were obtained through a househo

  7. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, M.T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; Hal, R. van; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; Ruiter, P.C. de; Scheu, S.; Setala, H.; Smilauer, P.; Putten, W.H. van der

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and provi

  8. Pod mesocarp flour of North and South American species of Leguminous tree (mesquite): Composition and food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flour from the mesocarp of pods of the tree legume known as mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in North America or algarrobo in South America was one of the most important food staples for desert people. Contemporary milling techniques produces a similar flour that is about 40% sucrose, 25% dietary fiber, and...

  9. HIV and orientation of subsistence and commercial home gardens in rural Ghana: Crop composition, crop diversity and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Struik, P.C.; Price, L.L.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to explore differences and similarities in biodiversity in subsistence and commercial home gardens of HIV-positive and HIV-negative rural households in the Eastern Region of Ghana and their significance in household food security. Data were obtained through a househo

  10. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, S A; Marks, G C

    2003-09-01

    Evidence indicates that cruciferous vegetables are protective against a range of cancers with glucosinolates and their breakdown products considered the biologically active constituents. To date, epidemiological studies have not investigated the intakes of these constituents due to a lack of food composition databases. The aim of the present study was to develop a database for the glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables that can be used to quantify dietary exposure for use in epidemiological studies of diet-disease relationships. Published food composition data sources for the glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables were identified and assessed for data quality using established criteria. Adequate data for the total glucosinolate content were available from eighteen published studies providing 140 estimates for forty-two items. The highest glucosinolate values were for cress (389 mg/100 g) while the lowest values were for Pe-tsai chinese cabbage (20 mg/100 g). There is considerable variation in the values reported for the same vegetable by different studies, with a median difference between the minimum and maximum values of 5.8-fold. Limited analysis of cooked cruciferous vegetables has been conducted; however, the available data show that average losses during cooking are approximately 36 %. This is the first attempt to collate the available literature on the glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables. These data will allow quantification of intakes of the glucosinolates, which can be used in epidemiological studies to investigate the role of cruciferous vegetables in cancer aetiology and prevention.

  11. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-02

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation.

  12. Effects of composition and processing variables on the oxidative stability of protein-based and oil-in-water food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiokias, Sotirios; Gordon, Michael H; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2017-02-11

    Because many common foods are emulsions (mayonnaise, coffee creamers, salad dressing, etc.), a better understanding of lipid oxidation mechanisms in these systems is crucial for the formulation, production, and storage of the relevant consumer products. A research body has focused on the microstructural and oxidative stability of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions that are structurally similar to innovative products that have been recently developed by the food industry (e.g., non-dairy creams, vegetable fat spreads, etc.) This review presents recent findings about the factors that determine the development of lipid oxidation in emulsions where proteins constitute the stabilizing interface. Emphasis is given to "endogenous" factors, such as those of compositional (e.g., protein/lipid phases, pH, presence of transition metals) or processing (e.g., temperature, droplet size) nature. Improved knowledge of the conditions that favor the oxidative protection of protein in emulsions can lead to their optimized use as food ingredients and thereby improve the organoleptic and nutritional value of the related products.

  13. Sweetpotato- and cereal-based infant foods: protein quality assessment, and effect on body composition using sprague dawley rats as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    Full Text Available The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g. The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (P<0.0001 higher than that for OFSP ComFa, CFSP ComFa and Weanimix. However, OFSP ComFa had the highest un-truncated PDCAAS by a difference of 4.1%, than CFSP ComFa, and about 20% difference compared with both the Weanimix and Cerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively. However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03. The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.

  14. Sweetpotato- and cereal-based infant foods: protein quality assessment, and effect on body composition using sprague dawley rats as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Chiridza, Tracy; Lemercier, Marie-Eve; Broomfield, Anne; Morel, Patrick C H; Coad, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa) and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac) was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g). The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (PCerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively). However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03). The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.

  15. Effects of Calanoid Copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a Live Food on the Growth, Survival and Fatty Acid Composition of Larvae and Juveniles of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guangxing; XU Donghui

    2009-01-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods (P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles ofParalichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods (S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than thosc fed with the other two organisms (P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others (P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia (P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  16. Perfil antropométrico, somatotipo y composición corporal de jóvenes jugadores de tenis de mesa. Anthropometric profile, somatotype, and body composition of young table tennis players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradas de la Fuente, Francisco

