WorldWideScience

Sample records for food chain models

  1. Validation of a terrestrial food chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, C C; Blaylock, B P

    1992-01-01

    An increasingly important topic in risk assessment is the estimation of human exposure to environmental pollutants through pathways other than inhalation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently developed a computerized methodology (EPA, 1990) to estimate indirect exposure to toxic pollutants from Municipal Waste Combuster emissions. This methodology estimates health risks from exposure to toxic pollutants from the terrestrial food chain (TFC), soil ingestion, drinking water ingestion, fish ingestion, and dermal absorption via soil and water. Of these, one of the most difficult to estimate is exposure through the food chain. This paper estimates the accuracy of the EPA methodology for estimating food chain contamination. To our knowledge, no data exist on measured concentrations of pollutants in food grown around Municipal Waste Incinerators, and few field-scale studies have been performed on the uptake of pollutants in the food chain. Therefore, to evaluate the EPA methodology, we compare actual measurements of background contaminant levels in food with estimates made using EPA's computerized methodology. Background levels of contaminants in air, water, and soil were used as input to the EPA food chain model to predict background levels of contaminants in food. These predicted values were then compared with the measured background contaminant levels. Comparisons were performed for dioxin, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and lead.

  2. Towards effective food chains : models and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Top, J.L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain management research can help in the analysis and redesign of value creation and the product flow throughout the chain from primary producer down to the consumer. The aim is to meet consumer and societal requirements effectively at minimal cost. In the Wageningen UR strategic research prog

  3. Hopf bifurcation for simple food chain model with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider a chemostat-like model for a simple food chain where there is a well stirred nutrient substance that serves as food for a prey population of microorganisms, which in turn, is the food for a predator population of microorganisms. The nutrient-uptake of each microorganism is of Holling type I (or Lotka-Volterra form. We show the existence of a global attractor for solutions of this system. Also we show that the positive globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point of the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation when the dynamics of the microorganisms at the bottom of the chain depends on the history of the prey population by means of a distributed delay that takes an average of the microorganism in the middle of the chain.

  4. Finite Time Blowup in a Realistic Food-Chain Model

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana

    2013-05-19

    We investigate a realistic three-species food-chain model, with generalist top predator. The model based on a modified version of the Leslie-Gower scheme incorporates mutual interference in all the three populations and generalizes several other known models in the ecological literature. We show that the model exhibits finite time blowup in certain parameter range and for large enough initial data. This result implies that finite time blowup is possible in a large class of such three-species food-chain models. We propose a modification to the model and prove that the modified model has globally existing classical solutions, as well as a global attractor. We reconstruct the attractor using nonlinear time series analysis and show that it pssesses rich dynamics, including chaos in certain parameter regime, whilst avoiding blowup in any parameter regime. We also provide estimates on its fractal dimension as well as provide numerical simulations to visualise the spatiotemporal chaos.

  5. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  6. Ecological consequences of global bifurcations in some food chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorn, George A K; Kooi, Bob W; Boer, Martin P

    2010-08-01

    Food chain models of ordinary differential equations (ode's) are often used in ecology to gain insight in the dynamics of populations of species, and the interactions of these species with each other and their environment. One powerful analysis technique is bifurcation analysis, focusing on the changes in long-term (asymptotic) behaviour under parameter variation. For the detection of local bifurcations there exists standardised software, but until quite recently most software did not include any capabilities for the detection and continuation of global bifurcations. We focus here on the occurrence of global bifurcations in four food chain models, and discuss the implications of their occurrence. In two stoichiometric models (one piecewise continuous, one smooth) there exists a homoclinic bifurcation, that results in the disappearance of a limit cycle attractor. Instead, a stable positive equilibrium becomes the global attractor. The models are also capable of bistability. In two three-dimensional models a Shil'nikov homoclinic bifurcation functions as the organising centre of chaos, while tangencies of homoclinic cycle-to-cycle connections 'cut' the chaotic attractors, which is associated with boundary crises. In one model this leads to extinction of the top predator, while in the other model hysteresis occurs. The types of ecological events occurring because of a global bifurcation will be categorized. Global bifurcations are always catastrophic, leading to the disappearance or merging of attractors. However, there is no 1-on-1 coupling between global bifurcation type and the possible ecological consequences. This only emphasizes the importance of including global bifurcations in the analysis of food chain models.

  7. Dynamic model for tritium transfer in an aquatic food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melintescu, A; Galeriu, D

    2011-08-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is released from some nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities. It is a ubiquitous isotope because it enters straight into organisms, behaving essentially identically to its stable analogue (hydrogen). Tritium is a key radionuclide in the aquatic environment, in some cases, contributing significantly to the doses received by aquatic, non-human biota and by humans. The updated model presented here is based on more standardized, comprehensive assessments than previously used for the aquatic food chain, including the benthic flora and fauna, with an explicit application to the Danube ecosystem, as well as an extension to the special case of dissolved organic tritium (DOT). The model predicts the organically bound tritium (OBT) in the primary producers (the autotrophs, such as phytoplankton and algae) and in the consumers (the heterotrophs) using their bioenergetics, which involves the investigation of energy expenditure, losses, gains and efficiencies of transformations in the body. The model described in the present study intends to be more specific than a screening-level model, by including a metabolic approach and a description of the direct uptake of DOT in marine phytoplankton and invertebrates. For a better control of tritium transfer into the environment, not only tritiated water must be monitored, but also the other chemical forms and most importantly OBT, in the food chain.

  8. COMIDA: a radionuclide food chain model for acute fallout deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M L; Rood, A S

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic food chain model and computer code, named "COMIDA," has been developed to estimate radionuclide concentrations in agricultural food products following an acute fallout event. COMIDA estimates yearly harvest concentrations for five human crop types (Bq kg-1 crop per Bq m-2 deposited) and integrated concentrations for four animal products (Bq d kg-1 animal product per Bq m-2) for a unit deposition that occurs on any user-specified day of the year. COMIDA is structurally very similar to the PATHWAY model and includes the same seasonal transport processes and discrete events for soil and vegetation compartments. Animal product assimilation is modeled using simpler equilibrium models. Differential transport and ingrowth of up to three radioactive progeny are also evaluated. Benchmark results between COMIDA and PATHWAY for monthly fallout events show very similar seasonal agreement for integrated concentrations in milk and beef. Benchmark results between COMIDA and four international steady-state models show good agreement for deposition events that occur during the middle of the growing season. COMIDA will be implemented in the new Department of Energy version of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System for evaluation of accidental releases from nuclear power plants.

  9. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and

  10. Effective food supply chains : generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to

  11. Effective food supply chains : generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to f

  12. Biokinetic food chain modeling of waterborne selenium pulses into aquatic food chains: Implications for water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Pargee, Suzanne; Claytor, Carrie; Canton, Steven P; Brix, Kevin V

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the use of biokinetic models to predict selenium (Se) bioaccumulation into model food chains after short-term pulses of selenate or selenite into water. Both periphyton- and phytoplankton-based food chains were modeled, with Se trophically transferred to invertebrates and then to fish. Whole-body fish Se concentrations were predicted based on 1) the background waterborne Se concentration, 2) the magnitude of the Se pulse, and 3) the duration of the Se pulse. The models were used to evaluate whether the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) existing acute Se criteria and their recently proposed intermittent Se criteria would be protective of a whole-body fish Se tissue-based criterion of 8.1 μg g(-1) dry wt. Based on a background waterborne Se concentration of 1 μg L(-1) and pulse durations of 1 d and 4 d, the Se pulse concentrations predicted to result in a whole-body fish Se concentration of 8.1 μg g(-1) dry wt in the most conservative model food chains were 144 and 35 μg L(-1), respectively, for selenate and 57 and 16 μg L(-1), respectively, for selenite. These concentrations fall within the range of various acute Se criteria recommended by the USEPA based on direct waterborne toxicity, suggesting that these criteria may not always be protective against bioaccumulation-based toxicity that could occur after short-term pulses. Regarding the USEPA's draft intermittent Se criteria, the biokinetic modeling indicates that they may be overly protective for selenate pulses but potentially underprotective for selenite pulses. Predictions of whole-body fish Se concentrations were highly dependent on whether the food chain was periphyton- or phytoplankton-based, because the latter had much greater Se uptake rate constants. Overall, biokinetic modeling provides an approach for developing acute Se criteria that are protective against bioaccumulation-based toxicity after trophic transfer, and it is also a useful tool for evaluating averaging

  13. The Chain Information Model: a systematic approach for food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chain information model has been developed to increase the success rate of new food products. The uniqueness of this approach is that it approaches the problem from a chain perspective and starts with the consumer. The model can be used to analyse the production chain in a systematic way. This

  14. The Chain Information Model: a systematic approach for food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chain information model has been developed to increase the success rate of new food products. The uniqueness of this approach is that it approaches the problem from a chain perspective and starts with the consumer. The model can be used to analyse the production chain in a systematic way. This r

  15. Business process modelling in demand-driven agri-food supply chains : a reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: Business process models; Supply chain management; Information systems; Reference information models; Market orientation; Mass customisation; Configuration; Coordination; Control; SCOR; Pot plants; Fruit industry Abstract The increasing volatility and diversity of demand urge agri-food

  16. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  17. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, van der, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chainsThe overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and effective method to analyse and redesign the SC to improve SC performance.BackgroundThe background and rationale of this thesis are discussed in Chapter 1. Interest in SCM has been spurred by recent socio-e...

  18. Effective food supply chains : generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, van de, GAL Alfred

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and effective method to analyse and redesign the SC to improve SC performance.

    Background

    The background and rationale of this thesis are disc...

  19. Modeling and Optimization of Food Cold-chain Intelligent Logistics Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuxue Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the efficiency of food cold-chain logistics network, shortening the logistic time of food and reducing the logistics cost of food, this study analyzes the optimization strategy and various cost factors of the supply network of food cold chain and establishes and expands a kind of logistics network model adapting to the food cold-chain logistics. We use an improved genetic algorithm to solve the model and design an effective coding scheme, through the modified adaptive crossover probability and mutation probability, we integrate them into the elitism strategy, which has effectively avoided the prematurity of the algorithm and improved the operation efficiency of the algorithm. In the same instance, compared with the simple genetic algorithm, this study puts forward that the average running time and the average iteration number of the improved genetic algorithm have reduced nearly 50%, which has proved the feasibility and the effectiveness of the model and the algorithm.

  20. Modelling of radiocesium transfer in the lichen-reindeer/caribou-wolf food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Holleman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contaminate radiocesium (cesium-137 has been shown to be of value as a marker in food selection and intake studies. Its greatest potential value as a food marker is in the subarctic/arctic regions, particularly in the lichen to reindeer/caribou to wolf food chain. A kinetic model describing the movement of radiocesium through the food chain has been developed using the SAAM computer program and is presented here. The program has been written so that the various paramenters affecting the transfer of radiocesium in the food chain can be altered more realistically to describe the system being modeled. The values of the parameters as given in this example are realistic for interior Alaska, however caution should be exercised in the application of the present results to regions that may be vastly different from the Alaskan interior without first evaluating the parameters and assumptions of the model.

  1. Dynamical behavior of a three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Raid Kamel [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)]. E-mail: rknaji@yahoo.com; Balasim, Alla Tariq [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)]. E-mail: alkhazrejy@yahoo.com

    2007-06-15

    A three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is investigated. The local stability analysis is carried out and global behavior is simulated numerically for a biologically feasible choice of parameters. The persistence conditions of a food chain model are established. The bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters of the model after intensive numerical simulations. The results of simulations show that the model could exhibit chaotic dynamics for realistic and biologically feasible parametric values. Finally, the effect of immigration within prey species is investigated. It is observed that adding small amount of constant immigration to prey species stabilize the system.

  2. Business Process Modelling in Demand-Driven Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wolfert, J.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-food companies increasingly participate in demand-driven supply chains that are able to adapt flexibly to changes in the marketplace. The objective of this presentation is to discuss a process modelling framework, which enhances the interoperability and agility of information systems as require

  3. Optimal harvesting for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-xue; DU Ming-yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed point theorem. By Mazur's theorem, the existence of optimal control strategy is demonstrated and optimality conditions derived by means of normal cone.

  4. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation to

  5. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation

  6. Dynamics of a three species food chain model with Crowley-Martin type functional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar [Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004 (India)], E-mail: ranjit_ism@yahoo.com; Naji, Raid Kamel [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)], E-mail: rknaji@gmail.com

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, a three species food chain model, consisting of a hybrid type of prey-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses, is investigated analytically as well as numerically. The local and global stability analysis is carried out. The persistence conditions are established. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics.

  7. Combined deterministic and stochastic approaches for modeling the evolution of food products along the cold chain. Part I: Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Flick, D.; Hoang, H.M.; Alvarez, G.; Laguerre, O.

    2012-01-01

    Many deterministic models have been developed to describe heat transfer in the cold chain and to predict the thermal and microbial evolution of food products. However, different product items will have different evolutions because of the variability of logistic supply chain, equipment design and operating conditions, etc. The objective of this study is to propose a general methodology to predict the evolution of food products and its variability along a cold chain. This evolution is chara...

  8. Modelling the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in agricultural food chains for regulatory exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2017-02-01

    New models for estimating bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the agricultural food chain were developed using recent improvements to plant uptake and cattle transfer models. One model named AgriSim was based on K OW regressions of bioaccumulation in plants and cattle, while the other was a steady-state mechanistic model, AgriCom. The two developed models and European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES), as a benchmark, were applied to four reported food chain (soil/air-grass-cow-milk) scenarios to evaluate the performance of each model simulation against the observed data. The four scenarios considered were as follows: (1) polluted soil and air, (2) polluted soil, (3) highly polluted soil surface and polluted subsurface and (4) polluted soil and air at different mountain elevations. AgriCom reproduced observed milk bioaccumulation well for all four scenarios, as did AgriSim for scenarios 1 and 2, but EUSES only did this for scenario 1. The main causes of the deviation for EUSES and AgriSim were the lack of the soil-air-plant pathway and the ambient air-plant pathway, respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that soil-air-plant and ambient air-plant pathway should be calculated separately and the K OW regression of transfer factor to milk used in EUSES be avoided. AgriCom satisfied the recommendations that led to the low residual errors between the simulated and the observed bioaccumulation in agricultural food chain for the four scenarios considered. It is therefore recommended that this model should be incorporated into regulatory exposure assessment tools. The model uncertainty of the three models should be noted since the simulated concentration in milk from 5th to 95th percentile of the uncertainty analysis often varied over two orders of magnitude. Using a measured value of soil organic carbon content was effective to reduce this uncertainty by one order of magnitude.

  9. Societal Statistical Data for a Food Chain Modeling of the UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsi, Maitha Al Fandi; Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear energy was seen as a potential alternative for the current non-renewable energy sources such as oil, gas and coal. Nuclear power was then chosen due to its sustainable qualities as well as sufficiency in the supply of energy for the upcoming years. In addition, it is believed that it will greatly contribute to UAE's economy and energy security. Despite its promising qualities, the risk underlying nuclear fallout can be catastrophic. Therefore, for safety analysis, a prospective assessment on the potential risks associated with the occurrence of such event should be performed. Constructing a food chain model and an exposure pathway that is specific to the UAE is essential, as it could aid in the determination of the potential dose an individual could receive following a routine or accidental release of radionuclides into the environment. This paper includes societal statistical data such as data on the production of food as well as dietary data such as the consumption of food in the UAE. Such data was compiled along with other parameter values from the literature. These findings could potentially be used as input values upon the development of a food chain model. The Barakah nuclear power plant will soon start operating in the UAE, and it is therefore critical that safety assessments in case of nuclear fallout be made. Following fallout, radionuclides can travel along successive trophic levels of a food chain, ultimately affecting humans. Yet, the exposure pathway by which it is transported varies between countries depending on the plant and animal species considered as well as other climatic factors. Hence, developing a food chain model specific to the UAE environment is essential, as it will aid in the determination of the potential dose an exposed individual might receive. Available societal data specific to the UAE from the year 2007 to 2016 were compiled. The data is comprised of UAE food production, domestic and per capita consumption. In addition

  10. A dynamic food-chain model and program for predicting the consequences of nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic food-chain model and program, DYFOM-95, forpredicting the radiological consequences of nuclear accident hasbeen developed, which is not only suitable to the West food-chainbut also to Chinese food chain. The following processes, caused byaccident release which will make an impact on radionuclideconcentration in the edible parts of vegetable are considered: dryand wet deposition interception and initial retention,translocation, percolation, root uptake and tillage. Activityintake rate of animals, effects of processing and activity intakeof human through ingestion pathway are also considered incalculations. The effects of leaf area index LAI of vegetable areconsidered in dry deposition model. A method for calculating thecontribution of rain with different period and different intensityto total wet deposition is established. The program contains 1 maincode and 5 sub-codes to calculate dry and wet deposition on surfaceof vegetable and soil, translocation of nuclides in vegetable,nuclide concentration in the edible parts of vegetable and inanimal products and activity intake of human and so on.

  11. The role of top predator interference on the dynamics of a food chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Naji, Raid Kamel; Raw, Sharada Nandn; Dubey, Balram

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of top predator interference on the dynamics of a food chain model involving an intermediate and a top predator are considered. It is assumed that the interaction between the prey and intermediate predator follows the Volterra scheme, while that between the top predator and its favorite food depends on Beddington-DeAngelis type of functional response. The boundedness of the system, existence of an attracting set, local and global stability of non-negative equilibrium points are established. Number of the bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent bifurcation diagrams is established. It is observed that, the model has different types of attracting sets including chaos. Moreover, increasing the top predator interference stabilizes the system, while increasing the normalization of the residual reduction in the top predator population destabilizes the system.

  12. A DYNAMIC FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR HONG KONG BASED ON RADFOOD MODEL AND BIRCHALL—JAMES ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余君岳; 吴国斌; 等

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic food chain model for Hong Kong which simulates the transfer of radioactive substances from a fallout deposition via the food chain into the human bodies is built.The model is based on the RADFOOD model and the Birchall-James algorithm.The radionuclides 131I and 90Sr representing the short-term and long-term risk situations have been studied as sample cases.Various types of crops,and the dietary pattern of the public have been considered.The resulting internal radiation doses have been calculated.The results are obtained for food consumption starting at various time after the fallout deposition and for different consumption durations.

  13. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  14. Turing patterns and long-time behavior in a three-species food-chain model

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana D.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a spatially explicit three-species food chain model, describing generalist top predator-specialist middle predator-prey dynamics. We investigate the long-time dynamics of the model and show the existence of a finite dimensional global attractor in the product space, L2(Ω). We perform linear stability analysis and show that the model exhibits the phenomenon of Turing instability, as well as diffusion induced chaos. Various Turing patterns such as stripe patterns, mesh patterns, spot patterns, labyrinth patterns and weaving patterns are obtained, via numerical simulations in 1d as well as in 2d. The Turing and non-Turing space, in terms of model parameters, is also explored. Finally, we use methods from nonlinear time series analysis to reconstruct a low dimensional chaotic attractor of the model, and estimate its fractal dimension. This provides a lower bound, for the fractal dimension of the attractor, of the spatially explicit model. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Spatiotemporal Patterns Induced by Cross-Diffusion in a Three-Species Food Chain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhan-Ping; Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Yu-Xia

    This paper focuses on a three-species Lotka-Volterra food chain model with cross-diffusion under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. The known results indicate that no spatiotemporal patterns happen in the corresponding reaction-diffusion system. When some cross-diffusion terms are introduced in the system, the existence of nonconstant positive steady-states as well as the Hopf bifurcation is studied. Our result shows that cross-diffusion plays a crucial role in the formation of spatiotemporal patterns, that is, it can create not only stationary patterns but also spatially inhomogeneous periodic oscillatory patterns, which is a strong contrast to the case without cross-diffusion.

  16. Optimal Harvesting in a Periodic Food Chain Model with Size Structures in Predators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng-Qin, E-mail: zhafq@263.net [Yuncheng University, Department of Applied Mathematics (China); Liu, Rong [Lvliang University, Department of Mathematics (China); Chen, Yuming, E-mail: ychen@wlu.ca [Yuncheng University, Department of Applied Mathematics (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate a periodic food chain model with harvesting, where the predators have size structures and are described by first-order partial differential equations. First, we establish the existence of a unique non-negative solution by using the Banach fixed point theorem. Then, we provide optimality conditions by means of normal cone and adjoint system. Finally, we derive the existence of an optimal strategy by means of Ekeland’s variational principle. Here the objective functional represents the net economic benefit yielded from harvesting.

  17. Stationary distribution and ergodicity of a stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingyi; Liu, Meng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three-species stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps is proposed and analyzed. Sharp sufficient criteria for the existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution are established. The effects of Lévy jumps on the existence of the stationary distribution are revealed: in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution appear, while in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution disappear. Some numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate the theoretical results.

  18. Towards biotracing in food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran; Bouquin, Solveig Lind; Skiby, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the integration of these disciplines will lead to better capability in full-chain tracing and tracking biological contaminations (biotracing). The advantages of improved biotraceability are faster intervention, limited recalls and more targeted remedial action. The project is not dealing with risk assessments but developing tools that can be used in "second-generation" risk assessments involving quantitative microbiology. This concept is the core activity of BIOTRACER, which is an Integrated Project (2007-2011) funded by the EU 6th Framework Programme. The research in biotracing is organised into five Research Areas, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs, and relevant International Cooperation (INCO) countries. The Consortium includes experts in predictive microbiology, database developers, software companies, risk assessors, risk managers, system biologists, food and molecular microbiologists, legislative officers, standardization and validation members and food retailers. The outcomes will ensure a more reliable and rapid response to a microbial contamination event.

  19. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  20. Analysis of a stochastic tri-trophic food-chain model with harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Bai, Chuanzhi

    2016-09-01

    We consider a tri-trophic stochastic food-chain model with harvesting. We first establish critical values between persistence in mean and extinction for each species. The results show that persistence and extinction of a species only depends on the demographic impacts of environmental stochasticity on the species and species at lower tropic levels; however, the mean abundance of a species depends on the impacts of environmental stochasticity at all trophic levels. Then we consider stability in distribution of the model. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for existence of optimal harvesting strategy and give the optimal harvesting effort and maximum of sustainable yield. The results show that the optimal harvesting strategy is closely related to the stochastic noises in the model.

  1. Modeling food logistics networks with emission considerations: the case of an international beef supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes along with growing sustainability concerns lead to the need for decision support tools that can integrate economic considerations with quality preservation and environmental protection in food supply chains. In this study, we develop a multi-o

  2. Modeling food logistics networks with emission considerations: the case of an international beef supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes along with growing sustainability concerns lead to the need for decision support tools that can integrate economic considerations with quality preservation and environmental protection in food supply chains. In this study, we develop a

  3. Agency Problem and Hedging in Agri-Food Chains: Model and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Kuiper, W.E.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The last 4 decades have seen the transformation of food supply chains from being supply driven to becoming much more closely integrated with consumer demand. With this development, the transaction mechanism in food marketing channels has changed from an open-market mechanism to coordination through

  4. Modelling and validation of robust partial thawing of frozen convenience foods during distribution in the cold chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Zammit, Gine Ørnholt

    2011-01-01

    with small blocks of a frozen model food (23 pct. Tylose® gel) and quipped with temperature loggers were distributed by trucks operating in the cold chain. In addition, controlled storage and temperature abuse experiments were conducted. To predict the product temperature–time relationship we developed a new......In collaboration with two commercial distributors we have tested a new concept for distribution, where convenience products for the food service industry are prepared, frozen and packed in cardboard boxes, but distributed in the chill chain at +5°C instead of in the frost chain. This will lead...... thawing model for the slow thawing of food pieces packed in a box. The model is based on enthalpy balances under quasi-stationary conditions; a condition that is fulfilled in the practical distribution experiments. The experiments confirmed the model predictions that the products were still partially...

  5. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  6. Spatiotemporal Patterns in a Ratio-Dependent Food Chain Model with Reaction-Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predator-prey models describe biological phenomena of pursuit-evasion interaction. And this interaction exists widely in the world for the necessary energy supplement of species. In this paper, we have investigated a ratio-dependent spatially extended food chain model. Based on the bifurcation analysis (Hopf and Turing, we give the spatial pattern formation via numerical simulation, that is, the evolution process of the system near the coexistence equilibrium point (u2*,v2*,w2*, and find that the model dynamics exhibits complex pattern replication. For fixed parameters, on increasing the control parameter c1, the sequence “holes → holes-stripe mixtures → stripes → spots-stripe mixtures → spots” pattern is observed. And in the case of pure Hopf instability, the model exhibits chaotic wave pattern replication. Furthermore, we consider the pattern formation in the case of which the top predator is extinct, that is, the evolution process of the system near the equilibrium point (u1*,v1*,0, and find that the model dynamics exhibits stripes-spots pattern replication. Our results show that reaction-diffusion model is an appropriate tool for investigating fundamental mechanism of complex spatiotemporal dynamics. It will be useful for studying the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  7. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: Towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a concep

  8. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: Towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a

  9. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Per Engelseth

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Finding...

  10. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  11. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  12. Towards biotracing in food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    , and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs...

