WorldWideScience

Sample records for food breast milk

  1. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  2. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  3. Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Teijón, Marisa Lopez; Alvarez, Juan G; Barceló, Damià

    2010-08-01

    In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible

  4. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast milk is conditionally perfect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Breast milk is the universal preferred nutrition for the newborn human infant. New mother have been encouraged to exclusively breastfeed by health care professionals and consumer-advocacy forums for years, citing "breast milk is the perfect food". The benefits are numerous and include psychological, convenience, economical, ecological and nutritionally superior. Human milk is a composite of nutritional choices of the mother, commencing in the pre-conceptual era. Events influencing the eventual nutritional profile of breast milk for the neonate start with pre-conceptual dietary habits through pregnancy and finally to postpartum. Food choices do affect the nutritional profile of human breast milk. It is not known who coined the phrase "breast milk is the perfect food" but it is widely prevalent in the literature. While breast milk is highly nutritive, containing important immunological and growth factors, scientific investigation reveals a few short-falls. Overall, human breast milk has been found to be low in certain nutrients in developed countries: vitamin D, iodine, iron, and vitamin K. Additional nutrient deficiencies have been documented in resource-poor countries: vitamin A, vitamin B 12, zinc, and vitamin B 1/thiamin. Given these findings, isn't it more accurate to describe breast milk as "conditionally perfect"? Correcting the impression that breast milk is an inherently, automatically comprehensive enriched product would encourage women who plan to breastfeed an opportunity to concentrate on dietary improvement to optimizes nutrient benefits ultimately to the neonate. The more immediate result would improve pre-conceptual nutritional status. Here, we explore the nutritional status of groups of young women; some of whom will become pregnant and eventually produce breast milk. We will review the available literature profiling vitamin, mineral, protein and caloric content of breast milk. We highlight pre-existing situations needing correction to optimize

  6. The Factors That Influence Mother's Behavior in Giving Food Complement of Breast Milk for Baby in Age 6 - 36 Month

    OpenAIRE

    Kristianto, Yonatan; Sulistyarini, Tri

    2013-01-01

    Food complement of breast milk is food that contain nutrient, giving to child in age 6–36 months to complete nutrient requirement. Giving that food is precisely influenced by mother's behavior who have baby. The objective of the research to prove the factors that influence mother's behavior in giving food complement breast milk to child in age 6–36 months.The design of the research was correlation. The population was all mother who have children in age 6–36 months at Posyandu Mawar I Karangre...

  7. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pietrasanta; B. Ghirardi; M.F. Manca; S. Uccella; C. Gualdi; E. Tota; L. Pugni; F. Mosca

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections ar...

  8. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  9. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2000-07-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  10. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  11. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1999-09-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author) 37 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  13. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  14. Associations Between Breast Milk Feeding, Introduction of Solid Foods, and Weight Gain in the First 12 Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klag, Elizabeth A; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-10-01

    Breast milk feeding and solid food introduction can influence infant growth, but are rarely examined together. The objectives were to describe relationships between feeding practices, feeding practices and weight gain, and how the relationship of breast milk feeding and growth may change when breastfed infants start solid foods before 6 months. Data were analyzed on 438 infants from the Moms2Moms Study (2011-2012, Ohio), using multivariable linear and logistic regression models to explore each of the relationships. For each additional month of breast milk feeding, solid food introduction was delayed by 1.32 days (95% CI 0.11 to 2.53) and average weight gain per month decreased by 5.05 g (95% CI 7.39 to 2.17). There was no association between solid food introduction and growth. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with slower growth regardless of solid food introduction. Age at solid food introduction was not associated with growth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Drugs in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. Infant food marketing strategies undermine effective regulation of breast-milk substitutes: trends in print advertising in Australia, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Blake, Miranda

    2013-08-01

    This study addresses the issue of whether voluntary industry regulation has altered companies' marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Australia since the adoption of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code on the Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes 1981. Print advertisements marketing breast-milk substitutes were systematically sampled from the Australian Women's Weekly (AWW) magazine and the Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) for the 61 years from 1950 to 2010. Breast-milk substitute advertising in both the MJA and the AWW peaked and began declining before the introduction of the WHO Code in 1981. Although there was almost no infant formula advertising in AWW after 1975-79, other breast-milk substitute advertising has been increasing since 1992, in particular for baby food, toddler formula and food and brand promotion. Companies have adopted strategies to minimise the effects of the Code on sales and profit in Australia, including increasing toddler formula and food advertisements, increasing brand promotion to the public, and complying with more limited voluntary regulatory arrangements. Comprehensive regulation is urgently required to address changed marketing practices if it is to protect breastfeeding in Australia. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Immunology of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Patricia; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2016-09-01

    In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk's immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant's ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant's secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  18. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  19. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old rural infants given a ready-to-use complementary food in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor O; Bahwere, Paluku; Bisimwa, Ghislain; Mwangi, Christine M; Collins, Steve

    2011-06-01

    Lipid-based ready-to-use foods are currently used for infant feeding, but their potential effect on breast-milk intake is not well documented. The objective was to assess the breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old infants given either a ready-to-use complementary food (RUCF) paste or a standard corn-soy blend (UNIMIX) porridge in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Infants were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to receive either RUCF (n = 700) or UNIMIX (n = 700) for 6 mo. Breast-milk intake was measured at 9-10 mo in a subsample of 58 infants (29 from each group). Mothers received a dose of ≈30 g deuterium oxide. Predose and postdose saliva samples were collected from both mothers and infants over 2 wk. Breast-milk intake (g/d) was measured from saliva samples by using infrared spectroscopy. Mean (±SD) breast-milk intake was not significantly (P = 0.69) different between the 2 groups: RUCF (705 ± 236 g/d) and UNIMIX (678 ± 285 g/d). Mean (±SD) nonmilk oral water intakes were 338.3 ± 251.1 and 336.4 ± 227.2 g/d for RUCF and UNIMIX, respectively (P = 0.98). No differences in breast-milk intake were observed between infants consuming either RUCF or UNIMIX. The deuterium-dose-to-the-mother dilution technique is an affordable technique that we recommend for periodic evaluation of breast-milk intake in resource-poor settings. This trial is registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN20267635.

  1. Breast-milk characteristics protecting against allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Federica; Comberiati, Pasquale; Munblit, Daniel; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Zanoni, Laura; Boner, Attilio L; Peroni, Diego G

    2014-03-01

    Breast milk and colostrum are the first feeding sources for a child, providing nutrients, growth factors and immunological components, which are crucial for the newborn's correct development and health. Length of exclusive breastfeeding and time of solid foods introduction is a key factor that may influence allergy development. There is an emerging evidence of a relationship between breastfeeding, milk composition and lower risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and allergies. This review examines current evidence regarding humoral and cellular characteristics of breast-milk, and potential role of environment, maternal diet and breastfeeding on the allergy development in children.

  2. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  3. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  4. Breast milk: immunosurveillance in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Nanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is unique and a natural source of nutrition. However, it also helps to protect against various types of disease, not only infective but also immunological diseases. The wide variety of molecules in milk is responsible for its varied role for the newborn infant. Various breast milk proteins, contribute for its immunological, nutritional as well as its antimicrobial role. The naive immune system, intestinal mucosa and other organs of the neonate are also developed by various cellular factors. Breast milk protects not only during the neonatal period but also beyond it. By educating the neonatal immune system it also protects against the development of diseases later in life.

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  6. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  7. [Environmental toxins in breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlid, Dag

    2009-12-17

    Breast milk is very important to ensure infants a well-composed and safe diet during the first year of life. However, the quality of breast milk seems to be affected by an increasing amount of environmental toxins (particularly so-called Persistent, Bioaccumulative Toxins [PBTs]). Many concerns have been raised about the negative effects this may have on infant health. The article is a review of literature (mainly review articles) identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed. The concentration of PBTs in breast milk is mainly caused by man's position as the terminal link in the nutritional chain. Many breast-fed infants have a daily intake of such toxins that exceed limits defined for the population in general. Animal studies demonstrate effects on endocrine function and neurotoxicity in the offspring, and a number of human studies seem to point in the same direction. However the "original" optimal composition of breast milk still seems to protect against long-term effects of such toxicity. There is international consensus about the need to monitor breast milk for the presence of PBTs. Such surveillance will be a good indicator of the population's general exposure to these toxins and may also contribute to identifying groups as risk who should not breast-feed their children for a long time.

  8. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Savino, Francesco; Liguori, Stefania A.; Fissore, Maria F.; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity,...

  9. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  10. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: lessons learned and implications for the regulation of marketing of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K

    2013-10-01

    To identify lessons learned from 30 years of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (‘the Code’) and identify lessons learned for the regulation of marketing foods and beverages to children. Historical analysis of 30 years of implementing the Code. Latin America and the Caribbean. None. Legislation to restrict marketing of breast-milk substitutes is necessary but not sufficient; equally important are the promulgation of implementing regulations, effective enforcement and public monitoring of compliance. A system of funding for regular monitoring of compliance with legislation should be explicitlyd eveloped and funded from the beginning. Economic sanctions, while important, are likely to be less effective than reports that affect a company’s public image negatively. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in leveraging public opinion and galvanizing consumer pressure to ensure that governments adopt regulations and companies adhere to them. Continual clinical, epidemiological and policy research showing the link between marketing and health outcomes and between policy and better health is essential. Implementation of the Code has not come easily as it places the interests of underfinanced national governments and international and non-governmental organizations promoting breast-feeding against those of multinational corporations that make hundreds of millions of dollars annually marketing infant formulas. Efforts to protect, promote and support breast-feeding have been successful with indicators of breast-feeding practices increasing globally. The lessons learned can inform current efforts to regulate the marketing of foods and beverages to children.

  11. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  12. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  13. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  14. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  15. STRAINED OFF BREAST MILK: PRO AND CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Lukoyanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of feeding of children with strained off breast milk are discussed in this article. Author presents medical indications to such type of feeding, peculiarities and rules of storage of strained off milk. There is a brief literature review on the influence of different factors on the composition of strained off breast milk.Key words: strained milk, breast feeding, pasteurization, freezing.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:70-73

  16. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  17. Breast milk macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Goele; Matthys, Christophe; Lannoo, Matthias; Van der Schueren, Bart; Devlieger, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Breast milk samples from 12 lactating women with bariatric surgery were investigated by comparing the macronutrient and energy content with samples from 36 non-surgical controls. Samples were analyzed with the Human Milk Analyzer and the maternal diet 24 h prior to sampling with a food record. A higher fat, energy, and a slightly higher carbohydrate milk content was found in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (3.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 g/100 ml, P = 0.008; 61.0 ± 7.2 versus 51.7 ± 9 kcal/100 ml, P = 0.002; and 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 6.3 ± 0.4 g/100 ml, P = 0.045, respectively). No correlations and no strong explanatory variance were found between milk macronutrient composition and corresponding maternal dietary intake. The nutritional value of breast milk after bariatric surgery appears to be at least as high as in non-surgical controls.

  18. [Breast is best--human milk for premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Arieh; Bader, David

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition for preterm babies is aimed at achieving expected intrauterine growth and accretion of nutrients. Early trophic feedings should be started as soon as possible for gastrointestinal priming. Mother's (breast) milk is the best food for preterm babies. Its advantages are in host defence, nutritional components and suitability for gut absorption, as well as its psychological and developmental value. The limitations of human milk for preterm babies, mainly in protein and minerals, can be compensated for by using powdered human milk fortifier. Sucking skills usually mature around 34 weeks, corrected gestational age. Thus, small preemies are initially fed by orogastric tubes, meaning that expressed breast milk is used. Support of lactation in mothers of preemies mandates protection of the mother and child bonding process and early skin to skin contact ("kangeroo care"). Methods for storage of expressed breast milk and the recommended length of storage are discussed. Milk bank mandates pasteurization and freezing of the donors' milk. Most of the nutritional and immunological advantages of human milk are preserved after such treatments. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants, that were acquired from mother's expressed breast milk, are not uncommon, and require further attention.

  19. Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Breast Milk Are Low and Are Not Associated with Reported Household Hunger, Recent Animal-Source Food, or Vitamin B-12 Intake in Women in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline J; Young, Sera L; Achando, Beryl S; Allen, Lindsay H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Dentz, Holly N; Hampel, Daniela; Kiprotich, Marion C; Lin, Audrie; Null, Clair A; Nyambane, Geoffrey M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setti; Stewart, Christine P

    2016-05-01

    Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in regions in which animal-source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. We measured vitamin B-12 in breast milk and examined its associations with household hunger, recent animal-source food consumption, and vitamin B-12 intake. In a cross-sectional substudy nested within a cluster-randomized trial assessing water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition interventions in Kenya, we sampled 286 women 1-6 mo postpartum. Mothers hand-expressed breast milk 1 min into a feeding after 90 min observed nonbreastfeeding. The Household Hunger Scale was used to measure hunger, food intake in the previous week was measured with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and vitamin B-12 intake was estimated by using 24-h dietary recall. An animal-source food score was based on 10 items from the FFQ (range: 0-70). Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was measured with the use of a solid-phase competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and was modeled with linear regression. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlated observations at the cluster level. Median (IQR) vitamin B-12 intake was 1.5 μg/d (0.3, 9.7 μg/d), and 60% of women consumed hunger prevalence was 27%; the animal-source food score ranged from 0 to 30 item-d/wk. Hunger and recent animal-source food and vitamin B-12 intake were not associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Maternal age was negatively associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Most lactating Kenyan women consumed less than the estimated average requirement of vitamin B-12 and had low breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. We recommend interventions that improve vitamin B-12 intake in lactating Kenyan women to foster maternal health and child development. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01704105. © 2016

  20. Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban

  1. Mandatory trans fat labeling regulations and nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acid content in foods contributed to lowered concentrations of trans fat in Canadian women's breast milk samples collected in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wm Nimal; Swist, Eleonora; Zoka, Rana; Gagnon, Claude; Lillycrop, William; Pantazapoulos, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Nitric Oxide Metabolites and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitric oxide plays a preventive role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Oral nitrite and nitrate intake has gained importance with the discovery of the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide in acidic medium out of the synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. Objective of this study was to examine the breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine which is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide and to compare these concentrations in terms of gestational age and maturity of breast milk. Study Design: Forty-one women were included in the study. Milk samples were collected from 3 groups of mothers as term, late preterm and preterm on the postpartum days 3, 7 and 28. Results: When breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide were compared according to the postnatal day of the milk independently from gestational age; nitric oxide concentration was higher in the colostrum than in the transition milk and mature milk (p=0,035; p=0,001; respectively. For the comparison of asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations among these groups and days; no statistically significant difference was observed in terms of gestational age and maturity of the milk (p=0.865, p=0.115; respectively. Conclusion: The highest nitric oxide concentration was found in the colostrum, suggesting that colostrum is a valuable food for newborns. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine were negatively correlated with nitric oxide and did not show a correlation with breast milk, suggesting that asymmetric dimethylargininedoesn’t make nitric oxide inhibition in breast milk.

  3. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  4. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia ho...

  5. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  6. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  7. Impact of maternal allergy and use of probiotics during pregnancy on breast milk cytokines and food antibodies and development of allergy in children until 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, Mikael; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Savilahti, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Whether breast milk (BM) can protect against allergy has been studied extensively, with conflicting results. Variations in mothers' BM composition may explain some of the conflicting results. Our aim was to assess the impact of maternal allergy and probiotic intervention on BM food antibodies, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(2) and interleukin (IL)-10 and their impact on allergy development in children until the ages of 2 and 5. We measured total IgA, IgA antibodies to cow's milk (CM), casein, β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin (OVA), TGF-β(2) and IL-10 in 364 colostrum samples and 321 BM samples taken at 3 months from mothers participating in a prospective study evaluating the allergy-preventive effect of probiotics in a cohort with an increased risk for allergy. CM, casein and OVA antibodies, TGF-β(2) and IL-10 were detectable in most samples. Maternal allergy was associated with raised levels of IgA to casein (p = 0.04) and lower levels of TGF-β(2) (p = 0.006) in mature BM. Probiotic supplementation was associated with increased IL-10 (p = 0.046) and decreased casein IgA antibodies (p = 0.027) in mature BM. High OVA IgA antibodies in colostrum were associated with the development of atopy by the age of 2, while low levels in mature BM were a significant risk factor for the development of eczema by the age of 2. TGF-β(2) levels in BM constituted a risk for development of allergy by the age of 2. The immunologic composition of BM was only slightly affected by maternal atopy and could be altered by probiotic supplementation. Small effects of BM components on allergy development in children were evident. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Epigenetic effects of human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduci, Elvira; Banderali, Giuseppe; Barberi, Salvatore; Radaelli, Giovanni; Lops, Alessandra; Betti, Federica; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-04-24

    A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life.

  9. Epigenetic Effects of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Verduci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant’s health and his later life.

  10. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  11. The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was to determine if there is any relationship between breast size and the quantity of milk produced during sucking in 57 primiparas who practiced exclusive breast –feeding. The infants' ages range between 6 and 24 weeks with a mean age of 8.13 (5.2) weeks. There were 31 male and 26 female infants.

  12. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  13. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, are involved in this complex regulation. These hormones play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and are involved in the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Recently, their presence in breast milk has been detected, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of growth in early infancy and could influence the programming of energy balance later in life. This paper focuses on hormones present in breast milk and their role in glucose homeostasis.

  14. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  15. INDIVIDUAL BREAST MILK «BANKING»: NEEDS AND MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the most important postnatal factor in metabolic and immunogenic programming of newborns’ health. When it is impossible to breastfeed the baby best efforts should be applied to maintain lactation in mother in order to feed the baby with expressed breast milk. Feeding with frozen expressed breast milk is as good as breastfeeding in its nutritional and biological values. Expressed breast milk (both native and thawed in 3–6 months is testified to be safe nutrition in its microbiological features for a breastfed child. The article presents recent capabilities to maintain milk production in a nursing mother, sets forth conditions requiring a baby to be breastfed with expressed milk, either partial or exclisive, indicates medical alerts for breastfeeding. Data for safe and effective baby nursing with expressed breast milk is considered. The ways for creation individual breast milk “bank” and rules for storage of frozen milk are indicated. Authors present results of introduction of new technologies for breastfeeding maintenance. The use of up-to-date breast pumps created on the basis of the studies of lactation physiology and mechanisms by which a baby takes the milk from his mother’s breast, helps to improve efficiency of milk expression, simplifies this process a lot making it more comfortable and effective.Key words: newborns, breastfeeding, expressed breast milk, breast pumps, Individual breast milk «banking».

  16. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  17. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  18. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2......) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH)D...

  19. Human breast milk immunology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, K; Michie, C; Opara, E; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been shown to enhance the development of the immune system of the newborn as well as provide protection against enteric and respiratory infections. It has been suggested that implementation of breast feeding programs has the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. Human milk is a bodily fluid which, apart from being an excellent nutritional source for the growing infant, also contains a variety of immune components such as antibodies, growth factors, cytokines, antimicrobial compounds, and specific immune cells. These help to support the immature immune system of the newborn baby, and protect it against infectious risks during the postnatal period while its own immune system matures. This article reviews some of the factors in human breast milk that give it these important properties.

  20. Unnatural constituents of breast milk--medication, lifestyle, pollutants, viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, J

    1997-10-29

    It is well recognised that although nutritionally breast milk is the optimal food for babies, there are a number of caveats to this, based on the consequences of the modern lifestyle. Here we have considered ways in which the young breast fed child may be exposed to various environmental and medical contaminants which might cause adverse reactions and to which he/she may not otherwise be exposed. These substances are divided into four different areas: (i) medication taken by the mother; (ii) exposure to possibly addictive drugs taken by the mother; (iii) exposure to pollutants mainly from the maternal diet or as the result of her occupation; (iv) viruses. The infant who consumes breast milk may be exposed to a variety of chemicals which may have untoward effects on his/her immediate health and temperament and future development. Potentially hazardous substances ingested by the breast fed infant include medicaments (or their metabolites) that may have been ingested by the mother, potentially addictive common neurotoxicants such as nicotine, caffeine and alcohol, illicit drugs such as heroin and cocaine, and pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). There is a paucity of good information on which to base reliable estimates of the harm that this may cause the child. Although breast feeding is known to protect against bacterial infection, a number of viruses are excreted in the breast milk which may infect the child asymptomatically (e.g. cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus) and which are not known to be harmful, as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) excretion which, in contrast, does appear to increase the risk of the child becoming infected. Balancing the risk of infection to the child born to an HIV infected mother, results in the proposition that known HIV positive women in developing countries (where the risk of gastrointestinal infection is high) should continue to breast feed but those in the developed world

  1. Breast milk donation and social support: reports of women donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.

  2. Associations between high prepregnancy body mass index, breast-milk expression, and breast-milk production and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Geraghty, Sheela R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2011-03-01

    Breast-milk expression is widely practiced by American mothers, but little is known about who expresses milk, how expression affects breastfeeding, or whether overweight or obese women, who have less breastfeeding success than do normal-weight women, express milk differently. We investigated 1) whether breast-milk expression behavior differed by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) category and 2) whether the different breastfeeding behaviors of overweight (BMI: ≥25 and obese (BMI: ≥30) women resulted in different breastfeeding outcomes. The subjects (n = 2288) provided information on BMI and breast-milk production, feeding, and expression in mail-in questionnaires as part of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed by using regression procedures adjusted for confounding. Women of different BMI categories overall did not differ in whether, when, or why they expressed breast milk. Before 2 mo postpartum, however, obese women were more likely (P = 0.04, unadjusted) to try milk expression and were less likely (P = 0.01, unadjusted) to express milk successfully. In addition, overweight or obesity was associated (P milk production only in women who never expressed milk. In overweight or obese women, those who ever expressed milk had longer durations of breastfeeding (P milk. Breast-milk expression behaviors may differ by maternal BMI category only in the early postpartum period. In addition, breast-milk expression may reduce differences between BMI categories in the duration of breastfeeding and support longer durations of breastfeeding.

  3. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  4. Breast milk donation: women's donor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2009-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.