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo es determinar las características cineantropométricas de jóvenes jugadores españoles de tenis de mesa de nivel nacional e internacional. Un total de sesenta y tres jugadores (treinta y ocho chicos y veinticinco chicas, fueron divididos en tres grupos atendiendo a sus edades (G1, hasta 11 años; G2, 11 y 12 años; G3, 13-14 años. Se registraron diferentes medidas corporales: peso, talla, pliegues cutáneos (bíceps, tríceps, subescapular, suprailiaco, supraespinal, abdominal, muslo anterior y pierna medial, perímetros (brazo relajado, brazo tensado y flexionado, muslo medio y pierna y diámetros (biepicondíleo de húmero, biestiloideo de muñeca y bicondíleo de fémur. Además del correspondiente análisis antropométrico, se realizaron cálculos para determinar la composición corporal y el somatotipo de los sujetos participantes en el estudio. Así, el somatotipo general del grupo resultó ser de tipo endomórfico-mesomórfico, coincidiendo con el de los grupos G2 y G3. El análisis teniendo en cuenta el factor género, puso de manifiesto un somatotipo mesomórfico balanceado en el grupo de varones, y meso-endomórfico en el de mujeres. Los datos correspondientes a la composición corporal y contrastados según el factor género mostraron un mayor porcentaje graso en mujeres respecto a varones y un porcentaje óseo más alto en el grupo de varones con respecto al de mujeres. Estos resultados coinciden, en parte, con los encontrados en otros estudios realizados con jugadores de tenis de mesa, en los que se ha observado, de forma global, un predominio equilibrado de los componentes mesomórfico y endomórfico sobre el componente ectomórfico.AbstractThe aim of this investigation is to determine the anthropometric characteristics of Spanish young table tennis players with national and international competition level. Sixty-three players (thirty-eight males and twenty-five females, were divided in three

  17. League tables for orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen; Phillips, Ceri; Durning, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the complexities in constructing league tables purporting to measure orthodontic clinical outcomes. Eighteen orthodontists were invited to participate in a cost-effectiveness study. Each orthodontist was asked to provide information on 100 consecutively treated patients. The Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON) was used to assess treatment need, complexity, and outcome prior to, and on completion of, orthodontic treatment. The 18 orthodontists were ranked based on achieving a successful orthodontic outcome (ICON score less than or equal to 30) and the uncertainty in both the success rates and rankings was also quantified using confidence intervals. Successful outcomes were achieved in 62 per cent of the sample (range 19–94 per cent); four of the 18 orthodontists failed to achieve more than a 50 per cent success rate. In developing league tables, it is imperative that factors such as case mix are identified and accounted for in producing rankings. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to achieve this and to quantify uncertainty in the rankings produced. When case mix was taken into account, the four with low success rates were clearly not as good as the top four performing orthodontists. League tables can be valuable for the individual orthodontist, groups of orthodontists, payment/insurance agencies, and the public to enable informed choice for orthodontic provision but must be correctly constructed so that users can have confidence in them. PMID:18687990

  18. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2012-01-01

    2012 CERN Table Tennis Tournament As the campaign launched by the CERN medical service “Move! & Eat better” is designed in particular to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, the CERN Table Tennis Club, with its traditional CERN Table Tennis Tournament is providing an excellent opportunity to practice moving. The tournament will take place at the Meyrin CTT, 2 rue de Livron, Saturday August 25, 2012, in the afternoon (starting at 13:30). It is open to all CERN staff, users, visitors and families, including of course summer students, who are strongly encouraged to participate. In order to register, simply send an E-mail to Jean-Pierre Revol (jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch). You may also find useful information on the Club Web page http://www.cern.ch/tabletennis CERN 2011 champion Savitha Flaecher, between the finalist Bertrand Mouches on her left, the winner of the consolation draw on her right (Sudarshan Paramesvaran), and far left, Denis Moriaud (semi-finalist a...

  19. 传统发酵食品中的微生物及其代谢作用%Composition and its mechanism of microflora in traditional fermented foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琳琳; 陈启和

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fermented food system is an important resource of identifying functional food mi-croorganisms. Many kinds of microorganisms constitute the complex micro-ecology environment of fermented foods, which is closely related to the quality and flavor of the fermentation products. At the same time, many fermentation products also were given some special activities due to the functional microorganisms. But in the process of microbial metabolism, there are also some harmful substance produced. The traditional fermented food safety problem has become the focus of researches. Therefore, to explore the community composition and metabolism of microbes in fermented foods is of great significance to control the quality of fermented foods and the excavation of new activities. With the development of molecular biology technology, microbial com-munity structure of the traditional fermented food has been analyzed. Furthermore, the role of microbes in the fermentation environment is also increasingly studied. In this paper, the structure and mechanism of microflora in traditional fermented food, such as soybean fermentation food, vinegar, fermented liquors, Pu’er tea, and red yeast rice, etc were summarized, and the research highlights of functional microbes in fermented food were discussed.%传统发酵食品体系是功能性食品微生物的重要来源。多样的微生物构成了发酵食品的复杂微生态环境,其代谢作用与发酵制品的品质和风味密切相关,许多功能性微生物也赋予了发酵制品特殊的活性。但与此同时,微生物代谢的过程中也伴随有害物质的产生,传统发酵食品的安全问题也成了人们的关注焦点。因此,探究发酵食品中微生物的群落组成和代谢作用对发酵食品的质量控制和新功能的发掘都具有重要意义。随着分子生物学技术的发展,传统发酵食品微生物的群落组成逐步得到解析,微生物在发酵环境中的作用