  13. Stability in a diffusive food chain model with Michaelis-Menten functional response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of positive solutions to a reaction-diffusion system with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions describing a three species food chain. A sufficient condition for the local asymptotical stability is given by linearization and also a sufficient condition...... for the global asymptotical stability is given by a Lyapunov function. Our result shows that the equilibrium solution is globally asymptotically stable if the net birth rate of the first species is big enough and the net death rate of the third species is neither too big nor too small. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  14. MANAGEMENT OF PROCESS SAFETY IN FOOD CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Zahar Djordjevic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Food safety in all food industries gains increasing importance. Except health risks, diseases caused by spoiled food can significantly increase the economic costs, including medical treatment, absence from work, insurance payments and legal compensation. This paper considers the problem of determining the safety of production processes, and thus the products, in food chains using an expert system which is based on fuzzy logic. All the uncertainties and imprecisions that exist in a model properly are described using the theory of fuzzy sets. The quality goal values and the optimal management strategy are determined by proposed fuzzy expert system.

  15. An Improved Empirical Model for Evaluating the Influence of Agricultural Supply Chain on Food Processing Enterprise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    XiaoFei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture supply chain has much economic benefits, it can promote the product circulation, provide cooperation opportunity for both the upstream and downstream enterprises. In order to analyze how the agriculture supply chain effect on the business performance in food processing industry, we make a statistical analysis about the effect of agriculture supply chain on food processing industry by using data from 1990 to 2013. The result shows that: First, Agriculture supply chain development w...

  16. Bifurcation and chaos of a pest-control food chain model with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou Zhejiang 325000 (China) and College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Lu Zhengyi [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou Zhejiang 325000 (China)

    2009-02-28

    According to biological and chemical control strategy for pest control, we investigate the dynamics of a predator-prey food chain with impulsive effect, periodic releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticide at different fixed times, by using impulsive differential equation. Choose pest birth rate r{sub 2} as control parameter, we show that there exists a stable pest-eradication periodic solution when r{sub 2} is less than some critical value r{sub 2}* and the system is permanence when r{sub 2} is larger than the critical value r{sub 2}*. By use of standard techniques of bifurcation theory, we prove that above this threshold there are periodic oscillations in prey, middle-predator and top predator. Furthermore, bifurcation diagrams have shown that there exists complexity for the pulsed system including periodic doubling cascade.

  17. Persistence and Nonpersistence of a Food Chain Model with Stochastic Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a three species predator-prey chain model with stochastic perturbation. First, we show that this system has a unique positive solution and its pth moment is bounded. Then, we deduce conditions that the system is persistent in time average. After that, conditions for the system going to be extinction in probability are established. At last, numerical simulations are carried out to support our results.

  18. Traceability in food supply chain:: Towards the synchronised supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Helena; Skjöldebrand, Christina; Olsson, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Today, food products are distributed all over the world. This has led to advantages in terms of availability but disadvantages in terms of more complex food supply chains. Global food competition is intense and therefore actors have started to adapt their mindsets toward a more holistic view and a supply chain perspective. In addition, food scares during recent years have turned focus towards food safety and traceability in a “farm-to-fork” perspective. The aim of this study is to explore...

  19. PATHWAY: a simulation model of radionuclide-transport through agricultural food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Otis, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    PATHWAY simulates the transport of radionuclides from fallout through an agricultural ecosystem. The agro-ecosystem is subdivided into several land management units, each of which is used either for grazing animals, for growing hay, or for growing food crops. The model simulates the transport of radionuclides by both discrete events and continuous, time-dependent processes. The discrete events include tillage of soil, harvest and storage of crops,and deposition of fallout. The continuous processes include the transport of radionuclides due to resuspension, weathering, rain splash, percolation, leaching, adsorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil, root uptake, foliar absorption, growth and senescence of vegetation, and the ingestion assimilation, and excretion of radionuclides by animals. Preliminary validation studies indicate that the model dynamics and simulated values of radionuclide concentrations in several agricultural products agree well with measured values when the model is driven with site specific data on deposition from world-wide fallout.

  20. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries.

  1. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory.

  2. Food safety objective: an integral part of food chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorris, L.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of food safety objective has been proposed to provide a target for operational food safety management, leaving flexibility in the way equivalent food safety levels are achieved by different food chains. The concept helps to better relate operational food safety management to public

  3. Food safety objective: an integral part of food chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorris, L.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of food safety objective has been proposed to provide a target for operational food safety management, leaving flexibility in the way equivalent food safety levels are achieved by different food chains. The concept helps to better relate operational food safety management to public healt

  4. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  5. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  6. Sustainability assessment of food chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Bastl, M.; Allaoui, H.

    2015-01-01

    Food chain logistics plays an important role in the sustainability performance of the food sector. Therefore, project SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems) started as a collaborative international project, aiming for tools and frameworks for the food sector to make a step change in o

  7. Modeling farm-level strategies for improving food safety in the dairy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of food safety concerns, together with the recognized importance of an integrated `farm to table¿ approach to food safety, are reaching all the way to the practices and procedures used on farms. This has created the need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative s

  8. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Göbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC. The aim of this study is (1 to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2 to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste occurs at all stages in the food chain. Thus, there is no single culprit to be blamed. Besides, the identified reasons for food waste differ between product groups; not a single solution can cause notable change. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the causes and effects of food waste are to be found at different stages of the value chain. Hence, it is of high importance to improve communication and to raise a new appreciation for food among all stakeholders of the food supply chain in order to develop a more sustainable food system. Information on the topic of food waste needs to be shared among all actors of the supply chain. They need to share responsibility and work together to reduce food waste.

  9. Qualitative methodology for efficient food chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Meerdink, G.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to efficiently design food supply chains. The goals of quality, cost and environmental load are looked at independently of each other. Food chains are made up of links and are designed to deliver a particular product with consumer-specified attributes. These attribu

  10. Logistic chain modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to n

  11. Experience of the Japanese food supply chain management model%日本食品供应链管理模式的经验借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖涪林

    2012-01-01

    日本食品供应链管理的重点放在发展食品安全追踪方面;而海外进口食品的安全,则主要依靠严格的进口检验检疫制度和综合商社通过供应链管理来控制。日本以农协体系为基础、以农产品流通模式和食品安全管理模式为特征的食品供应链管理模式,符合中国食品供应链管理的发展条件,对中国食品安全管理具有很强的借鉴意义。%Japanese food supply chain management focused on the development of food safety tracking. Overseas safety of imported food, mainly relying on strict import inspection and quarantine system and integrated trading company to control the supply chain management. Japanese to Nonghyup system for the circulation patterns of agricultural products and food safety management model for the characteristics of the food supply chain management model, in line with the conditions for the development of China's food supply chain management with a strong reference for food safety management.

  12. A simulation environment for the design of food supply chain networks: modeling quality controlled logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.; Zee, van der D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, many industries are confronted with intensified global competition as well as advances in information and process technology. They create both the need and opportunity for a coordinated approach of industrial partners to establish effective and efficient supply chains. Simulation tools are

  13. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Göbel; Nina Langen; Antonia Blumenthal; Petra Teitscheid; Guido Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC). The aim of this study is (1) to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2) to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste o...

  14. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain....

  15. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-03

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer.

  16. Managing growth in higher value food chains

    OpenAIRE

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Münchhausen, von, Susanne; Vilija, Girgzdiene; Virgilius, Skulskis

    2016-01-01

    Higher value food chains tend to converge either towards rather narrow market segments and niches or towards conventionalisation and loss in added value when volumes and turnover start growing more significantly. In this paper we will present the findings from a set of case studies of growth in agri-food chains implemented during 2014 in ten European countries, including in Eastern Europe and Turkey. The comparative analysis will help to better understand different development pathways with t...

  17. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions...... in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic...

  18. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due

  19. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due

  20. Study of food chain functioning using the methods of simulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of simulating the trophic net in a system consisted of 1 producer and 8 consumer species, which linked by 14 trophic relations, using Microsoft Excel is presented. Dynamics of productivity and biomass consumption in the model system are analyzed. Regularities of consortium nets functioning are stated.

  1. Sub Saharan Africa Food Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry

    2016-01-01

    Study of food value chains in East Africa as a preliminary study. The paper wishes to underline a few under-researched assumptions about esepcially protein deficiencies, allergies etc. to establish what enablers and constraints exist when trying to supply food from e.g. Europe to e.g. East Africa...

  2. Sustainable Food Supply Chain Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Companies operating in the food sector are confronted with i) accelerating environmental and social impact assessment policies and standards, ii) an emerging concept of extended producer responsibility supporting the shift from ‘seed to meat’ to ‘cradle to cradle’ and iii) increasing preoccupation i

  3. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables.

  4. The fishing industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling P.

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing supply chain aspects such as distribution planning and optimal use of raw materials are widely used. However, modelling based on a holistic chain view is less studied, and food-related aspects such as quality and shelf life issues enforce additional...... requirements onto the chains. In this paper, we consider the supply chain structure of the Danish fishing industry and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. This is a first step toward innovative supply chain modelling aimed to identify benefits...... for actors along chains in the fishing industry....

  5. An Agri-Food Supply Chain Model to Enhance the Business Skills of Small-Scale Farmers Using Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi Sutopo; Muh. Hisjam; Yuniaristanto Yuniaristanto

    2012-01-01

    In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC) should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC) model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities t...

  6. Modelling decreased food chain accumulation of HOCs due to strong sorption to carbonaceous materials and metabolic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Traas, T.P.; Roessink, I.; Veltman, K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The predictive power of bioaccumulation models may be limited when they do not account for strong sorption of organic contaminants to carbonaceous materials (CM) such as black carbon, and when they do not include metabolic transformation. We tested a food web accumulation model, including sorption t

  7. Modelling decreased food chain accumulation of HOCs due to strong sorption to carbonaceous materials and metabolic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Traas, T.P.; Roessink, I.; Veltman, K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The predictive power of bioaccumulation models may be limited when they do not account for strong sorption of organic contaminants to carbonaceous materials (CM) such as black carbon, and when they do not include metabolic transformation. We tested a food web accumulation model, including sorption

  8. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  9. The fish industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing aspects of supply chains such as distribution, planning, and optimal handling of raw materials are widely used. However, modeling based on a holistic chain view including several or all supply chain agents is less studied, and food-related aspects...... such as quality and shelf-life issues enforce additional requirements onto the chains. In this article, we consider the supply chain structure of the fish industry. We discuss and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. The article provides a first...... step toward innovative supply chain modeling aimed to identify benefits for all agents along chains in the fish industry....

  10. Modelling the coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertenbach, J.-D.; Varendorff, R. von [Knowledge Based Engineering, Sandton (South Africa)

    1999-03-01

    Managing the supply chain in an integrated coal operation involves many operation and control options often too complex for the human mind to comprehend and react to. By integrating all the knowledge of a supply chain into an expert system, both off-line and on-line real time decisions are possible. Knowledge Based Engineering based in South Africa, has gained valuable experience in modelling such mining operations. The article discusses the methodologies that the company has implemented. KBE uses Gensym`s G2 Real Time Expert System as the foundation of the system and the knowledge base is developed modularly.

  11. “Rationally Local”: Consumer Participation in Alternative Food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cembalo, L.; Lombardi, A.; Pascucci, S.; Dentoni, D.; Migliore, G.; Verneau, F.; Schifani, G.

    2015-01-01

    Why are consumers increasingly participating in alternative food chains to co-produce and distribute foods with farmers? In this paper, values and food-related lifestyles, as well as transaction costs and socio-demographics, are used to analyze consumer participation in alternative food chains in

  12. An optimization approach for managing fresh food quality throughout the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in today's food industry is controlling the product quality throughout the food supply chain. In this paper, we integrate food quality in decision-making on production and distribution in a food supply chain. We provide a methodology to model food quality...... degradation in such a way that it can be integrated in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for production and distribution planning. The resulting model is applied in an illustrative case study, and can be used to design and operate food distribution systems, using both food quality and cost...

  13. Food-Chain Model of Grassland Degradation and Its Restoration Process in Northern Tibet Plateau: A Case Study in Nierong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; ZENG Yunying; LIU Shuzhen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the model of grassland climate ecological productivity, the process of grassland degradation and its restoration mechanism in northern Tibetan Plateau were discussed by the model of food-chain in which the environmental and human factors were corrected. The results of case study in Nierong County showed that:① the climate trend of becoming warmer, more droughts and gales were conflicted with the restoration of grassland degradation, even under level of perfect management the climate ecological productivity was declined from 89.3 kg/m2 of 1983 to 71.8 kg/m2 of 2003; ② from 1983 to 2003, the population increased fast, while the variation of livestock on hand was little, and the cost of its maintaining is rapid grassland degradation; ③ on the present condition of overgrazing, the livestock on hand can be maintained on the level of theoretical carrying capacity in 2033 by applying the mechanism of food-chain in grassland ecological system controlled with expected coefficients, so that to realize the policy of determining the quantity of livestock according to grass growth.

  14. Relocalising the food chain: the role of creative public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kevin; Morely, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The conventional food chain presents a challenge to sustainable development, containing hidden costs such as health bills, environmental damage and economic costs to the rural economy. This report argues for the development of local food chains, which would bring the 'multiple dividend' of healthier diets, local markets for local producers, lower food miles and better understanding between producers and consumers. Barriers to the growth of local food chains include EU procurement regulati...

  15. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so...... pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality...... importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood...

  16. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach......Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so...... pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality...

  17. Nutrient use efficiency in the food chain of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2014-01-01

      Key words: Nitrogen, phosphorus, food chain, food pyramid, food system, food security, food cost, environmental impacts, nutrient cycling, nutrient management

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer applications have greatly contributed to the increased

  18. An Agri-Food Supply Chain Model to Enhance the Business Skills of Small-Scale Farmers Using Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR activities to enhance the business skills of the FGC as supplier of modern retailer. Multi-objective optimization programming is developed to determine the amount and timing of supply, level of farmers training skills, quality improvement target, and the CSR total cost. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs in order to empower farmers' groups as modern retail suppliers.

  19. All about Food Chains. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support…

  20. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  1. Tropical food chains: Governance regimes for quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Tilburg, van A.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    International supply chains of vulnerable tropical food products face major problems in the fields of quality performance and coordination between supply chain partners. Degradation and variability of quality, segmentation of supply networks and scattered production by smallholder producers could se

  2. A conceptual framework for supply chain governance: An application to agri-food chains in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link

  3. A conceptual framework for supply chain governance: An application to agri-food chains in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link

  4. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati

    2017-04-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  5. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  6. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  7. SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT AND ITS MITIGATION IN A FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Diabat, Ali; Kannan, Prof. Govindan; Panikar, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The food supply chain is the domain in this work which suffers a lot of uncertainty in its functioning. The paper discusses the various research works in the area of Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM). The main objective of the proposed work is to create a model which analyzes the various risks involved in a food supply chain with the help of Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) tool. The types of risks are clustered in five categories and the risk mitigation is discuss...

  8. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A.

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements.

  9. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A.

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualiza

  10. Ethical Traceability for Improved Transparency in the Food Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2010-01-01

    Some practices in the agri-food sector worry consumers. Consumers might for instance be concerned about animal welfare, health, environmental issues, transparency of the food chain and so forth. A question, which confronts consumers today, is how they can become capable of acting upon such ethical...... an opportunity for two-way communication along food chains, allowing the views of consumer-citizens to be taken into account along the length of the chain. As food traceability retells the history of a food, it can address the ethical aspects of that history, enabling more informed food choice. Secondly, it can...... act as a (democratizing) means for enabling food consumers to participate more fully as citizens in the shaping of the contemporary food supply chain....

  11. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    companies are thus building strong supply chain partnerships with business .... Focusing on studies referring to food and food machinery fields, Sarkar and Costa (2008) reviews three examples of open ...... Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80,.

  12. Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Cremaschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and can guide sustainability improvements. The overall objective of this thesis was to perform integrated assessments of relative sustainability performance of (stages of) agri-food supply chains using ...

  13. The Application of Fuzzy Evaluation Model in the Risk Assessment of Food Supply Chain Management%模糊评价模型在食品供应链管理风险中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琪

    2011-01-01

    基于食品供应链风险评价指标体系,建立模糊评价模型,并运用该模型对食品供应链风险进行综合评价,实证分析得出:快餐巨无霸麦当劳在供应链管理中的风险较低。%With implementing supply chain management,the enterprises are also faced with a series of risks brought about by supply chain management.This paper establishes evaluation index system of food supply chain risk and fuzzy evaluation model,carries out comprehensive evaluation of food supply chain risk,and finally analyzes risk of McDonald's supply chain management.

  14. Multivariate data analysis as a tool in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; van den Berg, F.; Thybo, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes some recent advances in mathematical modeling of relevance in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain. Using chemometrics-multivariate data analysis - it is illustrated how to tackle problems in food science more efficiently and, moreover, solve problems...... that could not otherwise be handled before. The different mathematical models are all exemplified by food related subjects to underline the generic use of the models within the food chain. Applications will be given from meat, storage, vegetable characterization, fish quality monitoring and industrial food...

  15. Invasive alien species in the food chain: Advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren J. Kriticos; Robert C. Venette; Richard H.A. Baker; Sarah Brunel; Frank H. Koch; Trond Rafoss; Wopke van der Werf; Susan P. Worner

    2013-01-01

    Economic globalization depends on the movement of people and goods between countries. As these exchanges increase, so does the potential for translocation of harmful pests, weeds, and pathogens capable of impacting our crops, livestock and natural resources (Hulme 2009), with concomitant impacts on global food security (Cook et al. 2011).

  16. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system.

  17. Study on Safety Management of Food Traceability Based on Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the frequent occurrence of food safety problems in recent years, it is urgent to solve safety management problem of food traceability. In this study, with an overview of the food supply chain, it explores the significant meaning of safety management of food traceability as well as the traceability types of supply chains, discussing the construction measures and procedures of safety management of food traceability as well as the technical designing demand on food traceability system.

  18. Innovation through (international) food supply chain development. A research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Hagen, J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda on innovation through (international) food supply chains and networks in developing countries. It derives major topics from a multi-perspective view on international food chains (economic, technology, social/legal and environment) and from different theoretical

  19. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay

  20. Innovation through (international) food supply chain development. A research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Hagen, J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda on innovation through (international) food supply chains and networks in developing countries. It derives major topics from a multi-perspective view on international food chains (economic, technology, social/legal and environment) and from different theoretical

  1. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay fo

  2. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  3. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  4. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  5. The circular economy of a local organic food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuexian; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Egelyng, H.

    2008-01-01

    The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development...... of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao Ecological Holiday Village as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain....

  6. The circular economy of a local organic food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuexian; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Egelyng, H.

    2008-01-01

    The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development...... of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao Ecological Holiday Village as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain....

  7. Research on Construction and Application of the Model of Food Supply Chain Risk Evaluation%食品供应链风险评判模型的构建及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董千里; 李春花; 关高峰

    2012-01-01

    According to the phenomenon that emergency frequently happen in China's food industry, used related theory of Analytic Hierarchy Process, Fuzzy Evaluation Method, Membership and System Analysis, established a risk evaluation model, which reflected essential characteristics of food supply chain. Based on the formation mechanism and system analysis for food supply chain risk, formed a food supply chain risk evaluation index system,and constructed the food supply chain risk multi-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, judged risk degree of one class index factors and food supply chain system, with every factor risk degree sequence. And as an example, applied the model to a dairy production enterprise in food supply chain, for the risk of evaluation. The results of the study show that the accurate evaluation of food supply chain risk can determine more reasonable risk level, and help provide enterprise with reliable basis, reduce the happening of food supply chain emergency.%针对中国食品行业突发事件的频发现象,运用层次分析法、模糊评判法、隶属度和系统分析的相关理论,建立一个反映食品供应链本质特征的风险评判模型。基于对食品供应链风险的形成机理和系统分析,形成食品供应链风险评判指标体系,构建食品供应链风险多级模糊综合评判模型,判定一级指标各因素风险度和食品供应链系统风险度,并对各因素风险度排序。以某乳制品生产企业所处的食品供应链为例,对模型进行应用。研究结果表明,食品供应链风险的准确评判,可以确定更加合理的风险等级,有助于为企业提供可靠的风险规避依据,减少食品供应链突发事件的发生。

  8. The dynamics of the transnational food chain regulatory governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The need for food safety and food quality standards is acknowledged by public regulators, private actors, and the society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the types of actors in the multilevel transnational food chain regulatory governance and how their interlinking affects...... regulatory outcomes over time. Design/methodology/approach – Food chain regulatory standards emerge within a complex process beyond the state. Based on interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives, namely regulatory governance and political economy, this paper provides a integrative framework of analysis...... by identifying the types of actors and their interactions in the food chain regulatory governance. Findings – Food chain regulatory standards setting have been mainly studied either from the public regulator or the firm self-regulating point of view. This paper demonstrates how the political and economics...

  9. Safety in Agri-food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Vlieghere, de F.; Verhé, R.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing public demand for adequate and safe food supply has led to extensive development in the field of plant-animal production, food processing, quality and safety procedures, food analysis and control and regulations. However, safety of food can only be guaranteed by the integration of control

  10. Safety in Agri-food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Vlieghere, de F.; Verhé, R.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing public demand for adequate and safe food supply has led to extensive development in the field of plant-animal production, food processing, quality and safety procedures, food analysis and control and regulations. However, safety of food can only be guaranteed by the integration of control

  11. Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán Cremaschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and c

  12. Efficiency and Integration in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jarzebowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of the food supply chain, an increase of the integration's degree in the chain may be an important aspect in the context of increasing the efficiency of agri-food companies. Therefore, exploring the relationships among these variables was found as an important research area and adopted as the goal of the paper. The paper is focused mainly on the theoretical background showing the relationship between integration and performance. A description of the theoretical and methodological aspects of performance measurement and its extension (including the integration aspect was also made within the framework of the paper.For an empirical illustration of the analyzed relationships two steps were made. Firstly, the integration's degree in the food chain was measured. Secondly, the efficiency of the companies from the cereals processing industry in Europe was assessed. The SFA models (e.g. Translog and Cobb-Douglas functional form were used for assessment of efficiency. By using stochastic method (e.g. the SFA, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, one may show the influence of external variable (the integration in the supply chain on the efficiency performance of enterprises. Efficiency of economic entities is not an unambiguous term. There are several different concepts of efficiency, its measurement and expressions. Within the framework of efficiency, many terms of similar meaning may be applied. However, these concepts are not identical. The actual concept of efficiency is derived from the structure of the production function, therefore it is conditioned by changes in the productivity of production factors and their remuneration and refers to the allocation of production factors in the most technically efficient way.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  15. Remarks on antipredator behavior and food chain dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, S.; Gragnani, A.; de Monte, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    how the separation of behavioral and ecological timescales allows one to determine both responses starting from an explicit behavioral model. Within the general set-up considered in this paper, the two functional responses can tend toward Holling type II responses when consumers react only weakly...... to predation. Thus, the main characteristics of the standard Rosenzweig-MacArthur tritrophic food chain (logistic resource and Holling type 11 consumer and predator) remain valid also when consumers have weak antipredator behavior. Moreover, through numerical analysis, we show that in a particular...

  16. Consumer Preferences Expressed via Shopping in Alternative Food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Miškolci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years an increasing consumer interest in shopping in alternative food chains can be observed also in the Czech Republic. For the successful development of alternative food networks, it is important to understand what motivates consumers to shop there. This paper is aimed to define and discuss the key aspects of the preference determinants of AFN shoppers. The empirical analysis was conducted on 333 shoppers at two alternative food chains in Brno, Czech Republic. The consumer survey was designed to examine cognitive, normative and affective determinants of preference for purchased food. First findings confirm, that by the shopping at alternative food chains consumers demonstrate preferences not only for fresh and tasty food, but also their normative position of willingness to support local production and community.

  17. Invasive alien species in the food chain: Advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Kriticos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pest risk maps illustrate where invasive alien arthropods, molluscs, pathogens, and weeds might become established, spread, and cause harm to natural and agricultural resources within a pest risk area. Such maps can be powerful tools to assist policymakers in matters of international trade, domestic quarantines, biosecurity surveillance, or pest-incursion responses. The International Pest Risk Mapping Workgroup (IPRMW is a group of ecologists, economists, modellers, and practising risk analysts who are committed to improving the methods used to estimate risks posed by invasive alien species to agricultural and natural resources. The group also strives to improve communication about pest risks to biosecurity, production, and natural-resource-sector stakeholders so that risks can be better managed. The IPRMW previously identified ten activities to improve pest risk assessment procedures, among these were: “improve representations of uncertainty, … expand communications with decision-makers on the interpretation and use of risk maps, … increase international collaboration, … incorporate climate change, … [and] study how human and biological dimensions interact” (Venette et al. 2010.

  18. Supply chain performance within agri-food sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Daniela Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By setting the goals of this scientific paper has been outlined the research methodology. Thus were developed conclusion, and by using the methods, procedures, techniques, rules and tools and know-how has been demonstrated the central hypothesis: 'Inside the agri-food supply chain is created value through operations and logistics activities.' The value created leads to competitive advantages in order to identify companies within market, gaining loyal consumers. The article presents the components of agri-food supply chain, the main Key Performance Indicators measuring its performance, the difference between a traditional supply chain and sustainable supply chain by analyzing the waste management component. In order to get professional expertise referring to Key Performance Indicators a quantitative research has been organized. In closing the article present the development strategies of agri-food supply chain.

  19. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data....... Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes...

  20. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    OpenAIRE

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualization enables supply chain actors to monitor, control, plan and optimize business processes remotely and in real-time through the Internet, based on virtual objects instead of observation on-site. This...