  5. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yourkavitch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005–2007, data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  6. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernaz, E.; Haisma, H.; Victora, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  7. Cronobacter sakazakii Infection from Expressed Breast Milk, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rowena; Menon, Vidthiya; Jensen, Slade O.; van Hal, Sebastiaan J.; Davis, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii neonatal infections are often epidemiologically linked to the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. We describe a case resulting from consumption of contaminated expressed breast milk, as confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. This case highlights potential risks associated with storage and acquisition of expressed breast milk. PMID:29350166

  8. Bacterial Load in Expressed and Stored Breast Milk of Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of expressed breast milk has been advocated as an effective way of encouraging and maintaining lactation when the mother is separated from the baby for a while. However, prospects of storage of expressed breast milk for any considerable period of time is hindered by the possibility of bacterial contamination and ...

  9. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  10. Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Louise M; Clandinin, M Thomas; Davies, David P; Fernandez, Maria C; Jackson, Joan; Hawkes, Jo; Goldman, William J; Pramuk, Kathryn; Reyes, Horacio; Sablan, Benjamin; Sonobe, Tomoyoshi; Bo, Xu

    2003-06-01

    Carotenoids in serum vary between countries and within populations with evidence suggesting a qualitative relationship to diet. Breast milk carotenoids furnish a source of vitamin A and potentially provide immunoprotection and other health benefits for infants. There have been numerous studies of milk carotenoid concentrations in undernourished populations; however, carotenoid concentrations have not previously been compared in populations of well-nourished mothers. To compare concentrations of five major carotenoid groups: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene in breast milk of healthy women from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and to qualitatively compare patterns of dietary intake with milk carotenoid concentrations. Breast milk collected from healthy lactating women was analyzed for concentrations of five carotenoids and retinol and quantitated relative to total milk lipid. All determinations were performed in a single research laboratory using standardized methodology. Mothers consumed their usual diets and provided a single 24-h dietary recall. Breast milk carotenoid concentrations varied greatly among countries, with the greatest differences in beta-cryptoxanthin (approximately 9-fold) and the least in alpha-carotene and lycopene (approximately 3-fold). Breast milk retinol concentrations varied approximately 2-fold across countries. The provitamin A carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin as a group accounted for > 50 % of the carotenoids measured. Total breast milk carotenoids were highest in Japanese and lowest in Philippine mothers. Breast milk beta-carotene concentrations were highest in Chile and lowest in the Philippines. Patterns of breast milk carotenoids were unique to each country and qualitative patterns reflected the dietary carotenoid supply.

  11. Iodine-131 in breast milk following therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.S.; Barker, P.; Campbell, A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates breast milk secretion of 131 I following therapeutic adminstration of 4000 MBq of 131 I-iodide during lactation. Breast milk 131 I activity concentration was measured over a 32-day period. Dosimetry calculations were undertaken to estimate the period for discontinuation of breast feeding and the equivalent dose to the breasts. To achieve an infant effective dose 131 I-iodide adminstration is not undertaken during lactation and that breast feeding is discontinued several days prior to administration. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  13. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K; Schoemaker, Marieke H; van Tol, Eric A F; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2016-06-01

    Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by (1) H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  15. Association between human breast milk and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Teixeira; Senna, Denise C; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Silveira, Rita de Cássia; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of breast milk against retinopathy of prematurity by comparing the amount of breast milk received by patients who developed retinopathy of prematurity and those who did not and to determine both the required minimum amount of breast milk and the time of life during which neonates need to receive breast milk for this effect to be significant. Cohort study of newborns with a birth weight of prematurity of any degree was 31% (100 of 323 patients) and that of severe retinopathy of prematurity was of 9% (29 of 323 patients). The median amounts of breast milk received daily by patients with and without retinopathy of prematurity were 4.9 mL/kg (interquartile range, 0.3-15.4) and 10.2 mL/kg (1.5-25.5), respectively. The amount of breast milk received in the first 6 weeks of life was inversely associated with the incidence of both retinopathy of prematurity of any degree and severe retinopathy of prematurity in the univariate analyses. However, the statistical significance was maintained only during the sixth week of life in a per-period multivariate analysis controlling for confounding factors. Small amounts of breast milk are inadequate to prevent retinopathy of prematurity in premature newborns at risk for the disease.

  16. The use of stable isotope dilution technique to determine the amount of breast milk consumed by infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Exclusive breast feeding for six months to an infant, followed by the introduction of complementary food and continued with breast feeding is believed to be an optimal way of infants nutrition. There is a shortage in information about the amount of milk obtained from the infant's mother at least partially due to the difficulties associated with quantification of breast milk intake. The old technique, which depends on how the weight of the baby before and after breast feeding from mother, takes time and may be disturbing to the natural feeding pattern. It was possible to overcome these difficulties by using stable isotopes consumed by mother as D ose of deuterium oxide to mother i n particular dilution dose to mother and then move the dose from mother to baby through breast milk and this can calculate the total volume of breast milk consumed by the infant within 14 days since the dose oxide of deuterium consumed at first day. Dose of deuterium oxide to mother can also help to find out if there were any further quantity of water entering the child's body except breast milk, determine body composition for mother and infant, monitor the effects of programs strengthening food for pregnant mothers and lactating women in terms of quantity and quality of milk overnight, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of programs to strengthen children's food. (author)

  17. Nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Fahey, T; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk instead of human breast milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk on growth and development of preterm infants following hospital discharge. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to determine whether feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk affects growth and development. Mothers who wish to breast feed, and their health care advisors, would require very clear evidence that feeding with a nutrient-enriched formula milk had major advantages for their infants before electing not to feed (or to reduce feeding) with maternal breast milk. If evidence from trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched versus standard formula milk demonstrated an effect on growth or development, then this might strengthen the case for undertaking trials of nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk.

  18. Determination of In-Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Breast Milk | Akujobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast milk undisputedly is the ideal baby food. It provides a lot of protective functions for the baby as well complete nutrition. It contains fat, proteins carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. There have been various claims that it cures ailments. The study was therefore designed to substantiate those claims.

  19. Does Circadian Variation of Mothers Affect Macronutrients of Breast Milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Aslihan Köse; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamaç; Yarcı, Erbu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Oguz, Serife Suna; Uras, Nurdan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre

    2017-06-01

    Objective  To determine the within-day variation of fat, protein, and carbohydrate content of breast milk. Methods  The study was conducted at Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014. We obtained milk samples from lactating mothers of hospitalized infants through hand expression after breast-feeding or pumping three times a day. A mid-infrared human milk analyzer was used for measuring the macronutrient contents of breast milk samples. Results  Lactating mothers of 52 infants (30 preterm, 22 term) were recruited to the study. No significant difference was found in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content of milk samples throughout the day. We compared within-day variation of macronutrients of transitional and mature milk, milk samples from the mothers of preterm and term infants, and samples collected by either hand expression or pumping. We did not find a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion  Absence of circadian variations in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content of breast milk in our study may be related to ethnic differences, maternal nutritional status, different milk content measurement technique, and population characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Determination of seven trace elements in human milk, powdered cow's milk and infant foods by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Alexiou, D.; Papadatos, C.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply neutron activation analysis to the determination of seven trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn, Rb and As) in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk as well as in powdered cow's milk and commercial infant foods, and thus to find out whether non-breast-fed infants received the same or different amounts of these trace elements as breast-fed ones. Ranges and averages for trace elements in mature human milk, expressed as microgrammes per gramme wet weight, varied as follows: Cr 0.018-0.040 and 0.027; Co 0.0013-0.0030 and 0.0020; Cu 0.38-0.50 and 0.46; Se 0.011-0.022 and 0.015; Zn 1.4-1.7 and 1.5; Rb 0.60-0.66 and 0.63; and As 0.0016-0.0060 and 0.0032. The mean concentrations of the essential trace elements Zn, Se, Cu, Cr and Co in colostrum were, respectively, 3.7, 3.2, 2.4, 1.8 and 1.7 times higher than those in mature human milk. No significant differences in Rb and As concentrations were found between colostrum and mature milk. Average values of Zn and Cu in transitional human milk were, respectively, 3.4 and 1.5 times higher than in mature milk. No significant differences for the rest of the elements were found between these two milk samples. The two milk formulas, half-cream and humanized, contained higher mean concentrations of Zn, Rb and As and similar or lower concentrations of Cr, Co and Se than mature human milk. Half-cream is deficient in Cu; mature human milk contains about 9 times more Cu than the half-cream cow's milk. Humanized milk contains a similar mean concentration of Cu as the mature milk. All examined infant foods contained similar or higher concentrations of all elements determined than did the mature human milk

  1. The impact of rotating night shifts on the breast milk collection volume among employed breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Lin, Shio-Jean; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Su, Shih-Bin; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2015-01-01

    The health benefits of breastfeeding are widely recognized. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months after birth and for two years or longer together with nutritionally adequate complementary foods. To respond to the needs of industry, employed breastfeeding mothers must adapt to the rotating night shift (RNS). However, the RNS is associated with a higher risk of health problems in career women. We investigated the relationship between the RNS and breast milk volume. Mothers who used a breastfeeding room while working at a technology company in Taiwan voluntarily participated in this study from March 1 through April 30, 2013. We compared two groups: breastfeeding mothers on (RNS(+)) and not on a RNS (RNS(-)) to determine independent predictors for breast milk volume. We analyzed data from 109 participants: RNS(+) group n=56; RNS(-) group n=53. There was no significant difference in daily milk collection volume between the groups. Daily milk collection frequency and exclusive breastfeeding were independent predictors for a daily breast milk collection volume >350 ml. The RNS may not affect the breast milk volume. This result may help the government and employers make policies more appropriate for supporting employed breastfeeding mothers.

  2. The introduction of breast milk donation in a Muslim country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y

    2000-11-01

    Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU.

  3. bacterial load in expressed and stored breast milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... The practice of exclusive breastfeeding for six months ... research on breast milk storage worldwide has focused on optimal conditions for .... nutritional and immunological benefits especially if its nutritional value can be.

  4. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M.; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T.; Wade, Salimata

    2013-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother-infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed Infants breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135)g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222)g/d, n 44, P= 0.009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants' energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50)kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448)kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66)kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552)kJ/d), P<0.01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  5. An updated review of worldwide levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid in human breast milk by region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuanqing; Liu, Xin; Zhou, Bing; Jiang, Alice C; Chai, Lingying

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) levels in human breast milk worldwide by country, region and socio-economic status. Descriptive review conducted on English publications reporting breast-milk DHA and AA levels. We systematically searched and identified eligible literature in PubMed from January 1980 to July 2015. Data on breast-milk DHA and AA levels from women who had given birth to term infants were included. Seventy-eight studies from forty-one countries were included with 4163 breast-milk samples of 3746 individuals. Worldwide mean levels of DHA and AA in breast milk were 0·37 (sd 0·11) % and 0·55 (sd 0·14) % of total fatty acids, respectively. The breast-milk DHA levels from women with accessibility to marine foods were significantly higher than those from women without accessibility (0·35 (sd 0·20) % v. 0·25 (sd 0·14) %, Pworldwide variation in breast-milk DHA and AA levels and underlines the need for future population- or region-specific investigations.

  6. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Immunomodulatory constituents of human breast milk and immunity from bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Liu, Yanbo; Jiang, Yanfang; Xu, Naijun; Lei, Jie

    2017-01-14

    The mother's immune status can be achieved by genetic and breastfeeding impact descendants of the immune system. The study aimed to determine whether a mother's immune status and breastfeeding practices were related to development of bronchiolitis in her infant. The frequency of T, B and natural kill (NK) cells in patients' blood and their mothers' breast milk was determined using flow cytometry. The concentrations of serum and breast milk IgG and IgD in individual patients and healthy control were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationships between immunocytes, immunoglobulin and respiratory score (RS) were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation test. The mothers of bronchiolitis patients had lower IgG concentrations in their breast milk when compared to the mothers of healthy children. There was no significant difference in the frequency of T cells, B cells, and NK cells in samples of breast milk. However, significant decreases of CD3+, CD8+ T cells, as well as significant increases of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells were found in the serum of bronchiolitis infants. There were positive correlation relationships between RS and CD3+, CD4+ T cells, IgG and IgD concentrations. Our data suggested that the mothers of bronchiolitis patients had lower IgG concentration in their breast milk. The breast milk IgG might be absorbed by the breastfeeding infants, which could play important role in resistance of bronchiolitis.

  8. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  9. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  11. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide and subsequently [99mTc]pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both 123 I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid

  12. From Commodity to Donation: Breast Milk Banking in the United States, 1910 to the Present

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstein Pineau, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of breast milk banking in the United States from 1910 to the present. The article discusses the the shift in both the ideology and commodification of breast milk banking in the United States.

  13. Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Choi, Arum; Fusch, Stephanie; Poeschl, Susanna; Ubah, Adelaide Obianuju; Lee, Sau-Young; Raja, Preeya; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Significant biological variation in macronutrient content of breast milk is an important barrier that needs to be overcome to meet nutritional needs of preterm infants. To analyze macronutrient content, commercial infrared milk analyzers have been proposed as efficient and practical tools in terms of efficiency and practicality. Since milk analyzers were originally developed for the dairy industry, they must be validated using a significant number of human milk samples that represent the broad range of variation in macronutrient content in preterm and term milk. Aim of this study was to validate two milk analyzers for breast milk analysis with reference methods and to determine an effective sample pretreatment. Current evidence for the influence of (i) aliquoting, (ii) storage time and (iii) temperature, and (iv) vessel wall adsorption on stability and availability of macronutrients in frozen breast milk is reviewed. Methods Breast milk samples (n = 1188) were collected from 63 mothers of preterm and term infants. Milk analyzers: (A) Near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, USA) and (B) Mid-infrared milk analyzer (Miris, Sweden) were compared to reference methods, e.g. ether extraction, elemental analysis, and UPLC-MS/MS for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. Results For fat analysis, (A) measured precisely but not accurately (y = 0.55x + 1.25, r2 = 0.85), whereas (B) measured precisely and accurately (y = 0.93x + 0.18, r2 = 0.86). For protein analysis, (A) was precise but not accurate (y = 0.55x + 0.54, r2 = 0.67) while (B) was both precise and accurate (y = 0.78x + 0.05, r2 = 0.73). For lactose analysis, both devices (A) and (B) showed two distinct concentration levels and measured therefore neither accurately nor precisely (y = 0.02x + 5.69, r2 = 0.01 and y = −0.09x + 6.62, r2 = 0.02 respectively). Macronutrient levels were unchanged in two independent samples of stored breast milk (−20 °C measured with IR; −80

  14. EFFECT OF MUSA BALBISIANA COLLA EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyan Wahyuningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa balbisiana Colla, known as Jantung Pisang Klutuk/Pisang Batu, is considered as a traditional food that can increase breast milk production. Little is known about its benefit in Indonesia. Thus, to examine the impact of musa balbisiana colla on the production of breast milk is needed. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of the extract of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla to increase milk production of breastfeeding mothers. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pre-posttest control group design. This study was conducted in the working area of the Health Center (Puskesmas of Pesantren II in January – February 2017. There were 16 respondents were recruited by accidental sampling, divided to intervention group (8 respondents and control group (8 respondents. Randomization was performed to select the respondent in each group. The quantity of milk production was measured based on the volume of milk production, while the quality of milk production was based on the levels of prolactin in early (pre and late (post using Electro chemilumi-nescence Immunoassay (ECLIA method. Independent t-Test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of the volume of the breast milk production in the experiment group was 470.681 ml, and in the control group was 364.650 ml with SD 113.502. While the mean of prolactin levels in the experiment group was 35.337 nanogram, and in the control group was -38.381 nanogram. There was a significant effect of consuming Musa balbisiana Colla extract on the volume of breast milk production (p-value 0.003 and prolactin levels (p-value 0.001 (<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla extract on breast milk production and prolactin level in breastfeeding mothers. The findings of this study could be used to be alternative daily menu for postpartum mothers and a solution for midwives to deal with those who have inadequate

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation.

  16. Peculiar characteristics of breast milk of women living in ecologically unfavourable districts of Gomel Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, G.A.; Zubovich, V.K.; Beresten, S.A.; Kharamonenko, A.S.; Muroh, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Breast milk is the best and unique food in the first months of the life of a baby. It absolutely corresponds to the needs of a developing organism, provides its normal physical and psychological development. At the same time, in last years experts detect in breast milk various harmful impurities, which are capable to causes negative influence on developing organism of a child. The most significant sources of such pollution are radioactive substances, industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides. All these substances are submitted in territory of Belarus, which environment has been worsened significantly. The disaster on the Chernobyl atomic power station, alongside with the contamination of the big regions, has revealed also other sources of environmental pollution, which information about for many years was limited and only recently became accessible. Taking into account that Belarus is a state with high industrial and agricultural potential, the problem of female breast milk pollution by different chemical substances and radionuclides is important for the republican public health services. Not only the pollution of breast milk of feeding mothers, living in various ecological conditions, but also the contents of basic nutrients represents big interest of research. It will allow making a conclusion about features presence or absence in breast milk structure on the place of residing. During researches, carried out before, in breast milk of the feeding mothers living on the contaminated territories of Belarus, radioisotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90 were revealed, and in numerous cases their amount exceeded allowable level of SanPiN1163 RB 98 for all the kinds of children's ready food, including adapted dairy mixes. The research of 147 breast milk tests of mothers, living in Mozyr and Svetlogosk (Gomel region) was carried out. The given areas to some extent are under the influence of various large industries, first of all - chemical. So, in Mozyr (90 breast milk tests was

  17. [Nutritional epigenetics and epigenetic effects of human breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoyanova, O L; Borovik, T E

    The article provides an overview of the current literature on nutritional epigenetics. There are currently actively studied hypothesis that nutrition especially in early life or in critical periods of the development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health in adults. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the possible effects of nutrients on gene expression. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related disorders. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and some its components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are stillunclear.

  18. Breast milk intake and infant growth: an isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.; Roohi, S.

    2000-01-01

    The milk intake of the exclusively breast fed infants was measured with the help of Deuterium dilution method, previously established in our laboratory. The growth of excessively breast fed infants was monitored for size months and correlated with the milk intake. For the measurement of milk intake, saliva of mothers and urine of the infants was collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13 and 14 days after giving an appropriate oral dose of deuterium oxide. For determining the Hydrogen Isotope ratio (D/H(, the samples wee prepared utilizing Zn shot method and subsequently analyzed on Isotope ratio Mass Spectrometer. The results showed that mean breast milk intake of infants measured with Deuterium dilution method was 801 +- 262 gms/day at 31.15+- 7.7 days of age (n=17). at the age of 3 months, the milk intake increased to 998+- 397 gms/day. The growth data collected over six month period for 21 infants showed that they fall below the 50 percentile of National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for weight and length. The data suggests that although majority of infants were exclusively breast fed and the intake values were well above normal range yet their growth was far from optimum. (author)

  19. Proteomics analysis of human breast milk to assess breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslebagh, Roshanak; Channaveerappa, Devika; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Darie, Costel C

    2018-02-01

    Detection of breast cancer (BC) in young women is challenging because mammography, the most common tool for detecting BC, is not effective on the dense breast tissue characteristic of young women. In addition to the limited means for detecting their BC, young women face a transient increased risk of pregnancy-associated BC. As a consequence, reproductively active women could benefit significantly from a tool that provides them with accurate risk assessment and early detection of BC. One potential method for detection of BC is biochemical monitoring of proteins and other molecules in bodily fluids such as serum, nipple aspirate, ductal lavage, tear, urine, saliva and breast milk. Of all these fluids, only breast milk provides access to a large volume of breast tissue, in the form of exfoliated epithelial cells, and to the local breast environment, in the form of molecules in the milk. Thus, analysis of breast milk is a non-invasive method with significant potential for assessing BC risk. Here we analyzed human breast milk by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to build a biomarker signature for early detection of BC. Ten milk samples from eight women provided five paired-groups (cancer versus control) for analysis of dysregulatedproteins: two within woman comparisons (milk from a diseased breast versus a healthy breast of the same woman) and three across women comparisons (milk from a woman with cancer versus a woman without cancer). Despite a wide range in the time between milk donation and cancer diagnosis (cancer diagnosis occurred from 1 month before to 24 months after milk donation), the levels of some proteins differed significantly between cancer and control in several of the five comparison groups. These pilot data are supportive of the idea that molecular analysis of breast milk will identify proteins informative for early detection and accurate assessment of BC risk, and warrant further research. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier

  20. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  1. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  2. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  3. Acceptability of donated breast milk in a resource limited South African setting

    OpenAIRE

    Coutsoudis Anna; Petrites Alissa; Coutsoudis Irene

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of breast milk for infants' growth, development and overall health is widely recognized. In situations where women are not able to provide their infants with sufficient amounts of their own breast milk, donor breast milk is the next preferred option. Although there is considerable research on the safety and scientific aspects of donor milk, and the motivations and experiences of donors, there is limited research addressing the attitudes and experiences of th...

  4. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may

  5. Early microbial contact, the breast milk microbiome and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautava, S

    2016-02-01

    The significance of contact with microbes in early life for subsequent health has been the subject of intense research during the last 2 decades. Disturbances in the establishment of the indigenous intestinal microbiome caused by cesarean section delivery or antibiotic exposure in early life have been linked to the risk of immune-mediated and inflammatory conditions such as atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity later in life. Distinct microbial populations have recently been discovered at maternal sites including the amniotic cavity and breast milk, as well as meconium, which have previously been thought to be sterile. Our understanding of the impact of fetal microbial contact on health outcomes is still rudimentary. Breast milk is known to modulate immune and metabolic programming. The breast milk microbiome is hypothesized to guide infant gut colonization and is affected by maternal health status and mode of delivery. Immunomodulatory factors in breast milk interact with the maternal and infant gut microbiome and may mediate some of the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. The intimate connection between the mother and the fetus or the infant is a potential target for microbial therapeutic interventions aiming to support healthy microbial contact and protect against disease.

  6. Organochlorine Pesticides And Pcbs In Human Breast Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and Fifty (150) samples of human breast milk (colostrums) collected from donors patronizing a postnatal center in Nigeria were analyzed for the levels of lindane, total DDT and total PCBs residues. Donors were stratified with respect to factors that may affect accumulation of these compounds such as age, ...