  20. eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems) and Bioactive Intakes: Major Updates of the Bioactive Compound Composition and Beneficial Bioeffects Database and the Development of a Probabilistic Model to Assess Intakes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Jenny; Pigat, Sandrine; Bompola, Foteini; Cushen, Maeve; Pinchen, Hannah; Nørby, Eric; Astley, Siân; Lyons, Jacqueline; Kiely, Mairead; Finglas, Paul

    2017-03-23

    eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems), a web-based database that contains compositional and biological effects data for bioactive compounds of plant origin, has been updated with new data on fruits and vegetables, wheat and, due to some evidence of potential beneficial effects, extended to include meat bioactives. eBASIS remains one of only a handful of comprehensive and searchable databases, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on the composition of food bioactives and their putative health benefits. The database has a user-friendly, efficient, and flexible interface facilitating use by both the scientific community and food industry. Overall, eBASIS contains data for 267 foods, covering the composition of 794 bioactive compounds, from 1147 quality-evaluated peer-reviewed publications, together with information from 567 publications describing beneficial bioeffect studies carried out in humans. This paper highlights recent updates and expansion of eBASIS and the newly-developed link to a probabilistic intake model, allowing exposure assessment of dietary bioactive compounds to be estimated and modelled in human populations when used in conjunction with national food consumption data. This new tool could assist small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the development of food product health claim dossiers for submission to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

  1. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity. DESIGN: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. RESULTS: Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  2. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  3. Water Table Dynamics of a Rocky Mountain Riparian Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    Riparian areas in mountain valleys serve as collection points for local precipitation, hillslope runoff, deeper groundwater, and channel water. Little is known about how complex hydrological interactions among these water sources govern riparian water table dynamics, particularly on an event basis partly owing to a lack of high frequency spatial and temporal data. Herein I describe the magnitude and rate of change of groundwater storage in a 1.3 km2 Canadian Rocky Mountain peat riparian area. Weekly manual measurement of hydraulic heads in a network of 51 water table wells during the summers of 2006 and 2007 showed large temporal and spatial variations in well response. A near constant increase in the spatial heterogeneity of the water table was observed as the riparian area dried. Cluster analysis and principle components analysis were performed on these weekly data to objectively classify the riparian area into spatial response units. Results were classification of the standpipes into five distinct water table regimes. One well representing each water table regime was outfitted with a sensor in 2008 that measured hourly head, which was used to characterize temporal dynamics of water table response. In spring, snowmelt runoff combined with an ice lens 20-30 cm below the ground surface led to consistently high water tables throughout the riparian area. In summer, the water table fell throughout the riparian in response to declining hillslope inputs and increased evaporative demand, but rates of decline were highly variable among the water table regimes. Chloride concentrations suggest variability reflects differences in the degree to which the water table regimes are influenced by stream stage, hillslope inputs, and proximity to beaver dams. Water table regime responses to rain events were flashy, with dramatic rises and falls (up to 20 cm) in short periods of time (export and plant community composition.

  4. Changes in food quality of the green alga Scenedesmus induced by Daphnia infochemicals: biochemical composition and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; De Lange, H.J.; Van Donk, E.

    1997-01-01

    1. The effects of Daphnia infochemicals on the morphology and biochemical composition of Scenedesmus were studied and subsequently their influence on Daphnia life history. Three species of Scenedesmus (S. acutus, S. obliquus and S. subspicatus) were tested for Daphnia-induced colony formation. Life

  5. Use of central composite design in food microbiology: a case study on the effects of secondary phenols on lactic acid bacteria from olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Racioppo, Angela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of statistical Design of Experiments (DoE) to investigate the effects of two anti-lactic acid bacteria compounds on growth and metabolism of lactobacilli isolated from Italian table olives. p-Coumaric and vanillic acids (0.0-0.4%) were used as phenolic compounds, which were combined with salt (0.0-6.0%) and glucose (0.0-4.0%) through a Central Composite Design. Three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (5 log cfu/ml) were used as test organisms, samples were stored at 37 °C, and cell counts and pH were evaluated periodically. The growth of lactobacilli was affected in a significant way by salt, p-coumaric and vanillic acids, being the salt the most significant factor after 24 h (short storage time), then replaced by p-coumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid also played a significant role on the acidifying ability, expressed as decrease of pH of the medium: microbial metabolism, in fact, appeared as completely inhibited at 0.2% of p-coumaric acid.