  1. Model Checking Interactive Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhausser, M.; Zhang, Lijun; Esparza, J.; Majumdar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hermanns has introduced interactive Markov chains (IMCs) which arise as an orthogonal extension of labelled transition systems and continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs). IMCs enjoy nice compositional aggregation properties which help to minimize the state space incrementally. However, the model chec

  2. Consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2006-01-01

    and behaviour. Second, this chapter aims at presenting selected cases about consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain. Topical cases include discussions on microbiological risk (food poisoning), on chemical risk (Coca-Cola), physical risk (GM food), BSE and the role of traceability and labelling...... discussing the wide range of biological, chemical or physical safety risk factors facing today's agri-food chains, and explaining the various systems established to handle these risks, the present chapter aims at explaining the role of consumers. Ultimately, consumers vote for products with their available...... budget and, in accordance with perceived product value, consumers pay prices that makes up the profit of all previous agri-food chain participants. Hence, understanding consumer behaviour is critical to making the right managerial and marketing decisions, including strategic choices with respect to risk...

  3. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  4. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  5. A framework for designing robust food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Haijema, R.

    2012-01-01

    After years of emphasis on leanness and responsiveness businesses are now experiencing their vulnerability to supply chain disturbances. Although more literature is appearing on this subject, there is a need for an integrated framework to support the analysis and design of robust food supply chains.

  6. PHYSICAL METHODS IN AGRO-FOOD CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical additives (fertilizers and plant protection preparations are largely used for improving the production yield of food produce. Their application often causes the contamination of raw materials for food production, which can be dangerous for the health of consumers. Alternative methods are developed and implemented to improve and ensure the safety of on-farm production. The substitution of chemical fertilizers and soil additives with alternative treatment methods, such as irradiation, ultrasound and the use of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Successful application of physical methods in different stages of food-preparation is recommended.

  7. How many consumer levels can survive in a chemotactic food chain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LIU; Chunhua OU

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect and the impact of predator-prey interactions, diffusivity and chemotaxis on the ability of survival of multiple consumer levels in a predator-prey microbial food chain. We aim at answering the question of how many consumer levels can survive from a dynamical system point of view. To solve this standing issue on food-chain length, first we construct a chemotactic food chain model. A priori bounds of the steady state populations are obtained. Then under certain sufficient conditions combining the effect of conversion efficiency, diffusivity and chemotaxis parameters, we derive the co-survival of all consumer levels, thus obtaining the food chain length of our model. Numerical simulations not only confirm our theoretical results, but also demonstrate the impact of conversion efficiency, diffusivity and chemotaxis behavior on the survival and stability of various consumer levels.

  8. Modelling microorganisms in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Gerwen, van S.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the growth and behaviour of microorganisms in food has long been an aim in food microbiology research. In recent years, microbial models have evolved to become more exact and the discipline of quantitative microbial ecology has gained increasing importance for food safety management, part

  9. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...... to fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...... reduced the total use of antimicrobials by more than 50% and markedly reduced levels of resistance. There is an urgent need to implement globally, WHO principles for prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Use of antimicrobials as growth promoters could and should be terminated completely....

  10. Ethical Traceability for Improved Transparency in the Food Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2010-01-01

    Some practices in the agri-food sector worry consumers. Consumers might for instance be concerned about animal welfare, health, environmental issues, transparency of the food chain and so forth.A question, which confronts consumers today, is how they can become capable of acting upon such ethical...

  11. International agri-food chains and networks. Management and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    This book brings together a rich collection of papers on management and organization in agri-food chains and networks. Producers, processors, traders and retailers of agricultural and food products operate in an economic and institutional environment that is increasingly dominated by global developm

  12. Making the organic food service chain work and survive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Netterstrøm, Sune; He, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Public food provision has received increased attention over the past decades from policymakers, consumers and citizens. As an example food at schools are increasingly coming into focus of change and innovation agendas. One of the most persistent agendas is the call for more organic foods...... and organic procurement schemes are developing as a strategic part of policymaker’s tools. However evidence has shown that the organic change agenda in public food service supply chains seems to be fragile. This is due to the fact that the organic agenda challenges the normal way that food service provision...... works and thus it seems not enough to implement organic food once and for all. The organic supply chain is dynamic being challenged by influences as price premiums, supply shortages and problems of convenience level. This paper investigates three Danish municipalities focusing on important elements...

  13. Understanding the behavior of foodborne pathogens in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Mataragas, Marios; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    In recent years and with the significant advancements in instrumentation for molecular biology methods, the focus of food microbiologists, dealing with pathogenic microorganisms in foods, is shifting. Scientists specifically aim at elucidating the effect that the food composition, as well...... as the commonly employed preservation/storage techniques throughout the food chain, have on the virulence of pathogens. Quantitative PCR and microarrays are, nowadays, powerful tools used for such determinations. The application of these approaches for the determination of the gene expression in situ, is a new...... field of research for food microbiologists and provides new information regarding virulence potential of foodborne pathogens....

  14. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on multi-component antibodies and/or combined immunoassays in serially connected flow channels, for the detection of selected antibiotics in the food chain. The scientific challenges to deal with were: t...

  15. Conditions for Eltonian Pyramids in Lotka-Volterra Food Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Tomas

    2017-09-07

    In ecological communities consumers (excluding parasites and parasitoids) are in general larger and less numerous than their resource. This results in a well-known observation known as 'Eltonian pyramids' or the 'pyramid of numbers', and metabolic arguments suggest that this pattern is independent of the number of trophic levels in a system. At the same time, Lotka-Volterra (LV) consumer-resource models are a frequently used tool to study many questions in community ecology, but their capacity to produce Eltonian pyramids has not been formally analysed. Here, I address this knowledge gap by investigating if and when LV food chain models give rise to Eltonian pyramids. I show that Eltonian pyramids are difficult to reproduce without density-dependent mortality in the consumers, unless biologically plausible relationships between mortality rate and interaction strength are taken into account.

  16. A mathematical model for optimum single-commodity distribution in the network of chain stores: a case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Cheshmberah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution refers to the steps taken to move and store a product from the suppliers to a customers in the supply chain and is a key driver of the overall profitability of a firm and overall supply chain. In this paper, a problem regarding managing of the move and store of goods are articulated and a mathematical model is presented to solve the model. The objective function is the total costs of distribution network, including transportation, storage rental, general warehousing, goods damages due to the transportation and storage, procurement, packing, and finally loading and unloading costs. The cost components described are defined based on the assumptions for a real distribution network of a chain stores firm. The aim of developing such a model is to find the optimum pattern to move and store goods based on the minimum cost of the distribution network.

  17. The quality turn in the Danish food scape: new food chains emerging – new territorial impacts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Noe, Egon

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the ‘quality turn’ in agro-food literature suggest that there is a potential for growth in the market for ‘high-quality’ food, which utilises distinct notions like ‘quality’ and ‘place.’ These food chains are typically described as ‘alternative.’ Alterity might stem from alternative...... social or physical geographies of such food chains. This study is focused on exploring whether the utilisation of different notions of quality in emerging producer–consumer networks also translates into new patterns of rural development. This paper is based on data on various sub-sectors of Danish food...... chains on municipality scale for the period 2000–2005. Specifically, this study seeks to identify whether this is the case in the Danish context. First, the analysis considers the economic geography of Danish food chains on national level. Second, a deviant case on a regional level is considered, which...

  18. OVERCOMING BARRIERS OF FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN IN MALAYSIA BY JAPANESE FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radzi, Rafisah; Saidon, Intan; Ghani, Nadzri

    2015-01-01

    The food manufacturing industry in Malaysia plays a significant role in the economy. Since the industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the local food manufacturing sector is not able to satisfy increasing demand. Malaysia has experienced a persistent food trade imbalance as the demand for food items has risen faster than their supply. In helping Malaysia become more self-sufficient in its food requirements, improvements in the supply chain are important. Given that Japan ...

  19. OVERCOMING BARRIERS OF FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN IN MALAYSIA BY JAPANESE FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radzi, Rafisah; Saidon, Intan; Ghani, Nadzri

    2015-01-01

    The food manufacturing industry in Malaysia plays a significant role in the economy. Since the industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the local food manufacturing sector is not able to satisfy increasing demand. Malaysia has experienced a persistent food trade imbalance as the demand for food items has risen faster than their supply. In helping Malaysia become more self-sufficient in its food requirements, improvements in the supply chain are important. Given that Japan ...

  20. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...

  1. Food producers' product development: With regard to the requirements of retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This study investigates how it is possible for food producers and retailers to strengthen their competitiveness by coordinating food producers' product development process and retailers' assortment building process. The theoretical outset is taken in Garud and Rappa's model 'Socio-cognitive model...... of technology evolution'. This model has been extended by theories on organizational identity, organizational fields, plausibility, and construction of meaning. Founded on a grounded theory approach the model was subsequently used for analysing the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains...... in four countries regarding trade in pork and pork-based products. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations directed at food producers....

  2. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  3. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market

  4. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global

  5. Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety re

  6. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market

  7. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bertazzoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.

  8. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food...

  9. Vertical price transmission in the Danish food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate price transmission patterns through selected Danish food chains – from primary production to processing, from processing to wholesale and from wholesale to retail prices. Specifically, the study addresses the following research questions: To what extent...... are commodity prices transmitted from one stage to another in the food chain? What is the time horizon in the price transmission? Is price transmission symmetric – in the short run and in the long run? Is the degree of price transmission affected by the degree of concentration in the supply and demand stage...... considered? These questions are analysed theoretically and empirically using econometric analysis. 6 food chains are investigated: pork, chicken, eggs, milk, sugar and apples. Preliminary empirical results suggest that for most commodities, price transmission tends to be upward asymmetric, i.e. stronger...

  10. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...

  11. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  12. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  13. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jose Arevalo Chavez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other parts of the supply chain. Thus, risks are transmitted through the chain. Even though the dangers from members in the supply chain are small, the cumulative effect becomes significant. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated supply chain risk management framework for practitioners that can provide directions for how to evaluate food quality risk in the global supply chain. For validating the proposed model in‐depth, a case study is conducted on a food SME distributor in Central America. The case study investigates how product quality risks are handled according to the proposed framework.

  14. Moving Food Along the Value Chain: Innovations in Regional Food Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adam; Barham, James

    2012-01-01

    This report examines the aggregation, distribution, and marketing of eight food value chains to glean practical lessons about how they operate, the challenges they face, and how they take advantage of emerging opportunities for marketing differentiated food products. A focus on the operational details of food value chains—business networks that rely on coordination between food producers, distributors, and sellers to achieve common financial and social goals—demonstrates how to facilitate mov...

  15. Local food supply chain: a case of rural food processing firms and catering business in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Sari; Paananen, Jaana

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the integration of food production and processing, distribution, and consumption on local markets in rural areas. We approach this integration from the point of view of an alternative food supply chain, a local food system as an example. The data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 12 entrepreneurs and 9 representatives of institutional food service units and restaurants in Eastern Finland.

  16. Environmental Impacts and Hotspots of Food Losses: Value Chain Analysis of Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stucki, Matthias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2017-09-20

    Reducing food losses and waste is crucial to making our food system more efficient and sustainable. This is the first paper that quantifies the environmental impacts of food waste by distinguishing the various stages of the food value chain, 33 food categories that represent the whole food basket in Switzerland, and including food waste treatment. Environmental impacts are expressed in terms of climate change and biodiversity impacts due to water and land use. Climate change impacts of food waste are highest for fresh vegetables, due to the large amounts wasted, while the specific impact per kg is largest for beef. Biodiversity impacts are mainly caused by cocoa and coffee (16% of total) and by beef (12%). Food waste at the end of the food value chain (households and food services) causes almost 60% of the total climate impacts of food waste, because of the large quantities lost at this stage and the higher accumulated impacts per kg of product. The net environmental benefits from food waste treatment are only 5-10% of the impacts from production and supply of the wasted food. Thus, avoiding food waste should be a first-line priority, while optimizing the method of treatment is less relevant.

  17. TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE FOOD CHAIN – RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Zomborszky-Kovács

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It seems to be impossible to keep toxic substances out of the food chain. Interaction of natural environmental toxins and other chemicals or residues in food may result in harmful synergistic effects. In order to protect human health against the deleterious effects of different toxic substances it is imperative that tolerance levels be established. Tolerance levels can only be established on the basis of comprehensive risk assessment studies.

  18. Collaboration and Sustainable Agri-Food Suply Chain: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Dania Wike Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining collaboration among the entire stages in the agri-food supply chain to achieve sustainability is complex. All the stakeholders involved in the activities have to prioritize their financial benefits without putting aside social development and environmental responsibilities. Some scholars have paid attention to this topic. The objective of this paper is to review current research on sustainable supply chain and collaboration model in agri-food industry. Sustainability aspects that consist of economic, environment, and social and the model of sustainable supply chain in agri-food industry are analyzed. Moreover, collaboration in sustainable agri-food supply chain management is also studied thoroughly from vertical and horizontal perspectives. The result shows that there are few studies focusing on the integrated collaboration to achieve sustainable supply chain system. Additionally, not all sustainable aspects are covered thoroughly. The scholars pays more attention to economic and environmental aspects than social aspects. Furthermore, some studies only focus on one type of collaboration in sustainable agri-food supply chain. Often, these studies do not even consider all elements in the triple bottom line.

  19. Consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2006-01-01

    budget and, in accordance with perceived product value, consumers pay prices that makes up the profit of all previous agri-food chain participants. Hence, understanding consumer behaviour is critical to making the right managerial and marketing decisions, including strategic choices with respect to risk...

  20. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) throughout the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with adverse effects on human health. Since dietary intake plays an important role in human exposure, the transfer of PFOS throughout the food chain needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of PFOS

  1. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the a

  2. How social unrest started innovations in a food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, Jan; Hennen, Wil; Verwaart, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Transitions leading to sociotechnical innovations in food supply chains have been described in dramaturgical analyses on the basis of newspaper articles and parliamentary records. The time scale of the transitions driven by aroused public opinion on issues such as animal welfare, is typically a

  3. Agro-food chains and networks for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Slingerland, M.A.; Nijhoff, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Agro-food chains and networks play an increasingly important role in providing access to markets for producers from developing countries. In developing countries companies become integrated into geographically dispersed supply networks that link producers, traders and processors from the South with

  4. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) throughout the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with adverse effects on human health. Since dietary intake plays an important role in human exposure, the transfer of PFOS throughout the food chain needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of PFOS c

  5. Making the organic food service chain work and survive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Netterstrøm, Sune; He, Chen

    2009-01-01

    works and thus it seems not enough to implement organic food once and for all. The organic supply chain is dynamic being challenged by influences as price premiums, supply shortages and problems of convenience level. This paper investigates three Danish municipalities focusing on important elements...

  6. A Big Data Decision-making Mechanism for Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guojun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many companies have captured and analyzed huge volumes of data to improve the decision mechanism of supply chain, this paper presents a big data harvest model that uses big data as inputs to make more informed decisions in the food supply chain. By introducing a method of Bayesian network, this paper integrates sample data and finds a cause-and-effect between data to predict market demand. Then the deduction graph model that translates foods demand into processes and divides processes into tasks and assets is presented, and an example of how big data in the food supply chain can be combined with Bayesian network and deduction graph model to guide production decision. Our conclusions indicate that the decision-making mechanism has vast potential by extracting value from big data.

  7. Reseach of Supply Chain Modeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The supply chain modeling technology is research. Firstly, the concept of supply chain and supply chain management is introduced. Secondly, enterprise-modeling methods, such as CIM-OSA, GIM-GRAI, PERA and ARIS, are analyzed and compared. The supply chain modeling technology is studied. Then the ARIS-based supply chain modeling method is proposed and the supply chain operation reference model is set up. Finally, the applications of ARIS-based supply chain modeling method in Shanghai Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. (STGC) is described in detail.

  8. Food producers' product development: With regard to the requirements of retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This study investigates how it is possible for food producers and retailers to strengthen their competitiveness by coordinating food producers' product development process and retailers' assortment building process. The theoretical outset is taken in Garud and Rappa's model 'Socio-cognitive model...... of technology evolution'. This model has been extended by theories on organizational identity, organizational fields, plausibility, and construction of meaning. Founded on a grounded theory approach the model was subsequently used for analysing the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains...

  9. Microbes versus microbes: control of pathogens in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen; Mader, Anneluise; Bruggeman, Geert; Wallace, John; De Medici, Dario; Fiore, Alfonsina; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Lukac, Maja; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild; Ingmer, Hanne; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2014-12-01

    Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Food Safety Pre-waming Model Based on Supply Chain and Extensional Decision and Its Application%基于供应链和可拓决策的食品安全预警模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷勋平; Robin Qiu; 吴杨

    2011-01-01

    为提高食品安全预警能力,改善食品安全状况,以食品原料供应环境质量、生产加工、流通加工、销售食品质量、食品安全管理与监测作为食品安全预警的关键因素,提出一种基于供应链和可拓决策的食品安全预警模型.从供应链的角度建立食品安全预警指标体系,确定食品安全的经典域、节域和预警对象;建立食品安全预警模型并给出食品安全预警的方法和步骤;结合A省2010年的食品安全数据,定量评价A省食品安全预警状态,结合模型评价结果进行单指标和综合安全预警分析,验证该模型的合理性和适用性.研究结果表明:针对食品安全状况与预警特征,运用基于供应链和可拓决策的食品安全预警模型,能够对食品安全状态进行快速判断并有效预警.%For the sake of improving pre-warning capability of food safety and food safety situation, this study, with food raw materials supply environment quality, production processing, circulation processing, food quality, food safety management and monitoring as the key pre-warning factors, proposed a pre-warning model for food safety on the basis of supply chain and extensional decision. In this model, the pre-warning index system of food safety was constructed from supply chain to identify the classical and limited fields and pre-warning objects of food safety. Then the pre-warning model for food safety was built and its pre-warning way and steps were presented. At last, combined with food safety data of a province in 2010, the pre-warning situation of food safety in this province was quantitatively evaluated, and the evaluation results were used to make a single-index and comprehensive safety pre-warning analysis, which verifies the reasonability and adaptability of the model. The results show that, according to the situation andpre-warning characteristics of food safety, the food safety state could be rapidly judged and

  11. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-01

    Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  12. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in...

  13. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  14. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    2000-01-01

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the identifica

  15. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  16. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...... in the supply chain structure were needed to speed up the deliveries and ensure shelf availability. The cross-case analysis revealed that improved performance was obtained with parallel changes in information sharing and usage and in material flow. Originality/value – Few studies approach the problem of waste...... and sustainability from an integrated supply chain perspective. This paper links data sharing with the sustainability performance of the supply chain as a whole....

  17. Research on Cooperation Strategy of Enterprises’ Quality and Safety in Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent and control risk factors which harm the quality and safety of the food supply chain effectively and reduce the probability of food safety incidents, this paper investigated on some problems of the upstream and downstream enterprises of the food supply chain under the three different forms of cooperation based on the neoclassic economics and game theory method. These problems include the effectiveness of the quality and safety efforts, the profits, the effect of the losses that the food safety incidents caused on the quality efforts’ efficacy, and the social welfare comparison. Meanwhile, we constructed evolutionary game model to analyze the macro and micro factors that influenced the cooperation strategy and demonstrated the effect of diversity of decision-making parameters on evolution results based on numerical simulation. By the theoretical and simulation analysis, we found that (1 the quality efforts’ efficacy, the profits, the sensitivity coefficient of the quality efforts efficiency to the losses, and the social welfare without thinking about the externality all met their maximum under the full cooperation situation; (2 strengthening supervision over the source of the food supply chain can reduce the probability of food safety incidents; (3 macro and micro environment will be the important basis for companies’ decision-making on cooperation strategy in the food supply chain.

  18. Ensuring food safety in food donations: Case study of the Belgian donation/acceptation chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-10-01

    The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the

  19. Study on the Traceability System Establishment of Safety-Objective-Oriented Food Logistics Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, the largest Risk Priority Number (RPN is the precision risk of information. Moreover, with fuzzy synthetic evaluation model and intensity weighted average method, this paper ranks the importance of the three factors of the food logistics supply chain traceability system and finds that the depth is the most important factor. Lastly, it uses a case of Green Pork Company to calculate economics effect to prove the feasibility of the system.

  20. What shapes food value chains? Lessons from aquaculture in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role...... and private standards. We find that the most sophisticated aquaculture operations in Asia are found in value chains led by retailers and branded processors and where the quality of domestic institutional frameworks has facilitated compliance with increasing demands from buyers overseas. Finally, we reflect...

  1. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  2. Life cycle assessment and the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2012-01-01

    Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... of resource use and emissions associated with a product’s life cycle can be aggregated into impact categories (e.g., nonrenewable energy use, land occupation, global warming, acidification, etc.) and further aggregated into overall damage impacts (e.g., impacts on biodiversity, human health, and resource...

  3. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems. SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure a step change in operational practices, which will improve the efficiency and sustainability of supply chain logistics. In the paper we present the first results of this project. Aim of this paper is (1 to present a sustainability research framework for food supply chains logistics including drivers, strategies, performance indicators, metrics and improvement opportunities to measure and potentially enhance sustainability performances; and (2 to analyse and diagnose the current status of Dutch food & drinks companies and logistics service providers using this framework. Results are found via a literature review, web-based research and structured interviews with Dutch food and logistics service industry.

  4. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Konieczny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in papers and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites. In this study are discussed some examples of CF values calculated both, production of primary raw materials, food processing stages, final products transporting and activities taken during food preparation in the household, as well. The CF indicator offers also a new tool to promote disposition of food products distributed e.g. through big international supermarket chains. Mostly due to the suggestion of ecological institutions, direct comparison of CF values for different food products leads even to postulate almost total elimination of less eco-friendly animal origin food (like red meat from the diet of typical consumer. So, improving the state of consumers education in respect to environmental issues of whole food chain might effect not only their eating habits but also their health.

  5. Chaotic Red Queen coevolution in three-species food chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercole, Fabio; Ferriere, Regis; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Coevolution between two antagonistic species follows the so-called ‘Red Queen dynamics’ when reciprocal selection results in an endless series of adaptation by one species and counteradaptation by the other. Red Queen dynamics are ‘genetically driven’ when selective sweeps involving new beneficial mutations result in perpetual oscillations of the coevolving traits on the slow evolutionary time scale. Mathematical models have shown that a prey and a predator can coevolve along a genetically driven Red Queen cycle. We found that embedding the prey–predator interaction into a three-species food chain that includes a coevolving superpredator often turns the genetically driven Red Queen cycle into chaos. A key condition is that the prey evolves fast enough. Red Queen chaos implies that the direction and strength of selection are intrinsically unpredictable beyond a short evolutionary time, with greatest evolutionary unpredictability in the superpredator. We hypothesize that genetically driven Red Queen chaos could explain why many natural populations are poised at the edge of ecological chaos. Over space, genetically driven chaos is expected to cause the evolutionary divergence of local populations, even under homogenizing environmental fluctuations, and thus to promote genetic diversity among ecological communities over long evolutionary time. PMID:20356888

  6. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  7. A New Advanced Logistics Supply Chain for Food Management Based on Green Logistics Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanqing Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the advanced logistics supply chain for food management using green logistics. To protect the food logistics environment and prevent the environmental pollution, it is crucial to establish powerful modern supply chains to support the food management in transportation. The construction speed of the food companies is very fast; however, the food supply lags behind the food companies. As a result, the environmental pollution caused in the food logistics becomes severe. To improve this situation, a new logistics supply chain for food management using the environmental logistics theory is proposed in this study. The design and analysis of the proposed food supply chain system has been introduced. By the use of advanced environmental logistics theory, the food supply can be operated in an effective and green manner. Hence, the proposed new logistics supply chain can reduce the environmental pollution of the food logistics and improve the food market environment.

  8. PERSISTENCE AND STABILITY IN A RATIO-DEPENDENT FOOD-CHAIN SYSTEM WITH TIME DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuRui; FengHanying; YangPinghua; WangZhiqiang

    2002-01-01

    A delayed three-species ratio-dependent predator-prey food-chain model without dominating instantaneous negative feedback is investigated. It is shown that the system is permanent under some appropriate conditions, and sufficient conditions are obtained for the local asymptotic stability of a positive equilibrium of the system.

  9. Supply chain strategies, issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, supply chain operations and relationships among supply chain partners have become highly challenging, necessitating new approaches, e.g., the development of new models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models discusses supply chain issues and models with examples from actual industrial cases. Expert authors with a wide spectrum of knowledge working in various areas of supply chain management from various geographical locations offer refreshing, novel and insightful ideas and address possible solutions using established theories and models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models features studies that have used mathematical modeling, statistical analyses and also descriptive qualitative studies. The chapters cover many relevant themes related to supply chains and logistics including supply chain complexity, information sharing, quality (six sigma), electronic Kanbans, inventory models, scheduling, purchasing and contracts. To facilitate easy reading, the chapters that deal with suppl...

  10. Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Armienta, María Aurora; Moreno López, Myriam V; Lopez, Dina L; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Cornejo, Lorena; Lauer Macedo, Luciene Fagundes; Filho, Alfredo Tenuta

    2012-07-01

    Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN IN MANAGING HALAL FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays environmental issues persuade companies to pursue conditions whereby the needs of the present are met without compromising the resources of future generations. So, implementing green rules and regulations gain more and more attentions. In spite of benefits of implementing green practices, many companies are not understood why they should invest on it. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine what drivers encourage companies to move towards implementing green practices in their supply chains. To achieve the objectives of this study a survey was designed and distributed to 300 halal food companies in Malaysia. A total of 61 usable replies were received. The results of this study revealed that performance and quality improvement, waste and cost reduction are the important drivers of implementing Green Supply Chain (GSC practices in the halal food companies. It is interesting that having ISO 14000 certificates are reported as the least important driver of implementing GSC practices among these companies. Therefore, it can be concluded that internal benefits mostly motivate halal food companies to implement GSC practices. Since there is little documentation regarding the application of GSC practices in the halal food industries, understanding these issues is identified as a gap in the existing literature.