  7. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  8. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, I.; Victoria, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  9. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, I; Victoria, C G [Departamento de Medicina Social, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  10. Feeding of preterm infants and fortification of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mangili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of the adequate amount of nutrients helps to improve a correct short-term linear growth and long-term neurocognitive development. To reduce the extra-uterine growth delay in very low birth weight infants (VLBW the best strategy of nutrition (parenteral or enteral should be established rapidly, since the first day of life. In preterm infants, nutrition can be administered parenterally and enterally. Prematurity is the most frequent indication for parenteral nutritional support due to intestinal functional immune deficiency, deficiency of digestive enzymatic systems and reduced nutritional reserve of these infants. In terms of enteral nutrition, breast milk is the first choice. In case of preterm and VLBW infants, fortifiers are used to overcome breast milk’s protein and mineral deficiencies. When breast milk is not available, specific infant formula is the alternative.

  11. Breast Milk Oligosaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships in the Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.; German, J. Bruce; Freeman, Samara L.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to providing complete postnatal nutrition, breast milk is a complex biofluid that delivers bioactive components for the growth and development of the intestinal and immune systems. Lactation is a unique opportunity to understand the role of diet in shaping the intestinal environment including the infant microbiome. Of considerable interest is the diversity and abundance of milk glycans that are energetically costly for the mammary gland to produce yet indigestible by infants. Milk glycans comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Emerging technological advances are enabling more comprehensive, sensitive, and rapid analyses of these different classes of milk glycans. Understanding the impact of inter- and intraindividual glycan diversity on function is an important step toward interventions aimed at improving health and preventing disease. This review discusses the state of technology for glycan analysis and how specific structure-function knowledge is enhancing our understanding of early nutrition in the neonate. PMID:24850388

  12. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-12-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p ≤ 0.05. Results: 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR = 7.06, receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR = 3.65, and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR = 2.24 were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR = 0.09. Conclusions: Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized.

  17. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pingping; Wu Yongning; Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing; Liu Yinping; Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: →Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent.→ Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT.→ Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk.→ The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  18. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  19. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Aim-To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega 3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Methods-Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their

  20. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M K; Kuhn, L; West, J; Semrau, K; Decker, D; Thea, D M; Aldrovandi, G M

    2003-06-01

    The distribution and stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk (BM) components remain largely unknown. Inhibitory effects, if any, of BM on HIV RNA and DNA PCR amplification are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues by using virus-spiked BM samples from HIV-negative women. BM samples from HIV-negative women were spiked with HIV-1 virions or cells containing a single integrated copy of HIV DNA (8E5/LAV). After incubation under different experimental conditions, viral RNA was detected by the Roche Amplicor UltraSensitive assay in whole-milk, skim milk, and lipid fractions. We found excellent correlation between HIV-1 input copy and recovery in whole milk (r = 0.965, P milk (r = 0.972, P 0.982). The effects of incubation duration and temperature and repeated freeze-thaw cycles on HIV RNA recovery were analyzed. HIV RNA levels were remarkably stable in whole milk after three freeze-thaw cycles and for up to 30 h at room temperature. Our findings improve the understanding of the dynamics of HIV detection in BM and the conditions for BM sample collection, storage, and processing.

  1. The effect of milk formula advertisement on breast feeding and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of milk formula advertisement on breast feeding and other infant feeding practice in Lagos, Nigeria. ... This study investigated the level of impact milk formula advertisements had on mothers' choice of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Estimation of Trace Elements (Iodine and Iron Content in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Belykh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of iodine and iron content in breast milk (n = 88 has been carried out. The study shows that the concentration of iodine and iron in breast milk of the women did not correspond to the physiological needs of an infant. It has been demonstrated that the use of iron-containing vitamin-mineral supplements during lactation has no significant effect on the level of iron in breast milk. The iodine content in breast milk depends on the iodine subsidies. It is shown that the level of micronutrients in breast milk is not affected by the presence of gestational maternal anemia and goiter, due date and place of residence of the family. It is concluded that a statistically significant impact on the level of iodine in the breast milk of combined iodine prophylaxis (acceptance by the mother during lactation drugs potassium iodide (200 mg/day due to the use of iodized salt.

  3. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  4. Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, D T; Ogra, P L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. Adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. By using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lun...

  5. Association between breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and growth and development among Malawian young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Ulla; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Prado, Elizabeth L; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per

    2018-01-19

    World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age. The study was nested in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Malawi. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between breast milk intake and growth and development. Mean (SD) breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age was 752 (244) g/day. Mean (SD) length-for-age z-score at 12 months and change in length-for-age z-score between 12 and 18 months were -1.69 (1.0) and -0.17 (0.6), respectively. At 18 months, mean (SD) expressive vocabulary score was 32 (24) words and median (interquartile range) skills successfully performed for fine, gross, and overall motor skills were 21 (19-22), 18 (16-19), and 38 (26-40), respectively. Breast milk intake (g/day) was not associated with either growth or development. Proportion of total energy intake from breast milk was negatively associated with fine motor (β = -0.18, p = .015) but not other developmental scores in models adjusted for potential confounders. Among Malawian infants, neither breast milk intake nor percent of total energy intake from breast milk at 9-10 months was positively associated with subsequent growth between 12 and 18 months, or development at 18 months. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Breast milk provides better antioxidant power than does formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Selek, Sahbettin; Demirkol, Mehmet Resit

    2006-06-01

    We examined the effect of breast milk on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide (TP), and oxidative stress index (OSI), which are biomarkers of oxidative status. Fifty-four healthy term infants 3 to 6 mo of age were fed breast milk or a cow's milk modified formula. Plasma TAC, vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, and uric acid levels were measured as indexes of antioxidative markers. Plasma TP levels were measured as an oxidative stress marker. The OSI was calculated to assess oxidative status. No significant differences were observed between groups with respect to growth or anthropometric measurements. Plasma uric acid, total protein, and albumin concentrations were slightly higher in the breast-fed group than in the formula-fed group. There was a positive correlation between infant's age and serum albumin levels; between TAC and plasma uric acid, albumin, and total bilirubin; and between plasma iron and TP levels in both groups (r > 0.256, P antioxidant power than does formula.

  7. Characterization of Candidate probionts isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, S; Mojgani, N

    2017-05-20

    This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria. Based on 16SrRNA sequencing, these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, L.gasseri, L.fermentum, L.plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus facieum. Among the isolates, P. acidilactici was the most frequent species (71%) present in these samples. Few Gram and catalase positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus and S.hominiis were also observed. The isolates were viable and unviable in pH 3 and 1.5, respectively, while all isolates survived in 1.0% bile salt. As putative probionts, P.acidilactici 1C showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion to Caco-2 cells (p< 0.05)than the other two isolates L.plantarum 7A and E.facieum 2C. Bacterial strains isolated from human breast milk were shown to have probiotic properties including anti-infective protection and may be considered as future therapeutics for infants.

  8. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruen, Emel; Yalcin, S. Songuel; Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc; Yurdakoek, Kadriye; Uzun, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 μg/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 μg/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 μg/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 μg/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 μg/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: → Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. → The mothers having history

  9. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  10. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  11. Exosomal microRNAs in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) breast milk: potential maternal regulators for the development of newborn cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jideng; Wang, Chengdong; Long, Keren; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Jinwei; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Jiang, Anan; Wang, Xun; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Li; He, Dafang; Li, Desheng; Huang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Mingzhou

    2017-06-14

    The physiological role of miRNAs is widely understood to include fine-tuning the post-transcriptional regulation of a wide array of biological processes. Extensive studies have indicated that exosomal miRNAs in the bodily fluids of various organisms can be transferred between living cells for the delivery of gene silencing signals. Here, we illustrated the expression characteristics of exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk during distinct lactation periods and highlighted the enrichment of immune- and development-related endogenous miRNAs in colostral and mature giant panda milk. These miRNAs are stable, even under certain harsh conditions, via the protection of extracellular vesicles. These findings indicate that breast milk may facilitate the dietary intake of maternal miRNAs by infants for the regulation of postnatal development. We also detected exogenous plant miRNAs from the primary food source of the giant panda (bamboo) in the exosomes of giant panda breast milk that were associated with regulatory roles in basic metabolism and neuron development. This result suggested that dietary plant miRNAs are absorbed by host cells and subsequently secreted into bodily fluids as potential cross-kingdom regulators. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk may be crucial maternal regulators for the development of intrinsic 'slink' newborn cubs.

  12. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  13. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  14. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  15. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  16. Levels, trends and determinants of organohalogen compounds in breast milk in the netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, D. A.; Steentjes, G. M.; Van Dekken, A.; Baumann, R. A.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Zeilmaker, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    Since 1968, human milk surveys have been performed in the Netherlands at five year intervals to study trends in human exposure to polychlorinated organic compounds (POCs). From 1988 onwards dioxin-like congeners were analysed. The most recent campaign was carried out in 1998. In the campaign of 1998, in addition to the levels and trends of POCs in breast milk, potential determinants of the levels of POXCs in breast milk (such as the age of the mother, body mass index (BMI) of the mother, smoking behaviour and dietary habits) were also studied. Previously we presented preliminary results of the analysis of 36 breast milk samples. here we present the results of the analysis of 193 breast milk samples and the analysis of potential determinants of POC levels in breast milk. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  18. Acceptability of donated breast milk in a resource limited South African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, Irene; Petrites, Alissa; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2011-02-22

    The importance of breast milk for infants' growth, development and overall health is widely recognized. In situations where women are not able to provide their infants with sufficient amounts of their own breast milk, donor breast milk is the next preferred option. Although there is considerable research on the safety and scientific aspects of donor milk, and the motivations and experiences of donors, there is limited research addressing the attitudes and experiences of the women and families whose infants receive this milk. This study therefore examined attitudes towards donated breast milk among mothers, families and healthcare providers of potential recipient infants. The study was conducted at a public hospital and nearby clinic in Durban, South Africa. The qualitative data was derived from eight focus group discussions which included four groups with mothers; one with male partners; and one with grandmothers, investigating attitudes towards receiving donated breast milk for infants. There was also one group each with nurses and doctors about their attitudes towards donated breast milk and its use in the hospital. The focus groups were conducted in September and October 2009 and each group had between four and eleven participants, leading to a total of 48 participants. Although breast milk was seen as important to child health there were concerns about undermining of breast milk because of concerns about HIV and marketing and promotion of formula milks. In addition there were concerns about the safety of donor breast milk and discomfort about using another mother's milk. Participants believed that education on the importance of breast milk and transparency on the processes involved in sourcing and preparing donor milk would improve the acceptability. This study has shown that there are obstacles to the acceptability of donor milk, mainly stemming from lack of awareness/familiarity with the processes around donor breast milk and that these could be readily

  19. Acceptability of donated breast milk in a resource limited South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutsoudis Anna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of breast milk for infants' growth, development and overall health is widely recognized. In situations where women are not able to provide their infants with sufficient amounts of their own breast milk, donor breast milk is the next preferred option. Although there is considerable research on the safety and scientific aspects of donor milk, and the motivations and experiences of donors, there is limited research addressing the attitudes and experiences of the women and families whose infants receive this milk. This study therefore examined attitudes towards donated breast milk among mothers, families and healthcare providers of potential recipient infants. Methods The study was conducted at a public hospital and nearby clinic in Durban, South Africa. The qualitative data was derived from eight focus group discussions which included four groups with mothers; one with male partners; and one with grandmothers, investigating attitudes towards receiving donated breast milk for infants. There was also one group each with nurses and doctors about their attitudes towards donated breast milk and its use in the hospital. The focus groups were conducted in September and October 2009 and each group had between four and eleven participants, leading to a total of 48 participants. Results Although breast milk was seen as important to child health there were concerns about undermining of breast milk because of concerns about HIV and marketing and promotion of formula milks. In addition there were concerns about the safety of donor breast milk and discomfort about using another mother's milk. Participants believed that education on the importance of breast milk and transparency on the processes involved in sourcing and preparing donor milk would improve the acceptability. Conclusions This study has shown that there are obstacles to the acceptability of donor milk, mainly stemming from lack of awareness/familiarity with the

  20. [Nonesterified fatty acids and the titrable acidity of breast milk. Consequences for collection conditions in milk bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzeau, R; Barrois, V; Odièvre, M

    1983-01-01

    The study of breast-milk samples, fresh or after storage, shows that the titrable acidity (expressed in degrees Dornic) is directly correlated with their nonesterified fatty acid concentration. Those fresh samples which contain a high activity of lipoprotein lipase can develop in situ lipolysis. The resulting elevated titrable acidity may lead to consider these samples as unsuitable for infant nutrition. These results suggest that collection and storage of breast-milk have to be reassessed in order to avoid in situ lipolysis.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units,

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted preva...

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses; Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira; Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted preva...

  3. Development of Human Breast Milk Microbiota-Associated Mice as a Method to Identify Breast Milk Bacteria Capable of Colonizing Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin; Lu, Huifang; Feng, Zhou; Cao, Jie; Fang, Chao; Xu, Xianming; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Human breast milk is recognized as one of multiple important sources of commensal bacteria for infant gut. Previous studies searched for the bacterial strains shared between breast milk and infant feces by isolating bacteria and performing strain-level bacterial genotyping, but only limited number of milk bacteria were identified to colonize infant gut, including bacteria from Bifidobacterium , Staphylococcus , Lactobacillus , and Escherichia / Shigella . Here, to identify the breast milk bacteria capable of colonizing gut without the interference of bacteria of origins other than the milk or the necessity to analyze infant feces, normal chow-fed germ-free mice were orally inoculated with the breast milk collected from a mother 2 days after vaginal delivery. According to 16S rRNA gene-based denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina sequencing, bacteria at >1% abundance in the milk inoculum were only Streptococcus (56.0%) and Staphylococcus (37.4%), but in the feces of recipient mice were Streptococcus (80.3 ± 2.3%), Corynebacterium (10.0 ± 2.6 %), Staphylococcus (7.6 ± 1.6%), and Propionibacterium (2.1 ± 0.5%) that were previously shown as dominant bacterial genera in the meconium of C-section-delivered human babies; the abundance of anaerobic gut-associated bacteria, Faecalibacterium , Prevotella , Roseburia , Ruminococcus , and Bacteroides , was 0.01-1% in the milk inoculum and 0.003-0.01% in mouse feces; the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was below the detection limit of Illumina sequencing in the milk but at 0.003-0.01% in mouse feces. The human breast milk microbiota-associated mouse model may be used to identify additional breast milk bacteria that potentially colonize infant gut.

  4. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to DDT by breast milk analysis in Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vall, Oriol; Gomez-Culebras, Mario; Puig, Carme; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Ernesto; Gomez Baltazar, Arelis; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2%) of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g), ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI): 1.23 (1.01-1.50)) and poultry meat (OR (95%CI): 2.05 (1.16-3.60)) consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI): 0.59 (0.40-0.90)). DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies in order to avoid its use worldwide and thus, to

  5. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to DDT by Breast Milk Analysis in Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vall, Oriol; Gomez-Culebras, Mario; Puig, Carme; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Ernesto; Gomez Baltazar, Arelis; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. Methods Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. Results Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2%) of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g), ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI): 1.23 (1.01–1.50)) and poultry meat (OR (95%CI): 2.05 (1.16–3.60)) consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI): 0.59 (0.40–0.90)). Conclusions DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies

  6. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  7. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    , developed and validated for plasma use. In this study, the ARK NVP-test was evaluated for measurement of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method currently used to determine nevirapine in breast milk. This method, however, requires complicated...

  8. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and ...

  9. Difference in the Breast Milk Proteome between Allergic and Non-Allergic Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Reina, F.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Koppelman, G.H.; Postma, D.S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and

  10. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and weight gain of preterm ...

  11. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The mothers control group (n = 21) received only the same advice on supportive ... The daily breast milk production of mothers and weight gain of ... Breast milk is the ideal form of nutrition for the .... Pediatrics 2005;115:496-6.

  12. Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Dávila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    In Mexico, organochlorine pesticides were used in public health and agriculture programs, causing chronic exposure to the population. Human breast milk samples were collected from 171 mothers who were residents from Guerrero, Mexico. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Median concentrations (mg/kg on fat basis) for the following pesticides were: HCB, 0.009; β-HCH, 0.004; pp'DDE, 0.760; op'DDT, 0.016; pp'DDT, 0.045; and Σ-DDT, 0.833. These values are lower than in other States in Mexico, and in some countries where the use of these pesticides was banned more than 30 years ago. Differences were found in HCB, pp'DDE and pp'DDT concentrations in groups divided according to age (p pesticide levels in human milk is expected in a few years.

  13. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  14. Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E.; Shen, Heqing; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Main, Katharina M.

    2006-01-01

    .012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals. However, combined statistical analysis of the eight most abundant persistent pesticides showed that pesticide levels in breast milk were significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism (p = 0.032). Conclusion The association between congenital cryptorchidism and some persistent pesticides in breast milk as a proxy for maternal exposure suggests that testicular descent in the fetus may be adversely affected. PMID:16835070

  15. IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAST MILK IN WOMEN, WHO HAVE CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Belitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 100 mothers and children in couple were observed in this trial. All children had atopic dermatitis, developed against breast feeding. Analysis of immunologic characteristics of breast milk in 53 women showed a presence of allergencpecific Ide and Igg antybodies and common Ige in it. The level of those characteristics was lower if mothers were consistent with diet with goat's milk «amaltea».Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, breast feeding, dietotherapy.

  16. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  17. High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-01-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk – requiring further investigation. - Highlights: ► The highest ΣDDT in breast milk ever found in South Africa is reported. ► Maximum Residue Limit is exceeded, up to 99 times. ► Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake is exceeded, up to 310 times. ► High ΣDDT did not affect duration of lactation. ► Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk. - High levels of DDT in breast milk from a DDT-spayed area exceeded known limits in milk, but did not affect duration lactation. Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk.

  18. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Helene M; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; McLachlan, Helen L

    2013-11-19

    Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded by imprecise definitions of

  19. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  20. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008. Milk samples collected 1 month after delivery from a subset of 789 women oversampled by overweight were analyzed for toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals, and pesticides. Growth was defined as change in weight-for-age z-score between 0 and 6 months among the HUMIS population, and rapid growth was defined as change in z-score above 0.67. We used a Bayesian variable selection method to determine the exposures that most explained variation in the outcome. Identified toxicants were included in logistic and linear regression models to estimate associations with growth, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, child sex, cumulative breastfeeding, birth weight, gestational age, and preterm status. Of 789 infants, 19.2% displayed rapid growth. The median maternal age was 29.6 years, and the median pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg/m2, with 45.3% of mothers overweight or obese. Rapid growers were more likely to be firstborn. Hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and PCB-74 were identified in the variable selection method. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in β-HCH exposure was associated with a lower odds of rapid growth (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Newborns exposed to high levels of β-HCH showed reduced infant growth (β = -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01 for IQR increase in breast milk concentration

  1. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake

  2. Highly Sensitive and High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Bisphenol Analogues and Their Halogenated Derivatives in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yumin; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2017-12-06

    The structural analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) and their halogenated derivatives (together termed BPs) have been found in the environment, food, and even the human body. Limited research showed that some of them exhibited toxicities that were similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Therefore, adverse health effects for BPs were expected for humans with low-dose exposure in early life. Breast milk is an excellent matrix and could reflect fetuses' and babies' exposure to contaminants. Some of the emerging BPs may present with trace or ultratrace levels in humans. However, existing analytical methods for breast milk cannot quantify these BPs simultaneously with high sensitivity using a small sampling weight, which is important for human biomonitoring studies. In this paper, a method based on Bond Elut Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid purification, pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride derivatization, and liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method requires only a small quantity of sample (200 μL) and allowed for the simultaneous determination of 24 BPs in breast milk with ultrahigh sensitivity. The limits of quantitation of the proposed method were 0.001-0.200 μg L -1 , which were 1-6.7 times lower than the only study for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol analogs in breast milk based on a 3 g sample weight. The mean recoveries ranged from 86.11% to 119.05% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 19.5% (n = 6). Matrix effects were within 20% with RSD bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol AF (BPAF) were detected. BPA was still the dominant BP, followed by BPF. This is the first report describing the occurrence of BPF and BPAF in breast milk.

  3. CYP1A1 expression in breast milk cells of Japanese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemoto, Junzo; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hideko; Morita, Masatosi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Uechi, Hiroto [Uechi Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Utsunomiya (Japan); Masuzaki, Yuko; Koizumi, Atsuko; Matzumura, Toru [Metocean Environment Inc., Ohigawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins are persistent, lipophilic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Concern over the reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxins has been growing since they have endocrine-disrupting properties and have adversely affected the health of offspring in experimental and epidemiological studies. Monitoring of maternal body burdens of dioxins and their biological responses to dioxin exposure is needed to estimate the potential health risk to their offspring. Breast milk has been used for monitoring dioxins in humans for decades. Breast milk has some advantages in exposure monitoring. Sampling is non-invasive, and dioxin levels are relatively high because of the high lipid content. It is assumed that mammary glands are exposed to a higher level of dioxins than other tissues since mammary glands synthesize and store milk fat. Breast milk contains leukocytes and exfoliated ductal epithelial cells. If these cells responded to dioxins and expressed CYP enzymes, a sensitive biomarker for dioxin exposure, they would be useful as biomarkers for dioxin exposure. In the present study, the expression of CYP enzymes in intact milk cells or cells cultured with TCDD was investigated. In addition, breast milk samples were collected from mothers within one week of childbearing, and the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in milk cells was determined. The relationship between CYP1A1 mRNA expression in milk cells and dioxin levels in the cream layer of breast milk was analyzed.