  6. Dynamic mechanical properties of dental nanofilled light-cured resin composites: Effect of food-simulating liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouvoudi, Evangelia C; Sideridou, Irini D

    2012-06-01

    This work is aimed at the study by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of viscoelastic properties that is, the elastic modulus (E'), the loss modulus (E″), the loss tangent (tanδ) and the glass transition temperature (T(g)), of two current commercial light-cured resin composites, Filtek Supreme Body and Filtek Supreme Translucent, characterized as nanofilled. These composites show differences in the filler content and type. For DMA analysis the bar-shaped specimens were divided into groups of three samples each. The first group consisted of dry samples measured 1 h after light-curing (at room temperature) during which they were placed in a desiccator at 37 °C. The other groups consisted of samples which had been stored in air, distilled water, artificial saliva SAGF or ethanol/water solution (75 v/v), at 37±1 °C for 1, 7, 30 or 90 days. DMA tests were performed on a Diamond Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (Perkin-Elmer) in bending mode. A frequency of 1 Hz was applied and a temperature range of 25-185 °C, while a heating rate of 2 °C/min were selected to cover mouth temperature and the materials' likely T(g). The studied dry composites showed comparable values for their properties in spite of their differences in the filler content and type. Storage of composites in air 37 °C for 1 day caused a significant post curing which was not continued during storage up to 90 days. Water and artificial saliva showed the same effect on composites. They caused both post curing and plasticization. Ethanol/water solution 75% v/v had a more strong effect than water and artificial saliva due to its organophilic nature. It caused post curing, plasticization and most probably degradation of the bond filler-silane coupling agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The ghrelin/obestatin balance in the physiological and pathological control of growth hormone secretion, body composition and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, R; Zizzari, P; Tolle, V

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gastrointestinal peptides obtained by post-translational processing of a common precursor, preproghrelin. Ghrelin is an orexigenic and adipogenic peptide and a potent growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) modified by the enzyme ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase to bind and activate its receptor, the GHS-R. The ghrelin/GHS-R pathway is complex and the effects of ghrelin on GH secretion, adiposity and food intake appear to be relayed by distinct mechanisms involving different transduction signals and constitutive activity for the GH-R, different cofactors as modulators of endogenous ghrelin signalling and/or alternative ghrelin receptors. The discovery of obestatin in 2005 brought an additional level of complexity to this fascinating system. Obestatin was initially identified as an anorexigenic peptide and as the cognate ligand for GPR39, but its effect on food intake and its ability to activate GPR39 are still controversial. Although several teams failed to reproduce the anorexigenic actions of obestatin, this peptide has been shown to antagonise GH secretion and food intake induced by ghrelin and could be an interesting pharmacological tool to counteract the actions of ghrelin. Ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivities are recovered in the blood with an ultradian pulsatility and their concentrations in plasma vary with the nutritional status of the body. It is still a matter of debate whether both hormones are regulated by independent mechanisms and whether obestatin is a physiologically relevant peptide. Nevertheless, a significant number of studies show that the ghrelin/obestatin ratio is modified in anorexia nervosa and obesity. This suggests that the ghrelin/obestatin balance could be essential to adapt the body's response to nutritional challenges. Although measuring ghrelin and obestatin in plasma is challenging because many forms of the peptides circulate, more sensitive and selective assays to detect the different preproghrelin

  8. The stable isotopic composition of Daphnia ephippia reflects changes in δ13C and δ18O values of food and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, J.; Tellenbach, C.; Möst, M.; Spaak, P.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Wooller, M. J.; Heiri, O.

    2015-06-01

    The stable isotopic composition of fossil resting eggs (ephippia) of Daphnia spp. is being used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in lake ecosystems. However, the underlying assumption that the stable isotopic composition of the ephippia reflects the stable isotopic composition of the parent Daphnia, of their diet and of the environmental water have yet to be confirmed in a controlled experimental setting. We performed experiments with Daphnia pulicaria cultures, which included a control treatment conducted at 12 °C in filtered lake water and with a diet of fresh algae and three treatments in which we manipulated the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C value) of the algae, stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O value) of the water and the water temperature, respectively. The stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N value) of the algae was similar for all treatments. At 12 °C, differences in algal δ13C values and in δ18O values of water were reflected in those of Daphnia. The differences between ephippia and Daphnia stable isotope ratios were similar in the different treatments (δ13C: +0.2 ± 0.4 ‰ (standard deviation); δ15N: -1.6 ± 0.4 ‰; δ18O: -0.9 ± 0.4 ‰), indicating that changes in dietary δ13C values and in δ18O values of water are passed on to these fossilizing structures. A higher water temperature (20 °C) resulted in lower δ13C values in Daphnia and ephippia than in the other treatments with the same food source and in a minor change in the difference between δ13C values of ephippia and Daphnia (to -1.3 ± 0.3 ‰). This may have been due to microbial processes or increased algal respiration rates in the experimental containers, which may not affect Daphnia in natural environments. There was no significant difference in the offset between δ18O and δ15N values of ephippia and Daphnia between the 12 and 20 °C treatments, but the δ18O values of Daphnia and ephippia were on average 1.2 ‰ lower at 20 °C than at