  12. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  14. Life cycle assessment and the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2012-01-01

    Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... of resource use and emissions associated with a product’s life cycle can be aggregated into impact categories (e.g., nonrenewable energy use, land occupation, global warming, acidification, etc.) and further aggregated into overall damage impacts (e.g., impacts on biodiversity, human health, and resource...... to grave, which is very complex for many foods, and to support choices of consumption. The LCA methodology is supported by public standards and public policy measures and has proved its value in business development for more environmentally friendly products. It is an essential feature that the effects...

  15. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  16. Study on Matter-element Model in Performance Evaluation of Food Cold Chain Logistics Enterprises%食品冷链物流企业绩效评价物元模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2012-01-01

    根据可拓学的思想方法,从经济指标、作业流程指标和客户服务指标三个层面考虑,设计了食品冷链物流企业绩效评价指标体系,并建立了基于物元的绩效评价模型.通过该模型,可评价食品冷链物流企业的绩效水平,并明确其在整个食品冷链物流行业中所处的绩效等级.实例计算结果表明,该方法能够有效结合定性与定量分析,且模型结构简单规范,为企业绩效的评估提供了一种参考方法.%In this paper, following the principles of extenics and considering the index on the aspects of economics, operation and customer service, we designed the performance evaluation index system of food cold chain logistics enterprises and established the performance evaluation model based on matter-element, which could identify the level of an enterprise in the whole food cold chain logistics industry concerning performance. A subsequent numerical example showed that this method could effectively combine qualitative and quantitative analysis and the model was simple and standard in structure.

  17. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate......A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  18. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  19. Business Models for Local Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Pedersen, Maja; Pederson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Interest in local foods is growing, but there has been limited research on who and why producers of local foods thrive or struggle. A particularly important problem for local food producers is how to reach end consumers, as they often find it difficult to work with the retail chains that dominate...... sales of food products (and vice versa) and therefore have to develop alternative marketing channels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practices of different small and medium-sized Danish producers of locally grown and/or processed foods in relation to developing marketing channels...

  20. Food waste within food supply chains: quantification and potential for change to 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Julian; Barthel, Mark; Macnaughton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries was collected over 30 years ago, current global losses cannot be quantified. A significant gap exists in the understanding of the food waste implications of the rapid development of ‘BRIC’ economies. The limited data suggest that losses are much higher at the immediate post-harvest stages in developing countries and higher for perishable foods across industrialized and developing economies alike. For affluent economies, post-consumer food waste accounts for the greatest overall losses. To supplement the fragmentary picture and to gain a forward view, interviews were conducted with international FSC experts. The analyses highlighted the scale of the problem, the scope for improved system efficiencies and the challenges of affecting behavioural change to reduce post-consumer waste in affluent populations. PMID:20713403

  1. Ethics in the Supply Chain: Improving Sustainability in Food and Clothing Retail Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ugboma, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to identify issues ethical issues food and clothing retailers face in their supply chain and identify appropriate tools for tackling such issues. Before recommending such tools, four sub questions were asked and answered using a secondary analysis of data which had been put together by previous researchers. The questioned aimed at answering whether the objectives of a company interfered with its capability to be ethical, whether the length and nature of the...

  2. Risk, Information, and Trust in the Food Chain: Factors Explaining Consumer Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Latvala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed factors contributing to consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for increased quality information. The empirical scope of the study was restricted to beef, because the beef labelling system enables reliable tracing of quality attributes. The results showed that consumer perceptions of specific risks in food partly explain their WTP. Also negative experiences heard from other people increased the probability of WTP. Trust seems to be extremely significant factor in WTP models. This study implies that the majority of the respondents trust the food safety authorities and the co-operation of all stakeholders in the food chain.

  3. From Short Food Supply Chains to Sustainable Agriculture in Urban Food Systems: Food Democracy as a Vector of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Chiffoleau

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized nations, local food networks have generally been analyzed through alternative food systems, in spite of the fact that they are much more diverse than this would imply. In France, ‘short food chains’ are both a continuation of a long tradition and a recent trend which now extends beyond activists, to consumers and producers as well. This paper will explore the conditions under which these chains can change the practices and knowledge of ordinary actors in urban food systems, from producers to urban consumers and policy-makers, in the area of agriculture and sustainability. It will consider the case study of the creation and development of an urban open-air market which has been analyzed using intervention research with input from economic sociology. We will highlight how personal relations, which are encouraged by a participatory context, support the evolution of practices and knowledge. We will also illustrate how a system of produce labelling has emerged as a mediation resource, and has increased changes as well as participation within the re-territorialization of the urban food system. By describing a concrete expression of food democracy which is spreading in France via a free collective trademark, and by showing its role in the transition of ‘ordinary’ actors towards a more sustainable agriculture, this paper will shine new light onto local food chains as well as traditional short food chains, and will call for more research on the subject.

  4. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes.

  5. [Social inequities and food: an ecological study of the food sales of a supermarket chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Márquez Calderón, S; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1994-01-01

    With the aim of finding out the pattern of food consumption in different socioeconomic areas of the city of Valencia and examining if the sales data from the supermarkets make up an information source which is capable of detecting inequalities and revealing trends, the sales figures of a chain of supermarkets, referring to 10 food products during 1989 and 1990 were studied. Foods were considered as "healthier" (fruit, vegetables, skimmed milk, fresh fish and chicken), "less healthy" (pork, butter and cakes) and foods indicative of a "new style of eating" (pre-cooked frozen foods and frozen food products). The ratio of between "healthier" food sales and sales of "less healthy" foods is directly related to the socio-economic level of the population. The higher the socioeconomic level, the higher, the ratio of proportions of "healthier" and less healthy" food. This pattern was similar for 1989 (2.78 in lower level districts and 3.32 in higher level districts, and in 1990 (2.92 and 4.09 respectively) (p < 0.01). From these results, we deduce the need for developing different activities for the promotion of healthy foods according to social groups.

  6. Remarks on antipredator behavior and food chain dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, S.; Gragnani, A.; de Monte, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    When consumers feeding on a resource spend time in avoiding high risks of predation, the predator functional response declines with predator density. While this is well established, less attention has been paid to the dependence of the consumer functional response on predator density. Here we show...... to predation. Thus, the main characteristics of the standard Rosenzweig-MacArthur tritrophic food chain (logistic resource and Holling type 11 consumer and predator) remain valid also when consumers have weak antipredator behavior. Moreover, through numerical analysis, we show that in a particular...

  7. Effective Supply Chain Management Strategy for Food Products: An Insight to Linked Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Witaya Krajaysri

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores and extends the supply chain management strategy for food products effectively and efficiently through analysis of insights to linked partnerships within the supply chain due to the possibility of a global food crisis. The required solution is a collaboration of all parties in the supply chain since an effective supply chain management strategy (ESCMS) for food products is through proper insight between linked partnerships, including customer satisfaction through service q...

  8. Multiscale modeling in food engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Q.T.; Carmeliet, J.; Datta, A.K.; Defraeye, T.; Delele, M.A.; Herremans, E.; Opara, L.; Ramon, H.; Tijskens, E.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Liedekerke, Van P.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years food engineers have attempted to describe physical phenomena such as heat and mass transfer that occur in food during unit operations by means of mathematical models. Foods are hierarchically structured and have features that extend from the molecular scale to the food plant scale.

  9. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  10. Food Security Information Platform Model Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the tracking and tracing requirements of food supply chain management and quality and safety, this study built food security information platform using the Internet of things technology, with reference to the EPC standard, the use of RFID technology, adopting the model of SOA, based on SCOR core processes, researches the food security information platform which can set up the whole process from the source to the consumption of the traceability information, provides food information, strengthens the food identity verification, prevents food identification and information of error identification to the consumer and government food safety regulators, provides good practices for food safety traceability.

  11. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-Fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2010-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  12. Research on food-chain algorithm and its parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifei YU; Dingwei WANG

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of colony emer-gence of artificial organisms, their dynamic interaction with the environment, and the food-chain crucial to the life system, the rules of local activities of artificial organ-isms at different levels are defined. The article proposes an artificial life-based algorithm, which is referred to as the food-chain algorithm. This algorithm optimizes computa-tion by simulating the evolution of natural ecosystems and the information processing mechanism of natural organ-isms. The definition, idea and flow of the algorithm are introduced, and relevant rules on metabolic energy and change in the surroundings where artificial-life individuals live are depicted. Furthermore, key parameters of the algorithm are systematically analyzed. Test results show that the algorithm has quasi-life traits that include being autonomous, evolutionary, and self-adaptive. These traits are highly fit for optimization problems of life-like sys-tems such as the location-allocation problem of a distri-bution network system.

  13. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanqiong Gou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering supply chain. Findings: With the analysis of the characteristics of catering supply chain, we construct the performance evaluation model in order to guarantee the food safety, logistics efficiency, price stability and so on. Practical implications: In order to evolve an efficient and effective service supply chain, it can not only used to own enterprise improvement, but also can be used for selecting different customers, to choose a different model of development. Originality/value: This paper has a new definition of service-oriented catering supply chain. And it offers a model to evaluate the performance of this catering supply chain.

  14. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications...

  15. Verifying the Hanging Chain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karls, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

  16. Quality analysis of critical control points within the whole food chain and their impact on food quality, safety and health (QACCP)

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, Johannes; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Hanne L. Kristensen; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Mengheri, Elena; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to optimise organic production and processing in order to improve food quality and increase health promoting aspects in consumer products. The approach was a chain analysis approach which addressed the link between farm and fork and backwards from fork to farm. The objectives were to test food authenticity on farm level and food quality and health in processing. The carrot was chosen as the model vegetable since it is common for the involved partners f...

  17. Applications of DART-MS for food quality and safety assurance in food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianyang; Yong, Wei; Jin, Yong; Zhang, Liya; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Dong, Yiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-03-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) represents a new generation of ion source which is used for rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. The combination of DART and various mass spectrometers allows analyzing multiple food samples with simple or no sample treatment, or in conjunction with prevailing protocolized sample preparation methods. Abundant applications by DART-MS have been reviewed in this paper. The DART-MS strategy applied to food supply chain (FSC), including production, processing, and storage and transportation, provides a comprehensive solution to various food components, contaminants, authenticity, and traceability. Additionally, typical applications available in food analysis by other ambient ionization mass spectrometers were summarized, and fundamentals mainly including mechanisms, devices, and parameters were discussed as well. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev. 36:161-187, 2017.

  18. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  20. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  1. Exploring the food chain. Food production and food processing in Western Europe, 1850-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.; Segers, Y.; Buyst, E.

    2009-01-01

    Until the late 19th century the food industry was restricted to a few activities, usually based on small scale industries. The links between agriculture and food processing were very tight. Due to increased purchasing power, population growth and urbanisation, the demand for food grew substantially.

  2. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  3. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...... in the food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....

  4. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  5. MODELING A VALUE CHAIN IN PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Over the past three decades comprehensive insights were made in order to design and manage the value chain. A lot of scholars discuss differences between private sector value chain – creation profit for the business and public sector value chain, the approach that public sector creates value through the services that it provides. However, there is a lack of a common understanding of what public sector value chain is in general. This paper reviews the literature on how the private value chain was transformed into public value chain and reviews a determination and architecture of a value chain in public sector which gives a structural approach to greater picture of how all structure works. It reviews an approach that the value chain for the public sector shows how the public sector organizes itself to ensure it is of value to the citizens. Design/methodology/approach – descriptive method, analysis of scientific literature. Findings – The public sector value chain is an adaptation of the private sector value chain. The difference between the two is that the customer is the focus of the public sector context, versus the profit focus in the private sector context. There are significant similarities between the two chain models. Each of the chain models are founded on a series of core components. For the public sector context, the core components are people, service and trust. Research limitations/implications – this paper based on presenting value chain for both private and public sectors and giving deeper knowledge for public sector value chain model. Practical implications – comprehension of general value chain model concept and public sector value chain model helps to see multiple connections throughout the entire process: from the beginning to the end. The paper presents the theoretical framework for further study of the value chain model for waste management creation. Originality/Value – The paper reveals the systematic

  6. Integrated food chain surveillance system for Salmonella spp. in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%-36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, pclusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities.

  7. An Evaluation Model of Customer Satisfaction for Fast-food Chain Enterprise%连锁快餐企业的顾客满意度评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文杰; 钟金宏; 李兴国

    2012-01-01

    从品牌、产品、服务和环境等方面建立基于证据推理的连锁快餐企业顾客满意度评价模型。为反映不同店面顾客满意度的差异,依据营业额设定店面权重,将各店面的评价结果作为证据集结出总体满意度。抽样调查安徽省某知名连锁快餐企业的七家分店,获取其一周的问卷数据。通过仿真试验,验证了模型的有效性和实用性,对比两种模型的试验结果,并对企业经营提出了一些建议。%An evaluation model of customer satisfaction for fast-food chain enterprise is established based on the Evidential reasoning (ER) in which the factors of brand, product, service and environment are considered. To reflect the customer satisfaction differences of different stores, the stores are given different weights according to the turnover, and the final satisfaction is obtained by integrating the assessment result of each store using ER. By a sample survey for a famous fast-food chain enterprise in Anhui, a week datum of the seven stores is collected. The model's effectiveness and practicality are verified by the simulation, and some suggestions improving the operation are put forward. In addition, the performance of the proposed two models is compared.

  8. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  9. Scotland’s Food and Drink Policy Discussion: Sustainability Issues in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is two-fold. First, to identify the main sustainability issues that Scottish food supply chain actors are concerned with and any differences that exist between primary producers, processors and distributors and consumers; and second, to explore the implications of respondents’ views for the direction of food and drink policy in Scotland. The analysis was based on a dataset assembled from the written responses to the National Food Policy discussion in Scotland, which contains opinions on the different dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social from a broad range of individuals and organizations representing different segments of the Scottish population. The empirical analyses involved comparing the responses according to two criteria: by food supply chain stakeholder and by geographical region. The results indicated that whilst there were differences among the studied groups, the importance of social and economic sustainability were strongly evident in the foregoing analysis, highlighting issues such as diet and nutrition, the importance of local food, building sustainability on sound economic performance, the market power of supermarkets, and regulation and support in building human and technical capabilities.

  10. Costs of food waste along the value chain: Evidence from South Africa: Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the costs of food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level, in economic terms. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical...

  11. Food chain analysis of exposures and risks to wildlife at a metals-contaminated wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, G A; Blanchet, R J; Linder, G

    1996-03-01

    A food chain analysis of risks to wetland receptors was performed in support of a baseline ecological risk assessment at the Milltown Reservoir Sediments Superfund site in Montana. The study area consisted of over 450 acres of primarily palustrine wetland contaminated with metals from mining wastes transported from upstream sources (average of 465 mg/kg for Cu in sediments, and 585 mg/kg in soils). The food chain analysis focused on several species of terrestrial and semiaquatic animals indigenous to montane wetlands of the northern Rocky Mountains. Receptors consisted of mice, voles, muskrats, beaver, various waterfowl species, osprey, bald eagles, and deer. Samples of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, small mammal tissues, fish tissue, aquatic and terrestrial vegetation, soils, sediment, and surface water were collected and analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, and Zn. A linear multimedia food-chain model was constructed to estimate daily intakes of the metals for each receptor, with assumed values for ingestion of aquatic and terrestrial food items, ingestion of local surface water, and incidental ingestion of soils and/or sediments. Evaluation of health risks to the receptors was performed by comparison of exposures expressed as daily intakes to a suite of toxicity values. The range of values consisted of the lower end of chronic toxicity data found in toxicology databases or the literature for the same or similar species, modified to account for extrapolation uncertainties. Daily intakes of chemicals of concern were below or within the range of toxicity values for all receptors. The weight of evidence from the food chain analysis and earlier bioassessment and ecological studies suggest that the health of the wetland receptors is at minimal risk due to the presence of elevated metals in sediments, upland soils, water, or food items at the site.

  12. Complex dynamics in a food chain with slow and fast processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongxin [College of Science, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)], E-mail: yxinjiang78@yahoo.com.cn; Yang Jianping [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of the dynamic behavior of a three-species food chain model, in which two predators compete for the same prey while one of the predators feeds on the other. Under the assumption that the time responses of the three trophic levels are extremely diversified, the model is proved to have homoclinic orbit. We firstly use geometric singular perturbation method to detect singular homoclinic orbits as well as parameter combinations for which these orbits exist. Then, we show, numerically, that there exist also nonsingular homoclinic orbits that tend toward the singular ones for slightly different parameter values. This analysis is particularly helpful to understanding the chaotic behavior of the food chains.

  13. Uncertainty quantification for Markov chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidani, Hadi; Ghanem, Roger

    2012-12-01

    Transition probabilities serve to parameterize Markov chains and control their evolution and associated decisions and controls. Uncertainties in these parameters can be associated with inherent fluctuations in the medium through which a chain evolves, or with insufficient data such that the inferential value of the chain is jeopardized. The behavior of Markov chains associated with such uncertainties is described using a probabilistic model for the transition matrices. The principle of maximum entropy is used to characterize the probability measure of the transition rates. The formalism is demonstrated on a Markov chain describing the spread of disease, and a number of quantities of interest, pertaining to different aspects of decision-making, are investigated.

  14. Analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Food cold chain is very important for ensuring food safety and decreasing the loss in the supply process. It is also benefit for the citizen, because cold chain could promise the food safety and the demand of the special cold food. Beijing, as the capital, the level of food chain is high, compared to other cities, and analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing is necessary, it could direct the scientific and health development of cold chain all over our country. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, in accordance with the investigation, we analysis the demand status of food cold chain from two aspects, then according to the status, we forecast the demand of refrigerated cars and warehouse for food cold chain in Beijing with the multivariate statistics. Findings: From the analysis of the paper, we can see that the need of cold chain logistics grows rapidly, but most consumers are lack of the awareness of the importance of the cold chain and many companies cannot bear the huge investment, it make the gap of the resources of cold chain logistics large and cannot meet the normal need of cold chain logistics in Beijing. Originality/value: The result of this paper could support the relative enterprise to run business in terms of the refrigerated car and warehouse. 

  15. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  16. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  17. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  18. Comparison and Experience Reference of Pork Supply Chain between China and Vietnam on the Basis of Food Safety Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo; GAO; Xiaoqing; GAN

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of theoretical model and practice on the pork supply chain of China from the perspective of logical consistency while laying emphasis on the nodes of pork supply chain and the value distribution of value chain. First of all,analyze the conceptual model of pork supply chain in China and further characterize each node of the supply chain as well as the link between the nodes. By comparing with the pork supply chain in Vietnam,analyze the characteristics and existing problems of the pork supply in China.Finally,give advice and suggestions from the aspects of supply chain process reengineering,food quality supervision and the policies & regulations etc.

  19. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.

  20. Responsive supply chain: modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected occurrence like natural calamity, abruptly change in customer demands, upgradation of technologies, necessity of compatible suppliers etc. is the most challenging issues even for efficient global supply chain management. Therefore, modeling of responsive supply chain is an emerging technology for sustaining any firm/industry in future competitive environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to not only analyze the performance of efficient supply chain management but also how to improve the performance of existing supply chain with the objective of developing a modeling of responsive supply chain management. The complexity of the model is also highlighted with the help of numerical example. This paper also explores the possibility to mathematical modeling of the responsive supply chain which will be an emerging topic for researchers and practitioners. The modeling of responsive supply chain can be employed as a competitive strategy for e-commerce, green supply chain, and compatible supplier selection problem. The another salient feature of this paper is that a distinct comparative literature review of the lean, agile, efficient, and responsive supply chain management has been presented.

  1. Drivers of food waste and policy responses to the issue: The role of retailers in food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Alina

    2015-01-01

    One third of the entire food produced for our consumption is either lost or wasted at some point of the food supply chain. The problem of food waste does not only intensify the elementary problem of food insecurity in wasting precious nourishment - originally intended to be consumed - connected with its economic value, but the processing and disposal of food also wastes scarce resources such as water, agricultural land and energy, as well as increasing CO2 emissions. Recent studies identify c...

  2. Biomagnification of organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic marine food chains from the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nfon, Erick [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Frescativaegen 50, Stockholm University, SE 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Cousins, Ian T. [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Frescativaegen 50, Stockholm University, SE 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: ian.cousins@itm.su.se; Broman, Dag [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Frescativaegen 50, Stockholm University, SE 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    The trophic transfer of organic pollutants with varying physical chemical properties was determined in both a pelagic and benthic food chain using {delta}{sup 15}N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels. The trophic transfer of organic pollutants through the entire food chain in terms of food chain magnification factors (FCMFs) was quantified from the slope of the regression between ln [concentration] and {delta}{sup 15}N. Organic pollutants with statistically significant FCMFs > 1 were considered to biomagnify within the food chain, whereas those with FCMFs < 1 were considered to trophically dilute. Statistically significant FCMFs > 1 were found for PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the Baltic food chains whereas statistically significant FCMFs < 1 were found for PAHs and PCNs due to trophic dilution resulting from metabolism. FCMFs were generally greater in the pelagic food chain than in the benthic food chain. However, estimated FCMFs for the benthic food chain are likely in error, as the {delta}{sup 15}N method suggested a food chain structure which was not consistent with the known dietary patterns of the species. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were additionally calculated as the ratio of the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey species with adjustment for trophic level and were generally consistent with the FCMFs with BMF > 1 for PCBs and organochlorines.

  3. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise.

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  5. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formu

  6. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    the equilibrium distributions of dynamic models with feed-back. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for directed acyclic graphs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have......Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are many simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious......, interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...

  7. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a), the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic ...

  8. Environmental assessment of management options for nutrient flows in the food chain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Fanghao; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Wenqi; Velthof, Gerard; Qin, Wei; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-07-02

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) costs of food production have increased greatly in China during the last 30 years, leading to eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate leaching to groundwater, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present the results of scenario analyses in which possible changes in food production-consumption in China for the year 2030 were explored. Changes in food chain structure, improvements in technology and management, and combinations of these on food supply and environmental quality were analyzed with the NUFER model. In the business as usual scenario, N and P fertilizer consumption in 2030 will be driven by population growth and diet changes and will both increase by 25%. N and P losses will increase by 44 and 73%, respectively, relative to the reference year 2005. Scenarios with increased imports of animal products and feed instead of domestic production, and with changes in the human diet, indicate reductions in fertilizer consumption and N and P losses relative to the business as usual scenario. Implementation of a package of integrated nutrient management measures may roughly nullify the increases in losses in the business as usual scenario and may greatly increase the efficiency of N and P throughout the whole food chain.

  9. An overview on the supply chain for European organic food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOVLEAC Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European organic food market is very dynamic both due to the consumers’ preferences and requests and due to the supply chain members who focus more and more on satisfying the market needs. Organic food has emerged as an important segment of food retailing in recent years. The supply chain management for organic food was first based on the conventional methods, but the products’ particular characteristics determined some specific changes. This paper aims to evaluate the supply chain challenges on the European and Romanian organic food market, trying to offer some solutions for the sector’ sustainable development.

  10. Towards the Development of Innovative Strategies for Traditional Food Chains in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienn Molnár

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations no longer compete as independent entities, but as chains (Christopher, 1998; Cox, 1999; Lambert, Cooper, 2000. Consequently, chain strategies became more important in creating competitive advantage (Vickery et al., 2003; Gunasekaran et al., 2004. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of chain strategies, many chains active in the agri-business sector still face difficulties in developing common chain strategies and implementing them collaboratively to generate additional mutual gains and savings. Chains lacking a chain strategy and having short-term perspectives face difficulties in envisaging and implementing cooperative solutions to problems they cannot manage alone. Despite this recognition, the actual development of such chain strategies lags behind because of some particular issues which still need to be addressed (e.g. vision, mission, values or action plans. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify and consolidate chain members’ goals, to select a minimum set of key goals and to confront these chain goals with consumer preferences. This way, the paper develops the vision of traditional food chains in the EU, as a first step of strategy development. First, chain members goals are identified and consolidated with the help of approximately 100 stakeholders (suppliers, focal companies, customers from three European countries representing 5 traditional food product categories (cheese, beer, dry ham, dry sausage and white pepper. The most important goals of traditional food chains are to maintain traditionalism, to improve responsiveness, to maintain superior quality and to create chain balance. These chain goals are tested against the perception of 4828 consumers from six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. As a result, the vision of traditional food chains is developed: the European traditional food sector envisions a competitive sector maintaining the traditional

  11. Order and chaos in predator to prey ratio-dependent food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakkhar, Sunita E-mail: sungkfma@isc.iitr.ernet.in; Naji, Raid Kamel E-mail: naj66dma@isc.iitr.ernet.in

    2003-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the dynamical behavior and chaos of a realistic three species food chain model considering predator to prey ratio-dependence for the interaction together with type II functional response. The model, for biologically reasonable parameter values, exhibits stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics in long-time behavior. The bifurcation diagrams have been obtained; Lyapunov exponents and dimensions have been computed. The model shows the rich dynamics in the positive octant. The dynamics behavior is found to be very sensitive to parameter values and initial data.