  4. A narrative review of the associations between six bioactive components in breast milk and infant adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Schneider, Camille R; Pavela, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    This narrative review examines six important non-nutritive substances in breast milk, many of which were thought to have little to no biological significance. The overall objective is to provide background on key bioactive factors in breast milk believed to have an effect on infant outcomes (growth and body composition). The evidence for the effects of the following six bioactive compounds in breast milk on infant growth outcomes are reviewed: insulin, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. The existing literature on the effects of breast milk insulin, ghrelin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and their associations with infant growth and adiposity is sparse. Of the bioactive compounds reviewed, leptin and adiponectin are the most researched. Data reveal that breast milk adiponectin has negative associations with growth in infancy. There is a need for innovative, well-designed studies to improve causal inference and advance our understanding in the effects of breast milk and its components on offspring growth and body composition. The recommendations provided, along with careful consideration of both known and unknown factors that affect breast milk composition, will help improve, standardize, and ultimately advance this emergent field. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  6. Effect of maternal body mass index on hormones in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Gale, Chris; Parkinson, James R C; Jeffries, Suzan; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life. To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk. Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk. Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking. A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies should ensure adequate sample sizes and

  7. Investigation on main source of dioxin analogues in human breast milk (second report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, H.; Nakao, T.; Aozasa, O.; Ohta, S. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Iwamatsu, T. [Teijin Eco Science, Co. Ltd., Matsuyama (Japan); Fujimine, Y. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Fukui, S. [Fukui Lactation Consultation, Amagasaki (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In many countries, the breast milk sample has been used as a suitable indicator in order to examine human exposure level to Dioxins. In general, the breast milk level is considered to be reflecting to their accumulation level in the body. In addition, it is considered that ca. 60% of the accumulation amount of Dioxins is excreted to the baby through breast milk by nursing for a year. However, are these things true? In 1989, Frust et al. reported a time course of concentrations of Dioxins (abbreviated as Dioxins) in breast milk of one German during a period of 1 - 60 weeks after delivery. In the case of PCDFs, the level of 10 - 13 weeks after delivery was remarkably higher than that of 5 weeks. In addition, the PCBs level on the 10 to 13 weeks was also higher in comparison with on the 1 week. Thus, their pollution levels did not always decrease with a passing of time after childbirth. This suggests that all Dioxins in breast milk might be not derived from their storage in the body. Therefore, in 2001, we investigated the time alteration on the pollution level of Dioxins in breast milk from nine mothers and on their infants' daily intake of Dioxins by nursing. Consequently, it was revealed that the average daily intake of PCDD/DFs (PCDDs + PCDFs) was roughly constant during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. If all PCDD/DFs in breast milk are derived from only their body storage, the pollution level in milk must decrease in a linear course during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. However, thus linear decrease of pollution level was not observed in all tested mothers. These results indicated that PCDD/DFs in milk might be also delivered from other sources except for their storage in the body. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the source of Dioxins in human breast milk.

  8. Effect of maternal body mass index on hormones in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Andreas

    Full Text Available Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life.To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk.Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk.Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking.A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies should ensure adequate sample

  9. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  10. CURRENCY OF THE MICROFLORA CORRECTION WHEN BEGINNING FEEDING WITH ADDITIONAL FOOD AND ARTIFICIAL MILK FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toptchiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children feeding with breast milk have significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal infectious diseases development, than children feeding with artificial milk formulas. At the beginning of feeding with additional food influence of allogenic antigens on child’s organism is increasing, which can lead to disturbances in microbiocoenosis of the gastro-intestinal tract. This causes stool disorders, intestinal colic, dyspepsia, dermatitis, allergic reactions, immunodeficiency with recurrent relapses of infections and development of non-infectious disease and their transition into chronic condition. Forming of the malabsorption syndrome at the background of such conditions leads to growth and mental development retardation of children. Numerous clinical trials proved the beneficial effects of the probiotic Hylak Forte on intestinal microflora in disbiosis.

  11. Higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during fetal life and early childhood is thought to play a crucial role in the risk for developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in the future adult and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake may play a role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the breast milk amino acid profiles of obese and normal weight (control) breast-feeding mothers. Fifty obese and 50 control breast-feeding mothers were enrolled. Age and parity were similar in both groups. Breast milk samples were collected at the end of the first month of lactation. Free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in breast milk were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using a two-tailed paired t test. We analyzed 45 breast milk samples from each group. Body mass index was 34.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the obese group and 21.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) in the control group (P milk of obese mothers (95.5 ± 38.2 μM versus 79.8 ± 30.9 μM; P = 0.037), as was tyrosine concentration (13.8 ± 7.1 μM versus 10.6 ± 5.2 μM; P = 0.016). The mature breast milk of obese mothers contained 20% more BCAA and 30% more tyrosine than breast milk of control mothers. Whether altered breast milk FAA profile affects metabolic risk in the breast-fed child remains to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PCBs and OCPs in human milk and selected foods from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gaofeng; Xu Ying; Li Wen; Han Guanggen; Ling Bo

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the levels of 23 PCB congeners and 6 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human milk and three food types collected from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang Province, China. An effort was also made to explore the potential health risk for the mothers and breast-fed infants living in these two localities. Luqiao was selected as the sampling site because it is the largest place for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. Pingqiao, located 100 km NW of Luqiao, is not known to be a place for any electronic or electrical waste and hence was chosen as the control site. Both localities are important agricultural places in the province. The organochlorines were measured in the samples using the GC-μECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay method was also used as a complement of the chemical analysis to estimate the TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in human milk. The data showed that the human milk, rice, hen egg, and fish samples from Luqiao were more heavily contaminated with PCBs than those from Pingqiao, suggesting that the mothers and their breast-fed infants in Luqiao tended to receive greater exposure to PCBs than those living in Pingqiao. The OCP levels in the two localities were found comparable, suggesting that the major source of contamination with these pesticides was from their agricultural uses. Significant correlation (R 2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) of PCB TEQs was found between the bioassay and chemical analysis method, suggesting that micro-EROD is an effective method for comprehensive determination of TEQ levels in human milk. Comparison with literature data showed that the PCB levels in milk samples from Luqiao were significantly higher than those from localities in other Chinese provinces and comparable to those in developed or industrialized countries

  13. Calculation of radiation dose to infants from radioactive breast milk and suspensions necessary to constrain dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, J.; Shearer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: For nuclear medicine patients who are breast feeding an infant, special radiation safety precautions may need to be taken. An estimate of the potential radiation dose to the child from ingested milk must be made, and breast-feeding may need to be suspended until levels of radioactivity in the breast-milk have fallen to acceptable levels. The risk of radiation to the child must be weighed against the benefits of breast-feeding and the possible trauma to both mother and child arising from interruption or cessation of the milk supply. In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has already published regulations which will necessitate an estimate of the infant's dose from breast milk to be made, in principle, for every breast-feeding patient. There is obviously, therefore, a need to provide a rapid and reliable means of estimating such doses. A spreadsheet template which automatically calculates the cumulative dose to breast feeding infants based on any multi-exponential clearance of activity from the breast milk, and any pattern of feeding, has been developed by the authors. The time (post administration) for which breast-feeding should be interrupted in order to constrain the radiation dose to a selected limit is also calculated along with the concentration of activity in breast milk at which feeding can resume. The effect of changing dose limits, feeding patterns and using individually derived breast milk clearance rates may be readily modelled using this spreadsheet template. Data has been included for many of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals and new data can readily be incorporated as it becomes available. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  15. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula.

  16. The Norwegian human milk study HUMIS variations in levels of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Norwegian breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polder, A.; Loeken, K. [The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, C.; Becher, G.; Eggesboe, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, J.U. [National Veterinary Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated, -dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been found to accumulate in human breast milk. Because nursing children are exposed to these chemicals through the contaminated breast milk, health authorities worldwide are concerned for the infants' intake and therefore human milk monitoring programs are performed in many countries. While restrictions and bans resulted in a decline of organochlorines (OCs) in human milk during the last decades, an increasing trend has been found for PBDEs. The main goals of ''The Norwegian Human Milk Study, HUMIS'' are: to elucidate the human exposure in Norway to POPs, to identify dietary habits and other lifestyle factors that are associated with high levels of POPs in human milk, and to study the impact of exposure to the these contaminants on child health. This study reports preliminary results of recent levels of POPs in human milk in 4 different counties in Norway.

  17. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  18. BREAST MILK AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR POSTPARTUM PERINEAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Admasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perineal laceration during childbirth is very common among mothers; however some of them may suffer from its complication if not treated properly. Objective: To prove the effectiveness of breast milk as an alternative topical ingredient in the treatment of perineal wound in postpartum mothers. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group posttest only design. There were 30 respondents selected in this study, with 15 assigned in the intervention and control group. Accidental sampling was used to select the samples with the criteria that the respondents had perineal laceration in level 1 and 2. Data were analzed using Mann Whitney test. Results: Effective wound healing process can be seen in the intervention group from 80% of poor category in 6- 10 hours (1st period of postpartum became 86.7% of good category in 7 days of postpartum (4th period. Different from the control group that showed the slow progress of wound healing, which was 86.7% of poor category in the 1st period to only 33.3% of good category in the 4th period. Mann Whitney test showed that there was a significant mean difference of the perineal wound healing process between the intervention group (11.23 and the control group (19.77 with p-value 0.002 (<0.05. Conclusion: Breast milk was more effective than povidone iodine in the treatment of perineal wound. It is suggested for health workers, especially midwife to apply this intervention to accelerate the healing of perineal wound in midwifery care.

  19. Fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and its exposure in infants under 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Happy; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Kimanya, Martin; Hipolite, Danstan; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The carry-over of fumonisin B1 from contaminated feed into dairy milk also suggests its carry-over from contaminated food into breast milk. This study assessed fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and associated exposures of infants under 6 months of age. Breast milk samples were collected from 131 lactating mothers and the weight of their infants was measured during the first month of lactation. Fumonisin B1 was extracted using methanol:acetone, cleaned up with Strong Anion Exchange columns and quantified by HPLC. Fumonisin B1 exposure in each child was estimated using deterministic approach. Out of the 131 samples, 58 (44.3%) contained fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 6.57 to 471.05 ng/ml. Of the contaminated samples, 10.3% had fumonisin B1 levels above the EU limit of 200 ppb for fumonisins in infants' food. Exposure in the infants ranged from 0.78 to 64.93 µg/kg body weight (bw) per day (median, 3 µg/kg bw/day) and exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg/kg bw/day in 29% of the infants. In conclusion, breast milk from mothers in Northern Tanzania is contaminated with fumonisins at levels that lead to unacceptable exposures in infants. Strategies to prevent lactating mothers from fumonisin exposure are urgently needed to minimise fumonisin exposure in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  1. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  2. Longitudinal Changes in the Macronutrient Contents of Breast Milk in the Mothers with Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Aleali; minoo fallahi; Mohammad Kazemian; Seyyed Hossein Fakhraee; Abolfazl Afjeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Contents of breast milk may change during the first weeks after childbirth, especially in preterm deliveries. The present study aimed to determine the macronutrient contents of breast milk in the mothers with preterm delivery. Methods: This prospective-descriptive study was conducted in Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Participants included the mothers with preterm delivery, whose infants had a gestational age of

  3. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  4. Associations of Maternal Weight Status Before, During, and After Pregnancy with Inflammatory Markers in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Marino, Regina C; Haapala, Jacob L; Foster, Laurie; Smith, Katy D; Teague, April M; Jacobs, David R; Fontaine, Patricia L; McGovern, Patricia M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Harnack, Lisa; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with breast milk C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), two bioactive markers of inflammation, measured at 1 and 3 months post partum. Participants were 134 exclusively breastfeeding mother-infant dyads taking part in the Mothers and Infants Linked for Health (MILK) study, who provided breast milk samples. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) were assessed by chart abstraction; postpartum weight loss was measured at the 1- and 3-month study visits. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of maternal weight status with repeated measures of breast milk CRP and IL-6 at 1 and 3 months, after adjustment for potential confounders. Pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, but not total GWG or postpartum weight loss, were independently associated with breast milk CRP after adjustment (β = 0.49, P milk CRP. The consequences of infants receiving varying concentrations of breast milk inflammatory markers are unknown; however, it is speculated that there are implications for the intergenerational transmission of disease risk. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Changes in Preterm Breast Milk Nutrient Content in the First Month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chi Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The longitudinal study revealed significant changes in macronutrient contents and secretory IgA concentration in preterm milk over the 4–6 week period, which is compatible with the results of previous studies. The quantification of phosphate in preterm breast milk was lower than the normal range, suggesting that close monitoring of body bone mass may be indicated. More studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of alterations of major milk components during the postnatal stage.

  6. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: How Often Should Milk Analysis Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rochow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Target fortification (TFO reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM. Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g. Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer, as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10% decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ±5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied.

  7. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-06-21

    This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers' breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m² (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm² (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants' BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  8. Analgesic effect of breast milk versus sucrose for analgesia during heel lance in late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonse, Eva; Mulder, Paul G H; van Beek, Ron H T

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this trial was to investigate whether breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in newborns born at a postmenstrual age between 32 and 37 weeks. We conducted a randomized controlled trial at a secondary care neonatal unit in the Netherlands on 71 preterm neonates (postmenstrual age at birth 32-37 weeks), undergoing heel lance with an automated piercing device. Newborns were randomly assigned to breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) administered during heel lance or oral sucrose administered before heel lance. We assessed the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score (range, 0-21) to investigate whether there was a difference in pain score between neonates receiving breast milk and those receiving sucrose solution. There was no significant difference in mean PIPP score between neonates receiving breast milk (6.1) and those receiving sucrose (5.5), with a mean difference of 0.6 (95% confidence interval -1.6 to 2.8; P = .58). From this study, it cannot be concluded that breast milk has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in late preterm infants. From the results, it follows with 95% confidence that the analgesic effect of breast milk is not >1.6 points better and not > 2.8 points worse on the PIPP scale (SD 3.7) than the analgesic effect of sucrose in late preterm infants.

  9. Dynamics of breast milk HIV-1 RNA with unilateral mastitis or abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-03-01

    Mastitis and abscess in HIV-infected women increase the risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. Guidelines encourage women to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast and feed on the contralateral breast. However, impact of breast pathology on breast milk HIV dynamics is unknown. HIV RNA was quantified in 211 breast milk samples collected before, during, and after a clinical mastitis or an abscess diagnosis from 38 HIV-infected women participating in a Zambian breastfeeding study. HIV RNA quantity was compared between affected and unaffected breasts over time using generalized estimating equation models. A sample of 115 women without breast pathology was selected as a control group. In the affected breast, breast milk HIV RNA quantity increased from the pre- to during-pathology period by log(10) 0.45 copies per milliliter [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16 to 0.74], and after symptom resolution, HIV RNA levels were no different from prepathology levels (log10 -0.04 copies per milliliter 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.25). In the contralateral, unaffected breast, HIV RNA quantity did not significantly increase (log(10) 0.15 copies per milliliter, 95% CI: -0.41 to 0.10). Increase was more marked in women with abscess or with a greater number of mastitis symptoms. HIV RNA was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women, except at the time of diagnosis. Breast milk HIV RNA increased modestly in the affected breast with unilateral mastitis or abscess and returned to prepathology levels with symptom resolution. Contralateral HIV RNA was not affected. Results support guidelines encouraging feeding from the contralateral breast to minimize the risk of HIV transmission associated with unilateral breast pathology.

  10. Occurrence of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed babies in their first six months of life and the corresponding breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-11-29

    The characterization of oligosaccharides in the feces of breast-fed babies is a valuable tool for monitoring the gastrointestinal fate of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In the present study we monitored fecal oligosaccharide profiles together with the HMO-profiles of the respective breast milks up to six months postpartum, by means of capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry. Eleven mother/child pairs were included. Mother's secretor- and Lewis-type included all combinations [Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), Le(a-b-)]. The fecal HMO-profiles in the first few months of life are either predominantly composed of neutral or acidic HMOs and are possibly effected by the HMO-fingerprint in the respective breast milk. Independent of the initial presence of acidic or neutral fecal HMOs, a gradual change to blood-group specific oligosaccharides was observed. Their presence pointed to a gastrointestinal degradation of the feeding-related HMOs, followed by conjugation with blood group specific antigenic determinants present in the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Eleven of these 'hybrid'-oligosaccharides were annotated in this study. When solid food was introduced, no HMOs and their degradation- and metabolization products were recovered in the fecal samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: Indonesia context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayana, Irma; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Parady, Vida A

    2017-01-01

    To measure compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in Indonesia. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Interagency Group on Breastfeeding Monitoring protocol. Public and private health facilities in six provinces on Java island in Indonesia. A total of 874 women (382 pregnant women and 492 breast-feeding mothers of infants below 6 months) and seventy-seven health workers were recruited from eighteen participating health facilities. The study also analysed a total of forty-four labels of breast-milk substitute products, twenty-seven television commercials for growing-up milk (for children >12 months) of nine brands and thirty-four print advertisements of fourteen brands. The study found that 20 % of the women had received advice and information on the use of breast-milk substitutes and 72 % had seen promotional materials for breast-milk substitutes. About 15 % reported receiving free samples and 16 % received gifts. Nearly a quarter of the health workers confirmed receiving visits from representatives of breast-milk substitute companies. Two health workers reported having received gifts from the companies. The most common labelling violations found were statements or visuals that discouraged breast-feeding and the absence of mention about the consideration of local climate in the expiration date. Violations of the Code by health workers, breast-milk substitute companies and their representatives were found in all provinces studied. A regular monitoring system should be in place to ensure improved compliance with and enforcement of the Code.

  12. Dry milk-containing foods of healthy nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the technology of new-generation canned milk, balanced by the composition of fatty acids and corresponding to the formula of healthy nutrition. This compliance is achieved by adjusting the fatty acid composition and replacing part of the animal fat with vegetable substitutes. Carrying out the analysis of dieticians recommendations on nutrition with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases, the main provisions were formulated, which are aimed at creating specialized milk products intended for feeding people under extreme conditions of existence. Based on the results obtained in the analysis of vegetable raw materials, energy value and organoleptic evaluation, as well as the economic feasibility of using plant components, optimal dosages of substituting animal fat for its substitutes were selected, and the areas of permissible values of the mass fractions of special products were determined. During the research, new specialized milk-based products were developed, which were conducted in the direction of creating scientifically sound formulas and technology of dry milk-containing canned food, as well as production inspection in industrial conditions and comparative studies aimed at studying the quality of products. The results confirmed that the developed products have high values of all the criteria studied in the work and can be recommended for diets of people who are in extreme conditions of existence as a full-fledged dairy-plant supplement, as well as prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.

  13. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-15

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus is effectively inactivated in human breast milk after prolonged storage or upon pasteurization of milk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  15. Informal milk sharing: what nurses need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Kimberly; Spatz, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal food for human infants. However, some infants will be in situations wherein there is insufficient human milk to meet their needs. This article addresses formal breast milk donation (donor milk) and informal sharing of breast milk. Healthcare providers are likely to encounter families who access milk by informal breast milk sharing or cross-nursing. Both practices rely heavily on receiving human milk from women who are potentially unscreened for disease, medication, and illicit substances. Therefore, it is important for perinatal nurses to have adequate information to be able to inform these families of the risks and benefits of breast milk sharing. Two case exemplars are provided to illustrate the nuances of informal milk sharing. Implications for practice include providing families with information on health history and laboratory screening as well as safe milk-handling practices.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidrewicz, Dominica A; Fenton, Tanis R

    2014-08-30

    Breast milk nutrient content varies with prematurity and postnatal age. Our aims were to conduct a meta-analysis of preterm and term breast milk nutrient content (energy, protein, lactose, oligosaccharides, fat, calcium, and phosphorus); and to assess the influence of gestational and postnatal age. Additionally we assessed for differences by laboratory methods for: energy (measured vs. calculated estimates) and protein (true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates). Systematic review results were summarized graphically to illustrate the changes in composition over time for term and preterm milk. Since breast milk fat content varies within feeds and diurnally, to obtain accurate estimates we limited the meta-analyses for fat and energy to 24-hour breast milk collections. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: 26 (843 mothers) preterm studies and 30 (2299 mothers) term studies of breast milk composition. Preterm milk was higher in true protein than term milk, with differences up to 35% (0.7 g/dL) in colostrum, however, after postnatal day 3, most of the differences in true protein between preterm and term milk were within 0.2 g/dL, and the week 10-12 estimates suggested that term milk may be the same as preterm milk by that age. Colostrum was higher than mature milk for protein, and lower than mature milk for energy, fat and lactose for both preterm and term milk. Breast milk composition was relatively stable between 2 and 12 weeks. With milk maturation, there was a narrowing of the protein variance. Energy estimates differed whether measured or calculated, from -9 to 13%; true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates differed by 1 to 37%. Although breast milk is highly variable between individuals, postnatal age and gestational stage (preterm versus term) were found to be important predictors of breast milk content. Energy content of breast milk calculated from the macronutrients provides poor estimates of measured energy, and protein

  17. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dioxins and Nonortho PCBs in Breast Milk of Vietnamese Mothers Living in the Largest Hot Spot of Dioxin Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Manh, Ho Dung; Tai, Pham The; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Thao, Pham Ngoc; Trung, Nguyen Viet; Waseda, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-05-05

    Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD≥5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution≥40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.

  19. Flame retardants in placenta and breast milk and cryptorchidism in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina Maria; Kiviranta, Hannu; Virtanen, Helena Eeva

    2007-01-01

    of PBDEs in breast milk was significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism than in controls (sum of BDEs 47, 153, 99, 100, 28, 66, and 154: median, 4.16 vs. 3.16 ng/g fat; p luteinizing hormone (p ..., 1997-2001, all boys were examined for cryptorchidism. We analyzed whole placentas (for 95 cryptorchid/185 healthy boys) and individual breast milk samples (62/68) for 14 PBDEs and infant serum samples for gonadotropins, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone, and inhibin B. RESULTS: In 86 placenta-milk...... pairs, placenta PBDE concentrations in fat were lower than in breast milk, and a larger number of congeners were nondetectable. There was no significant difference between boys with and without cryptorchidism for individual congeners, the sum of 5 most prevalent, or all 14 congeners. The concentration...

  20. Infrared analyzers for breast milk analysis: fat levels can influence the accuracy of protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Celia; Fusch, Gerhard; Bahonjic, Aldin; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-10-26

    Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer. Breast milk samples (n=25) were measured for fat and protein content before and after being completely defatted by centrifugation, using chemical reference methods and near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar) with two different calibration algorithms provided by the manufacturer (released 2009 and 2015). While the protein content remained unchanged, as measured by elemental analysis, measurements by infrared milk analyzer show a difference in protein measurements dependent on fat content; high fat content can lead to falsely high protein content. This difference is less pronounced when measured using the more recent calibration algorithm. Milk analyzer users must be cautious of their devices' measurements, especially if they are changing the matrix of breast milk using more advanced lacto-engineering.