  9. ePlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, J; Lyons, J; Nørby, K; Thomas, M; Nørby, E; Poms, R; Bucchini, L; Restani, P; Kiely, M; Finglas, P

    2016-02-15

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the only web-based database available compiling peer reviewed publications and case studies on PFS. A user-friendly, efficient and flexible interface has been developed for searching, extracting, and exporting the data, including links to the original references. Data from over 570 publications have been quality evaluated and entered covering 70 PFS or their botanical ingredients.

  10. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the ‘Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L.; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0–5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children. PMID:27834906

  11. A Tiled-Table Convention for Compressing FITS Binary Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Pence, William; White, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    This document describes a convention for compressing FITS binary tables that is modeled after the FITS tiled-image compression method (White et al. 2009) that has been in use for about a decade. The input table is first optionally subdivided into tiles, each containing an equal number of rows, then every column of data within each tile is compressed and stored as a variable-length array of bytes in the output FITS binary table. All the header keywords from the input table are copied to the header of the output table and remain uncompressed for efficient access. The output compressed table contains the same number and order of columns as in the input uncompressed binary table. There is one row in the output table corresponding to each tile of rows in the input table. In principle, each column of data can be compressed using a different algorithm that is optimized for the type of data within that column, however in the prototype implementation described here, the gzip algorithm is used to compress every column.

  12. [Food based approaches to improve vitamin and mineral nutrition adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M T; Uauy, R; Olivares, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper, using the nutrient density concept and the development of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG), explores the nutritional adequacy of food patterns based on the main staples around the world--maize, wheat, rice and potato. The nutritional adequacy of the vitamins A, C, folates and the minerals iron, zinc and calcium in diets composed by these staples is analyzed. Projected diets modified by the addition of foods high in vitamins and minerals, based on food table composition information, are analyzed for changes in nutritional adequacy, in order to cover the nutritional requirements of all family members. This theoretical exercise shows that diets diversified by the addition of relatively small quantities (27-70 g) of foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes and meat improve substantially the nutritional adequacy of the vitamins A, C, folates, iron and zinc. In the case of calcium, the addition of a dairy source becomes essential. From the practical point of view, the implementation of the food based approach requires a national effort in order to support the production of nutrient rich foods and to promote consciousness of nutrient bioavailability, so that people may obtain all nutrient potential from foods. Simultaneously, the need of fortification programs at the national level is recognized. This is the case for critical nutrients, where requirements might be above the potential in available foods. A similar situation occurs in the case of vulnerable groups like pregnant women and infants, who need supplementation to ensure nutritional adequacy of their diets. In conclusion, the use of FBDG is a good alternative for improving the nutritional adequacy of diets based predominantly on staple foods. However, food fortification and supplementation programs directed to vulnerable groups are necessary and complementary practices to the FBDG implementation.

  13. Lubrication and perception of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Food structure is determined by its composition and the interaction between the compositional or structural elements. Both food structure and the texture perception of foods undergo dynamic changes during different phases of oral processing. During oral processin

  14. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.

  15. Pictorial instrument of food and nutrition education for promoting healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gonçalves MICALI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To trace the course of building a pictorial instrument that explores semiotic resources about food and nutrition education. The instrument is directed at the treatment and prevention of obesity, considering the food and nutrition problems of the Brazilian population. The criteria for photo production were: images that could cause visual impact and transmit applied nutrition information, insinuating positive and negative eating practices for promoting healthy eating, and preventing and treating obesity. Themes were created to guide photo production, and preparations, food composition tables, and food labels were used for composing the images. Focus groups were conducted with nonobese and obese women, and dietitians to evaluate image comprehension. The pictorial instrument totaled to 20 photos, with 5 photos in each of the following themes: 'Sweet life, being aware of sugar', about sugar content in sweets and drinks; 'Tasty food with little fat', about fat content in foods; 'Eating well by making the best choices', about food replacements; and 'I take care of myself by eating healthy food, about encouraging fruit and vegetable intakes. The photos contain food, meals, and semiotic resources. The pictorial instrument describes four relevant themes to approach food problems in the Brazilian population. It can easily be used for both preventing and treating obesity, and for promoting healthy eating.