  12. Modeling Continuous IED Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    criminals, pirates, drug traffickers and terrorists. Moreover, JIEDDO has pointed out the spread of IED use to places such as Thailand and Norway. U.S... human networks that place IEDs. Dekker categorizes two main human aspects of IED placement. The first is motivation which 8 affects the number of...methods provided in this thesis and apply them to combat other threats. For example, drug trafficking supply chains. IED and drug trafficking supply

  13. Markov chains models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Ng, Michael K; Siu, Tak-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    This new edition of Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications has been completely reformatted as a text, complete with end-of-chapter exercises, a new focus on management science, new applications of the models, and new examples with applications in financial risk management and modeling of financial data.This book consists of eight chapters.  Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the classical theory on both discrete and continuous time Markov chains. The relationship between Markov chains of finite states and matrix theory will also be highlighted. Some classical iterative methods

  14. Quantifying the agri-food supply chain: proceedings of the Frontis workshop on quantifying the agri-food supply chain, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Due to globalization and internationalization of agri-food production, the arena of competition and competitive advantage is moving from individual firms operating on spot markets towards supply chains and networks. Therefore, coordination between firms within the chain becomes more important. Topic

  15. Modelling proton transfer in water molecule chains

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhimanov, Artem; Shutova, Tatiana; Samuelsson, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The process of protons transport in molecular water chains is of fundamental interest for many biological systems. Although many features of such systems can be analyzed using large-scale computational modeling, other features are better understood in terms of simplified model problems. Here we have tested, analytically and numerically, a model describing the classical proton hopping process in molecular water chains. In order to capture the main features of the proton hopping process in such molecular chains, we use a simplified model for our analysis. In particular, our discrete model describes a 1D chain of water molecules situated in an external protein channel structure, and each water molecule is allowed to oscillate around its equilibrium point in this system, while the protons are allowed to move along the line of neighboring oxygen atoms. The occurrence and properties of nonlinear solitary transport structures, allowing for much faster proton transport, are discussed, and the possible implications of...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF SMALLHOLDERS’ PREFERENCE TO HYBRIDS – PROSPECT FOR UPGRADING TO HIGH-VALUE FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Ejigu Alemu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid coordination systems (marketing cooperatives and contracts are in place in agriculture to link smallholder farmers to the global agri-food value chains. With the framework of transaction cost economics, this study, however, is particularly designed to investigate the key determinants pushing dairy farmers to hybrids (marketing cooperatives and contracts, viz. spot market channels in the local food chains. A household survey of 415 smallholder dairy farmers was designed. Data collection was administered using trained enumerators. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to analyze data and to identify the signifi cant determinants. The results indicate that high transaction costs and resource constraints were found driving farmers to cooperative engagement and contracts, implying that hybrids were found to be a solution to farmers’ constraints of access to information and institutional absence, as well as resource constraints. Policy makers and development partners are advised to strengthen cooperative societies and contract enforcement mechanisms. Providing information and resources to increase smallholders’ capacity with resources appear to be interventions which will enable the agricultural marketing system to properly function by serving smallholders in linking to the global food chains.

  17. A General Approach to the Modelling of Trophic Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Dilão, R; Dilao, Rui; Domingos, Tiago

    1999-01-01

    Based on the law of mass action (and its microscopic foundation) and mass conservation, we present here a method to derive consistent dynamic models for the time evolution of systems with an arbitrary number of species. Equations are derived through a mechanistic description, ensuring that all parameters have ecological meaning. After discussing the biological mechanisms associated to the logistic and Lotka-Volterra equations, we show how to derive general models for trophic chains, including the effects of internal states at fast time scales. We show that conformity with the mass action law leads to different functional forms for the Lotka-Volterra and trophic chain models. We use mass conservation to recover the concept of carrying capacity for an arbitrary food chain.

  18. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN WITH SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    János Benkõ

    2010-01-01

    Supply Chain Management faces a lot of challenging issues involving difficult decisions which can be company-oriented and customer-oriented issues. In this study we deal with customeroriented issues. For example, a customer’s demand may not be fully satisfied from stock on hand and the shortage may be backordered or the sale may be lost. Either way, it is desirable to balance the holding cost which depends on the magnitude of inventory against the cost of not fully satisfying customer demand....

  19. Effective use of product quality information in food supply chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food supply chains have inherent characteristics, such as variability in product quality and quality decay, which put specific demands on logistics decision making. Furthermore, food supply chain organization and control has changed significantly in the past decades by factors such as scale intensif

  20. A Food Chain Algorithm for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Recycling in Reverse Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Gao, Xuexia; Santos, Emmanuel T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces the capacitated vehicle routing problem with recycling in reverse logistics, and designs a food chain algorithm for it. Some illustrative examples are selected to conduct simulation and comparison. Numerical results show that the performance of the food chain algorithm is better than the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization as well as quantum evolutionary algorithm.

  1. Effective use of product quality information in food supply chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food supply chains have inherent characteristics, such as variability in product quality and quality decay, which put specific demands on logistics decision making. Furthermore, food supply chain organization and control has changed significantly in the past decades by factors such as scale

  2. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study was conducted to evaluate the entrance of Zn(II) into the food chain of Bombyx mori (silk worm) from mulberry plants ...

  3. LOGISTICS INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN THE FOOD CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Ćurčić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the establishment of an environmental management logistics system, organizations in the production chain of food products should provide evidence of their ability to control safety and environmental dangers. Logistics systems should be applicable to all organizations, regardless of their size, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain, from production preparation to waste management.

  4. Food supply chain disruption due to natural disaster: Entities, risks and strategies for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resilience of food supply chain (FSC) to disruptions has not kept pace with the extended, globalized and complex network of modern food chain. This chapter presents a holistic view of the FSC, interactions among its components, risks and vulnerabilities of disruption in the context of natural d...

  5. Costs of food waste along the value chain: evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem

    2013-11-01

    In a previous paper (Nahman et al., 2012), the authors estimated the costs of household food waste in South Africa, based on the market value of the wasted food (edible portion only), as well as the costs of disposal to landfill. In this paper, we extend the analysis by assessing the costs of edible food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical units (tonnes) for various food commodity groups. Then, weighted average representative prices (per tonne) were estimated for each commodity group at each stage of the value chain. Finally, prices were multiplied by quantities, and the resulting values were aggregated across the value chain for all commodity groups. In this way, the total cost of food waste across the food value chain in South Africa was estimated at R61.5 billion per annum (approximately US$7.7 billion); equivalent to 2.1% of South Africa's annual gross domestic product. The bulk of this cost arises from the processing and distribution stages of the fruit and vegetable value chain, as well as the agricultural production and distribution stages of the meat value chain. These results therefore provide an indication of where interventions aimed at reducing food waste should be targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Marine Food Chain in Relation to Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R.G. Price

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity provides “raw materials” for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y -1 and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world’s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ. This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide is not only the site of coastal “food factories” but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are “species effects”, in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are “ecosystem effects”, such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function.

  7. The marine food chain in relation to biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R

    2001-10-19

    Biodiversity provides "raw materials" for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y(-1) and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world"s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide) is not only the site of coastal "food factories" but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are "species effects", in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are "ecosystem effects", such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function. "Broadscale" biological and social effects brought

  8. Modelling green and lean supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a model to support decision making and to help managers identify the best set of green and lean supply chain management practices to improve their eco-efficiency. To attain this objective, a mathematical model based on eco-efficiency concepts is suggested to overcome...... the trade-offs between lean and green practices. To illustrate the model application, a case study from an automotive supply chain is presented. Some management practices that are instituted for green or lean benefits have opposite effects on the environmental and economic performance of companies. One...... of the main findings of our study is that not all companies belonging to the same supply chain can be absolutely lean or green. There should be compromises in the individual companies’ behaviour so the environmental and economic constraints of the supply chain are both satisfied. The proposed model represents...

  9. Risk of POP mixtures on the Arctic food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Sara; Migliorati, Sonia; Monti, Gianna Serafina; Holoubek, Ivan; Vighi, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The exposure of the Arctic ecosystem to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was assessed through a review of literature data. Concentrations of 19 chemicals or congeneric groups were estimated for the highest levels of the Arctic food chain (Arctic cod, ringed seals, and polar bears). The ecotoxicological risk for seals, bears, and bear cubs was estimated by applying the concentration addition (CA) concept. The risk of POP mixtures was very low in seals. By contrast, the risk was 2 orders of magnitude higher than the risk threshold for adult polar bears and even more (3 orders of magnitude above the threshold) for bear cubs fed with contaminated milk. Based on the temporal trends available for many of the chemicals, the temporal trend of the mixture risk for bear cubs was calculated. Relative to the 1980s, a decrease in risk from the POP mixture is evident, mainly because of international control measures. However, the composition of the mixture substantially changes, and the contribution of new POPs (particularly perfluorooctane sulfonate) increases. These results support the effectiveness of control measures, such as those promulgated in the Stockholm Convention, as well as the urgent need for their implementation for new and emerging POPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1181-1192. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  11. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  12. Analysis of information on food chain in Europe and Piedmont region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pattono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food chain information (FCI is an innovation of the new European regulation. Its purpose is to enhance the concept of food security. FCI includes specifications such as: health status, information on treatments and diseases, analytical reports on control plans, zoonoses or environmental contaminants, production performance, etc. The aim of this article is to compare the different European guidelines and analyse the situation in Piedmont in order to assess potential problems and propose solutions. European guidelines are similar one another, but they have been tailored to the epidemiological situations of each state. Except for Spain and Germany, FCI models are different for each species and the poultry sector is the most detailed. Unfortunately, Italy has not provided guidelines yet, and this has generated considerable differences. Overall, the number of FCI models with incomplete information is the largest group compared to the models not completed for each entry. The main deficiencies are related to pharmacological treatments. The health status of the farm is listed consistently regarding the compulsory eradication plans, but other national voluntary or accreditation plans are rarely mentioned. The situation is similar in other European countries. In conclusion, FCI is an effective tool if applied with consistency and reason. Only in this way the collection of data will be effective and representative of the food chain.

  13. Evaluating the temporal variability of concentrations of POPs in a glacier-fed stream food chain using a combined modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Melissa; Semplice, Matteo; Villa, Sara; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Falling snow acts as an efficient scavenger of contaminants from the atmosphere and, accumulating on the ground surface, behaves as a temporary storage reservoir; during snow aging and metamorphosis, contaminants may concentrate and be subject to pulsed release during intense snow melt events. In high-mountain areas, firn and ice play a similar role. The consequent concentration peaks in surface waters can pose a risk to high-altitude ecosystems, since snow and ice melt often coincide with periods of intense biological activity. In such situations, the role of dynamic models can be crucial when assessing environmental behavior of contaminants and their accumulation patterns in aquatic organisms. In the present work, a dynamic fate modeling approach was combined to a hydrological module capable of estimating water discharge and snow/ice melt contributions on an hourly basis, starting from hourly air temperatures. The model was applied to the case study of the Frodolfo glacier-fed stream (Italian Alps), for which concentrations of a number of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in stream water and four macroinvertebrate groups were available. Considering the uncertainties in input data, results showed a satisfying agreement for both water and organism concentrations. This study showed the model adequacy for the estimation of pollutant concentrations in surface waters and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, as well as its possible role in assessing the consequences of climate change on the cycle of POPs.

  14. Impact of the Customers’ and Governments’ Demands on Complex Food Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ioana IONESCU FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Food crisis are always of big concern for the consumers and governments. Complex supply chains make it more difficult for all actors involved to manage such a crisis. Companies in the food industry must respond now not only to the concerns of customers about the food safety, but also to their need for fresh and healthy products. Together with governments, to enforce regularly the legislation, customers affect the way food actors conduct their business, and can have a great impact on the food supply chain. In order to answer these needs, companies have to modify their supply chains and operate with more transparency, taking into account the demands for traceability. The objective of this article is to analyze how customers and governments trigger more transparency from the food companies and supply chains, the opportunities and challenges of implementing and communicating transparency and traceability.

  15. Food after Fukushima--Japan's regulatory response to the radioactive contamination of its food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Gijs; Kobayashi, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident in Fukushima triggered a process of regulatory action, inspections, and market restrictions that has deeply affected the Japanese food market. When higher than permissible levels of radioactivity entered the food chain, the Japanese Government had to take strong measures to protect consumers. At the same time, it had to explore ways to avoid disproportionate penalties on the producers from the affected region. This article examines Japan's regulatory response to the nuclear accident and the legal instruments the government accordingly employed. Our analysis follows four regulatory steps that were taken by the government to safeguard the food chain: the establishment of maximum permissible levels for radioactive levels in food; the adoption of guidelines on how to monitor these levels; the restriction of the distribution and consumption of excessively contaminated food and, finally, where and when possible, the lifting of these restrictions. This article discusses how the Food and Drug Administration has come to adopt informal guidance (agency advice that influences regulated entities but does not carry the force and effect of law) as its primary method of policymaking, as opposed to more formalized procedures like notice-and-comment rulemaking or case-specific adjudication. Using major developments in administrative law and modifications to FDA's regulatory regime as milestones, the article traces how and why FDA's use of informal guidance to fulfill its statutory mandate has changed over the past century. Along the way, the article identifies important doctrinal questions that persist today, namely (1) whether informal advisory opinions bind FDA and (2) the degree of judicial deference guidance documents should receive under the Supreme Court's decisions in Chevron and Mead. The article attempts to resolve these doctrinal ambiguities. It then undertakes a normative analysis of FDA's increasing reliance on informal guidance, and conclude that

  16. Designing a Fresh Food Supply Chain Network: An Application of Nonlinear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Tsao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, many fresh food companies have complex supply networks to distribute their products. For example, agricultural products are distributed through a multiechelon supply chain which includes agricultural association, agricultural produce marketing corporations (APMCs, markets, and so forth. In this paper a fresh produce supply network model is designed to determine the optimal service area for APMCs, the replenishment cycle time of APMCs, and the freshness-keeping effort, while maximizing the total profit. The objective is to address the integrated facility location, inventory allocation, and freshness-keeping effort problems. This paper develops an algorithm to solve the nonlinear problem, provides numerical analysis to illustrate the proposed solution procedure, and discusses the effects of various system parameters on the decisions and total profits. A real case of an agricultural product supply chain in Taiwan is used to verify the model. Results of this study can serve as a reference for business managers and administrators.

  17. Security Modeling on the Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep the price down, a purchaser sends out the request for quotation to a group of suppliers in a supply chain network. The purchaser will then choose a supplier with the best combination of price and quality. A potential supplier will try to collect the related information about other suppliers so he/she can offer the best bid to the purchaser. Therefore, confidentiality becomes an important consideration for the design of a supply chain network. Chen et al. have proposed the application of the Bell-LaPadula model in the design of a secured supply chain network. In the Bell-LaPadula model, a subject can be in one of different security clearances and an object can be in one of various security classifications. All the possible combinations of (Security Clearance, Classification pair in the Bell-LaPadula model can be thought as different states in the Markov Chain model. This paper extends the work done by Chen et al., provides more details on the Markov Chain model and illustrates how to use it to monitor the security state transition in the supply chain network.

  18. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Jose Arevalo Chavez; Christopher Seow

    2012-01-01

    Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other p...

  19. Future of Supply Chain Management in Various food Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Tyagi,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyse the case of any production system and the structure of supply chain has evolved progressively over the time of sequential supply chain, to global supply chain. This evolution has reflected the change in business environment from static to dynamic. So the purpose of this paper is to propose an agenda for future research in supply chain management. We also measure the effect of FDI in India to the existing production industries in India.

  20. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  1. A Study on the Chain Restaurants Dynamic Negotiation Games of the Optimization of Joint Procurement of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Teng Chang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the era of meager profit, production costs often become an important factor affecting SMEs’ operating conditions, and how to effectively reduce production costs has become an issue of in-depth consideration for the business owners. Especially, the food and beverage (F&B industry cannot accurately predict the demand. It many cause demand forecast fall and excess or insufficient inventory pressure. Companies of the F&B industry may be even unable to meet immediate customer needs. They are faced great challenges in quick response and inventory pressure. This study carried out the product inventory model analysis of the most recent year’s sales data of the fresh food materials for chain restaurants in a supply chain region with raw material suppliers and demanders. Moreover, this study adopted the multi-agent dynamic strategy game to establish the joint procurement decision model negotiation algorithm for analysis and verification by simulation cases to achieve the design of dynamic negotiation optimization mechanism for the joint procurement of food materials. Coupled with supply chain management 3C theory for food material inventory management, we developed the optimization method for determining the order quantities of the chain restaurants. For product demand forecast, we applied the commonality model, production and delivery capacity model, and the model of consumption and replenishment based on market demand changes in categorization and development. Moreover, with the existence of dependencies between product demands as the demand forecast basis, we determined the appropriate inventory model accordingly.

  2. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  3. Chain binomial models and binomial autoregressive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Christian H; Pollett, Philip K

    2012-09-01

    We establish a connection between a class of chain-binomial models of use in ecology and epidemiology and binomial autoregressive (AR) processes. New results are obtained for the latter, including expressions for the lag-conditional distribution and related quantities. We focus on two types of chain-binomial model, extinction-colonization and colonization-extinction models, and present two approaches to parameter estimation. The asymptotic distributions of the resulting estimators are studied, as well as their finite-sample performance, and we give an application to real data. A connection is made with standard AR models, which also has implications for parameter estimation.

  4. Assessing alternative production options for eco-efficient food supply chains using multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, G.D.H.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to tremendous losses of resources in modern food supply chains, higher priority should be given to reducing food waste and environmental impacts of food production. In practice, multiple production options are available, but must be quantitatively assessed with respect to economic and

  5. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formula used to calculate the price in a farmer-processor transaction, may reduce incentives for farmers to produce high quality products. This can increase the risks that low quality products are excha...

  6. Detection of Food Hazards in Foods: Comparison of Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Cultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilauri, Paolo; Bardasi, Lia; Leonelli, Roberto; Ramini, Mattia; Luppi, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-18

    Foodstuffs should not contain microorganisms or their toxins or metabolites in quantities suggesting an unacceptable risk for human health. The detection of food hazards in foods is performed by several tests that produce results dependent on the analytical method used: an analytical reference method, defined as standard, is associated with each microbiological criterion laid down in Regulation 2073/2005/EC, but, analytical methods other than the reference ones, in particular more rapid methods, could be used. Combined screening methods performed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are currently validated as alternative methods according to the ISO 16140:2003 and certified by the Association Française de Normalisation. However, the positive results obtained with these alternative methods, the investigated molecular relations that resulted positive have to be confirmed with cultural methods using the same enrichment media in which the molecular screening was performed. Since it is necessary to assess if these testing schemes provide equivalent guarantees of food safety, the aim of this retrospective study is to analyse the data collected, from 2012 to 2014 by Emilia Romagna Region in the field of Piano Regionale Alimenti (Food Regional Plan) during official controls monitoring food samples of animal and other than animal origin. Records performed by combined methods of molecular screening of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and thermophilic Campylobacter and cultural confirmation results were gathered together and the results were compared in order to assess the sensitivity of the methods. A total of 10,604 food samples were considered in this study: the comparison of the data revealed that the RT-PCR method detected Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and thermophilic Campylobacter in 2.18, 3.85 and 3.73% of the samples, respectively, whereas by using cultural method these pathogens were isolated in 0.43, 1.57 and 1.57% of samples, respectively. In

  7. Detection of food hazards in foods: comparison of real time polymerase chain reaction and cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonilauri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuffs should not contain microorganisms or their toxins or metabolites in quantities suggesting an unacceptable risk for human health. The detection of food hazards in foods is performed by several tests that produce results dependent on the analytical method used: an analytical reference method, defined as standard, is associated with each microbiological criterion laid down in Regulation 2073/2005/EC, but, analytical methods other than the reference ones, in particular more rapid methods, could be used. Combined screening methods performed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR are currently validated as alternative methods according to the ISO 16140:2003 and certified by the Association Française de Normalisation. However, the positive results obtained with these alternative methods, the investigated molecular relations that resulted positive have to be confirmed with cultural methods using the same enrichment media in which the molecular screening was performed. Since it is necessary to assess if these testing schemes provide equivalent guarantees of food safety, the aim of this retrospective study is to analyse the data collected, from 2012 to 2014 by Emilia Romagna Region in the field of Piano Regionale Alimenti (Food Regional Plan during official controls monitoring food samples of animal and other than animal origin. Records performed by combined methods of molecular screening of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and thermophilic Campylobacter and cultural confirmation results were gathered together and the results were compared in order to assess the sensitivity of the methods. A total of 10,604 food samples were considered in this study: the comparison of the data revealed that the RT-PCR method detected Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and thermophilic Campylobacter in 2.18, 3.85 and 3.73% of the samples, respectively, whereas by using cultural method these pathogens were isolated in 0.43, 1.57 and 1.57% of samples

  8. Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (volunta

  9. Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (volunta

  10. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  11. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  12. Material Inventory Optimization in Bakery Supply Chain: Implications for Food Security in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Nwanya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study determined optimum inventory levels for various bakery resources using the bread supply chain network in Onitsha City. Structured questionnaires were administered among bakery factories. The optimum design achieved through the optimization model was compared with the existing systems. Analysis of 90 bakeries with a combined capacity of 3960 revealed that total money N 564,408,477.28 is spent on energy annually. Of this amount, 66.75% is expended annually to meet diesel requirements, while firewood and petrol account for 22.57% and 10.66%, respectively. The results of the ABC analysis show that flour ranks as class A with over 78%, followed by sugar at 13%, whilst the remainder of the ingredients constitutes 9%. High operating costs was identified as a major factor militating against the growth of the sector. Consequently, baked bread is expensive and remuneration is very poor, making the industry less attractive. The implementation of optimization practice adds value leading to savings amounting to N 6,957.51, thus enhancing the supply chain competiveness. The annual supply chain performance measured by inventory turnover shows a frequency of 73 inventory turns. Since the bakeries contribute to ensuring food security, these findings, if implemented, will assuage the rising food insecurity in the nation.

  13. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, the consideration of environmental factors and social aspects, in supply chain management (SCM) has become a highly relevant topic for researchers and practitioners. The application of operations research methods and related models, i.e. formal modeling, for closed-loop SCM...... and reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  14. Distribution of the added value of the organic food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jürn; Zanoli, Raffaele; GAMBELLI, DANILO; Padel, Susanne; Orsini, Stefano; Stolze, Matthias; Lernoud, Julia; Willer, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade the organic market in the EU has grown faster than the organic agricultural area, which raises the question to what extent organic supply chains function effectively. Therefore, this study investigated the creation and distribution of added value in a number of organic supply chains in different EU countries. The results of the case studies suggest that higher added value is created in organic compared to conventional supply chains. However, no evidence was found that the...

  15. Trading Relationship Performance and Market Power in Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon

    that contribute to the exercise by intermediaries of these power dimensions. In the third paper a Structural Equation Modelling is employed to analyse the effects of intermediaries’ power on trading relationship performance between farmer and intermediaries. The analysis show that intermediaries’ exercise...... of power over farmers’ margin, leads to reduced relationship performance. On the other hand, when they exercise their power over farmers input selection activities or over harvesting and delivery activities the performance is improved. Furthermore, the result show that intermediaries’ power affects......The development of the agri-food industry has led to a considerable increase of intermediaries’ market power vis-à-vis farmers. There are studies and evidence that suggests that due to their power, intermediaries transfer risks and unexpected costs to farmers which compromise the innovation...

  16. Development of the technology for terrestrial radioecology and food chain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, H. D.; Kim, S. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, Y. H.; Kim, S.B.; Lee, M. H.; Im, K. M.; Hong, K. H.; Choi, K. S.; Lee, W. Y.; Park, H.K.; Park, D. W.; Choi, S. D.; Chun, J. S.; Jeong, K. H.; Yoo, B. S.

    1997-07-01

    Root uptake and underground migration of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85 and Cs-137 deposited during growing seasons of Korean staple crops such as rice, soybean, potato, Chinese cabbage, radish, red pepper and cucumber were investigated through radio-tracer experiments in greenhouse. H-3 experiments for rice and Chinese cabbage and iodine experiment for Chinese cabbage were also carried out. The effect of KCl and lime application on root uptake and migration of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85 and Cs-137 were studied. Long-term (2{approx}5 years depending on crops) behaviors of these radionuclides in soil-plant system were also investigated. Cs-137 concentrations in farm-land soils and crop plants collected in 33 regions of Korea were measured. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cs-137 in outdoor fields were compared with those from greenhouse experiments. An improved method of calculating root-uptake concentration of the radionuclide in crop plant was introduced to KFOOD, a food-chain computer code for normal operation. The direction of improving ECOREA, a food-chain computer code for accidental release, was discussed through comparing model calculation of Sr-90 and Cs-137 root-uptake concentrations with present experimental results. Annual food consumption rates and crop yields were updated. (author). 87 refs., 68 tabs., 58 figs.

  17. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental im-pacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  18. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental im-pacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  19. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  20. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high...... facilities need to be developed. For this to occur, significant technological innovations, changes in consumer food preferences, insect-encompassing food and feed legislation, and progress towards more sustainable food production systems are needed. The close collaboration of government, food and feed...

  1. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, M-P; Mayrsohn, B; O'Keeffe, M; Kissileff, H R; Choudhury, A R; Laferrère, B

    2014-10-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a preload containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT preload (Study 2) was (mean±s.e.m.) 532±389 kcal vs 804±486 kcal after LCT (Ptriglycerides (P=0.014) and glucose (P=0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (PYY, P=0.017) and leptin (P=0.036) compared with LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY and insulin.