  1. Determination of the levels of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the Australian population by analysis of pooled human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.; Toms, L.M.L.; Moore, M. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Burniston, D.; Symons, R. [AGAL, Sydney (Australia); Ahokas, J. [RMIT, Melbourne (Australia); Fuerst, P. [State Lab. of NRW, Muenster (Germany); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds are ubiquitously distributed and humans are exposed to them via various sources but primarily through food. They can be detected in air, water, soil, sediment and biota. These compounds are lipid soluble, poorly eliminated and thus can accumulate in human adipose tissue. They can cross the placenta and are also transferred to breast milk during the lactation process. Therefore infants are exposed ante and postnatally. Since PCDD/PCDF concentration in blood and human milk are very similar when concentrations are expressed on a lipid basis, human milk provides a good monitoring tool of exposure for a given population in a given area. Previously the WHO has co-ordinated international studies on dioxin-like compounds in breast milk. These were conducted in 1987/88, 1992/93 and 2001. In summary, these studies demonstrated that levels of dioxins in breast milk are relatively high in industrialised countries when compared to non-industrialised countries that PCDD/PCDFs were higher in human milk from mothers with their first child and that the levels decrease over a given lactation period. The present study aims to examine the levels of these compounds in primiparae women throughout Australia.

  2. Soluble immunoglobulin A in breast milk is inversely associated with atopic dermatitis at early age: the PASTURE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivuori, L; Loss, G; Roduit, C; Dalphin, J-C; Depner, M; Genuneit, J; Lauener, R; Pekkanen, J; Pfefferle, P; Riedler, J; Roponen, M; Weber, J; von Mutius, E; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Vaarala, O

    2014-01-01

    The role of breastfeeding for the development of atopic diseases in childhood is contradictory. This might be due to differences in the composition of breast milk and levels of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory components. The objective of this study was to examine whether levels of total immunoglobulin A (IgA) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in breast milk were associated with the risk of developing atopic dermatitis (AD), atopic sensitization or asthma at early age taking breastfeeding duration into account. The birth cohort study PASTURE conducted in Finland, France, Germany and Switzerland provided 610 breast milk samples collected 2 months after delivery in which soluble IgA (sIgA) and TGF-β1 levels were measured by ELISA. Duration of breastfeeding was assessed using weekly food frequency diaries from month 3 to month 12. Data on environmental factors, AD and asthma were collected by questionnaires from pregnancy up to age 6. Atopic status was defined by specific IgE levels in blood collected at the ages of 4 and 6 years. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Soluble IgA and TGF-β1 levels in breast milk differed between countries, and sIgA levels were associated with environmental factors related to microbial load, for example, contact to farm animals or cats during pregnancy, but not with raw milk consumption. sIgA levels were inversely associated with AD up to the of age 2 years (P-value for adjusted linear trend: 0.005), independent of breastfeeding duration. The dose of sIgA ingested in the first year of life was associated with reduced risk of AD up to the age of 2 (aOR, 95% CI: 0.74; 0.55-0.99) and 4 years (0.73; 0.55-0.96). No clear associations between sIgA and atopy or asthma up to age 6 were observed. TGF-β1 showed no consistent association with any investigated health outcome. IgA in breast milk might protect against the development of AD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevention of breast pain and milk secretion with bromocriptine after second-trimester abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1990-01-01

    weeks; Group 3, no treatment. Fifty-two patients completed the study (bromocriptine n = 18, placebo n = 18 and no treatment n = 16). Placebo had no apparent influence on breast symptoms. In both the placebo group and the untreated group, breast pain and milk secretion peaked on days 3 to 7, and milk......Within 24 hours after abortion, 62 patients with a mean gestational age of 19 weeks, who had either induced (n = 50) or spontaneous (n = 12) abortions were randomly allocated to three groups: Group 1, bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice daily for 2 weeks; Group 2, placebo tablets 1 tablet twice daily for 2...... secretion often continued for 3 weeks. Only 3/34 (9%) of untreated and placebo treated patients were free of breast symptoms. Compared with placebo, bromocriptine caused a significant reduction in the objective assessment score of breast tenderness (p less than 0.05) and milk secretion (p less than 0...

  4. The Impact of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes on WHO-Recommended Breastfeeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwoz, Ellen G; Huffman, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal breastfeeding results in 800 000 child deaths annually. There are multiple causes of suboptimal breastfeeding, including marketing of breast-milk substitutes. To describe sales and marketing of breast-milk substitutes and their influence on World Health Organization-recommended breastfeeding behaviors, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. Literature review. Global sales of breast-milk substitutes reached US$40 billion in 2013. Growth in sales exceeds 10% annually in many low- and middle-income countries, while it is close to stagnant in high-income countries. Breast-milk substitutes are marketed directly to consumers via mass media and print advertisements and indirectly via incentives, free supplies, and promotions to and through health workers and facilities, retailers, and policy makers. Internet marketing via company web sites and social media is on the rise. Marketing influences social norms by making formula use seem to be extensive, modern, and comparable to or better than breast milk. Clear evidence of a negative impact is found when breast-milk substitutes are provided for free in maternity facilities and when they are promoted by health workers and in the media. Influences through other channels are plausible, but rigorous studies are lacking. It was not possible with the data available to quantify the impact of marketing relative to other factors on suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors. Marketing remains widespread even in countries that have adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes to restrict such activities. Adoption of stricter regulatory frameworks coupled with independent, quantitative monitoring and compliance enforcement are needed to counter the impacts of formula marketing globally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Analysis of Aflatoxin M1 in Breast Milk and Its Association with Nutritional and Socioeconomic Status of Lactating Mothers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaridi, Jomana; Bassil, Maya; Kharma, Joelle Abi; Daou, Farah; Hassan, Hussein F

    2017-10-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) is the most potent of the dietary aflatoxins, and its major metabolite, aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ), is frequently found in the breast milk of lactating mothers. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with AFM 1 contamination of breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. A total of 111 breast milk samples were collected according to the guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Samples were analyzed with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between December 2015 and November 2016. A survey was used to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean (±standard deviation) concentration of AFM 1 in the breast milk samples was 4.31 ± 1.8 ng/L, and 93.8% of samples contained AFM 1 at 0.2 to 7.9 ng/L. The mean concentration of AFM 1 was significantly lower (P 0.05) was observed between AFM 1 concentrations in breast milk and anthropometric sociodemographic factors (age and level of education) or the governorate of residence of the nursing mothers. The mean AFM 1 estimated daily intake was found to be 0.69 ng/day/kg of body weight. Although the incidence of AFM 1 contamination was low, our first-of-its-kind study highlights the importance of conducting investigations on mycotoxin contamination in breast milk and of developing protection strategies to tackle the exposure of infants to this potent chemical hazard.

  6. The importance of the fatty acids in breast milk and in lacteal formulae; La importancia de los acidos grasos en la leche materna y en las formulas lacteas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, S.; Gutierrez, R.; Radilla, M.; Ramirez, A.; Perez, J. J.; Schettino, B.; Ramirez, M. L.; Ortiz, R.; Fontecha, J.

    2012-11-01

    The best choice for feeding the newborn child is breast milk, and when it is not possible to breast feed a baby, the breast milk is replaced by lacteal formula, which is why numerous studies focus their attention on the analysis of the diverse components of baby formula as well as functions in the breast fed baby. Fatty acids are components of great nutritional importance in the fetus and in the newborn child. Nowadays it is estimated that the fetus, during the last trimester of the gestational period and the newborn child, during the first six months of life, need a great contribution of araquidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, due to the fact that the speed of transformation of the predecessors to the hepatic level are not sufficient to cover the metabolic requirements of these fatty acids and it is the mother who contributes them through placental transport during gestation and her milk during lactation. The Organization of Food and Agriculture (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Society of Gastroenterology, Hepato logy and Pediatric Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that lacteal formula imitate the composition of the breast milk, especially in the fatty polyunsaturated acids (PUFA). (Author) 61 refs.

  7. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Megan L; Hod, Nurul; Jayaraman, Jothsna; Marchant, Elizabeth A; Christen, Lukas; Chiang, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Shellam, Geoffrey R; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation.

  8. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Lloyd

    Full Text Available Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation.

  9. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  10. EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ON LEVEL OF PROLACTIN AND BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sulistiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding among postpartum mothers has been a problem due to low milk supply. As a result, mothers often decide to give formula milk or other additional foods, which might affect to the infant’s growth and development. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of Moringa Oliefera on the levels of prolactin and breast milk production (baby’s weight and sleep duration in postpartum mothers. Methods: Quasi-Experimental study with Non Equivalent control group design. There were 30 respondents recruited by purposive sampling, consisted of 15 respondents in intervention group and 15 respondents in the control group. This study was conducted from November until December 2016 in Four Midwive Independent Practice (BPM in the working area of the Health Center of Tlogosari wetan Semarang. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: Findings showed that there was a mean difference of prolactin level in the intervention group (231.72 ng / ml, and the control group (152.75 ng / ml; and a significant effect on increasing the levels of prolactin (p = 0.002. The mean of baby’s weight in the intervention group was 3783.33 grams, and in the control group was 3599.00 grams. However, there was no significant effect of moringa oleifera on baby’s weight (p = 0.313> 0.05. While the mean difference on sleep duration was 128.20 minutes in the intervention group and 108.80 minutes in the control group. There was a significant effect on baby’s sleep duration (p= 0.000. Conclusion: There were significant effects of moringa oleifera on mother’s prolactin and sleep duration of the baby. However, there was no significant effect on baby’s weight. Thus, it can be suggested that moringa oleifera can be used as an alternative treatment to increase breast milk production and prolactin hormones. Midwives should promote the benefits of moringa leaves as one of alternative supplements.

  11. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Food taboo of taking pineapple and milk at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess whether potential toxic interactions occur between the pineapple and milk following oral administration in rats by comparing clinical signs, hematological and biochemical parameters with the normal control and toxic standard groups. Pineapple and milk solutions were made by 1:1 (PMS1 and 2:1 (PMS2 ratio, administered 12 mL/kg body weight. Forty rats were equally divided into 4 groups treated for 3 days: a normal control (only vehicle treated; b toxic standard (CCl4 was suspended in corn oil, 20% v/v; treated 1.25 mL/kg, c PMS1 and d PMS2 groups. CCl4 administration altered the normal behavior, changes gross and microscopic morphology. Toxicity related hematological and serum biochemistry changed significantly (p<0.05 than the normal group. However, all these clinical and pathological changes were completely absent in PMS treated groups. These results suggest that taking pineapple with milk is not toxic and this food taboo is wrong.

  13. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhazlina Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development.

  14. Occurrence of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinková, Z; Novotný, O; Schůrek, J; Velísek, J; Hajslová, J; Dolezal, M

    2008-06-01

    A series of twelve breast milk samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring mode for 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Whilst none of the samples contained 3-MCPD above the limit of detection of 3 microg kg(-1) milk, all contained high amounts of 3-MCPD esterified with higher fatty acids. The levels of 3-MCPD released by hydrolysis of these esters (bound 3-MCPD) ranged from the limit of detection (300 microg kg(-1), expressed on a fat basis) to 2195 microg kg(-1); with a mean level of bound 3-MCPD of 1014 microg kg(-1), which corresponded to 35.5 microg kg(-1) milk. The presence of bound 3-MCPD was confirmed using orthogonal gas chromatography coupled with high-speed time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for four randomly selected breast milk samples. Six breast milks collected from one of the nursing mothers 14-76 days after childbirth contained bound 3-MCPD within the range of 328-2078 microg kg(-1) fat (mean 930 microg kg(-1) fat). The calculated bound 3-MCPD content of these samples was within the range of 6 and 19 microg kg(-1) milk (mean of 12 microg kg(-1) milk). The major types of 3-MCPD esters were the symmetric diesters with lauric, palmitic, and oleic acids, and asymmetric diesters with palmitic acid/oleic acid among which 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol 1,2-dioleate prevailed.

  15. Plasma and breast milk pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine using dried blood and breast milk spots in nursing African mother–infant pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Catriona; Olagunju, Adeniyi; Nakalema, Shadia; Kyohaire, Isabella; Owen, Andrew; Lamorde, Mohammed; Khoo, Saye

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother–infant pairs. Methods Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted. DBS and DBMS were collected pre-dose and at 5–6 timepoints up to 12 h following observed dosing. Infant DBS were sampled twice during this period. Lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir were quantified using LC-MS/MS, with non-compartmental analysis to calculate key pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Peak concentrations in breast milk from women taking lamivudine and emtricitabine occurred later than in plasma (4–8 h compared with 2 h for lamivudine and 2–4 h for emtricitabine). Consequently, the milk-to-plasma (M:P) ratio of lamivudine taken once daily was 0.95 (0.82–1.15) for AUC0–12, whereas for AUC12–20 this was 3.04 (2.87–4.16). Lamivudine was detectable in 36% (14/39) of infants [median 17.7 (16.3–22.7) ng/mL]. For 200 mg of emtricitabine once daily, the median M:P ratio was 3.01 (2.06–3.38). Three infants (19%) had measurable emtricitabine [median 18.5 (17.6–20.8) ng/mL]. For 300 mg of tenofovir once daily, the median M:P ratio was 0.015 (0–0.03) and no infant had measurable tenofovir concentrations. Conclusions Emtricitabine and lamivudine accumulate in breast milk and were detected in breastfeeding infants. In contrast, tenofovir penetrates the breast milk to a small degree, but is undetectable in breastfeeding infants. PMID:29309634

  16. Plasma and breast milk pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine using dried blood and breast milk spots in nursing African mother-infant pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Catriona; Olagunju, Adeniyi; Nakalema, Shadia; Kyohaire, Isabella; Owen, Andrew; Lamorde, Mohammed; Khoo, Saye

    2018-04-01

    Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood. To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother-infant pairs. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted. DBS and DBMS were collected pre-dose and at 5-6 timepoints up to 12 h following observed dosing. Infant DBS were sampled twice during this period. Lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir were quantified using LC-MS/MS, with non-compartmental analysis to calculate key pharmacokinetic parameters. Peak concentrations in breast milk from women taking lamivudine and emtricitabine occurred later than in plasma (4-8 h compared with 2 h for lamivudine and 2-4 h for emtricitabine). Consequently, the milk-to-plasma (M:P) ratio of lamivudine taken once daily was 0.95 (0.82-1.15) for AUC0-12, whereas for AUC12-20 this was 3.04 (2.87-4.16). Lamivudine was detectable in 36% (14/39) of infants [median 17.7 (16.3-22.7) ng/mL]. For 200 mg of emtricitabine once daily, the median M:P ratio was 3.01 (2.06-3.38). Three infants (19%) had measurable emtricitabine [median 18.5 (17.6-20.8) ng/mL]. For 300 mg of tenofovir once daily, the median M:P ratio was 0.015 (0-0.03) and no infant had measurable tenofovir concentrations. Emtricitabine and lamivudine accumulate in breast milk and were detected in breastfeeding infants. In contrast, tenofovir penetrates the breast milk to a small degree, but is undetectable in breastfeeding infants.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian arctic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopov, V; Odland, J O; Burkow, I C

    1998-10-01

    Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal and Tajmyr Autonomous Regions of Siberia. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The POP levels in maternal plasma among the non-indigenous women were higher than the native population, especially in total PCB, HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and the DDT-group. The dietary questionnaires showed that the non-indigenous populations consumed considerably less local food items like reindeer meat and fresh water fish. There was no correlation between local food consumption and elevated levels of pollutants. Even if the indigenous groups had lower concentrations of the most important pollutants than the non-indigenous population, they were still higher than the levels measured in the Scandinavian countries of the AMAP-study and up to levels of medical concern. The most important sources of organic pollutants for the Russian Arctic populations of Yamal and Tajmyr seems to be imported food from other areas of Russia and local use of pesticides. It must be a high priority concern to further elucidate these trends and initiate prophylactic measures for the exposed population groups.

  18. Occurrence of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed babies in their first six months of life and the corresponding breast milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of oligosaccharides in the feces of breast-fed babies is a valuable tool for monitoring the gastrointestinal fate of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In the present study we monitored fecal oligosaccharide profiles together with the HMO-profiles of the respective breast milks

  19. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breast milk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.

    1999-01-01

    This project will be a collaborative study between the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and Department of Pediatrics, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). It may also involve the Polyclinic, Islamabad. Pediatricians who have had experience in lactation management clinic and hence breast-milk intake studies by conventional methods (test weighing) will be formally involved in the study. Human milk intake and growth performance of exclusively breast-fed infants will be monitored over the first six months of life. The deuterium dilution method will be used for measuring breast-milk intake and will be compared with the test weighing method. The growth of exclusively breast-fed children will be compared with the NCH growth standards. Records of illnesses that may lead to suboptimal growth will be kept. Episodes of diarrhoea, in particular, will be correlated with growth faltering. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori detected by the use of the 13 C Urea breath test at three month intervals during the study period examined for relationships with diarrhoea. Thus, this study will not only provide preliminary data on breast-milk intake (based on a more accurate isotopic method as compared to test weighing) but also on the growth patterns of exclusively breast-fed infants. Further, information on the significance of Helicobacter pylori to infection with episodes of diarrhoeal infection and growth faltering. (author)

  20. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Valery, M.C.; Eden Yepez, C.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Pontiles Colina, M.; Llovera, D.; Teran, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)

  1. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez Valery, M C; Eden Yepez, C; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Pontiles Colina, M; Llovera, D; Teran, D [Unidad de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    1999-09-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author) 21 refs, 1 tab

  2. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  3. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Waard, de Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Goudoever, van Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  4. Management of Breast Milk Oversupply in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.

  5. The impact of human breast milk components on the infant metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is beneficial for mothers and infants. Underlying mechanisms and biochemical mediators thus need to be investigated to develop and support improved infant nutrition practices promoting the child health. We analysed the relation between maternal breast milk composition and infant metabolism.196 pairs of mothers and infants from a European research project (PreventCD were studied. Maternal milk samples collected at month 1 and month 4 after birth were analysed for macronutrient classes, hormone, and fatty acid (FA content. Phospholipids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids were measured in serum samples of 4-month old infants. Associations between milk components and infant metabolites were analysed with spearman correlation and linear mixed effect models (LME. P-values were corrected for multiple testing (PLME.Month 1 milk protein content was strongly associated with infant serum lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC 14:0 (PLME = 0.009. Month 1 milk insulin was associated to infant acetylcarnitine (PLME = 0.01. There were no associations between milk protein content and serum amino acids and milk total fat content and serum polar lipids. Middle- and odd-chain FA% in breast milk at both ages were significantly related to serum LPC and sphingomyelins (SM species in infant serum (all PLME<0.05, while FA% 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 percentages were significantly associated to serum LPC 22:6 (PLME = 1.91×10-4/7.93×10-5 in milk only at month 4. Other polyunsaturated fatty acids and hormones in milk showed only weak associations with infant serum metabolites.Infant serum LPC are influenced by breast milk FA composition and, intriguingly, milk protein content in early but not late lactation. LPC 14:0, previously found positively associated with obesity risk, was the serum metabolite which was the most strongly associated to milk protein content. Thus, LPC 14:0 might be a key metabolite not only reflecting milk protein intake in infants, but also relating

  6. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  7. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Can hormones contained in mothers' milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Fissore, Maria F; Liguori, Stefania A; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), ghrelin, resistin and obestatin, which are involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. These compounds are either not found in commercial milk formulas or their presence is still controversial. Diet-related differences during infancy in serum levels of factors involved in energy metabolism might explain anthropometric differences and also differences in dietary habits between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants later in life, and may thus have long-term health consequences. In this context, the recent finding of higher leptin levels and lower ghrelin levels in BF than in FF infants suggests that differences in hormonal values together with different protein intake could account for the differences in growth between BF and FF infants both during infancy and later in life. In this review, we examine the data related to hormones contained in mothers' milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  9. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  10. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  11. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  12. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  13. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, P.V.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Marino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  14. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concepcion, P V; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Marino, A [Centro de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  15. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk.

  16. Prevalence of rotavirus antibodies in breast milk and inhibitory effects to rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen V; Braeckman, Tessa; Lernout, Tinne; Hau, Vu T B; Anh, Le T K; Luan, Le T; Van Damme, Pierre; Anh, Dang D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of childhood diarrhea worldwide, and several vaccines have been successfully developed to reduce the burden of disease. However, lower vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in developing countries might be related to the virus-neutralizing activity of breast milk. We examined possible differences in breast milk antibody levels (total IgA antibody, RV-specific antibodies, and RV-neutralizing antibodies) between healthy mothers living in a rural area (n=145) and mothers living in an urban area (n=147) of Vietnam. Total IgA concentration was significantly higher in samples from mothers in the rural region than in samples from mothers in the urban region, whereas urban mothers had significantly higher RV-specific IgA antibody titers than did rural mothers. Neutralizing antibodies against RV strain G1P[8] were undetected in nearly one-half of the breast milk samples (45-48%), whereas the majority of the remaining samples had low antibody titers (2-16). Despite these low titers, the breast milk still reduced vaccine strain titers (2×10(6) plaque forming units/mL) up to 80% or more, even at a milk-to-virus ratio of 1:8. An increase in neutralizing anti-G1P[8] antibody titers (Pvaccine efficacy and immunogenicity in Vietnamese infants.

  17. EFFECT OF CONSUMING TEMULAWAK (CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ROXB. EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyntia Desbriyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dominant factor inhibiting breastfeeding is the lack of milk production. The extract of temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb is considered having an effect to increase breast milk production. Objective: To examine the effect of temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract to increase milk production in postpartum mothers in the working area of Ambarawa Community Health Center. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with non-equivalent control group design conducted on October-December 2016. There were 38 respondents included using consecutive sampling, with 19 assigned in the intervention and control group. Paired t-test and independent test were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that there were significant increases of prolactin hormone (p = 0.000, breast milk volume (p = 0.001, baby’s urinary frequency (p = 0.001, baby’s defecation frequency (p = 0.000, and baby’s sleep duration (p = 0.000 after given temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract. Conclusion: Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract has a significant effect in increasing breast milk production and prolactin levels in postpartum mothers. Thus, it is recommended that temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract can be an option for postpartum mother to increase milk production.