  16. Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-07-01

    Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance between the electrodes and presence of proton exchange membrane (PEM) showed significant influence on the power yields. SMFC-B (anode placed 5 cm from cathode-PEM) depicted good power output (463 mV; 170.81 mW/m(2)) followed by SMFC-C (anode placed 5 cm from cathode; without PEM; 398 mV; 53.41 mW/m(2)). SMFC-A (PEM sandwiched between electrodes) recorded lowest performance (258 mV; 41.8 mW/m(2)). Sodium carbonate amendment documented marked improvement in power yields due to improvement in the system buffering capacity. SMFCs operation also documented good substrate degradation (COD, 76%) along with bio-ethanol production. The operation of SMFC mimicked solid-sate fermentation which might lead to sustainable solid waste management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  18. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K.; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g-1 FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g-1 DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of nutrients

  19. Potensi “Khimelor” sebagai Tepung Komposit Tinggi Energi Tinggi Protein Berbasis Pangan Lokal (Health Potential of “Khimelor” as Composite Fluor Having Both High Energy and High Protein Level Based on Local Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Karunia Tanuwijaya

    2016-07-01

    The use of wheat flour as the basic ingredients of food products for high energy high protein diet is considerably high. Soybeans, mung beans, red leaf spinach and moringa leaf is local food sources of nutrients that are potential to be processed into a composite flour substituting wheat flour, which can be utilized for a variety of food products. The research was aimed to know the influence of proportion of soybeans, mung beans, red leaf spinach and moringa leaf (KhiMeLor on the quality of nutrition, protein and organoleptik quality of composite flour. This was experimental research with a complete random design. The treatment were several composition mixtures of wheat and composite flour, consisting of soybean, mung bean, red leaf spinach and moringa leaf P0 (100% : 0%; P1 (75% : 25%; P2 (50% : 50%; P3 (25% : 75%; P4 (0% : 100%. The content of carbohydrate, protein and fat was analyzed using proximate analysis. The quality of protein was examined from limiting amino acid and protein digestibility score. The sensory test was used to examine the costumer acceptance on sensory parameters. Statistical analysis used One Way Anova which  showed that substitution of  soy bean, mung bean,  moringaleaf and red spinach significantly (p=0,000 increases protein level. The limiting amino acid of P0,P1 and P2 was Lysine, but P3 and P4 was methionine. Protein digestibility of composite fluor was less than P0 (96%. The result of sensory evaluation showed that there was significant difference in aroma (p=0,000 and texture (p=0,029 which decreases as there is an increase of proportion composite flour. The conclusion was different proportion of soy bean, mung bean, moringa leaf and red spinach  influences the nutrition quality and sensory evaluation of composite flour. Keyword : composite flour, local food, KHiMelor

  20. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidative activity of Echinophora platyloba DC. essential oil, and its interaction with natural antimicrobials against food-borne pathogens and spoilage organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saei-Dehkordi, S Siavash; Fallah, Aziz A; Saei-Dehkordi, S Saeid; Kousha, Sanaz

    2012-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and antioxidative capacity of Echinophora platyloba DC. essential oil, and its antimicrobial potency against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS; and evaluated for its antioxidative and antimicrobial (singly or in combination with chitosan, nisin, monolaurin, or amphotericin B) activity. Thirty-three components were characterized representing 95.69% of the total oil composition in which thymol, trans-ocimene, carvacrol, and (E)-sesqui-lavandulol were the major constituents. The oil exhibited high scavenging (IC(50): 49.7 ± 2.3 μg/mL) and relative antioxidative activity (RAA%: 85.21 ± 0.4) in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assays, respectively. The oil showed antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes, B. cereus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, R. Rubra, and R. mucilaginosa. Moreover, R. mucilaginosa and P. aeruginosa were the most susceptible and most resistant organisms, respectively. Regarding the checkerboard data, 47 fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICIs) (≤ 0.5) indicated synergistic, whereas 7 FICIs (>0.5 to 1) indicated additive effect. Consequently, E. platyloba DC. essential oil could be used as a recommended natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance for food preservation.

  2. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  3. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Arifeen, Shams; Frongillo, Edward A; Persson, Lars Åke

    2015-07-01

    Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of age. In Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomised into six equally sized groups: double-masked supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or MMS (15 micronutrients), was combined with a randomised early invitation (around 9 weeks) or a usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to start food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week). At 54 months, the body composition of the offspring was assessed by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 3267 live singletons with birth anthropometry, 2290 children were measured at 54 months, representing 70% of the live births. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on body composition outcomes. There were no significant differences in a range of anthropometric and body composition measurements, including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass and fat-free mass between the different prenatal food and micronutrient groups using an intention-to-treat analysis. This analysis shows that early invitation to food supplementation and MMS provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Chemical composition, true nutrient digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of novel pet food protein sources using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Hancock, L; Swanson, K S