  2. Training of SMEs for frozen food shelf life testing and novel smart packaging application for cold chain monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofania Tsironi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Application of an optimized cold chain management system for frozen products can be assisted by monitoring with Time Temperature Integrators (TTI. TTI are smart labels that cumulatively show the product history in an easily measurable, time-temperature dependent change. In the IQ-Freshlabel European project enzymatic and photochromic TTI were developed and tested for frozen products. Further to the technical objectives, training activities were implemented to provide information and training to the staff of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs regarding the properties of the developed TTI and their utilization within food packaging, transport, storage and sale. In total, more than 276 European companies and consumers representing the frozen food industry, the packaging industry and food business operators were successfully trained. The objective of the present article is to describe a general methodology for frozen food shelf life testing and modelling, and the selection of appropriate TTI for specific foods. This document serves as a technical manual for SMEs, including a case study for frozen shrimp and application of enzymatic and photochromic TTI, aiming to build their capacities to understand and use TTI for frozen food products. The value of systematic modelling of the food quality kinetics as well as the response of the TTI in building an effective chill chain management system is also demonstrated. The TTI response study allows a reliable optimization and selection of TTI to be correlated to the target food product for which accurate information on temperature dependence is available.

  3. Training of SMEs for frozen food shelf life testing and novel smart packaging application for cold chain monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofania Tsironi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Application of an optimized cold chain management system for frozen products can be assisted by monitoring with Time Temperature Integrators (TTI. TTI are smart labels that cumulatively show the product history in an easily measurable, time-temperature dependent change. In the IQ-Freshlabel European project enzymatic and photochromic TTI were developed and tested for frozen products. Further to the technical objectives, training activities were implemented to provide information and training to the staff of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs regarding the properties of the developed TTI and their utilization within food packaging, transport, storage and sale. In total, more than 276 European companies and consumers representing the frozen food industry, the packaging industry and food business operators were successfully trained. The objective of the present article is to describe a general methodology for frozen food shelf life testing and modelling, and the selection of appropriate TTI for specific foods. This document serves as a technical manual for SMEs, including a case study for frozen shrimp and application of enzymatic and photochromic TTI, aiming to build their capacities to understand and use TTI for frozen food products. The value of systematic modelling of the food quality kinetics as well as the response of the TTI in building an effective chill chain management system is also demonstrated. The TTI response study allows a reliable optimization and selection of TTI to be correlated to the target food product for which accurate information on temperature dependence is available.

  4. The need for multisectoral food chain approaches to reduce trans fat consumption in India

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, SM; Singh, A.; Gupta, V.; Lock, K; Ghosh-Jerath, S

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends virtually eliminating trans fat from the global food supply. Although several high-income countries have successfully reduced trans fat levels in foods, low- and middle-income countries such as India face additional challenges to its removal from the food supply. This study provides a systems analysis of the Indian food chain to assess intervention options for reducing trans fat intake in low-income consumers. Methods Data were collect...

  5. Performance indicators in agri-food production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Kooten, van O.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing interest in indicators of supply-chain performance. A large number of various performance indicators have been used to characterize supply chains, ranging from highly qualitative indicators like customer or employee satisfaction to quantitative indicators like

  6. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-09-09

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory.

  7. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E.; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory. PMID:27608823

  8. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Herman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages. A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23812024

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-06-28

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Changing attitudes to irradiation throughout the food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C.

    2000-03-01

    Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation.

  13. Bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS): A carrier of heavy metals in the marine food-chain

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The ecological implications of metal binding properties of bacterial EPS and its possible role in the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the marine food-chain was investigated using a partially purified and chemically characterized microbial EPS...

  14. Research on Demand Prediction of Fresh Food Supply Chain Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Demand prediction of supply chain is an important content and the first premise in supply management of different enterprises and has become one of the difficulties and hot research fields for the researchers related. The paper takes fresh food demand prediction for example and presents a new algorithm for predicting demand of fresh food supply chain. First, the working principle and the root causes of the defects of particle swarm optimization algorithm are analyzed in the study; Second, the study designs a new cloud particle swarm optimization algorithm to guarantee the effectiveness of particles in later searching phase and redesigns its cloud global optimization searching method and crossover operation; Finally, a certain fresh food supply chain is taken for example to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the improved algorithm and the experimental results show that the improved algorithm can improve prediction accuracy and calculation efficiency when used for demand prediction of fresh food supply chain.

  15. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals

  16. Big Data Concept in the Food Supply Chain: Small Markets Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentinas Navickas; Valentas Gružauskas

    2016-01-01

    .... Therefore, the authors analyzed Big data in the food supply chain. The methodology used in the paper consists of a review of global competitiveness reports and secondary data analysis together with document-based literature synthesis...

  17. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to determine nesting success of aquatic birds, trace element concentrations in the aquatic food chain, and whether trace elements...

  18. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals a

  19. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.

  20. Usefulness of food chain information provided by Dutch finishing pig producers to control antibiotic residues in pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Backus, G.B.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in

  1. Food and Wine Value Chains: The Fearne Residency in the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Andrew Fearne, Professor of Food Marketing and Supply Chain Management and a Director of the dunnhumby Academy of Consumer Research at Kent University, UK, is a current Thinker in the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATIR) program. Professor Fearne is the 14th person to undertake a Thinkers appointment. The residency theme, Food and Wine Value Chains: Prosperity through Collaboration, has provided a timely opportunity for partners, including wine companies, government agencies, universities, a...

  2. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  3. Consumers’ Sustainability Perceptions of the Supply Chain of Locally Produced Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Paloviita

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative focus group study regarding consumer perceptions about the sustainability of locally produced food supply chains. Sustainability perceptions were analyzed through thematic content analysis, where the most important economic, environmental and social themes of the supply chain were emphasized. According to the research findings, the socio-cultural aspects encompassing locally produced food form the most important sustainability dimension for consumers. Al...

  4. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatska, Olena; Müller, Karolin; Butenschoen, Olaf; Schmalwasser, Andreas; Kandeler, Ellen; Scheu, Stefan; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Ruess, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter

  5. Sustainable Traceability in the Food Supply Chain: The Impact of Consumer Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the sustainable traceability issue in the food supply chain from the sourcing perspective in which consumer willingness to pay for traceability is considered. There are two supplier types: traceable suppliers, which are costly but can carry a precise recall in food safety events, and non-traceable suppliers, which are less expensive but may suffer a higher cost in food safety events. A portion of consumers display traceability consciousness, and are willing to pay a premium for traceable food products. Four possible strategies in a transparent food supply chain and three sourcing strategies in a nontransparent food supply chain are identified and we determine when each strategy is optimal. We show that efforts to improve traceability that focus on consumers, by increasing their willingness to pay for traceability or expanding the portion of traceability consciousness consumers, may lead to an unintended consequence, such as a decrease in the provision of traceable food products. However, efforts that focus on revealing and penalizing the buyer always lead to a higher provision of traceable food products. We further find that efforts focusing on eliminating the information asymmetry may not be helpful for sustainable traceability in the food supply chain.

  6. 具有无穷时滞的Lotka-Volterra食物链模型的全局吸引性%Global Attractiveness in Lotka-Volterra Food-Chain Model with Infinite Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞; 郝飞龙

    2004-01-01

    研究一类具有无穷时滞的n种群Lotka-Volterra食物链系统.通过构造适当的Lyapunov泛函,得到了保证该系统正平衡点全局吸引的充分条件.%An n- species Lotka-Volterra type food-chain system with infinite delays is investigated.By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals, sufficient conditions are derived for the global attractiveness of a positive equilibrium of the system.

  7. The Nutritious Supply Chain : Optimizing Humanitarian Food Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Koen; Fleuren, Hein; den Hertog, Dick; Kavelj, Mirjana; Silva, Sergio; Goncalves, Rui; Ergun, Ozlem; Soldner, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    The UN World Food Programme (WFP) is the largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, reaching around 80 million people with food assistance in 75 countries each year. To deal with the operational complexities inherent to its mandate, WFP has been developing tools to assist their decision

  8. Authority and legitimacy in governing global food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    As more food is traded across borders, food regulation is profoundly transforming as well. Conventionally this regulation was based on sovereign nation-states deciding how to secure their economy and feed their population. But nowadays, national authorities can no longer assume effective control ove

  9. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on mul

  10. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on

  11. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Elizabeth M; Newell, Jennifer M; González, María J; Vanni, Michael J

    2008-11-25

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in food chains with 3 or more trophic levels. In a field experiment manipulating light, nutrients, and food-chain length, we show that FCE is constrained by algal food quality and food-chain length. FCE across 3 trophic levels (phytoplankton to carnivorous fish) was highest under low light and high nutrients, where algal quality was best as indicated by taxonomic composition and nutrient stoichiometry. In 3-level systems, FCE was constrained by the efficiency at which both herbivores and carnivores converted food into production; a strong nutrient effect on carnivore efficiency suggests a carryover effect of algal quality across 3 trophic levels. Energy transfer efficiency from algae to herbivores was also higher in 2-level systems (without carnivores) than in 3-level systems. Our results support the hypothesis that FCE is strongly constrained by light, nutrients, and food-chain length and suggest that carryover effects across multiple trophic levels are important. Because many environmental perturbations affect light, nutrients, and food-chain length, and many ecological services are mediated by FCE, it will be important to apply these findings to various ecosystem types.

  12. Changing pollutants to green biogases for the crop food cycle chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, B Y; Xu, F J; Zong, B D; Zhang, Z G

    2012-09-01

    When fossil fuels on the Earth are used up, which kind of green energy can be used to replace them? Do every bioenergy generation or crop food chain results in environmental pollution? These questions are major concerns in a world facing restricted supplies of energy and food as well as environmental pollutions. To alleviate these issues, option biogases are explored in this paper. Two types of biogas generators were used for modifying the traditional crop food chain [viz. from atmospheric CO(2) photosynthesis to crops, crop stem/husk biowastes (burnt in cropland or as home fuels), to livestock droppings (dumping away), pork and people foods, then to CO(2)], via turning the biowaste pollutants into green bioenergies. By analyzing the traditional food chain via observation method, the drawbacks of by-product biowastes were revealed. Also, the whole cycle chain was further analyzed to assess its "greenness," using experimental data and other information, such as the material balance (e.g., the absorbed CO(2), investment versus generated food, energy, and wastes). The data show that by using the two types of biogas generators, clean renewable bioenergy, crop food, and livestock meat could be continuously produced without creating any waste to the world. The modification chain largely reduced CO(2) greenhouse gas and had a low-cost investment. The raw materials for the gas generators were only the wastes of crop stems and livestock droppings. Thus, the recommended CO(2) bioenergy cycle chain via the modification also greatly solved the environmental biowaste pollutions in the world. The described two type biogases effectively addressed the issues on energy, food, and environmental pollution. The green renewable bioenergy from the food cycle chain may be one of suitable alternatives to fossil and tree fuels for agricultural countries.

  13. Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which estim

  14. Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which

  15. Big Data Concept in the Food Supply Chain: Small Markets Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navickas Valentinas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of competitive advantage are changing dramatically because of high technology development. The data size in the world is multiplying rapidly - the amount of information in the world doubles every 12 months. Therefore, the authors analyzed Big data in the food supply chain. The methodology used in the paper consists of a review of global competitiveness reports and secondary data analysis together with document-based literature synthesis; a competitiveness maximization methodology was modelled referring to a case of small markets. The supply of food industry is complicated, because of various regulations and a demand for high quality products just on time. Various companies are transporting partial freight; therefore, the visibility, lead-time and cost minimization is essential for them. However, they are unable to use all the gathered information and are not utilizing the potential that is possible. The problem of data analysis is a bigger concern to the smaller markets. Many of the small markets are less developed countries that still are not using Big data in their enterprises. In addition, new technologies are developing in the Big data industry. Therefore, the gap of technology will increase even more between large and small markets. The analysed innovation level and technology usage indicated a need for the food industry to change competitiveness strategies. Therefore, the authors developed a competitiveness strategy that is orientated to the food industry of small markets.

  16. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  17. THE IDENTIFICATION OF KEY SUCCESS FACTORS IN SUSTAINABLE COLD CHAIN MANAGEMENT: INSIGHTS FROM THE INDIAN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain sustainability has emerged as an indispensable research agenda for the government, industry as well as non-profit orientation bodies. As a developing country, cold supply chain management in India is still in infancy. The demand pattern of food products has been dramatically changing since last few years. Nowadays, the customers are more conscious to use products for better health and highly expecting for food safety, toxic free and eco-friendly delivery of food products. However, sustainable cold supply chain has not yet received good heed throughout the world. Hence, in this paper an attempt has been made to address these important issues. A conceptual model was proposed in the consultation of practitioners and literature support to address the important issues in cold supply chain management for food companies. Therefore, in order to identify the key success factors for sustainable cold chain management, in this study a conceptual model developed. The proposed framework is then validated by an empirical research in the Indian food industry. This research has several alarming findings. Explicitly, in India i environmental issues and social responsibility are not as important as other ‎economical supplier selection criteria, ii among 19 food supplier selection criteria, the rank of social responsibility is 18‎, iii low carbon emission is less important value addition trait as compare to ‎other sustainable cold chain value addition (which means in India the buyers focus more on their individual and prompt received ‎benefits rather than long ‎lasting advantages, iv the use of life cycle analysis, renewable energy sources and passive cold chain are the least important ‎implemented sustainable cold chain practices (although this might be because of utilization complexities, v the joint development of product is implemented at the lowest extent judging against other dynamic capacity ‎factors, vii government usually backed

  18. Overview of Food Safety Hazards in the European Dairy Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Fels, van der Ine; Marvin, H.J.P.; Bokhorst-van De Veen, Van H.; Nierop Groot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of dairy products should preferably focus on the most relevant food safety hazards in the dairy supply chain. For this purpose, the possible presence of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards as well as trends in the dairy supply chain that may affect their presence were

  19. Exergy analysis : a tool to study the sustainability of food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kooi, van der H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of using exergy analysis to study and compare the environmental impact of food supply chains. The method identifies the links where exergy destruction takes place and shows where improvements are possible to minimize this destruction. The supply chains of three

  20. Exergy analysis : a tool to study the sustainability of food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kooi, van der H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of using exergy analysis to study and compare the environmental impact of food supply chains. The method identifies the links where exergy destruction takes place and shows where improvements are possible to minimize this destruction. The supply chains of three prod

  1. Relationships between food producers and retail chains seen as shared meanings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a new theory on relationships between producers and retail chains. This theory is a result of a project which investigated the cooperation between Danish abattoirs and food processors, and retail chains in four countries. The new theory's main point is that relationships betwe...

  2. On the Distribution of Net Benefits from Sustainability Initiatives in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Brent; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Ross, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability initiatives are frequently imposed on upstream supply chain members by their more powerful downstream partners. This paper assesses the challenges of estimating costs and benefits for participants and the difficulties associated with identifying their locations and effects in the supply chain. The paper argues that the success and endurance of agri-food supply chains that purport to pursue sustainability objectives depend critically on the distribution of the associated costs a...

  3. Modeling for Green Supply Chain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM has become a practical approach to develop environmental performance. Under strict regulations and stakeholder pressures, enterprises need to enhance and improve GSCM practices, which are influenced by both traditional and green factors. This study developed a causal evaluation model to guide selection of qualified suppliers by prioritizing various criteria and mapping causal relationships to find effective criteria to improve green supply chain. The aim of the case study was to model and examine the influential and important main GSCM practices, namely, green logistics, organizational performance, green organizational activities, environmental protection, and green supplier evaluation. In the case study, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique is applied to test the developed model. The result of the case study shows only “green supplier evaluation” and “green organizational activities” criteria of the model are in the cause group and the other criteria are in the effect group.

  4. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Warfe

    Full Text Available The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations, disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  5. Supply chain management for small business--how to avoid being part of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtges, J P; Watts, C A

    2000-08-01

    A supply chain is a series of customer and supplier relationships that extend throughout and beyond the company. It is an interwoven set of links that together form a chain supplying our customers in a seamless and integrated fashion delivering a high level of customer satisfaction. Supply chain management (SCM) integrates all activities so they are focused on customer satisfaction (both internally and externally). One of the things this article will attempt to accomplish is to provide a clear understanding of SCM's positive impact on customer service as well as on improving profitability, cash flow, product cycle times, and communication. Whether we go forward in the supply chain to the final end-user or backward in the supply chain to our supplier's suppliers, SCM will significantly improve our ability to serve our customers.

  6. NEW FOOD FRAUDS IN SEAFOOD CHAIN: TUB GURNARD OR PANGASIUS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Campagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a case of food fraud occurred in the Lazio region. Using the Isoelectrofocusing we revealed the substitution of tub-gurnard, with the less valuable commercial fish, pangasius.

  7. Nitrogen flows in the food production chain of Hungary over the period 1961–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong; Ma, Lin; Sárdi, Katalin; Sisák, István; Ma, Wenqi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from food production can cause serious environmental problems. Mitigation strategies require insights of N cycles in this complex system. A substance flow analysis for N in the Hungary food production and processing chain over the period 1961–2010 was conducted. Our results

  8. Context factors affecting design and operation of Food Safety Management Systems in the fresh produce chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Nanyunja, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent food-borne outbreaks and cases of non-compliances to maximum residue limits of pesticides, indicated that food safety management systems (FSMS) in fresh produce chain are not yet performing in a satisfactory manner. However, the system output is not only dependent on the system design and ope

  9. The impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Winter, de M.A.; Dobson, P.; Bergès-Sennou, F.; Monier-Dilhan, S.; Juhász, A.; Moro, D.; Sckokai, P.; Soregaroli, C.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Szajkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    The report studies the impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food processing industry and investigates whether a system of producer indication may improve the functioning of the food supply chain. The impact is studied using economic theory and empirical and legal analysis.

  10. The impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Winter, de M.A.; Dobson, P.; Bergès-Sennou, F.; Monier-Dilhan, S.; Juhász, A.; Moro, D.; Sckokai, P.; Soregaroli, C.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Szajkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    The report studies the impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food processing industry and investigates whether a system of producer indication may improve the functioning of the food supply chain. The impact is studied using economic theory and empirical and legal analysis.

  11. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2012-01-01

    as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...... and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify......Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches...

  12. DNA markers as a tool for genetic traceability of primary product in agri-food chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Scarano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The agri-food components of the Made in Italy are well known all over the world, therefore they may significantly contribute to the Italian economy. However, also owing to a large number of cases of improper labelling, the Italian agro-food industry faces an ever-increasing competition. For this reason, there is a decline of consumers’ confidence towards food production systems and safety controls. To prevent erroneous classification of products and to protect consumers from false instore information, it is important to develop and validate techniques that are able to detect mislabelling at any stage of the food-chain. This paper describes some examples of genetic traceability of primary products in some important plant food chains such as durum wheat, olive and tomato, based on DNA analysis both of raw material and of processed food (pasta, olive oil, and peeled tomato.

  13. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    After a number of food safety crises, the design and implementation of traceability systems became an important focus of the food industry. As a result, food product traceability ranks high on senior management agendas for supply chain activities. In the literature, numerous studies deal...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...... on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...

  14. Contribution of Plant Breeding Efforts to the Safety of the Cereal-based Food Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zoltán (B)edo; Mariann Rakszegi; László Láng; Peter Shewry

    2006-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive food safety strategy requires the establishment of a farm-to-fork traceability system, which allows each step in the food chain to be followed and identified. This policy requires a multidisciplinary scientific approach including the wide range of technological knowledge necessary to maintain the safety of the whole food chain. With the introduction of the sustainability concept considerable changes have taken place in food production.New priorities have been raised nowadays due to increasing concern for environmental protection and healthy food production. These new priorities, which have led to the agricultural sector developing a more multifunctional character,are based on new social demands in relation to food production, where the essential criteria are to provide nutritious foodstuffs free of dangerous substances and to use environment-friendly technologies which ensure sustainability.

  15. Functional foods : a conceptual model for assessing their safety and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaami, S.P.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report shows that the product-diet dilemma can be solved by developing a predictive model. The model integrates food intake data, dynamic consumption patterns and the production chain model and combines them with a risk-benefit approach.

  16. MARKOV CHAIN PORTFOLIO LIQUIDITY OPTIMIZATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Oliveira Abensur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The international financial crisis of September 2008 and May 2010 showed the importance of liquidity as an attribute to be considered in portfolio decisions. This study proposes an optimization model based on available public data, using Markov chain and Genetic Algorithms concepts as it considers the classic duality of risk versus return and incorporating liquidity costs. The work intends to propose a multi-criterion non-linear optimization model using liquidity based on a Markov chain. The non-linear model was tested using Genetic Algorithms with twenty five Brazilian stocks from 2007 to 2009. The results suggest that this is an innovative development methodology and useful for developing an efficient and realistic financial portfolio, as it considers many attributes such as risk, return and liquidity.

  17. Integrating process and ontology to support supply chain modelling

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Many researchers have recognized a lack of common framework to support supply chain modelling and analysis and proposed their solutions accordingly. Majority of the approaches proposed are more concerned with building an object model of a supply chain than identifying processes which realistically describe a supply chain. Though object models provide means or building blocks necessary to model and analyse different elements of a supply chain, an absence of supply chain pro...

  18. Assessment of key sustainability indicators in a UK fast food supply chain: a life cycle perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the understanding of businesses and end consumers of key sustainability measures in the UK fast food Supply Chain. A quantitative method was used in which two sets of well-structured questionnaires were designed separately for fast food businesses and end consumers. The data analysis was conducted through “cluster analysis”. It was found that social responsibility was scored as the most important fast food sustainability concern for businesses, wh...

  19. Applying Lean thinking in the Food Supply Chains: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the adoption and implementation of lean thinking in food supply chains. Since the majority of food companies are small and medium food enterprises (SMEs), a lean action plan was developed taking into account the particularities of SMEs. The methodology used was a case study research of a UK tea company. An action research approach was adopted to study the lean process and diagnose the problems which occurred during lean implementation. The present study ...

  20. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  1. Chain Networks as a Leverage for Innovation Capacity: The Case of Food SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Kühne

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available  Nowadays, innovation is no longer limited to the individual firm but involves increasingly the chain network in which the firm is embedded. The chain network is considered as the place where the internal and external resources of a firm are combined and transformed, leading to innovation capacity. In the increasingly globalizing market, innovation is an important strategic tool for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to achieve competitive advantage. However, SMEs are often confronted with barriers for developing and introducing innovations, such as the lack of economies of scale. Our paper investigates how the chain network is contributing to the enhancement of the innovation capacity and which chain network characteristics are crucial in this process. In contrast to previous studies at chain network level, in our research specific chain networks are investigated and compared to each other. Hence, data collection took place at different chain network levels, being the supplier, the food manufacturer and the customer, working together and consequently belonging to one specific and unique chain network.The analysis of innovation capacity at the chain network level is realized by means of cluster analysis. This results in a three-cluster solution dividing the sample into Non-innovator chain networks, Customer-driven innovator chain networks and food manufacturer-supplier-driven innovator chain networks. Next, the influence of the chain network on the innovation capacity is examined. Thereby, the three achieved clusters differ significantly related to certain chain network characteristics. The following characteristics form an important leverage for the innovation capacity: firm size, profitability and business growth of the chain network members, as well as higher dependency, and lower levels of integration, rewarding power, social satisfaction and collaboration. The distinction of Customer-driven and food manufacturer

  2. The influence of intertrial interval food on extinction and devaluation in chain schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Goldenberg, Matthew; McDevitt, Margaret A

    2007-04-01

    The authors exposed pigeons to 2 equal 3-link chains by using variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. An intertrial interval (ITI) bisected by free food separated the chains. After baseline training, the authors presented terminal links in a successive discrimination to devalue 1 terminal link: The authors reinforced responses to 1 terminal link and extinguished responses to the other. The authors then presented full chains in extinction, except that they continued to deliver free food during the midpoint of the ITI. There were 2 principal findings. First, across all extinction conditions, responding decreased but did not extinguish. Second, when extinction testing revealed a terminal link devaluation effect in the 3rd condition, responding to the initial link was affected, but not middle-link responding. Overall, the results suggested that ITI food presentations can exert a substantial effect on responding in 3-link chain schedules, and they appear to influence both the pattern of extinction and devaluation effects.

  3. Assessment of food fraud vulnerability in the spices chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, I.C.J.; Ruth, van S.M.; Fels, van der Ine; Luning, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent scandals have increased the need to strengthen companies’ ability to combat fraud within their own organizations and across their supply chain. Vulnerability assessments are a first step towards the inventory of fraud vulnerability and fraud mitigation plans. Spices are reported frequently

  4. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2000-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. But, no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, in this study, building on a solid theoretical background...

  5. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. But, no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, in this study, building on a solid theoretical background...

  6. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2000-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. But, no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, in this study, building on a solid theoretical background......, a definition of 'retailer value' is proposed....

  7. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. But, no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, in this study, building on a solid theoretical background......, a definition of 'retailer value' is proposed....

  8. Using vulnerability performance indicators to attain food supply chain robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Lokven, van S.W.M.; Haijema, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    High effectiveness and leanness of modern supply chains (SCs) increase their vulnerability, i.e. susceptibility to disturbances reflected in non-robust SC performances. Both the SC management literature and SC professionals indicate the need for the development of SC vulnerability assessment tools.