  18. The excretion of radiopharmaceuticals in human breast milk: additional data and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubow, S.; Klopper, J.; Wasserman, H.; Baard, B.; Niekerk, M. van

    1994-01-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following administration of 11 different radiopharmaceuticals, has been measured. This report summarises the data collected from 60 patients. An effective decay constant for the series of samples from each patient was calculated. In order to formulate reliable guidelines, we calculated the total activity theoretically excreted in milk until complete decay of the radionuclide. Of the various 99m Tc compounds, pertechnetate clearly reaches the highest concentrations in breast milk. The wide variability of data from different patients who received the same radiopharmaceutical despite identical methods of sample collection and data processing confirms the impression gained from literature that transfer of radionuclides into milk varies greatly between individuals. We believe that for radiation protection purposes, a ''worst case'' approach is the most appropriate. With new data available and the revision of ICRP recommendations, the guidelines applicable when radiopharmaceuticals are administered to breast-feeding mothers are reviewed. The effective dose resulting from close contact between patient and infant was included in these calculations. Breast feeding need not be interrupted after administration of 99m Tc-DISIDA, -sulphur colloid, -gluconate and -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). However, after administration of 99m Tc-MIBI, close contact should be restricted. 99m Tc-pyrophosphate and -microspheres require interruption periods of several hours. High activities of 99m Tc-pertechnetate may require interruption longer than 2 days. For pertechnetate and 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells, interruption of breast feeding with measurement of activity in expressed milk samples is recommended. Breast feeding is contra-indicated after administration of 67 Ga and 131 I. General guidelines regarding breast feeding after administration of radiopharmaceuticals are summarised. (orig./MG)

  19. Antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk: is -80°C optimal temperature for freeze storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatma Nur; Akdag, Arzu; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-06-01

    To determine total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status in fresh and freeze stored (at -80°C) breast milk during the stages of lactation. Samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 44 healthy women at 3, 8 and 30 days after birth. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for two months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status. Antioxidant capacity of transitional and mature milk decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively); however, antioxidant capacity of colostrum did not change by storage at -80°C (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk significantly decreased during the stages of lactation (p Total oxidation status showed no significant difference in fresh and stored breast milk during the stages of lactation (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of breast milk at -80°C for two months seems not to be the optimal condition to preserve the antioxidant capacity of breast milk.

  20. Mercury in breast milk - a health hazard for infants in gold mining areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Roider, Gabriele; Siebert, Uwe; Drasch, Gustav

    2008-10-01

    Breast-feeding can be a source of mercury exposure for infants. The main concern up to now is methyl-mercury exposure of women at child-bearing age. Certain fish species have high levels of methyl-mercury leading to consumer's advisory guidelines in regard of fish consumption to protect infants from mercury exposure passing through breast milk. Little is known about the transfer of inorganic mercury passing through breast milk to infants. Epidemiological studies showed negative health effects of inorganic mercury in gold mining areas. Small-scale gold miners use mercury to extract the gold from the ore. Environmental and health assessments of gold mining areas in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe showed a high exposure with inorganic mercury in these gold mining areas, and a negative health impact of the exposure to the miners and the communities. This paper reports about the analysis and the results of 46 breast milk samples collected from mercury-exposed mothers. The median level of 1.87mug/l is fairly high compared to other results from literature. Some breast milk samples showed very high levels of mercury (up to 149mug/l). Fourteen of the 46 breast milk samples exceed 4mug/l which is considered to be a "high" level. US EPA recommends a "Reference Dose" of 0.3mug inorganic mercury/kg body weight/day [United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. Study Report EPA-452/R-97-007: US EPA]. Twenty-two of the 46 children from these gold mining areas had a higher calculated total mercury uptake. The highest calculated daily mercury uptake of 127mug exceeds by far the recommended maximum uptake of inorganic mercury. Further systematic research of mercury in breast milk from small-scale gold mining areas is needed to increase the knowledge about the bio-transfer of mercury from mercury vapour-exposed mothers passing through breast milk to the breast-fed infant.

  1. [Results of mycologic studies of donated breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke-Hellmessen, R; Henker, J; Futschik, M

    1991-03-01

    From 1968 to 1989 altogether 37,000 specimens of donated and collected mother's milk were mycologically examined by means of a liquid medium (twofold concentrated Raulin solution). The yearly incidence of Candida albicans varied between 8.5 and 5.2%. 25% respectively 14.8% of the donors (n = 60 respectively 813) had delivered milk to the human milk bank which was contaminated by Candida albicans. The mother's milk was primarily contaminated by the donor's own suckling baby. 92.3% of these infants were infected with Candida albicans in the mouth and/or rectum and/or on the skin. Candida albicans was also detected in 46.2% on the nipples of the mothers. It is recommended to transport donated mother's milk at temperatures of 4-8 degrees C and to store the milk at -20 degrees C until the mycological examination is finished to exclude samples contaminated by Candida albicans. Judging our experience donated human milk to be fed in raw state should be regularly controlled mycologically. If the donated milk contains Candida albicans, the donation of milk should be interrupted and an antifungal treatment of the donor and her baby should be performed.

  2. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  3. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  4. Breast milk sharing via the internet: the practice and health and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; McNamara, Kelly A; Jayadeva, Chenali M; Braun, Ashlea C; Dillon, Chelsea E; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the practice of breast milk sharing via the internet in the US and examine factors associated with participants' communication regarding potential health and safety risks. This cross-sectional study examined all original postings (n = 254) placed during 1 week in 2011 on four websites to facilitate the sharing of breast milk. Postings were characterized for intent and health and safety topics (i.e., selling vs. donating milk, hygiene/handling practices, infectious disease screening, diet/exercise habits, substance and pharmaceutical use, milk quality claims, price) communicated between milk providers and recipients. Approximately 69% of postings were providing milk and 31% were seeking milk; 47% included identifiers. Few provider postings reflected measures to potentially reduce risks to recipients: 20% mentioned using a healthy handling/hygiene practice, 11% offered specifics about infectious disease screening, 51% mentioned limiting/abstaining from 1+ substances. The presence of indications about handling/hygiene, diet/exercise, and abstaining from substances were strongly positively associated with each other (ORs 7.42-13.80), with the odds of selling (ORs 6.03-∞), and with making quality claims (ORs 3.14-13.54), but not with disease screening. One-fifth of recipients sought milk for a child with a medical condition or poor birth outcome. Most recipients (90%) did not specify any health and safety practices of a provider in their posting. Health behaviors and screening for diseases that may affect milk safety are not prominent topics in postings seeking to share milk. This lack of communication may exacerbate the health risks to recipient infants, especially infants at increased risk due to pre-existing health conditions.

  5. Breast-milk radioactivity after sup(99m)Tc-MAA lung studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranage, R.; Palmer, M.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of radioactivity in the breast milk of four nursing mothers who had received injections of sup(99m)Tc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) was measured. The results were compared with previous measurements, and an estimate of the radiation dose to an infant from internal and external sources was obtained for various times of recommencement of breast feeding. It is suggested that feeding can recommence earlier than the normally recommended 24 h if this is thought to be clinically desirable. (orig.)

  6. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight ( p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass ( p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass ( p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content ( p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  7. "Lost milk?": Counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of breastfeeding and mothers milk to the economy is invisible in economic statistics. This article demonstrates how the economic value of human milk production can be included in economic statistics such as gross domestic product (GDP) and provides estimates for Australia, the United States, and Norway. The contribution of human milk and lactation to GDP in these countries is estimated using United Nations (System of National Accounting) guidelines and conventional economic valuation approaches to measuring production in GDP. In Australia, current human milk production levels exceed $3 billion annually. The United States has the potential to produce human milk worth more than US$110 billion a year, but currently nearly two thirds of this value is lost due to premature weaning. In Norway, production valued at US$907 million annually is 60% of its potential value. The potential loss of economic value from not protecting women's lactation and milk production from competing market pressures is large. Failure to account for mothers' milk production in GDP and other economic data has important consequences for public policy. The invisibility of human milk reduces the perceived importance of programs and regulations that protect and support women to breastfeed. The value of human milk can be measured using accepted international guidelines for calculating national income and production. It is quantitatively nontrivial and should be counted in GDP.

  8. The effect of between-breast differences on human milk macronutrients content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, N; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Moran Lev, H; Mangel, L; Lubetzky, R

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of maternal handedness and preferential side of breastfeeding upon macronutrients concentration in human milk (HM). We aimed to compare macronutrients content of HM from both breasts, taking into account the self-reported preferential feeding ('dominant') breast, breast size and handedness (right versus left). We tested the null hypothesis that macronutrients content of HM is not affected by breast dominancy, breast size or maternal handedness. Fifty-seven lactating mothers were recruited. HM macronutrients were measured after mid manual expression using infrared transmission spectroscopy. Out of the 57 mothers recruited, 12 were excluded from the analyses because they brought in insufficient samples. Among the 22 who reported a size difference, 16 (73%) had a larger left breast (Pmacronutrients between the right and the left breasts. In multiple stepwise backward regression analysis, fat, carbohydrate, protein and energy contents were unaffected by maternal handedness, breast side dominance or breast size asymmetry. Macronutrients content of mid expression HM is unaffected by maternal handedness, breast size or breast side dominance.

  9. “Exosomics”—A Review of Biophysics, Biology and Biochemistry of Exosomes With a Focus on Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de la Torre Gomez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are biomolecular nanostructures released from cells. They carry specific biomolecular information and are mainly researched for their exquisite properties as a biomarker source and delivery system. We introduce exosomes in the context of other extracellular vesicles, describe their biophysical isolation and characterisation and discuss their biochemical profiling. Motivated by our interest in early-life nutrition and health, and corresponding studies enrolling lactating mothers and their infants, we zoom into exosomes derived from human breast milk. We argue that these should be more extensively studied at proteomic and micronutrient profiling level, because breast milk exosomes provide a more specific window into breast milk quality from an immunological (proteomics and nutritional (micronutrient perspective. Such enhanced breast milk exosome profiling would thereby complement and enrich the more classical whole breast milk analysis and is expected to deliver more functional insights than the rather descriptive analysis of human milk, or larger fractions thereof, such as milk fat globule membrane. We substantiate our arguments by a bioinformatic analysis of two published proteomic data sets of human breast milk exosomes.

  10. Vacuum characteristics of the sucking cycle and relationships with milk removal from the breast in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Anna Maria; Sakalidis, Vanessa Susanna; Lai, Ching Tat; Perrella, Sharon Lisa; Geddes, Donna Tracy

    2016-05-01

    The importance of an infant's intra-oral vacuum in milk removal from the breast has been established. However, the relationship between the vacuum curve and milk transfer is not well understood. To investigate the parameters of the infant suck cycle in relation to the volume of milk removed from the breast. Cross-sectional study to elucidate the role of infant intra-oral vacuum in efficient milk removal from the breast. Nineteen fully breastfed term infants. Intra-oral vacuum was recorded during monitored breastfeeds using a pressure transducer. Ultrasound imaging (milk flow) and respiratory inductive plethysmography (swallowing) were used to determine the nutritive sucking (NS) portion of the feed. Milk intake was determined by weighing infants before and after feeds. Vacuum traces of the first and next 2min of NS from the first breast were analysed. The volumes of milk removed during both NS periods were negatively associated with peak vacuum (pmilk removal during breastfeeding. It also appears that infants modify their sucking dynamics to adapt to changes in milk flow during milk ejection as the breast empties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  12. Deuterium dilution method for determining the Breast milk intake of babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Bilal, R.; Latif, Z.

    2000-11-01

    Various methods for measuring the milk intake of breast fed babies are available. Most methods are time consuming, cumbersome and inaccurate. The report describes various methods used for Breast Milk intake measurement with emphasis on the D/sub 2/O dilution method. The methodology of the D/sub 2/O dilution method is now streamlined in this Inst. for measuring the milk intake of babies. Advantages and disadvantages of all the methods used to determine the breast milk intake of the infants are also included in the present report. For the D/sub 2/O dilution method, and oral administration of small dose of deuterium oxide (sup 2/H/sup 2/O) is given to the mothers after collecting pre-dose samples. The post dose samples of urine from the baby and saliva from the mother are collected at 24 hours intervals over a 14 days period. These samples are analyzed on isotope ratio Mass spectrometer. The D/H values obtained over a 14 days period are then extrapolated to calculate the milk intake of babies using the Microsoft Excel Computer programme designed for this purpose. (author)

  13. Should there be a target level of docosahexaenoic acid in breast milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina Harris; Harris, William S

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the evidence for and against establishing a target level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk. Two target levels for milk DHA have been recently proposed. One (∼0.3% of milk fatty acids) was based on milk DHA levels achieved in women consuming the amount of DHA recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for pregnant and lactating women (at least 200 mg DHA/day). Another (∼1.0%) was based on biomarker studies of populations with differing lifelong intakes of fish. Populations or research cohorts with milk DHA levels of 1.0% are associated with intakes that allow both the mother and infant to maintain relatively high DHA levels throughout lactation. Lower milk DHA levels may signal suboptimal maternal stores and possibly suboptimal infant intakes. Based on the current data, a reasonable milk DHA target appears to be approximately 0.3%, which is about the worldwide average. Although this may not be the 'optimal' level (which remains to be defined), it is clearly an improvement over the currently low milk DHA levels (∼0.2%) seen in many Western populations.

  14. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Shek, Lynette P; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-05-27

    Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We included 541 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97-5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22-4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04-2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60-4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61-3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05-5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  15. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Pang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91, tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower (2.22, 1.22–4.04, primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26 and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02. Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02, and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41. Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  16. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Yumkella, Fatu; Diaz, Theresa

    2013-12-13

    Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying "contaminated" breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved

  17. Two Lactobacillus strains, isolated from breast milk, differently modulate the immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz-Ropero, M.P.; Martin, R.; Sierra, S.; Lara-Villoslada, F.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Xaus, J.; Olivares, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The ability of two different Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 and Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716), isolated from human breast milk, to modulate the immune response was examined. Methods and Results: In rodent bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), the presence of

  18. Assessment of levels of mercury in human breast milk in Obuasi Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamoah-Antwi, Dinah

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the levels of mercury in breast milk and its potential health risk to the breastfed infants in Obuasi Municipality. Forty eight (48) individual breast milk samples were collected from mothers in selected health facilities in Obuasi town and it’s environ. Total mercury concentrations were determined in the breast milk samples using advanced mercury analyser (AMA254 Altec s.r.o, in the Czech Republic). Methylmercury levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography linked to inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) with isotope dilution. The mean concentrations of Total Hg and Methyl Hg in the breast milk were 0.4043 and 0.1829 μg/L respectively. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.320 μg/L and 0.008 to 0.734 μg/L respectively. The estimated intake obtained in this study was lower than the reference dose established by the US EPA (0.3μg/kg/day). However the hazard quotients evaluated showed that the one month old infants had hazard quotient above the 0.2, therefore indicating that there is a potential risk for such infants and need to be managed. It was also found that (65.3%) of the mothers had no knowledge of the exposure route to mercury and it toxicity to humans. (au)

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  20. Prolonged jaundice in newborns is associated with low antioxidant capacity in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Nurdan; Tonbul, Alpaslan; Karadag, Ahmet; Dogan, Derya G; Erel, Ozcan; Tatli, Mustafa M

    2010-10-01

    In breastfeeding newborns who are otherwise healthy, the mechanism of prolonged jaundice remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between prolonged jaundice and oxidative parameters in breast milk. Full-term, otherwise healthy newborns with jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks were enrolled prospectively in the study. As a control group, newborns in the same age group but without prolonged jaundice were selected. All newborns in the study were exclusively breastfed. In the newborns with prolonged jaundice, investigations of the etiology of the jaundice included complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood typing, direct Coombs test, measurement of serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, tests for liver and thyroid function (TSH, free T4, total T4), urine culture and measurement of urine reducing substances, and determination of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Breast milk was collected from the mothers of the newborns in both groups. The antioxidant status of the breast milk was assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress was also assessed in breast milk by measurement of total oxidation status (TOS) and calculation of the oxidative stress index (OSI). The prolonged jaundice group differed significantly from the control group in terms of mean TAC and OSI (p antioxidant capacity was found to be decreased.

  1. Effects of triclosan in breast milk on the infant fecal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan is frequently used for its antimicrobial properties and has been detected in human serum, urine, and breast milk. Animal and molecular studies have shown that triclosan exerts a wide range of adverse health effects at both high (ppm) and low (ppb) concentrations. Since triclosan is of grow...

  2. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  3. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L.; Carson, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect or as a sur...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution....

  4. Self-limiting diarrhea in an infant exposed to sertraline in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline is widely used to treat postpartum depression. Though studies found detectable levels of sertraline in infant blood, very few adverse effects are reported. Reporting hereby is a case of an infant who developed self-limiting diarrhea, probably due to exposure to sertraline in breast milk.

  5. Serum and breast-milk vitamin A in women during lactation in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panpanich, Ratana; Vitsupakorn, Kannika; Harper, Gregory; Brabin, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency can occur during lactation and breast-milk vitamin A has been recommended for monitoring the vitamin A status of lactating women and their infants. This study aimed to investigate the vitamin A status of lactating women in relation to race, age, parity, duration of lactation and

  6. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    for exposure of the foetus to such agents. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive ecological study of 121 EDCs, including the persistent compounds dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and flame retardants, and non-persistent phthalates, in 68 breast milk samples from Denmark and Finland...

  7. One Step Forward, Two Steps Back; Xeno-MicroRNAs Reported in Breast Milk Are Artifacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Bağcı

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA sequences that guide post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via complementarity to their target mRNAs. Discovered only recently, miRNAs have drawn a lot of attention. Multiple protein complexes interact to first cleave a hairpin from nascent RNA, export it into the cytosol, trim its loop, and incorporate it into the RISC complex which is important for binding its target mRNA. This process works within one cell, but circulating miRNAs have been described suggesting a role in cell-cell communication.Viruses and intracellular parasites like Toxoplasma gondii use miRNAs to manipulate host gene expression from within the cellular environment. However, recent research has claimed that a rice miRNA may regulate human gene expression. Despite ongoing debates about these findings and general reluctance to accept them, a recent report claimed that foodborne plant miRNAs pass through the digestive tract, travel through blood to be incorporated by alveolar cells excreting milk. The miRNAs are then said to have some immune-related function in the newborn.We acquired the data that supports their claim and performed further analyses. In addition to the reported miRNAs, we were able to detect almost complete mRNAs and found that the foreign RNA expression profiles among samples are exceedingly similar. Inspecting the source of the data helped understand how RNAs could contaminate the samples.Viewing these findings in context with the difficulties foreign RNAs face on their route into breast milk and the fact that many identified foodborne miRNAs are not from actual food sources, we can conclude beyond reasonable doubt that the original claims and evidence presented may be due to artifacts. We report that the study claiming their existence is more likely to have detected RNA contamination than miRNAs.

  8. Measurement of breast milk intake using deuterium oxide and fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, T.; Bansa, D.; Boatin, R.; Vuore, T.; Datohe, D.; Timpo, S.; Asamoa-Tutu, P.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of breast milk intake of infants is essential to the estimation of nutrient requirements during infancy and lactation. The conventional method, test-weighing procedure for measuring breast milk is time consuming, most often inaccurate and may interfere with the mother's normal activities. A more practical and accurate method is isotope dilution using stable isotope-labelled water. The accuracy and ready availability of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) have led to its extensive use in measuring body composition and breast milk intake of infants. The D 2 O turnover method was field-tested in 13 lactating Ghanaian mother-baby pairs. Maternal and baby anthropometric measurements were made. Baby milk intake and maternal body composition were measured with the dose-to-mother method. Pre-dose samples of saliva were taken from each mother-baby pair. A measured D 2 O dose (30g) was administered orally to the mother. Post-dose saliva samples were collected from mother and baby on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, and 14. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). The mean ± SD maternal age was 24 ± 5 years. Babies were aged 3.5 months on the average and weighed 6.7 ± 0.7 kg. Mean milk intake of babies was 828 ± 132 ml/day with a range of 610 to 1040 ml/day. Maternal fat free mass and % body fat were 44.8 ± 5.3 kg, 23.1 ± 5.1 respectively. This non-invasive and convenient method has been used successfully to measure breast milk intake of Ghanaian infants. (au)

  9. Maternal weight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy modify the immunomodulatory potential of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Laitinen, Kirsi; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk is an optimal source of nutrition for infants. It contains bioactive components including bacteria that support the microbial colonization and immune system development of the infant. The determinants of human milk composition remain poorly understood, although maternal nutritional and immunological status as well as lifestyle and dietary habits seem to have an impact. The subjects selected were women from a prospective follow-up study categorized by BMI. Milk samples were taken after delivery and at 1 and 6 mo later for analysis of composition in regard to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, soluble CD14 (sCD14), cytokines, and microbiota. TGF-β2 and sCD14 levels in the breast milk of overweight mothers tended to be lower than the levels in that of normal-weight mothers. Also, higher levels of Staphylococcus group bacteria and lower levels of Bifidobacterium group bacteria were detected in overweight mothers as compared with normal-weight ones. The prevalence of Akkermansia muciniphila-type bacteria was also higher in overweight mothers, and the numbers of these bacteria were related to the interleukin (IL)-6 concentration in the colostrum, which was in turn related to lower counts of Bifidobacterium group bacteria in the breast milk of overweight women. Complex interactions of cytokines and microbiota in breast milk guide the microbiological, immunological, and metabolic programming of infant health. Our data may indicate the presence of an additional mechanism that may explain the heightened risk of obesity for infants of overweight and excessive weight gain mothers.

  10. Breast Milk Lipidome Is Associated with Early Growth Trajectory in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyon, Thomas; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Qannari, El Mostafa; Croyal, Mikaël; Soumah, Mohamed; David-Sochard, Agnès; Billard, Hélène; Legrand, Arnaud; Boscher, Cécile; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infants. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth-pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective-monocentric-observational birth-cohort was established, enrolling 138 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. All infants were ranked according to the change in weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge. Then, we selected infants who experienced “slower” (n = 15, −1.54 ± 0.42 Z-score) or “faster” (n = 11, −0.48 ± 0.19 Z-score) growth; as expected, although groups did not differ regarding gestational age, birth weight Z-score was lower in the “faster-growth” group (0.56 ± 0.72 vs. −1.59 ± 0.96). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry lipidomic signatures combined with multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed using multidimensional statistical, false-discovery-rate and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) tools. Breast-milk associated with faster growth contained more medium-chain saturated fatty acid and sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. The ability of such biomarkers to predict early-growth was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors but remains to be ascertained in larger cohort studies. PMID:29385065

  11. Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and chryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. DESIGN: Within a prospective...... birth cohort, we performed a case-control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. RESULTS: Eight organochlorine......-endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals...