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calamari meal and pork peptone had lower ash (4.4 and 3.6% of DM, respectively) but greater CP (88.1 and 80.5% of DM, respectively) and either greater or similar GE (5.6 and 5.3 kcal/g of DM, respectively) compared with alligator, lamb, venison, chicken, and duck meals (11.8 to 24.5% ash, 58.7 to 65.9% CP, and 4.6 to 5.3 kcal GE/g). Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was lower in calamari meal (8.7% of DM) compared with the other proteins tested (15.5-22.1% of DM). True nutrient digestibility was variable among the protein sources (52 to 79% of DM, 60 to 83% of OM, 78 to 92% of AHF, and 70 to 89% of GE) with pork peptone having the highest DM, AHF, and GE digestibility and calamari meal having the highest OM digestibility. True indispensable AA digestibility was highest for calamari meal, with all AA having a digestibility greater than 90%. Except for histidine, all indispensable AA had a digestibility over 85% for pork peptone. In contrast, true indispensable AA digestibility was lowest for lamb meal, with histidine having digestibility less than 70% and the other entire indispensable AA having digestibility between 72 and 88%. The TMEn of calamari meal (4.82 kcal/g DM and 86.9% of GE) was greater ( foods and justifies further in vivo testing of novel protein sources.

  5. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  6. Composition of interfacial layers in complex food emulsions before and after aeration: effect of egg to milk protein ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, V; Valentini, C; Casalinho, J; Schorsch, C; Vaslin, S; Courthaudon, J-L

    2005-01-01

    Whipped emulsions were prepared at pilot scale from fresh milk, whole egg, and other ingredients, for example, sugars and stabilizers (starch, polysaccharides). Egg content was varied: 4 recipes were studied differing in their egg to milk protein ratio (0, 0.25, 0.38, and 0.68). Protein and fat contents were kept constant by adjusting the recipes with skim-milk powder and fresh cream. Emulsions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and whipped on a pilot plant. Particle-size distribution determined by laser-light scattering showed an extensive aggregation of fat globules in both mix and whipped emulsions, regardless of recipe. Amount of protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface and protein composition of adsorbed layer were determined after isolation of fat globules. Protein load is strongly increased by the presence of egg in formula. Values obtained for the whipped emulsions were dramatically lower than those obtained for the mix by a factor of 2 to 3. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE indicated a preferential adsorption of egg proteins over milk proteins at the oil-water interface, regardless of recipe. This phenomenon was more marked in aerated than in unaerated emulsions, showing evidence for desorption of some milk proteins during whipping. Egg proteins stabilize mainly the fat globule surface and ensure emulsion stability before whipping. Air bubble size distribution in whipped emulsions was measured after 15 d storage. When the egg to milk protein ratio is decreased to 0.25, large air cells appear in whipped emulsions during storage, indicating mousse destabilization. The present work allows linking the protein composition of adsorbed layers at the fat globule surface to mousse formula and mousse stability.

  7. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  8. Natural toxicants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, J M

    1975-09-01

    Food constitutes the most complex part of our chemical environment. Naturally occurring substances in food, such as goitrogens and estrogens, are toxicants. However, there is a difference of degree between toxicity and hazard, and the hazard to man in normal good health from naturally occurring toxicants in food is usually slight, because of (a) the small concentrations and (b) antagonistic interactions between toxicants which provide "safety in numbers." Hazard from foods may indeed exist under some circumstances, such as the presence of abnormal contaminants, ingestion of abnormal amounts, or abnormal susceptibility existing in some disease states. However, the major hazards of the dinner table can ordinarily be ascribed to careless food handling, unbalanced or fad diets, or overeating.

  9. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    temperature and cooks --no fuel tanks have to be filled, no fuel lines connected, no pressure gauges monitored , and no valves and nozzles have to be...summarized in Table 1. TABLE 1 FOOD SERVICE SYSTEM COST Item Galley Equipment Sanitation Equipment ISO Reefers M-77 Warer Heaters Generator

  10. Composición grasa de diversos alimentos servidos en establecimientos de "comida rápida" Fat composition of several "fast food"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barrado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el porcentaje de grasa, de diversos alimentos servidos en establecimientos de los denominados genéricamente de comida rápida ("fast food" o "hamburgueserías". Dicho porcentaje es muy variable, con un promedio del 35,83 ± 10,68% en hamburguesas de vacuno, 35,84 ± 8,66% en patatas fritas, el 23,02 ± 5,07% en hamburguesas de pollo y el 34,02 ± 13,49% en los denominados "perritos calientes". La composición lipídica está formada en su mayoría por ácidos grasos saturados (28 a 52% relativo al total de grasa y monoinsaturados (46-48%, mientras que la proporción de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tiene valores más dispares, oscilando desde el 6,9% en hamburguesas de vacuno al 25,1% en las patatas fritas. Cuando se tratan los resultados de los porcentajes relativos de los ácidos grasos contenidos en las distintas muestras mediante técnicas estadísticas apropiadas, se comprueba que se generan una serie de agrupaciones en función del tipo de alimento de que se trate y en algunos casos por lugar de origen, lo que puede ser interesante en caso de problemas relacionados con la salud. En algún caso se han detectado porcentajes ligeramente altos de ácidos grasos trans, respecto a lo recomendado. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad urgente de que la legislación obligue a especificar el tipo de grasa exacta utilizada en la elaboración de estos alimentos, así como un mayor control por parte de las administraciones.The percentage of fat of a variety of foods served in fast food establishments has been determined. This percentage is very variable, with mean contents of total fat of 35.83 ± 10.68% in beef hamburgers, 35.84 ± 8.66% in chips, 23.02 ± 5.07% in chicken hamburgers and 34.02 ± 13.49% in "hot dogs". The lipidic composition is mainly formed by saturated fatty acids (28-52% of total fat and monounsaturated (46-48%, whereas the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed more variable values