  9. Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia Hector Horacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Several research efforts have coordinated the academic program of Agricultural Business Management from the University De La Salle (Bogota D.C., to the design and implementation of a sustainable agribusiness model applied to food development, with territorial projection. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations “Millennium Development Goals” and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm (technical objectives, family (social purposes and community (collective orientations projects. Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research (PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the “new rurality”.

  10. The Priority position paper: Protecting Europe's food chain from prions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Krister; Korth, Carsten; Zurzolo, Chiara; Simmons, Marion; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Aguzzi, Adriano; Andreoletti, Olivier; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Böhm, Reinhard; Brown, Karen; Calgua, Byron; del Río, José Antonio; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Girones, Rosina; Godsave, Sue; Hoelzle, Ludwig E.; Knittler, Michael R.; Kuhn, Franziska; Legname, Giuseppe; Laeven, Paul; Mitrova, Eva; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Nuvolone, Mario; Peters, Peter J.; Raeber, Alex; Roth, Klaus; Schmitz, Matthias; Schroeder, Björn; Sonati, Tiziana; Stitz, Lothar; Taraboulos, Albert; Torres, Juan María; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) created a global European crisis in the 1980s and 90s, with very serious health and economic implications. Classical BSE now appears to be under control, to a great extent as a result of a global research effort that identified the sources of prions in meat and bone meal (MBM) and developed new animal-testing tools that guided policy. Priority (www.prionpriority.eu) was a European Union (EU) Framework Program 7 (FP7)-funded project through which 21 European research institutions and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) joined efforts between 2009 and 2014, to conduct coordinated basic and applied research on prions and prion diseases. At the end of the project, the Priority consortium drafted a position paper (www.prionpriority.eu/Priority position paper) with its main conclusions. In the present opinion paper, we summarize these conclusions. With respect to the issue of re-introducing ruminant protein into the feed-chain, our opinion is that sustaining an absolute ban on feeding ruminant protein to ruminants is essential. In particular, the spread and impact of non-classical forms of scrapie and BSE in ruminants is not fully understood and the risks cannot be estimated. Atypical prion agents will probably continue to represent the dominant form of prion diseases in the near future in Europe. Atypical L-type BSE has clear zoonotic potential, as demonstrated in experimental models. Similarly, there are now data indicating that the atypical scrapie agent can cross various species barriers. More epidemiological data from large cohorts are necessary to reach any conclusion on the impact of its transmissibility on public health. Re-evaluations of safety precautions may become necessary depending on the outcome of these studies. Intensified searching for molecular determinants of the species barrier is recommended, since this barrier is key for important policy areas and risk assessment. Understanding the structural basis

  11. Analysis of a Lotka-Volterra food chain chemostat with converting time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Zhang Shuwen [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A model of the food chain chemostat involving predator, prey and growth-limiting nutrients is considered. The model incorporates two discrete time delays in order to describe the time involved in converting processes. The Lotka-Volterra type increasing functions are used to describe the species uptakes. In addition to showing that solutions with positive initial conditions are positive and bounded, we establish sufficient conditions for the (i) local stability and instability of the positive equilibrium and (ii) global stability of the non-negative equilibria. Numerical simulation suggests that the delays have both destabilizing and stabilizing effects, and the system can produce stable periodic solutions, quasi-periodic solutions and strange attractors.

  12. Applications of chaos control techniques to a three-species food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A.A. [CBPF, R.Xavier Sigaud, 150, RJ, CEP 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Manica, E. [Department of Mathematics, 301 Thackeray Hall, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)], E-mail: evm4@pitt.edu; Varriale, M.C. [Instituto de Matematica, UFRGS, RS, CEP 91509-900 (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    We achieve control of deterministic chaos in an ecosystem model, involving three first-order nonlinear differential equations with a control parameter, recently proposed by Hastings and Powell (HP) in order to describe the dynamical behavior of a three-species food chain. After identifying a chaotic attractor corresponding to a particular value of the parameter of this ecological model, we locate periodic saddle orbits embedded in it. By applying the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke (OGY) method of controlling chaos, which introduces small time-dependent perturbations on the system parameter, we stabilize two of the saddle orbits. Furthermore, we check the versatility of the OGY method, as the system behavior is allowed to switch between 'no control' and 'control' about one or other of different stabilized periodic orbits.

  13. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants along a high-altitude aquatic food chain in the Tibetan Plateau: Processes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiruo; Yao, Tandong

    2017-01-01

    Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic. The composition profiles of POPs in the fish were different from that in the water, but similar to their food. DDEs, DDDs, PCB 138, 153 and 180 displayed significant positive correlations with trophic levels, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged between 1.5 and 4.2, implying these chemicals can undergo final biomagnification along food chain. A fugacity-based dynamic bioaccumulation model was applied to the fish with localized parameters, by which the simulated concentrations were comparable to the measured data. Modeling results showed that most compounds underwent net gill loss and net gut uptake; only when the net result of the combined gut and gill fluxes would be positive, bioaccumulation could eventually occur. The net accumulation flux increased with fish age, which was caused by the continuous increase of gut uptake by aged fish. Due to the oligotrophic condition, efficient food absorption is likely the key factor that influences the gut POPs uptake. Long residence times with half-lives up to two decades were found for the higher chlorinated PCBs in Gymnocypris namensis.

  14. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.;

    This study analyses consumers' willingness to try innovative products and investigates to what extent food industry innovations are aligned to consumers' demand. We realized a quantitative study with consumers to measure their willingness to innovate and we carried out a case study within...... a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since...

  15. Meta-food-chains as a many-layer epidemic process on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Barter, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Notable recent works have focused on the multi-layer properties of coevolving diseases. We point out that very similar systems play an important role in population ecology. Specifically we study a meta food-web model that was recently proposed by Pillai et al. This model describes a network of species connected by feeding interactions, which spread over a network of spatial patches. Focusing on the essential case, where the network of feeding interactions is a chain, we develop an analytical approach for the computation of the degree distributions of colonized spatial patches for the different species in the chain. This framework allows us to address ecologically relevant questions. Considering configuration model ensembles of spatial networks, we find that there is an upper bound for the fraction of patches that a given species can occupy, which depends only on the networks mean degree. For a given mean degree there is then an optimal degree distribution that comes closest to the upper bound. Notably scale-f...

  16. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.

    a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since...

  17. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halloran, A.; Muenke, C.; Vantomme, P.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high

  18. Price Volatility Transmission in Food Supply Chains: A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, T.T.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on price volatility transmission in vertical food markets. The methods and major findings of the literature are discussed and avenues for future research are suggested. The literature review shows that price volatility is analyzed using a class of univariate and mul

  19. The Hidden Benefits of Short Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, F.; Bonanno, Alessandro; Viscecchia, R.; Nardone, G.

    2015-01-01

    As more farmers adopt short distribution channels, consumers may benefit from them insofar as they increase access to healthier food options. This may lead to potential societal benefits via a reduction in obesity rates. The relationship between the presence of farmers’ markets and adult Italians’ B

  20. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Trematerra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (or IPM is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal chain are reported.

  1. Meta-food-chains as a many-layer epidemic process on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Edmund; Gross, Thilo

    2016-02-01

    Notable recent works have focused on the multilayer properties of coevolving diseases. We point out that very similar systems play an important role in population ecology. Specifically we study a meta-food-web model that was recently proposed by Pillai et al. [Theor. Ecol. 3, 223 (2009), 10.1007/s12080-009-0065-1]. This model describes a network of species connected by feeding interactions, which spread over a network of spatial patches. Focusing on the essential case, where the network of feeding interactions is a chain, we develop an analytical approach for the computation of the degree distributions of colonized spatial patches for the different species in the chain. This framework allows us to address ecologically relevant questions. Considering configuration model ensembles of spatial networks, we find that there is an upper bound for the fraction of patches that a given species can occupy, which depends only on the networks mean degree. For a given mean degree there is then an optimal degree distribution that comes closest to the upper bound. Notably scale-free degree distributions perform worse than more homogeneous degree distributions if the mean degree is sufficiently high. Because species experience the underlying network differently the optimal degree distribution for one particular species is generally not the optimal distribution for the other species in the same food web. These results are of interest for conservation ecology, where, for instance, the task of selecting areas of old-growth forest to preserve in an agricultural landscape, amounts to the design of a patch network.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  3. External Integration on Agri-Food Supply Chain: A review to the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Ruiz Moreno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Integration (SCI has been broadly taken into account due to its strategic importance; however, there are a few agri food supply chain studies. The purpose of this paper is to review the SCI focused on the external integration mechanisms impact on agri food supply chain performance. The results shows that external integration mechanisms most used have been information sharing and joint decision making, while efficiency has been frequently used as a performance indicators. The review identifies the need to assess several external integration mechanisms simultaneously on Supply Chain performance emphasizes on the importance to research in joint decision making mechanism, such as Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI and Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR. For performance measurement, it is needed to include at least one indicator for each category (Efficiency, Flexibility, Responsiveness and Food Quality of the Agri Food Supply Chain performance framework described, whereas for measuring Agri Food logistics performance is required further research on modes (process management and means (resources logistics.

  4. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, N I; Meuwissen, M P M; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Huirne, R B M

    2005-04-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and "consumer" (retailer/catering establishment and pasteurized milk consumption). The concept of food safety improvement focused on 2 main groups of hazards: chemical (antibiotics and dioxin) and microbiological (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate food safety experts' perceptions of the attributes' importance. Preference data from individual experts (n = 24) on 101 attributes along the chain were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Experts perceived the attributes from the "feed" and "farm" blocks as being more vital for controlling the chemical hazards; whereas the attributes from the "farm" and "dairy processing" were considered more vital for controlling the microbiological hazards. For the chemical hazards, "identification of treated cows" and "quality assurance system of compound feed manufacturers" were considered the most important attributes. For the microbiological hazards, these were "manure supply source" and "action in salmonellosis and M. paratuberculosis cases". The rather high importance of attributes relating to quality assurance and traceability systems of the chain participants indicates that participants look for food safety assurance from the preceding participants. This information has substantial decision-making implications for private businesses along the chain and for the government regarding the food safety improvement of fluid pasteurized milk.

  5. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.

  6. Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US Adults, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, Holly; Maynard, Leah M.; Haltiwanger, Christine; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine reading and use of calorie information at fast-food/chain restaurants. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 4363 US adults using the 2009 HealthStyles survey. The outcome variable was reading calorie information when available while ordering at fast-food/chain restaurants. Among those who go to fast-food/chain restaurants, we conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between sociodemographic variables and reading calorie information when available. Among those who report reading calorie information when available, we assessed the proportion using calorie information. Results Among those who reported eating at fast-food/chain restaurants, 36.4% reported reading calorie information when available. Reading calorie information was not related to race/ethnicity, income or education. Compared with men, women had higher odds [adjusted odds ratio (OR) =1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.5–2.1] of reading calorie information when available while those who frequented fast-food/chain restaurants ≥3 times/week (aOR =0.6; 95% CI =0.4–0.8) had lower odds compared with those going <4 times/month. Of those who reported reading calorie information when available, 95.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Conclusions Almost all who read calorie information when available use the information at least sometimes. Research is needed on how calorie information is being used. PMID:24263224

  7. Ecosystem-based approach for the numerical modelling of {sup 137}Cs transfer to the western North Pacific plankton populations after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident - New approach for the modelling of radiocesium in pelagic food chain in the Northwestern Pacific after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belharet, Mokrane [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, SESURE/ LERCM, 83507 La Seyne-sur-mer (France); Laboratoire d' Aerologie, 14 av Eduard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Estournel, Claude [Laboratoire d' Aerologie, 14 av Eduard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Charmasson, Sabine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, SESURE/ LERCM, 83507 La Seyne-sur-mer (France)

    2014-07-01

    Huge quantities of radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) were released to the coastal northwestern Pacific ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, that occurred on 11 March 2011. The resultant radiocesium contamination was quickly transferred to marine biota resulting in elevated cesium levels measured in various organisms sampled over this area. This study aims to understand the mechanism of radiocesium behavior in the marine food chain under this non steady state situation (accident) and to estimate contamination levels in these organisms, by using a new modelling approach based on the coupling of three different models: a model of cesium dispersion in the ocean, an ecosystem model and a radioecological model. The model was run for 2 years (2011 and 2012) and was first applied to study marine plankton and planktonivorous fishes contamination. Results of spatio-temporal radiocesium activities in these different organisms, and calculated parameters like concentration ratios, biological half-lives, percentages of contamination coming from each compartment (food and water), and trophic transfer factors were compared to the observed values acquired before and after the accident (steady and non-steady states). (authors)

  8. A Novel Evaluation Indicator System and Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Performance of Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xiyao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain performance evaluation is a research hotspot and lies in the core status in supply chain management. The study presents a new evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm for supply chain performance. First, the balanced score card is used to construct an evaluation indicator system for supply chain performance evaluation through analyzing the basic principle and connotation characteristics of supply chain management; Second analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithms are combined to satisfy the dynamic, subjective and transitional characteristics of evaluation indicators and improve evaluation accuracy. Thirdly the evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm are used in supply chain performance evaluation of fresh food products and the experimental results shows that the presented evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm has satisfied validity and feasibility.

  9. Contemporary strategies in combating microbial contamination in food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Smigic, Nada; Devlieghere, Frank

    2010-07-31

    The objective of this review has been to disclose collected information on benefits and risks of selected "less-than - sterilizing" processes applied to control microbial hazards in food that was meticulously collected and critically reviewed during five years of EU Sixth framework project "Pathogen Combat". The target organisms of the project, and thus of this review, too, were Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. Due to their specific response and high relevancy to the food safety, foodborne viruses and spores, were also discussed within the scope of this review. Selected treatments comprised High Pressure Processing, Intense Light Pulses, treatments with organic acids, treatments with chlorine dioxide and for their relevancy also mild heat treatments and Pulsed Electric Field processing were included. The main aspects included in this review were principles of the processes used and their application, sub-lethal injury and its consequences on microbial food safety, and legal platform and its impact on wide use of the treatments. Finally a reflection has been made to combined application of different hurdles and accompanying risks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IMPLICATIONS OF FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR DISASTER FOR JAPANESE AGRI-FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few English publications on various impacts of Fukushima nuclear disaster on agri-food secor in Japan. This paper fills the gap and presents results of a study on implications of Fukushima nuclear disaster for Japanese agri-food chains. Firsly, immediate and short-term radiation effects, and effects on nearby population, safety regulation and inspection system, markets and consumer’s behavior, agrarian and food products, health, and economic impacts on farming and agri-businesses, are assessed. Next, overall shorter and longer-term impacts on agriculture, food industries, and consumers in Fukushima region, neighboring regions, and other parts of Japan are estimated.

  11. Transfer of radionuclides from high polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chain in post Fukushima period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake and tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity into air and ocean. Around 80% of the radioactivity released due to the FDNPP accident in March-April 2011 was either directly discharged into the ocean or deposited onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere. A large amount of long-lived radionuclides (mainly Cs-137) were released into the environment. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean reached a maximum in mid-April of 2011, and then gradually decreased. From 2011 the concentration of Cs-137 in water essentially fell except the area around the FDNPP where leaks of contaminated water are continued. However, in the bottom sediment high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in the first months after the accident and slowly decreased with time. Therefore, it should be expected that a time delay is found of sediment-bound radionuclides in marine organisms. For the modeling of radionuclide transfer from highly polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms the dynamical food chain model BURN-POSEIDON (Heling et al, 2002; Maderich et al., 2014) was extended. In this model marine organisms are grouped into a limited number of classes based on their trophic level and type of species. These include: phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous), crustaceans, and molluscs for pelagic food chain and bottom sediment invertebrates, demersal fishes and bottom predators for benthic food chain and whole water column predators feeding by pelagial and benthic fishes. Bottom invertebrates consume organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as via food. In fishes where radioactivity is not homogeneously distributed over all tissues of the organism, it is assumed that radionuclide

  12. Multivariate Markov chain modeling for stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-ichi

    2003-06-01

    We study a multivariate Markov chain model as a stochastic model of the price changes of portfolios in the framework of the mean field approximation. The time series of price changes are coded into the sequences of up and down spins according to their signs. We start with the discussion for small portfolios consisting of two stock issues. The generalization of our model to arbitrary size of portfolio is constructed by a recurrence relation. The resultant form of the joint probability of the stationary state coincides with Gibbs measure assigned to each configuration of spin glass model. Through the analysis of actual portfolios, it has been shown that the synchronization of the direction of the price changes is well described by the model.

  13. Regional fuzzy chain model for evapotranspiration estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Yavuz Selim; Subyani, Ali M.; Şen, Zekai

    2017-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the main hydrological cycle components that has extreme importance for water resources management and agriculture especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, regional ET estimation models based on the fuzzy logic (FL) principles are suggested, where the first stage includes the ET calculation via Penman-Monteith equation, which produces reliable results. In the second phase, ET estimations are produced according to the conventional FL inference system model. In this paper, regional fuzzy model (RFM) and regional fuzzy chain model (RFCM) are proposed through the use of adjacent stations' data in order to fill the missing ones. The application of the two models produces reliable and satisfactory results for mountainous and sea region locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but comparatively RFCM estimations have more accuracy. In general, the mean absolute percentage error is less than 10%, which is acceptable in practical applications.

  14. Food Chain Defense and Its Potential Implications on Traditional Foods: The Portuguese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Alexandra; Empis, José

    Traditional foods are presented as important components of local diets characterised by unique dispersed production, hence providing specific scenarios of compliance with Food Safety and Food Defense practices. The evolution of attitudes towards Food Safety and Food Defense during the last years, with the concomitant and resulting legislative changes, has affected traditional foods. Their present and future consequences for the production and consumption of these important cultural, societal and economical components of local diets are discussed, and the Portuguese case is presented in more detail.

  15. Identification of spoilage yeasts in a food-production chain by microsatellite polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baleiras Couto, M.M.; Hartog, B.J.; Veld, J.H.J. Huis in 't; Hofstra, H.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    A survey of yeast strains present in the production chain of mayonnaise and salad dressings was carried out over a period of 14 months. Attempts were made to identify the isolated yeasts with the API system, but identification of all species involved was not possible. In the investigation the

  16. Accelerating System Development for the Food Chain: A Portfolio of over 30 Projects, Aiming at Impact and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2016-08-01

    The FIWARE initiative is accelerating startups and supporting SME type technology developers that are realising solutions for real world business cases, which are serving as reference customers and test cases to assure an end-user acceptance and valid business models. This paper discusses the main food chain related topics and innovation potentials that are addressed as well as outlines the related methodological and technological approaches that are used to facilitate the realisation of impact and growth for commercial exploitation.

  17. The concept of sustainable food chain (case study – the dairy food chain Koncepcja zrównoważonego łańcucha żywnościowego (mleczny łańcuch żywnościowy - studium przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sznajder

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes definition of food chain in natural and economic approach. In paper is presented classical economics approach to issues of sustainable development. Idea of sustainable food chain and its goals were defined. Also macroeconomics and micro-economics interpretation of sustainable development and econometric model of sustainable dairy food chain were shown. For analysing impact of activities on sustainable development linear programming was suggested. This article shows that life styles are the base and driv-ing force behind sustainable development. Latest technological and economical solutions in dairy sector and their links with sustainable development were described.

  18. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains....... Similarities of the main environmental impacts were identified to rationalize and justify the selection of key performance indicators chosen for a simplified web based LCA tool developed within the EC funded project SENSE (FP7). Life Cycle Assessment methodology covered many of the key challenges identified...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental impacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  19. Relationships between food producers and retail chains: From a constructivist perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents preliminary results from a large project in which we developed a new way of looking at interaction and relationships between companies. Our main focus of interest in the project was the relationships between food producers and retail chains. The project investigated the cooper......This paper presents preliminary results from a large project in which we developed a new way of looking at interaction and relationships between companies. Our main focus of interest in the project was the relationships between food producers and retail chains. The project investigated...... the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries regarding trade in pork and pork-based products. The paradigmatic outset in the project was the constructivist paradigm. Based on theories on organisational identity, organisational image, organisational fields, plausibility...

  20. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases

  1. Modern Systems of Information Transmission on Agro & Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Global food commodity diversification requires the application of new methods of data identification, monitoring, collection and processing in the production or distribution area. Classical systems of information transmission are currently widely used, but also present some inconvenience addressed by the emergence of new generations of information carriers. Current requirements for technical processes monitoring, quality assurance, traceability and customer orientation led to the emergence and evolution of modern identification systems based on dynamic information transmission and global databases development. The development of computer technology and the Internet are factors that allowed the development of these systems.

  2. Diverse responses of species to landscape fragmentation in a simple food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Bearup, Daniel; Blasius, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    Habitat destruction, characterized by habitat loss and fragmentation, is a key driver of species extinction in spatial extended communities. Recently, there has been some progress in the theory of spatial food webs, however to date practically little is known about how habitat configurational fragmentation influences multi-trophic food web dynamics. To explore how habitat fragmentation affects species persistence in food webs, we introduce a modelling framework that describes the site occupancy of species in a tri-trophic system. We assume that species dispersal range increases with trophic level, exploiting pair-approximation techniques to describe the effect of habitat clustering. In accordance with the trophic rank hypothesis, both habitat loss and fragmentation generally cause species extinction, with stronger effects occurring at higher trophic levels. However, species display diverse responses (negative, neutral or positive) to habitat loss and fragmentation separately, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position. Counter-intuitively, prey species may benefit from habitat loss due to a release in top-down control. Similarly, habitat fragmentation has almost no influence on the site occupancy of the intermediate consumer in the tri-trophic system, though it decreases those of both basal species and top predator. Consequently, species' responses to habitat destruction vary as other species become extinct. Our results reiterate the importance of the interplay between bottom-up and top-down control in trophically linked communities, and highlight the complex responses occurring in even a simple food chain. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  3. A Markov Chain Model for Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Dassios

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a bivariate Markov chain counting process with contagion for modelling the clustering arrival of loss claims with delayed settlement for an insurance company. It is a general continuous-time model framework that also has the potential to be applicable to modelling the clustering arrival of events, such as jumps, bankruptcies, crises and catastrophes in finance, insurance and economics with both internal contagion risk and external common risk. Key distributional properties, such as the moments and probability generating functions, for this process are derived. Some special cases with explicit results and numerical examples and the motivation for further actuarial applications are also discussed. The model can be considered a generalisation of the dynamic contagion process introduced by Dassios and Zhao (2011.

  4. Hydrograph estimation with fuzzy chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Yavuz Selim; Şen, Zekai

    2016-07-01

    Hydrograph peak discharge estimation is gaining more significance with unprecedented urbanization developments. Most of the existing models do not yield reliable peak discharge estimations for small basins although they provide acceptable results for medium and large ones. In this study, fuzzy chain model (FCM) is suggested by considering the necessary adjustments based on some measurements over a small basin, Ayamama basin, within Istanbul City, Turkey. FCM is based on Mamdani and the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) methodologies, which yield peak discharge estimation. The suggested model is compared with two well-known approaches, namely, Soil Conservation Service (SCS)-Snyder and SCS-Clark methodologies. In all the methods, the hydrographs are obtained through the use of dimensionless unit hydrograph concept. After the necessary modeling, computation, verification and adaptation stages comparatively better hydrographs are obtained by FCM. The mean square error for the FCM is many folds smaller than the other methodologies, which proves outperformance of the suggested methodology.

  5. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  6. CHAIN FOOD ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pawlewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of Polish agriculture is insuffi cient state horizontal integration of agricultural producers. Identifi cation of factors that affect the improvement of the competitiveness of producer groups in the food chain can help in the development of such entities. The aim of the publication is to present activities that should improve competitiveness in the food chain which are undertaken by groups of raw materials producers on the example of fruit and vegetable producers groups operating in Kujawsko-Pomorskie region. In studies the method of participant observation interview were used. The measurement was conducted in late April and May 2013 and included 19 leaders of producer groups. According to them the most important factor infl uencing the market position of the groups in the food chain, was the high quality of the manufactured goods in farms affi liated farmers. Few respondents identifi ed marketing as an opportunity to strengthen the competitive advantage of producer groups in the food supply chain. This is due to the fact that farmers are far removed in the supply chain from consumers with whom they have contact only in the form of market random retail.

  7. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. J. Mol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.

  8. Realising Future Internet Potentials for Food Chain SMEs: A Hierarchy of Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The EC funded FI‐PPP programme is currently elaborating a large set of enabling technologies that shall help to overcome challenges towards a sustainable networked society of tomorrow. This up‐front investment can highly facilitate access to such Internet potentials by food chain SMEs. Nevertheless, SMEs require a systematic support for being able to decide on which technological enablers are relevant at which moment of their business evolution. To characterise a decision reference, a hierarchy of needs of food chain SMEs is presented that can serve asbaseline when aiming at the usage of the FI‐PPP results in an SME environment.

  9. A NEW FOOD CHAIN APPROACH: UNI EN ISO 22005:2008 VOLUNTARY CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work summarize an experience of auditing according to new UNI EN ISO 22005:2008. This new food chain certification scheme, arisen from two different European schemes of internal and external traceability certification, requires companies to build up their own check plans considering all components in food chain processing. This new approach, also derived from the European legislation, wants to verify if traceability system is under control and to verify if corrective actions to warrant hygienic production standards are built up.