  12. A simple and fast detection method for bovine milk residues in foods: a 2-site monoclonal antibody immunochromatography assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuli, Wu; Weiyi, He; Ji, Kunmei; Wenpu, Wan; Dongsheng, Hu; Hui, Wu; Xinpin, Luo; Zhigang, Liu

    2013-03-01

    The ingredient declaration on food labels assumes paramount importance in the protection of food-allergic consumers. China has not implemented Food allergen labeling. A gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) was developed using 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the milk allergen β-lactoglobulin in this study. The GICA was specific for pure milk samples with a sensitivity of 0.2 ng/mL. Milk protein traces extracted from 110 food products were detected by this method. The labels of 106 were confirmed by our GICA method: 57 food samples originally labeled as containing milk were positive for β-lactoglobulin and 49 food samples labeled as not containing milk were negative for β-lactoglobulin. However, 3 food samples falsely labeled as containing milk were found to contain no β-lactoglobulin whereas 1 food sample labeled as not containing milk actually contained β-lactoglobulin. First, these negatives could be because of the addition of a casein fraction. Second, some countries demand that food manufacturers label all ingredients derived from milk as "containing milk" even though the ingredients contain no detectable milk protein by any method. Our GICA method could thus provide a fast and simple method for semiquantitatation of β-lactoglobulin in foods. The present method provides a fast, simple, semiquantitative method for the determination of milk allergens in foods. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effect of food processing on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujatha; Nelapati, Krishnaiah

    2017-03-01

    To study the effect of different food processing techniques on the degradation of organochlorine compounds (α, β, ɣ and δ hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH)) residues in both natural and fortified samples of milk. Raw milk samples are collected from the local areas of Hyderabad, India. Naturally and fortified milk samples (HCH) were subjected to various food processing techniques, pasteurization (63ºC for ½ h), sterilization (121ºC for 15 min) and boiling for 5 min and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in milk with slight modification. The final mean residual concentration of pesticide in milk after heat processing and percentage of degradation were calculated with respective treatments. Heat treatments are highly effective on reduction of mean residual concentration of HCH in milk. In which Sterilization and boiling proved to be more effective in degradation of HCH isomers.

  14. Diaper dermatitis care of newborns human breast milk or barrier cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozen, Duygu; Caglar, Seda; Bayraktar, Sema; Atici, Funda

    2014-02-01

    To establish the effectiveness of human breast milk and barrier cream (40% zinc oxide with cod liver oil formulation) applied for the skincare of newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit on the healing process of diaper dermatitis. Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatological condition in newborns who are cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. Recently, there are several kinds of complementary skincare methods suggested for newborns, such as sunflower oil, human breast milk, etc. Also, some chemical formulations are still being used in many neonatal intensive care units. Randomised controlled, prospective, experimental. This study was carried out with a population including term and preterm newborns who developed diaper rash while being treated in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in Istanbul between February-October 2010. On completion of the research, a total of 63 newborns from human breast milk (n = 30) and barrier cream (n = 33) groups were contacted. Genders, mean gestation weeks, feeding method, antibiotic use, diaper area cleansing methods, diaper brands and prelesion scores of newborns in both groups were found to be comparable (p > 0·05). There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.294) between the groups in terms of mean number of clinical improvement days, but postlesion score of the barrier cream group was statistically significantly lower (p = 0·002) than the human breast milk group. Barrier cream delivers more effective results than treatment with human breast milk, particularly in the treatment of newborns with moderate to severe dermatitis in the result of the study. This study will shed light on nursing care of skin for newborns who are treated in neonatal intensive care unit. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. [Breast milk: its nutritional composition and functional properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackoen, M

    2012-09-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid with thousands of components. The milk composition in the mammalian species is specific and adapted to the needs of the offspring. It contains macronutrients (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) and numerous biologically active substrates. Human milk not only covers the nutritional needs of the newborn but protects the baby against infection, inflammation and oxidative stress. It has immunomodulation properties and confers trophical protection to the intestinal mucosa. The newborn infant is particularly immature: innate immunity, adaptive immunity and intestinal immaturity. Human milk will offer this exogenous protective and immunomodulating source. The development of the composition of the intestinal microflora of the neonate will be impacted by pre- and probiotic components of human milk. Current scientific knowledge of human milk properties highlights interdependency of the different components, ontogeny of the intestinal function, development of the mucosal intestinal immune system, colonization by the intestinal microbiota and protection against pathogens. Quality of these interactions influences the newborn's short and long-term health status. The promotion of breastfeeding with the support of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) program and labeling has been shown to have positive impact in public health.

  16. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  17. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) and proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mineral and trace element concentrations in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Solomons, Noel W; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2018-03-01

    The possibility that either subclinical mastitis (SCM), an inflammatory condition of the breast, or elevations in breast milk proinflammatory cytokines alter breast milk mineral and trace element composition in humans has not been investigated. In this cross-sectional study, breast milk samples (n=108) were collected from Guatemalan Mam-Mayan mothers at one of three stages of lactation (transitional, early and established), and categorized as SCM (Na:K >0.6) or non-SCM (Na:K ≤0.6). Milk concentrations of 12 minerals (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, selenium, sodium, strontium, and zinc) and 4 proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Lachat analyzer or Luminex multiplex bead cytokine assay. SCM was more prevalent during transitional (30%) than early (15.6%) and established (8.9%) lactation. Analysis of variance revealed that breast milk minerals differed by stage of lactation and SCM status. Breast milk minerals with the exception of magnesium were lower in established lactation, whereas SCM was associated with higher selenium and lower phosphorus. Regression models that controlled for lactation stage also confirmed that SCM was associated with lower milk phosphorus and higher milk selenium concentrations. Furthermore, cytokine concentrations were independently associated with several mineral concentrations: IL-1β with higher phosphorus and iron, IL-6 with higher calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese, IL-8 with higher calcium and zinc, and TNF-α with lower iron and manganese. We conclude that milk mineral and trace element concentrations are affected not only by the presence of SCM but also by proinflammatory cytokines in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. (13)C enrichment of the CO2 in breast milk and in the breath is rapidly modified by changes in the (13)C content of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Del Prado, Martha; Cienfuego, Edith; Morales, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    C4 plants (e.g. corn and sugar cane) have greater (13)C enrichment than C3 plants (e.g. wheat and sugar beet). To assess whether (13)C enrichment of CO2 in the breath and breast milk of women on diets based on C3 and C4 foods changes from one diet to the other. Six breast-feeding women were studied at 5-6 months postpartum. They ate a controlled C4 diet on days 1 and 2 followed by a C3 diet on days 3 and 4. Diet duplicates, breast milk on days 2 and 4 and hourly breath samples were collected over 4 days. (13)C enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Values of δ(13)C were calculated from the international PDBV standard (δ(13)CPDBV). Differences between means were compared by paired t test or t test for repeated measurements. δ(13)CPDBV values were significantly higher in the C4 diet than in the C3 diet composites (p value was greater on days 1 and 2 (range -15.4 to -13.2, respectively) and declined on days 3 and 4 (range -20.0 to -21.8, respectively, p value in the breath and breast milk fractions, which diminish rapidly on a C3 diet. Further studies focusing on individual nutrients are warranted.

  19. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Stem-Like Cell Characteristics from Breast Milk of Mothers with Preterm Infants as Compared to Mothers with Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Carrie-Ellen; Jensen, Todd; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Young, Erin E; Finck, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Breast milk stem cells are hypothesized to be involved in infant health and development. Our research team is the first known team to enroll mothers of hospitalized preterm infants during the first few weeks of lactation and compare stem cell phenotypes and gene expression to mothers of healthy full-term infants. Participants were recruited from a Level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (preterm dyads) and the community (full-term dyads) in the northeastern United States. Mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (mothers of healthy full-term infants (>39 weeks gestational age at birth). Breast milk stem-like cell populations were identified in both preterm and full-term breast milk samples. The data suggest variability in the proportion of stem cell phenotypes present, as well as statistically significant differential expression (both over- and underexpression) of stem cell-specific genetic markers when comparing mothers' milk for preterm and full-term births. Our findings indicate that (1) stem cells are present in preterm breast milk; (2) differential expression of stem cell-specific markers can be detected in preterm and full-term breast milk samples; and (3) the percentage of cells expressing the various stem cell-specific markers differs when preterm and full-term breast milk samples are compared.

  1. Enhancing breast milk production with Domperidone in mothers of preterm neonates (EMPOWER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; daSilva, Orlando P; Kiss, Alex; Knoppert, David C; Ito, Shinya

    2012-08-31

    The use of mother's own breast milk during initial hospitalization has a positive impact not only in reducing potential serious neonatal morbidities but also contribute to improvements in neurodevelopmental outcomes. Mothers of very preterm infants struggle to maintain a supply of breast milk during their infants' prolonged hospitalization. Galactogogues are medications that induce lactation by exerting its effects through oxytocin or prolactin enhancement. Domperidone is a potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonist which stimulates the release of prolactin. Small trials have established its ability in enhancing breast milk production. EMPOWER was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of domperidone in mothers experiencing an inadequate milk supply. EMPOWER is a multicenter, double masked, randomized controlled phase-II trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of domperidone in those mothers identified as having difficulty in breast milk production. Eligible mothers will be randomized to one of two allocated groups: Group A: domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days; and Group B: identical placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days. The primary outcome will be determined at the completion of the first 2-week period; the second 2-week period will facilitate answering the secondary questions regarding timing and duration of treatment. To detect an estimated 30% change between the two groups (from 40% to 28%, corresponding to an odds ratio of 0.6), a total sample size of 488 mothers would be required at 80% power and alpha=0.05. To account for a 15% dropout, this number is increased to 560 (280 per group). The duration of the trial is expected to be 36-40 months. The use of a galactogogue often becomes the measure of choice for mothers in the presence of insufficient breast milk production, particularly when the other techniques are unsuccessful. EMPOWER is designed to

  2. Influence of maternal breast milk ingestion on acquisition of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Samuel, Buck S; Houghteling, Pearl; Shan, Guru; Ausubel, Frederick M; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Walker, W Allan

    2016-12-30

    The initial acquisition and early development of the intestinal microbiome during infancy are important to human health across the lifespan. Mode of birth, antibiotic administration, environment of care, and nutrition have all been shown to play a role in the assembly of the intestinal microbiome during early life. For preterm infants, who are disproportionately at risk of inflammatory intestinal disease (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis), a unique set of clinical factors influence the establishment of the microbiome. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of nutritional exposures on the intestinal microbiome in a cohort of preterm infants early in life. Principal component analysis of 199 samples from 30 preterm infants (<32 weeks) over the first 60 days following birth showed that the intestinal microbiome was influenced by postnatal time (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.13), birth weight (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.08), and nutrition (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.21). Infants who were fed breast milk had a greater initial bacterial diversity and a more gradual acquisition of diversity compared to infants who were fed infant formula. The microbiome of infants fed breast milk were more similar regardless of birth weight (p = 0.049), in contrast to the microbiome of infants fed infant formula, which clustered differently based on birth weight (p < 0.001). By adjusting for differences in gut maturity, an ordered succession of microbial phylotypes was observed in breast milk-fed infants, which appeared to be disrupted in those fed infant formula. Supplementation with pasteurized donor human milk was partially successful in promoting a microbiome more similar to breast milk-fed infants and moderating rapid increases in bacterial diversity. The preterm infant intestinal microbiome is influenced by postnatal time, birth weight, gestational age, and nutrition. Feeding with breast milk appears to mask the influence of birth weight, suggesting a

  3. Effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage on macronutrients and energy content of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Vieco, Diana Escuder; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Lora-Pablos, David; Velasco, Noelia Ureta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at -20°C after pasteurization on fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content of breast milk. Both procedures are routinely practiced in human milk banks. A total of 34 samples of frozen breast milk, donated by 28 women, were collected. Once thawed, an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before pasteurization; the remaining milk was pasteurized (Holder method) and split into 8 aliquots. One aliquot was analyzed after pasteurization and the remainder frozen at -20°C and analyzed 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days later. For every aliquot, fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content were determined using the device human Milk Analyzer. We observed a significant reduction in fat (3.5%; -0.17 (-0.29; -0.04) g/dL) and energy content (2.8%; -2.03 (-3.60; -0.46) g/dL) after pasteurization. A significant decrease over time was observed for fat, lactose and energy content. No significant changes were observed for nitrogen content. Mean differences between day 0 postpasteurization and day 180 were -0.13 (-0.21; -0.06) g/dL for fat, -0.08 (-0.13; -0.03) g/dL for lactose, and -1.55 (-2.38; -0.71) kcal/dL for energy content. The relative decreases were 2.8%, 1.7%, and 2.2%, respectively. Overall (postpasteurization + frozen storage), a 6.2% and 5% decrease were observed for fat and energy, respectively. Holder pasteurization decreased fat and energy content of human milk. Frozen storage at -20°C of pasteurized milk significantly reduced fat, lactose, and energy content of human milk.

  4. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  5. “Have milk, maas or yoghurt every day”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Have milk, maas or yoghurt every day”: a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa. ... addresses concerns about possible detrimental effects of milk consumption, ... which may protect against the development of noncommunicable diseases. ... role in the regulation of body weight and bone mineral content in children.

  6. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  7. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A.; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia

  8. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bertazzoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.

  9. Effect of pasteurization on selected immune components of donated human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, J B; Unger, S; O'Connor, D L; Stone, D; Harvey, S; Clandinin, M T; Field, C J

    2011-09-01

    Pasteurized, donated milk is increasingly provided to preterm infants in the absence of mother's own milk. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pasteurization on the concentration of selected components in donated human breast milk. Donated milk from 34 mothers was pooled into 17 distinct batches (4 mothers per batch). Aliquots of each batch were then Holder pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 min). Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13 were measured in a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), heparin-binding epidermal-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were measured by ELISA. Lipids were assessed by gas chromatography and gangliosides by the resorcinol-HCl reaction. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and HGF were significantly reduced by pasteurization (PPasteurization significantly reduced the concentration of several immunoactive compounds present in breast milk, but did not have an impact on others.

  10. Analgesic effect of expressed breast milk in neonates during venipuncture in comparison with formula and 50% dextrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fariba Tarhani

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion : Expressed breast milk effectively reduces pain of venipuncture in term neonates and it could be natural, noninvasive and available analgesic particularly when mother can not be present to breastfeeding.

  11. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  12. Sex differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics in adult rats and its transfer to pups through the placental membrane and breast milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rambousek, Lukáš; Kačer, P.; Syslová, K.; Bumba, J.; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Šlamberová, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 139, JUN (2014), s. 138-144 ISSN 0376-8716 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : methamphetamine * amphetamine * pharmacokinetics * sex differences * breast feeding milk * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.423, year: 2014

  13. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  14. Occurrence of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in human breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A series of twelve breast milks was analysed by GC/MS operated in SIM mode for 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). While none of samples contained free 3-MCPD at the level exceeding the method detection limit of (3 g/kg milk), all of them contained high amount of 3-MCPD esterified with higher fatty acids. The levels of 3-MCPD released by hydrolysis of these esters (bound 3-MCPD) ranged from the limit of detection (300 g/kg, expressed on fat basis) to 2195 &#...

  15. Maintenance of breast milk Immunoglobulin A after high-pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanyer, M; Castellote, C; Ramírez-Santana, C; Audí, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Castell, M; López-Sabater, M C; Franch, A

    2010-03-01

    Human milk is considered the optimal nutritional source for infants. Banked human milk is processed using low-temperature, long-time pasteurization, which assures microbial safety but involves heat denaturation of some desirable milk components such as IgA. High-pressure processing technology, the subject of the current research, has shown minimal destruction of food macromolecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pressure treatments on IgA content. Moreover, bacterial load was evaluated after pressure treatments. The effects of high-pressure processing on milk IgA content were compared with those of low-temperature, long-time pasteurization. Mature human milk samples were heat treated at 62.5 degrees C for 30min or pressure processed at 400, 500, or 600MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C. An indirect ELISA was used to measure IgA in human milk whey obtained after centrifugation at 800xg for 10min at 4 degrees C. All 3 high-pressure treatments were as effective as low-temperature, long-time pasteurization in reducing the bacterial population of the human milk samples studied. After human milk pressure processing at 400MPa, 100% of IgA content was preserved in milk whey, whereas only 72% was retained in pasteurized milk whey. The higher pressure conditions of 500 and 600MPa produced IgA retention of 87.9 and 69.3%, respectively. These results indicate that high-pressure processing at 400MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C maintains the immunological protective capacity associated with IgA antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that high-pressure processing may be a promising alternative to pasteurization in human milk banking.

  16. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  17. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total folate and unmetabolized folic acid in the breast milk of a cross-section of Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rachael; Robichaud, André; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Folate requirements increase during pregnancy and lactation. It is recommended that women who could become pregnant, are pregnant, or are lactating consume a folic acid (FA)-containing supplement. Objectives: We sought to determine breast-milk total folate and unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) contents and their relation with FA-supplement use and doses in a cohort of Canadian mothers who were enrolled in the MIREC (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals) study. Design: Breast-milk tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyl-THF, 5-formyl-THF, 5,10-methenyl-THF, and UMFA were measured with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( n = 561). Total daily supplemental FA intake was based on self-reported FA-supplement use. Results: UMFA was detectable in the milk of 96.1% of the women. Total daily FA intake from supplements was associated with breast folate concentration and species. Breast-milk total folate was 18% higher ( P 400 μg FA/d ( P ≤ 0.004). 5-Methyl-THF was 19% lower ( P 400 μg FA/d had proportionally lower 5-methyl-THF and higher UMFA than did women who consumed ≤400 μg FA/d. Conclusions: FA-supplement use was associated with modestly higher breast-milk total folate. Detectable breast-milk UMFA was nearly ubiquitous, including in women who did not consume an FA supplement. Breast-milk UMFA was proportionally higher than 5-methyl-THF in women who consumed >400 μg FA/d, thereby suggesting that higher doses exceed the physiologic capacity to metabolize FA and result in the preferential uptake of FA in breast milk. Therefore, FA-supplement doses >400 μg may not be warranted, especially in populations for whom FA fortification is mandatory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige K. Berger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41 were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01. Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL, and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL (all p < 0.05. The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01. There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  20. The effect of pasteurization on trace elements in donor breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Taufek, N; Cartwright, D; Davies, M; Hewavitharana, A K; Koorts, P; McConachy, H; Shaw, P N; Sumner, R; Whitfield, K

    2016-10-01

    Premature infants often receive pasteurized donor human milk when mothers are unable to provide their own milk. This study aims to establish the effect of the pasteurization process on a range of trace elements in donor milk. Breast milk was collected from 16 mothers donating to the milk bank at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Samples were divided into pre- and post-pasteurization aliquots and were Holder pasteurized. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the trace elements zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), iodine (I), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo) and bromine (Br). Differences in trace elements pre- and post-pasteurization were analyzed. No significant differences were found between the trace elements tested pre- and post-pasteurization, except for Fe (Ppasteurization aliquots were-Zn: 1639 (888-4508), 1743 (878-4143), Cu: 360 (258-571), 367 (253-531), Se: 12.34 (11.73-17.60), 12.62 (11.94-16.64), Mn: (1.48 (1.01-1.75), 1.49 (1.11-1.75), I (153 (94-189), 158 (93-183), Fe (211 (171-277), 194 (153-253), Mo (1.46 (0.37-2.99), 1.42 (0.29-3.73) and Br (1066 (834-1443), 989 (902-1396). Pasteurization had minimal effect on several trace elements in donor breast milk but high levels of inter-donor variability of trace elements were observed. The observed decrease in the iron content of pasteurized donor milk is, however, unlikely to be clinically relevant.

  1. Biochemical Nutritional Parameters in Breast-milk and Plasma of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undernourishment in HIV infected individuals exacerbates immunosuppression, acceleration of HIV replication and CD4 + T cell depletion. The production of human milk (lactogenesis) is dependent on factors in the blood therefore deranged blood parameters in HIV patients are expected to reflect in the components of ...

  2. A comprehensive review of assay methods to determine drugs in breast milk and the safety of breastfeeding when taking drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fríguls, Bibiana; Joya, Xavier; García-Algar, Oscar; Pallás, C R; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona

    2010-06-01

    Most of the licit and illicit drugs consumed by the breastfeeding woman pass into the milk and can modify the production, volume and composition of the milk, as well as hypothetically have short- and long-term harmful effects on the infant. There is much confusion in the scientific community regarding this issue: should a woman breastfeed her baby while continuing to use prescription drugs and/or drugs of abuse? There are many case reports of clinically significant toxicity in breast-fed infants from some substances used by mothers (such as irritability, vomiting, sedation, respiratory depression, shock), but there are too few data on studies conducted in breastfeeding women and their infants to make a realistic risk assessment. The objective measurement of a drug and/or metabolites in maternal milk is the first step when investigating the amount of drug excreted in milk and subsequently calculating the daily dose administered to the breast-fed infant. The present review reports the analytical methods developed to detect different drugs in the breast milk, listing the principal characteristics and validation parameters, advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the mechanisms of drug transfer into breast milk are discussed, the correlation between the concentration of the drug in breast milk and potential adverse outcomes on the infant are described for each drug, and suggested harm minimization strategies and approved breastfeeding recommendations are indicated.