  11. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is ...

  12. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.

  13. On isomorphisms of integral table algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Yun(樊恽); SUN; Daying(孙大英)

    2002-01-01

    For integral table algebras with integral table basis T, we can consider integral R-algebra RT over a subring R of the ring of the algebraic integers. It is proved that an R-algebra isomorphism between two integral table algebras must be an integral table algebra isomorphism if it is compatible with the so-called normalizings of the integral table algebras.

  14. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Hendricks

    2003-03-03

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO{sub 2}, making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables.

  15. Table 1 Experimental diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Siebrits

    oilcake containing 2.4% residual oil (control diet with 29 g fat and 123 g crude protein kg feed) fed to four groups of 10 SA ... Keywords: Calcium soap, TBARS, fatty acid composition, shelf life ..... Obesity: Impact on Cardiovascular. Disease.

  16. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Mahmoudi, Razzaqh

    2013-01-01

    Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) showed that ocimene (26.51%), 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa-1,3-diene (9.87%), alpha-pinene (7.69%) and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66%) were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o-Cymene (28.66%), methanol (8.50%), alpha-pinene (7.42%) and gamma-decalactone (5.20%). The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono-cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.

  17. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS showed that ocimene (26.51%, 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa- 1,3-diene (9.87%, alpha-pinene (7.69% and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66% were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o- Cymene (28.66%, methanol (8.50%, alpha-pinene (7.42% and gamma-decalactone (5.20%. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono- cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.

  18. 许氏平鲉的食物组成及其食物选择性%Food composition and prey selectivity of Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李忠义; 金显仕

    2014-01-01

    2009年8月和10月对渤海进行了底拖网调查,鲉对增殖放流种类之一的许氏平(Sebates schlegeli)进行了胃鲉含物分析和食物选择性的初步研究。结果表明许氏平共摄食7类20余种饵料,主要摄食虾类和鱼类,属虾/鱼食性鱼类。8月摄食的主要饵料为日本鼓虾和虾虎鱼类,10月摄食的主要饵料为疣背宽额虾和小黄鱼。与20世纪90年代的研究结果相比,鲉许氏平的摄食发生了显著的年间变化,摄食的虾类饵料增多,鱼类饵料减少;主要饵料种类发生改变,鳀鲉不再是其主要的饵料种类。食物选择性指数的计算表明许氏平摄食的主要饵料种类与喜食的饵料种类有一定差别;鲉许氏平的食物选择性并不完全是由环境中的饵料丰度决定的,说明其对食物的选择具有较强的主动性。结论认为,鲉许氏平的摄食和食物选择性的季节变化不仅受环境中饵料丰度的影响,也受鱼类自身营养需求和主动选择性摄食的影响。%Based on bottom trawl surveys conducted in the Bohai Sea in August and October of 2009, stomach analysis and prey selectivity indices were used to study the feeding habits of Sebates schlegeli, which is a released fish species. The results showed that Sebates schlegeli fed on seven groups of more than 20 prey species, and mainly fed on shrimp and fish, accounting for 64.93%-76.59% of the total food composition, by percentage of occurrence. Thus, Sebates schlegeli belongs to the fish/shrimp predator fish. Alpheus japonicas and the gobiidae were the dominant prey species in August;however, Latreutes planirostris and small yellow croaker (Larimichthy polyactis) were the dominant prey spe-cies in October. Compared with the study performed in the 1990s, the feeding habits of Sebates schlegeli have varied significantly, feeding on a higher proportion of shrimp prey and fewer fish. The dominant prey species were also dif-ferent, and anchovy (Engraulis

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Dddd of... - Initial Compliance Demonstrations for Work Practice Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Composite Wood Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Initial Compliance... § 63.2263). (2) Hardwood veneer dryer Process less than 30 volume percent softwood species You meet the... that the dryer meets the criteria of a “hardwood veneer dryer” AND you have a record of the...