  10. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  11. Application of a Capacitated Centered Clustering Problem for Design of Agri-food Supply Chain Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Boudahri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain of agricultural products has received a great deal of attention lately due to issues related to public health. Something that has become apparent is that in the near future the design and operation of agricultural supply chains will be subject to more stringent regulations and closer monitoring, in particular those for products destined for human consumption (agri-foods. This work is concerned with the planning of a real agri-food supply chain for chicken meat for the city of Tlemcen in Algria. The agri-food supply chain network design is a critical planning problem for reducing the cost of the chain. More precisely the problem is to redesign the existing supply chain and to optimize the distribution planning. As mentioned in our paper, the entire problem is decomposed into two problems, and each problem is solved in sequential manner, to get the final solution. LINGO optimization solver (12.0 has been used to get the solution to the problem.

  12. Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is one of the keys to competition by food supply chains over sustainability. The way it is conceived and embodied into decision-makers’ choices affects the competitiveness of local and global chains. Science-based assessment methodologies have made substantial progress, but uncertainties—as well as interests at stake—are high. There are no science-based methods that are able to give an unchallenged verdict over the sustainability performance of a firm, let alone a supply chain. Assessment methods are more suited for medium-large firm dimensions, as planning, monitoring, and reporting are costly. Moreover, the availability of data affects the choice of parameters to be measured, and many claims of local food are not easily measurable. To give local chains a chance to operate on a level playing field, there is the need to re-think sustainability assessment processes and tailor them to the characteristics of the analysed supply chains. We indicate seven key points on which we think scholars should focus their attention when dealing with food supply chain sustainability assessment.

  13. Barcoding the food chain: from Sanger to high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Joanne E; Clare, Elizabeth L

    2016-11-01

    Society faces the complex challenge of supporting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, while ensuring food security by providing safe traceable food through an ever-more-complex global food chain. The increase in human mobility brings the added threat of pests, parasites, and invaders that further complicate our agro-industrial efforts. DNA barcoding technologies allow researchers to identify both individual species, and, when combined with universal primers and high-throughput sequencing techniques, the diversity within mixed samples (metabarcoding). These tools are already being employed to detect market substitutions, trace pests through the forensic evaluation of trace "environmental DNA", and to track parasitic infections in livestock. The potential of DNA barcoding to contribute to increased security of the food chain is clear, but challenges remain in regulation and the need for validation of experimental analysis. Here, we present an overview of the current uses and challenges of applied DNA barcoding in agriculture, from agro-ecosystems within farmland to the kitchen table.

  14. Potential contaminants in the food chain: identification, prevention and issue management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Francis P

    2007-01-01

    Contaminants are a vast subject area of food safety and quality. They are generally divided into chemical, microbiological and physical classes and are present in our food chain from raw materials to finished products. They are the subject of international and national legislation that has widened to cover more and more contaminant classes and food categories. In addition, consumers have become increasingly aware of and alarmed by their risks, whether rightly or not. What is the food industry doing to ensure the safety and quality of the products we feed our children? This is a valid question which this article attempts to address from an industrial viewpoint. Chemical food safety is considered a complex field where the risk perception of consumers is often the highest. The effects of chronic or acute exposure to chemical carcinogens may cause disease conditions long after exposure that can be permanently debilitating or even fatal. It is also a moving target, as knowledge about the toxicity and occurrence data of new chemical contaminants continues to be generated. Their identification, prevention and management are challenges to the food industry as a whole. A reminder of the known chemical hazards in the food chain will be presented with an emphasis on the use of early warning to identify potential new contaminants. Early warning is also a means of prevention, anticipating food safety concerns before they become issues to manage. Current best management practices including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points relating to the supply chain of baby foods and infant formulae will be developed. Finally, key lessons from a case study on recent contamination issues in baby food products will be presented.

  15. Market power behaviour in the danish food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and demonstrates an econometric approach to analysing food industry firms' market pricing behaviour within the framework of translog cost functions and based on firm-level accounts panel data. The study identifies effects that can be interpreted as firms' market power behaviour...... in output or input markets. The most robust indications of market power behaviour in output markets are found in the pork and poultry processing sectors, as well as for firms in the bakeries sector. On the other hand, the most robust market power behaviour indications regarding input markets are found...... for poultry processing. In general, the patterns with regard to market power behaviour seem to be more clearly identified in the processing sectors than in the distribution sectors....

  16. Consumers’ Buying Groups in the Short Food Chains: Alternatives for Trust

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Food markets in affluent countries tend to be characterized by increasing complexity under several regards such as the organization of the productive chains, the process that leads to the formation of consumer’s preferences, the information/communication task and the building of trust among stakeholders. In particular, consumers are increasingly concerned about many credence attributes such as food safety, environmental concerns, the fairness of trade conditions, product origin and so forth. ...

  17. Sustainable supply chain management : The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...

  18. 基于协同补货的食品冷链均衡研究%The Food Cold Chain Equilibrium Based on Collaborative Replenishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰洪杰; 刘志高; 李丽; 胡洁

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了供应商与销售商协同补货策略下的食品冷链均衡模型.供应商与销售商通过协同补货的方式形成一个整体(记为协同补货整体),与消费者组成了非合作博弈的两个主体,两者追求各自的最大利益,最终达到食品冷链在产品数量及价格的均衡状态.本文首次运用不动点思想设计了求解均衡模型的迭代算法,算例分析证明了本文模型的实用性及算法的可行性.%Based on the economic equilibrium theory, supply chain equilibrium can be achieved when various components of supply chain components reach the steady state. Food cold chain, as a special supply chain, plays an important part in safeguarding food safety, maintaining society stability and improving food value. As foods are perishable, their nutritional values will become low if they are not fresh. Food cold chain equilibrium becomes an important food characteristic in the supply chain management. This paper proposes an equilibrium model of food cold chain based on the collaborative replenishment policy between a supplier and a retailer. A comprehensive collaborative replenishment should include supplier, retailer, and consumers in a non-cooperative game. After considering the information of food demand as well as their production and marketing capacity, collaborative replenishment will choose appropriate order quantity and sale price in order to maximize profit. Consumers will determine their purchase volume to maximize satisfaction by considering demand for, as well as price and nutritional value of food. Supply chain partners will adjust strategies to maximize benefits and finally achieve the equilibrium condition in terms of food quantity and price. An iterative algorithm using the fixed point is designed for the first time to solve the equilibrium model, and a numeric example is illustrated to show the applicability of the proposed model and the algorithm. In the first part, this paper introduces

  19. Gender relations in global agri-food value chains – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumacher, Kim Philip

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the research literature on gender relations in global agri-food value chains. The main focus is on the production side in countries of the Global South, with most examples from sub-Saharan Africa. After a short presentation of the underlying concepts and a review of the existing research literature, an outline is given of the major insights the analysis of gender issues in global value chains has offered. What is striking is the heterogeneity of the findings and proposed actions, as well as the scarcity of conceptual approaches that would integrate gender analyses further into the concept of global value chains.

  20. Designing food supply chains- a structured methodology: a case on novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis proposes and implements a structured methodology to aid in chain design and the evaluation and decision making processes that accompany it.It focusesonhow to design the entire chain from start to finish, so that the

  1. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface marine organisms. Further, the dispersing agent may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes, To date, little information exists on the sub-lethal effects of dispersants and factors modifying their role in the bioavailability and disposition of PH in marine food chains. The objective of the current research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability to primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, deputation, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for dispersed Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) vs. undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities (22 and 34 ppt) employing Isochrysis galbana, a primary producer, and Brachionus plicatilis, a primary consumer. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations. However, short term (eight hour) and long term (two week) static exposure studies indicate the uptake of{sup 14}C-naphthalene from WAF preparations is inhibited by up to 50% from dispersed oil preparations. Results of comparative static and flow-through chamber exposure studies will be presented.

  2. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  3. Copper transfer and influence on a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edding, M.; Tala, F. [Universidad Catolica del Norte, Coquimbo (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    Copper is an essential element, required for normal growth by all plants and animals; and a regular constituent in the environment (Lewis and Cave 1982; Lewis 1994). This heavy metal is an essential micronutrient that at higher concentrations can be deleterious to algae and other aquatic biota (Chang and Sibley 1993). Copper toxicity to algae depends upon the individual species, their physiological and environmental conditions, and the chemical forms of metal in the medium (Sunda and Gullard 1976). When copper is accumulated by phytoplankton it can be transferred and may produce toxic effects on zooplankton (Wikfors and Ukeles 1982). Different species of microalgae present different capacities of resistance to copper. Cyanophyceae pre-cultured in a Cu-enriched medium (635 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}) showed an EC{sub 50} that could reach 318 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for Plectonema radiosum and 339 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in Phormidium sp. (Takamura et al. 1990). Scenedesmus, Selenastrum and Chlorella were reported able to accumulate copper and other metal ions with an efficiency of 67-98% (Brady et al. 1994). Also, Dunaliella resisted concentrations form 0.38 mgCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} (D. minuta) up to 50.8 mgCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} (D. acidophila), depending on the pH of the medium (Grimmler et al. 1991). One the microalgae are copper-enriched, the copper that is part of the cell can be transferred to the surrounding water and to its predator producing uncertain effects. This study observed the effect of copper on the growth of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Isochrysis galbana that are currently used as food for hatchery-grown scallop larvae (Argopecten purpuratus). We observed the path of copper form the water column into the microalgal cell and the effect of copper-enriched food on the scallop larvae. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-07-01

    Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs.

  5. Developing Model for Supply Chain Management - the Case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jurun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model of supply chain management (SCM. It explains overall supply chain issues, strategic importance of SCM, supply chain strategies and an example of mathematical formulation. A supply chain is a global network of organizations that cooperate to improve the flows of material and information between suppliers and customers at the lowest cost and the highest speed. The objective of a supply chain is customer satisfaction. At the strategic level, a supply chain can be considered as being composed of five activities: buy, make, move, store and sell. Each activity is a module. The set of modules, along with its links, constitutes a model of the supply chain. Our paper presents some insights into the supply chain strategies of companies in Croatia. The major goal of this paper is to show a model for supply chain management in mathematical terms, with an example of mathematical formulation.

  6. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  7. 混同均衡下信号博弈模型在食品供应链质量安全研究中的应用%Study the Application of Signal Game Model under Pooling Equilibrium on the Quality and Safety of Food Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付海民; 杨阳

    2015-01-01

    文中将混同完美贝叶斯均衡条件下的信号博弈模型应用于食品供应链质量安全激励机制的研究,把政府的激励政策作为参数引入到信号博弈模型中去,得出在混同完美贝叶斯均衡条件下政府激励政策在食品供应链质量安全水平提高过程中的作用。%This paper will study the application of signal game model under pooling perfect Bayesian equilibrium conditions on the quality and safety of food supply chain incentive mechanism.The government incentive policies as a parameter is introduced to the signal game model,and draws the conclusion that in the government incentive policy pooling perfect Bayesian equilibrium conditions in the process of increasing role in food quality and safety in the food supply chain.

  8. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. pri

  9. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. pri

  10. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g.

  11. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A VENSIM BASED ANALYSIS FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis on supply chain has increased in recent years among academic and industry circles. In this paper, a supply chain model will be developed based on a case study of the poultry industry under the Vensim environment. System dynamics, supply chain, design science and case method under positivist and quantitative paradigm will be studied to develop a simulation model. The objectives of this paper are to review literature, develop a Vensim based simulation supply chain model, and examine the model qualitatively and quantitatively. The model will be also briefly discussed in relation of among forward, reverse and mainstream supply chain of the case.

  13. U.S. healthcare fix: leveraging the lessons from the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Blair, John T

    2013-01-01

    U.S. healthcare costs consistently outpace inflation, causing growing problems of affordability. This trend cannot be sustained indefinitely. The purpose of this study is to use supply-chain tools for macro-level examination of the U.S. healthcare as a business system and identify options and best use practices. We compare the important and successful U.S. food industry to the essential but problematic U.S. healthcare industry. Supply chain strategies leading to food business operations success are examined and healthcare applications suggested. We emphasize "total cost of ownership" which includes all costs incurred by all stakeholders of U.S. healthcare, including maintenance and cleanup, not just the initial purchase price. U.S. hospitals and clinics can use supply chain strategies in a total cost of ownership framework to reduce healthcare costs while maintaining patient care quality. Supply chain strategies of resource pooling, mass customization, centralized logistics, specialization, postponement and continuous improvement that have been successfully used in the U.S. food industry should be more widely applied to the U.S. healthcare industry. New and growing areas of telemedicine and medical tourism should be included in the supply chain analysis of U.S. healthcare. Valid statistical analysis of results in all areas of U.S. healthcare is an important part of the process. U.S. healthcare industry problems are systematic operational and supply chain problems rather than problems with workforce or technology. Examination of the U.S. healthcare industry through a supply chain framework should lead to significant operational improvement in both prevention and treatment of acute and chronic ailments. A rational and unemotional reorganization of the U.S. healthcare system operations, using supply chain strategies, should help reduce healthcare costs while maintaining quality and increasing accessibility.

  14. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...

  15. Edible energy: balancing inputs and waste in food supply chain and biofuels from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Gianluca; Brambilla, Riccardo; Pileci, Rosaria; Romano, Riccardo; Rosa, Francesca; Spinicci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Energy is life. Without it there is no water, there is no nutrition. Man's ability to live, grow, produce wealth is closely linked to the energy availability and use. Fire has been the first energy conversion technology; since that moment, the link between energy and progress has been indissoluble. Nowadays, a much greater energy input into the food supply chain has made a much higher food production possible. This might have an impact on the water availability. Algae are a promising solution for the energy-food-water nexus.

  16. Junk food or genuine nourishment: The nutritional value of some of South African fast-food chains

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Van den Honert

    2003-01-01

    Integer programming is used to test the nutritional completeness of two fast-food chains operating in South Africa. McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. It is shown that a fully nutritional and varied daily diet can be made up from McDonald's menu items, but the same is not true for Kentucky Fried Chicken. This exercise is highly suited to introduce students to mathematical programming: skills learned include formulating mathematical programming problems, mastering linear programming softwa...

  17. A Supply Chain Model at the Strategic Level

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Satyaveer Singh; Proth, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of strategic model of supply chain. At the strategic level, a supply chain is always composed of five basic activities, denoted by Buy, Make, Move, Store and Sell. We present a specific model and show how to optimize the related supply chain from a strategic point of view

  18. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  19. In situ Treatment with Activated Carbon Reduces Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupryianchyk, D.; Rakowska, M.I.; Roessink, I.; Reichman, E.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In situ activated carbon (AC) amendment is a new direction in contaminated sediment management, yet its effectiveness and safety have never been tested on the level of entire food chains including fish. Here we tested the effects of three different AC treatments on hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC)

  20. An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural

  1. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for effect-a

  2. Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Santillana, S.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety manageme

  3. Occurrence and biomagnification of organohalogen pollutants in two terrestrial predatory food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zeng, Yanhong; Chen, Da; Wu, Jiangping; Mai, Bixian

    2013-09-01

    Organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP), were determined in three raptor species, namely, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), and little owl (Athene noctua), as well as in their primary prey items: Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). DDTs were the predominant pollutants in avian species followed by PBDEs and PCBs, then minimally contribution of HBCDs and DP. Inter-species differences in the PBDE congener profiles were observed between the owls and the common kestrels, with relatively high contributions of lower brominated congeners in the owls but highly brominated congeners in the kestrels. This result may partly be attributed to a possible greater in vivo biotransformation of highly brominated BDE congeners in owls than in kestrels. α-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomer with a preferential enrichment of (-)-enantiomer in all the samples. No stereoselective bioaccumulation was found for DP isomers in the investigated species. Biomagnification factor (BMF) values were generally higher in the rat-owl food chain than in the sparrow-kestrel food chain. Despite this food chain-specific biomagnification, the relationships between the log BMF and log KOW of PCBs and PBDEs followed a similar function in the two food chains, except for BDE-47, -99, and -100 in the sparrow-kestrel feeding relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  5. Information and Communication Technology as a Driver for Change in Agri-food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Krijn J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, Cor; Verwaart, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Agri-food chains will be changed in the coming years by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Technological trends and economic analysis suggest that ICT will be a major driver for innovation. Satellites and sensors make precision agriculture possible. More and more data are being generate

  6. Methods for detecting pathogens in the food chain for beef: from farm to slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella. Other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. may also be present and pose contamination concerns in both the cattle production environment and bee...

  7. Design of a supply chain network for pea-based novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an operations research technique that can be used for supply chain design and applies it to create a supply network with a goal to manufacture a pea-based NPF as cheaply as possible. The current food production and consumption pattern has a strong impact on the environment and

  8. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, A.N.; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and sy

  9. The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination during Chained Schedules of Food Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates…

  10. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration : the case of food manufacturers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is theoreti

  11. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  12. Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions to -Species Nonautonomous Food Chains with Harvesting Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongkun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of inequalities, we establish the existence of at least positive periodic solutions for -species nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type food chains with harvesting terms. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  13. How Social Unrest Started Innovations in Food Supply Chains: Simulation of Opinion Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, J.S.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Verwaart, T.

    2015-01-01

    Transitions leading to sociotechnical innovations in food supply chains have been described in dramaturgical analyses on the basis of newspaper articles and parliamentary records. The time scale of such transitions driven by aroused public opinion is typically a decade. Actors are primary producers

  14. Liability Risks in Agri-food supply chains: the case of wet feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Recent animal feed crises caused substantial damage throughout food supply chains and, consequently, initiated debates on the liability insurance cover of animal feed companies. In this framework, a quantitative risk analysis for wet feed producers in the Netherlands is presented. The

  15. Microplastics in aquatic food chain : sources, measurement, occurrence and potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with plastics is a growing problem, and is expected to persist for hundreds to thousands of years. As a result microplastics, plastic particles with size smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitously present in the aquatic food chain. The present literature review shows that the i

  16. An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural

  17. Assessing the food safety concepts within the dairy production chain: an application of conjoint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conjoint analysis was performed in the Dutch dairy chain to obtain the relative contribution to increased food safety of more than 100 attributes. Results from the conjoint analysis show among others that 'chemical hazards procedures and instructions for compound feed production' and 'quality assura

  18. Food supply chain network robustness : a literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness. However, lean supply chain networks (SCNs) become more vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. Food SCNs have to become robust, i.e. they shoul

  19. A framework for early warning and proactive control systems in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Kramer, M.R.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is inherent to food supply chain networks that performance deviations occur occasionally due to variations in product quality and quantity. To reduce losses, one wants to be informed about such deviations as soon as possible, preferably even before they occur. Then it is possible to take actions

  20. Urbanization affects water and nitrogen use in the food chain in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.; Ma, L.; Zhang, F.S.; Oenema, O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urbanization and agriculture are highly coupled. However, the impacts of urbanization(e.g. transformation in urban and rural population and change in diet) on water and nitrogen (N) use remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to quantify water flows in the food chain of

  1. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  2. Determination of monounsaturated alkyl side chain 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, Péter; Miesch, Michel; Hasselmann, Claude; Delincée, Henry; Marchioni, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are formed from triglycerides by irradiation treatment and may be used as markers for this type of food processing. This paper describes a detection method for the analysis of monounsaturated alkyl side chain 2-ACBs, which is formed upon irradiation from monounsatu

  3. Food supply chain network robustness : a literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness. However, lean supply chain networks (SCNs) become more vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. Food SCNs have to become robust, i.e. they

  4. ALMOST PERIODIC SOLUTION OF A NONAUTONOMOUS DIFFUSIVE FOOD CHAIN SYSTEM OF THREE SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoGuilie

    1999-01-01

    In this paper,the almost periodic nonautonomous diffusive food chain system of threespecies is discussed. By using the comparison theorem and V-function method,the author provesthe existence and uniqueness of a positive almost periodic solution,and its stability under disturbances from the hull.

  5. Evidence-based policy for controlling antimicrobial resistance in the food chain in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Pieter; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2014-01-01

    was stimulated. Complications of alarming high levels of AMR in animals, and a general discontent about this situation (including farmers and vets) demanded a solution. National surveillance in DANMAP involving all stakeholders from the farm-to-fork food chain was setup to counteract scientific unknowns...

  6. Nitrogen surplus: An environmental performance indicator for sustainable food supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen pollution and negative impacts on human and environmental health are embodied in crop commodities traded domestically and internationally. Food supply chain companies can play a catalytic role in reducing that burden by helping to decrease the environmental nitrogen load from agriculture. T...

  7. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  8. Analysis of Supply Chain Model of Agricultural Products and Quality Safety——A Case Study of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the supply chain models of four types of agricultural products,namely fruits and vegetables,poultry,aquatic products and dairy,and the food safety problems arising from the links of supply chain.In view of different models,corresponding suggestions are put forward to ensure the quality safety of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province.

  9. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Peeters, L.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the

  10. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Peeters, L.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustain

  11. Cost of eating: whole foods versus convenience foods in a low-income model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Andrew J; Stephens, Mark B

    2010-04-01

    Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy) from local supermarkets and from fast-food outlets (convenient). Using cost per calorie as a metric for comparison, we used estimated single-parent, low-income living expenses to determine the relative costs of meeting national dietary guidelines. Average food costs for healthy and convenience diets accounted for 18% and 37% of income, respectively. Dairy products and vegetables accounted for the largest cost percentages of diet costs (36% and 28%, respectively). The cost per calorie of a convenience diet was 24% higher than the healthy diet. Both models resulted in net financial loss over the course of a year for a single-parent, low-income family. Food costs represent a significant proportion of annual income. Diets based heavily on foods from convenient sources are less healthy and more expensive than a well-planned menu from budget foods available from large supermarket chains.

  12. Moving towards Sustainability in Food Chains: Dealing with Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Schiefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability concerns are receiving increasingly attention by society and in turn, the food sector and consumers as the food sector’s final customers. Investments towards improvements in sustainability along the chain are usually not evenly distributed along the chain which affects the balance in the distribution of costs and returns. Transparency is a means for supporting an appropriate link between costs and returns. Various alternatives are being discussed. The chapter utilizes a case study approach for elaborating on the possibilities of regaining costs through price premiums, the communication of sustainability to consumers and the cooperation through horizontal and vertical networking alternatives that could support developments towards sustainability through gains in efficiency and concerted engagements in dealing with sustainability, costs and returns along the chain

  13. The Advancement Value Chain: An Exploratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Edward F., III

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the value chain concept in 1985, several varying, yet virtually similar, value chains have been developed for the business enterprise. Shifting to higher education, can a value chain be found that links together the various activities of advancement so that an institution's leaders can actually look at the philanthropic…

  14. The Advancement Value Chain: An Exploratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Edward F., III

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the value chain concept in 1985, several varying, yet virtually similar, value chains have been developed for the business enterprise. Shifting to higher education, can a value chain be found that links together the various activities of advancement so that an institution's leaders can actually look at the philanthropic…

  15. Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-10-20

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental factors of temperature, water availability and intergranular gas composition, and preservatives which are added to conserve moist grain for animal feed. Thus knowledge of the key critical control points during harvesting, drying and storage stages in the cereal production chain are essential in developing effective prevention strategies post-harvest. Studies show that very small amounts of dry matter loss due to mould activity can be tolerated. With mycotoxin contamination and downgrading of lots can occur. The key mycotoxigenic moulds in partially dried grain are Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin) in damp cool climates of Northern Europe, and Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxin) and some Fusarium species (fumonisins, trichothecenes) on temperate and tropical cereals. Studies on the ecology of these species has resulted in modelling of germination, growth and mycotoxin minima and prediction of fungal contamination levels which may lead to mycotoxin contamination above the tolerable legislative limits (e.g. for ochratoxin). The effect of modified atmospheres and fumigation with sulphur dioxide and ammonia have been attempted to try and control mould spoilage in storage. Elevated CO2 of >75% are required to ensure that growth of mycotoxigenic moulds does not occur in partially dried grain. Sometimes, preservatives based on aliphatic acids have been used to prevent spoilage and mycotoxin contamination of stored commodities, especially feed. These are

  16. Performance Modeling of Communication Networks with Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to Markov chain modeling with applications to communication networks. It begins with a general introduction to performance modeling in Chapter 1 where we introduce different performance models. We then introduce basic ideas of Markov chain modeling: Markov property, discrete time Markov chain (DTMe and continuous time Markov chain (CTMe. We also discuss how to find the steady state distributions from these Markov chains and how they can be used to compute the system performance metric. The solution methodologies include a balance equation technique, limiting probab

  17. The composite supply chain efficiency model: A case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa’s supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.

  18. Supply Chain as Complex Adaptive System and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingmingWang

    2004-01-01

    Supply chain is a complex, hierarchical, integrated, open and dynamic network.Every node in the network is an independent business unit that unites other organizations to develop its value, the competition and cooperation between these units are basic impetus of the development and evolution of the supply chain system. The characteristics of supply chain as a complex adaptive system and its modeling are discussed in this paper, and use an example demonstrating the feasibility of CAS modeling in supply chain management study.

  19. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success.

  20. Relationships between food producers and retail chains: From a constructivist perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents preliminary results from a large project in which we developed a new way of looking at interaction and relationships between companies. Our main focus of interest in the project was the relationships between food producers and retail chains. The project investigated...... the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries regarding trade in pork and pork-based products. The paradigmatic outset in the project was the constructivist paradigm. Based on theories on organisational identity, organisational image, organisational fields, plausibility......, product development, and construction of meaning and shared meaning, an analytical framework was developed. The theoretical framework subsequently - founded on a grounded theory approach - was used as the basis for the analysis. The paper concludes with a number of recommen¬dations for food producers...