  3. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding

  4. Leukocytes in expressed breast milk of asthmatic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D-L; Forsyth, K D

    Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers. Twenty-five exclusively breastfeeding mothers with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were postpartum age matched in a double-control 2:1 design with 50 non-asthmatic controls. Each mother provided a single milk sample which was assayed for cell differential by flow cytometry, for ex vivo cytokine production in culture and for aqueous phase cytokines. Milks from asthmatic mothers differed from non-asthmatics in that they contained a higher proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and lower proportion of lymphocytes, predominantly CD3 + /CD4 + T helper cells, reflected by a decrease in the chemokine CCL5 in the milk aqueous phase. More PMN and lymphocytes from asthmatic mothers expressed the adhesion molecule CD11b and lymphocytes the IgE receptor CD23, than those from non-asthmatic mothers. Changes to human milk leucocyte prevalence, activation state and cytokines due to maternal asthma may result in changes to immunological priming in the infant. Consequently, the protective effect of long-term breastfeeding may be altered in these mother-infant pairs. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Breastfeeding and transmission of cytomegalovirus to preterm infants. Case report and kinetic of CMV-DNA in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bragetti, Patrizia; Sensini, Alessandra; Cenci, Elio; Castronari, Roberto; Rossi, Marta J; Fantauzzi, Ambra; Minelli, Liliana

    2011-01-19

    Breastfeeding has a major impact on CMV epidemiology. Postnatal CMV reactivation's incidence during lactation is nearby the maternal seroprevalence. Although perinatal CMV infection has practically no consequences in term newborn, it may cause, in some cases, a severe symptomatic disease in preterm newborns. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the rate and clinical expression of CMV infection breast milk transmitted in preterm infants and to check the safety of the freezing treated breast milk. The study included fifty-seven preterm infants and their CMV seropositive mothers. Fresh breast milk samples have been collected from 1(st) to 9(th) postpartum week. Both fresh breast milk and 72, 96, 120 hours frozen samples have been examined, checking the presence of CMV; urine samples have been tested too. 70.2% of tested mothers showed reactivation of the infection, and CMV-positive breast milk during the six weeks postpartum has been found. However, only one infant was infected by CMV, developing hepatic affection concomitantly with a multi-system involvement, as shown CMV DNA detection in urine, saliva, blood, gastric aspirate, and stools. Freezing breast milk at -20°C and pasteurization may respectively reduce or eliminate the viral load.

  6. Comparative Effect of the Smells of Amniotic Fluid, Breast Milk, and Lavender on Newborns' Pain During Heel Lance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, Esma; Polat, Sevinç

    2016-06-17

    The aim of this randomized controlled experimental study was to evaluate the effect of the smells of amniotic fluid, breast milk, and lavender on the pain of newborns during heel lance. The sample of the study consisted of 102 newborn infants who complied with the sampling criteria between August and November, 2011. The newborns smelled the samples (lavender, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and distilled water) for 5 minutes before the heel lance until 5 minutes afterward. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), heart rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated 1 minute before, during, and 1 minute after the heel lance. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, chi-square, intraclass correlation analysis, Spearman's rho correlation, Bonferroni's advanced analysis, Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, and Dunnett's tests. The newborns in the control group had severe pain and the newborns in the breast milk, amniotic fluid, and lavender groups had moderate pain during the heel lance (p lance, it was lower in the breast milk and amniotic fluid groups than the lavender group afterward. The lowest falls in oxygen saturation and increased in heart rate were in the breast milk and lavender groups during heel the lance. The smells of lavender and breast milk prevent the increased heart rates, NIPS, falling oxygen saturation, and reduced pain during the invasive procedures in newborns more than amniotic fluid or control group.

  7. Breastfeeding and transmission of cytomegalovirus to preterm infants. Case report and kinetic of CMV-DNA in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Marta J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has a major impact on CMV epidemiology. Postnatal CMV reactivation's incidence during lactation is nearby the maternal seroprevalence. Although perinatal CMV infection has practically no consequences in term newborn, it may cause, in some cases, a severe symptomatic disease in preterm newborns. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the rate and clinical expression of CMV infection breast milk transmitted in preterm infants and to check the safety of the freezing treated breast milk. Methods The study included fifty-seven preterm infants and their CMV seropositive mothers. Fresh breast milk samples have been collected from 1st to 9th postpartum week. Both fresh breast milk and 72, 96, 120 hours frozen samples have been examined, checking the presence of CMV; urine samples have been tested too. Results 70.2% of tested mothers showed reactivation of the infection, and CMV-positive breast milk during the six weeks postpartum has been found. However, only one infant was infected by CMV, developing hepatic affection concomitantly with a multi-system involvement, as shown CMV DNA detection in urine, saliva, blood, gastric aspirate, and stools. Conclusion Freezing breast milk at -20°C and pasteurization may respectively reduce or eliminate the viral load.

  8. Soluble CD14 in human breast milk and its role in innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, K; Labéta, M O; Schiffrin, E J; Donnet-Hughes, A

    2001-10-01

    Immune factors secreted in milk are important for health in the neonatal gut. We have detected the bacterial pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14 (sCD14) in human breast milk at different times during lactation. The molecule occurs in a single form in milk, in contrast to human serum, in which there are two isoforms. Produced by mammary epithelial cells, milk sCD14 mediates secretion of innate immune response molecules such as interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and epithelial neutrophil activator-78 by CD14-negative intestinal epithelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacteria. Although present at low concentrations in milk, LPS-binding protein may be implicated in the biological effects observed. Our findings support the premise that milk sCD14 acts as a 'sentinel' molecule and immune modulator in homeostasis and in the defense of the neonatal intestine. In so doing, it may prevent the immune and inflammatory conditions of the gut to which non-breastfed infants are predisposed.

  9. How UK internet websites portray breast milk expression and breast pumps: a qualitative study of content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Arbuckle, Alix; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-04-02

    Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is recommended but few parents achieve this; particularly younger and less well-educated mothers. Many parents introduce infant formula milk to manage feeding but describe a desire to express breastmilk alongside a lack of support or information. The Internet is highlighted as a key resource. This study aimed to examine UK websites on expressing breastmilk to identify key messages and how information is provided. We used search terms in Google to identify websites with information rich content on expressing breastmilk and breast pumps. Ten sites were purposively selected at two time points in 2013 and 2014 to represent 3 categories: commercial, NHS or 3(rd) sector (voluntary or not for profit). Each site was reviewed by two researchers, data and reflective analytical notes were uploaded into NVivo and thematic data analysis undertaken. Sites varied considerably in their design, use of images, videos, audio files, product placement and marketing opportunities. Three key themes emerged: depiction of expressing; reasons to express; and recommendations about expressing. Inconsistent and conflicting information was common within and between sites. Expressing was portrayed as similar to, but easier than, breastfeeding although at the same time difficult and requiring to be learned. Expressed breastmilk is promoted by mainly commercial sites as immediately available, although pumps were also presented as needing to be concealed, not heard or seen. Health benefits were the overarching reason for expressing. Although predicated on separation from the baby, commercial sites identified this as a positive choice while other sites focused on separation due to circumstance. Commercial sites emphasised restrictions related to breastfeeding, lack of sleep and bonding with the father and wider family. Non-commercial sites emphasised hand expression, with some not mentioning breast pumps. Practical information about starting expressing in

  10. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children...... during an epidemic with Vibrio cholerae El Tor in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Eighty mothers with clinical cholera and their children were identified, and interviewed. Blood samples for vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies were collected from mother-and-child pairs. Breast milk samples were...... collected from lactating mothers.Cholera was defined as acute watery diarrhea during the epidemic and a vibriocidal reciprocal titer of 20 or above. RESULTS: Three (7%) of 42 breastfed children had cholera as defined above compared with 9 (24%) of 38 nonbreastfed children (RR for breastfed children, 0...

  11. Milk consumption and hydration status of exclusively breast-fed infants in a warm climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Creed de Kanashiro, H; del Aguila, R; Lopez de Romana, G; Black, R E

    1986-05-01

    To assess the hydration status of 40 exclusively breast-fed Peruvian infants, their milk intake and urinary volume and concentration were measured during 8-hour daytime observations. Maximum home temperatures ranged between 26 degrees and 33 degrees C; environmental relative humidity ranged between 49% and 96%. The infants consumed between 105 and 528 gm milk during the observation period; the standardized intakes ranged between 4.0 and 12.1 gm/kg body weight per hour (mean +/- SD 7.5 +/- 1.7 gm). The infants voided between 0.9 and 6.3 ml urine per kilogram of body weight per hour (mean +/- SD 3.4 +/- 1.3 ml). The maximum urinary specific gravity in each infant ranged between 1.003 and 1.017. We conclude that healthy infants can maintain adequate hydration status while exclusively breast-fed under these environmental conditions.

  12. Breastfeeding after Anesthesia: A Review for Anesthesia Providers Regarding the Transfer of Medications into Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Benjamin; Liu, Renyu; Valentine, Elizabeth; Onuoha, Onyi

    Doctors, nurses, and midwives often inform mothers to "pump and dump" their breast milk for 24 hours after receiving anesthesia to avoid passing medications to the infant. This advice, though cautious, is probably outdated. This review highlights the more recent literature regarding common anesthesia medications, their passage into breast milk, and medication effects observed in breastfed infants. We suggest continuing breastfeeding after anesthesia when the mother is awake, alert, and able to hold her infant. We recommend multiple types of medications for pain relief while minimizing sedating medications. Few medications can have sedating effects to the infant, but those medications are specifically outlined. For additional safety, anesthesia providers and patients may screen medications using the National Institute of Health' LactMed database.

  13. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  14. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  15. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresh Lynn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i. and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days. Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the

  16. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J.; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P.; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus...

  17. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2 or excess weight (BMIz≥2. Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001 and maternal body mass index (BMI (r=0.113; p=0.002. The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006 and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002. There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age.

  18. Breast milk banking: current opinion and practice in Australian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eva Y; Kecskés, Zsuzsoka; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E

    2012-09-01

    To find out the knowledge and attitudes of health-care professionals (HCPs) in Australian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) towards breast milk banking (BMBg) and pasteurised donated breast milk (PDBM). Cross-sectional structured survey of HCPs in all 25 NICUs in Australia. Response rate was 43.4% (n= 358 of 825). Participants included nurses and midwives (291, 81.3%) and the remainder were neonatologists and neonatal trainees (67, 18.7%). A variable number of HCPs agreed that PDBM would decrease the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (81%) and allergies (48.9%), 8.4% thought PDBM will carry risk of infections and 78.8% agreed that PDBM is preferable over formula, but only 67.5% thought that establishing breast milk banks (BMBs) are justifiable. Significant differences were found between doctors and nurses/midwives, with 19.4% of doctors compared with 5.8% of nurses/midwives agreed that PDBM carried an increased risk of infection. Although, over 90% of nurses/midwives and 70% of doctors agreed that the donation of breast milk is important, only 71% of nurses/midwives and 52.2% of doctors thought that setting up a BMB was justifiable. The opinions about BMBg differ widely between HCPs; however, the majority support the practice. HCPs had different knowledge gaps in regard to BMBg. Nurses/midwives positively view the practice of BMBg more strongly compared with neonatologists. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Early provision of oropharyngeal colostrum leads to sustained breast milk feedings in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Snyder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal colostrum (OC application strategies have been shown to be feasible and safe for very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Evidence to support the nutritional and clinical advantages of OC care remains somewhat theoretical. The objectives of this study were to a confirm the feasibility and safety of OC application in preterm infants and b determine if OC application is associated with improved nutritional and clinical outcomes from birth to discharge. We hypothesized that OC application in the first few days would promote sustained breast milk feedings through discharge. Methods: An observational longitudinal study was conducted in 133 VLBW infants during 2013–14, after an OC protocol was adopted. Maternal and infant characteristics, infant vital signs during administration, nutritional outcomes, and common neonatal morbidities were assessed and compared to 85 age- and weight-matched VLBW infants from a retrospective control cohort from 2012, prior to the implementation of the OC protocol. Results: There were no adverse events or changes in vital signs during the application of OC. VLBW infants who received OC continued to receive the majority of their enteral feeds from human breast milk at six 6 of age and through discharge (p < 0.01. There was no difference in maternal characteristics known to affect breast milk production, and rates of common neonatal morbidities were statistically similar between groups. Conclusion: OC application for VLBW infants is safe and practical in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and is associated with increased rates of breast milk feeding. Key Words: oropharyngeal colostrum, infant nutrition, prematurity, neonatology

  20. Study of Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant in Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Esfandtari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMFin the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 190 mothers who referring to Yazd health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 10.14±2.00 (out of 14 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 10.12±2.015 (out of 14. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 72.9%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (24.5% and good growth (55.3%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude and maternal knowledge towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive knowledge and attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  1. Duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Joan; McGilligan, Kathryn; Kelly, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Maternal employment has been one of the greatest barriers to breastfeeding. Women are increasingly solving this problem by expressing milk at work and taking it home to their infants. The objective was to determine duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program. Retrospective reviews were conducted on the lactation records of 462 women employed by 5 corporations in order to describe and characterize their experiences. The lactation program included the employees' choice of (a) a class on the benefits of breastfeeding; (b) services of a certified lactation consultant (CLC); and (c) private room in the workplace with equipment for pumping. Breastfeeding was initiated by 97.5% of the participants, with 57.8% continuing for at least 6 months. Of the 435 (94.2%) who returned to work after giving birth, 343 (78.9%) attempted pumping milk at work, and 336 (98%) were successful. They expressed milk in the workplace for a mean of 6.3 months (SD = 3.9, range 2 weeks to 21 months). The mean age of infants when the mothers stopped pumping at work was 9.1 months (SD = 4.1, range 1.9 to 25 months). Most of the women who pumped their milk at work were working full time (84.2%). The mean postnatal maternity leave was 2.8 months. The proportion of women who chose to pump at work was higher among women who were salaried than among those who were paid hourly wages (p < 0.01). Company-sponsored lactation programs can enable employed mothers to provide breast milk for their infants as long as they wish, thus helping the nation attain the Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% of mothers breastfeeding until their infants are 6-months-old.

  2. Micronutrient supplements during pregnancy and/or lactation in Malawi and Ghana increase breast milk B-vitamins [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few data available on the effect of micronutrient (MN) supplementation interventions during pregnancy/lactation on breast milk (BM) MN concentrations. Exclusive breast feeding is recommended fort 6mo and BM-MN concentrations are important determinants of infant MN status, growth and devel...

  3. Metabolic fate of neutral human milk oligosaccharides in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotz, Viktoria; Rudloff, Silvia; Meyer, Christina; Lochnit, Günter; Kunz, Clemens

    2015-02-01

    Various biological effects have been postulated for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies. Little is known about their metabolic fate in vivo in the breast-fed infant, which is presented here. Human milk and infant urine and feces were collected from ten mother-child pairs and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS (/MS), accompanied by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Previously, we detected intact small and complex HMO in infant urine, which had been absorbed from gut, as verified via intrinsic (13) C-labeling. Our current work reveals the presence of novel HMO metabolites in urine and feces of breast-fed infants. The novel metabolites were identified as acetylated HMOs and other HMO-like structures, produced by the infants or by their gut microbiota. The finding of secretor- or Lewis-specific HMO in the feces/urine of infants fed with nonsecretor or Lewis-negative milk suggested a correspondent modification in the infant. Our study reveals new insights into the metabolism of neutral HMO in exclusively breast-fed infants and provides further indications for multiple factors influencing HMO metabolism and functions that should be considered in future in vivo investigations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2 to 4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 tolinear regression. The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; pintroduction (r=-0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. THE IMPACT OF CONSUMING AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS L EXTRACT ON PROLACTIN LEVEL AND BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okta Kuswaningrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the best natural nutrient for the baby. However, some mothers have problems with breastfeeding due to lack of breast milk production. Spinach leaf (Amaranthus Spinosus L is considered as one of the plants that have the effect of non-synthesis lactagogues to increase milk production. Objective: To analysis the effect of spinach leaf (Amaranthus Spinosus L extract on prolactin and breast milk production in postpartum mothers. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest posttest with control group design conducted in the Community Health Center of Wonogiri II from December 2016 to January 2017. There were 30 participants were selected using purposive sampling, with 15 participants assigned in the experiment and control group. Data were analyzed using independent and paired t-test. Results: The results showed significant differences in prolactin levels (p = 0.000, breast milk production (p = 0.000, and infant weight (p = 0.000 (<0.05 after given spinach leaf (Amaranthus Spinosus L extract. Conclusion: Spinach leaf (Amaranthus Spinosus L extract had a significant effect in increasing the prolactin levels and breast milk production in postpartum mothers.

  6. IINFLUENCE OF FREEZING AND PROLONGED STORAGE OF EXPRESSED BREAST MILK ON ITS NUTRITIVE, BIOLOGICAL VALUES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of prolonged storage of breast milk safety for nutrition of newborns remains actual problem of modern nutritiology. Objectives: to evaluate an influence of freezing and prolonged storage of expressed breast milk on its nutritive, biological values and microbiological safety. Methods: samples of expressed breast milk (native samples and after 1 and 3 months of storage in containers Philips AVENT in t -18°С were analyzed; levels of secretory IgA, lysozyme, transforming growth factor (TGF β1, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, buffer capacity and bacterial cells were detected. Results: there is no statistically significant influence of low temperature and prolonged storage of expressed breast milk on levels of secretory IgA, lysozyme, TGF β1 and bacterial cells. Potassium and calcium levels significantly decreased (on about 10% and 20% accordingly, pH increased, and buffer capacity of milk lowered after freezing during 3 months. Conclusion: children’s feeding with native and expressed breast milk defrosted after 3 months of storage is equal in nutritive and biological values and microbiological safety.

  7. Behind human milk and breastfeeding: not only food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo; Pepaj, Orsiol; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2017-12-26

    After birth, breastfeeding should not be considered only a normal and physiological event; in fact, it encloses both physical and the psychological aspects. Human milk cannot be compared to any formula milk. Specifically, human milk has immunological and nutritional properties and it is considered the best available option which guarantees an adequate growth and an optimal development of a child. Differences in term of mediators and hormones have been shown between infants who were breastfed and ones who were not. A key point is represented by unmeasurable environmental and psycho-affective factors. So, it may be simplistic to consider human milk only as a nutrient; since it encompasses much more. The aim of our commentary is to review clinical studies about breastfeeding, analysing its consequences on the neuro-developmental achievement, growth and risk of obesity within a holistic view.

  8. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  9. Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Jessica; Alexander, Brenda; Hart, Ann Marie; Austin, Kathleen; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2013-07-01

    The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with maternal and infant anthropometrics. Thirteen postpartum women (mean ± SD: 25.6 ± 4.5 years, 72.0 ± 11.9 kg) provided fore- and hindmilk samples 4-5 weeks after delivery and underwent measurements of body weight and composition by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. GLP-1, PYY, and leptin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay, and milk fat content was determined by creamatocrit. Concentration of GLP-1 and content of milk fat was higher in hindmilk than foremilk (P ≤ 0.05). PYY and leptin concentrations did not change between fore- and hindmilk. Both leptin concentration and milk fat content were correlated with indices of maternal adiposity, including body mass index (r = 0.65-0.85, P milk may be important in infant appetite and growth regulation. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test

  11. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  12. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  13. The Artificial Milk Feeding or Breast Feeding: Context Dependant Practices. Brazil, 1960-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period – 1960 – is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek’s Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period – 1988 – characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women’s condition, women’s valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the discourses were totally on this usage defense, minimizing women’s daily difficulties.

  14. When Breast Milk Alone Is Not Enough: Barriers to Breastfeeding Continuation among Overweight and Obese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T

    2016-05-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with decreased breastfeeding duration. This study aimed to identify barriers to breastfeeding continuation among overweight and obese mothers. A retrospective cohort study examining breastfeeding continuation barriers was conducted using results of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey from Illinois, Maine, and Vermont from 2004 to 2008. SAS Complex Survey version 9.3 was used for analysis. Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 3717 (19%) were obese and 4367 (23%) were overweight. Overall, 14,731 women initiated breastfeeding, and 6467 discontinued breastfeeding prior to survey completion, around 4 months postpartum. The most common reasons that mothers reported for discontinuing breastfeeding were insufficient milk supply, infant not satisfied with breast milk alone, and breastfeeding difficulty. Overweight and obese women, compared with women of normal weight, had higher odds of discontinuing breastfeeding because their babies were not satisfied by breast milk alone (overweight: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.68; obese: OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.03-1.54). Obese mothers, compared with normal weight mothers, had lower odds of discontinuing breastfeeding because it felt like the right time (OR = 0.64, 95% CI, 0.47-0.88) and higher odds of discontinuing due to breastfeeding difficulties (OR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.05-1.58) and infant jaundice (OR = 1.81, 95% CI, 1.26-2.60). Obese and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to discontinue breastfeeding due to infant dissatisfaction with breast milk alone. Obese mothers had higher odds than normal weight mothers of discontinuing breastfeeding due to breastfeeding difficulties and infant jaundice. Breastfeeding education and support should be enhanced for this at-risk population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Compliance status of product labels to the international code on marketing of breast milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Hatipoğlu, Celile; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Erdoğan, Aslı; Güler, Serdar; Ince, Gülberat; Kavurgacı, Nuran; Oz, Ahmet; Yeniay, Mustafa K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a convenience sample of five supermarkets, one store and 5 pharmacies in the City centre and district of Honaz. Using a data collection form prepared by previously published studies, data were collected between July 26, 2010 and August 06, 2010. Data collection form included 13 criteria. In addition, we checked the boxes for the availability of a Turkish written label. Forty product labels of 7 companies were reached and evaluated. These products consisted of 83.0% of the products marketed by these companies in Turkey. Thirty seven (92.5%) of the labels violated Article 9 of the Code in terms of one or more criteria. Thirty four (85.0%) of the labels had photos or pictures idealizing the use of infant formula. Nine (22.5%) had a photo, a picture or any representation of an infant, and five (12.5%) had text which idealize the use of infant formula or discouraging breastfeeding. Eight (20%) did not state that breastfeeding is the best. Four (10%) had a term such as 'similar to breast milk or human milk'. In conclusion, the majority of the product labels of breast milk substitutes marketed in our country violate the Code. It is appropriate that the Turkish Ministry of Health, medical organizations, companies, and NGOs work more actively to increase awareness of this issue.

  16. Isotopic evaluation of breast milk intake, energy metabolism, growth and body composition of exclusively breast fed infants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, Z.A.; Weaver, L.; Preston, T.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable evidence to support the view that the current growth standards for infants, which are in-use globally, may be inappropriate. This is based on the observation that these were derived from largely formula-fed western populations and recent studies documenting that exclusively breastfed young infants exhibit a lower growth trajectory. However, there are few studies objectively evaluating energy metabolism, body composition and growth in exclusively breastfed infants, and none in developing countries. We propose to evaluate this longitudinally in an appropriate sample of exclusively breast fed newborn infants in Pakistan. These newborn infants will be well characterized at birth and sequential measurements of breast milk intake and energy expenditure will be made using doubly labeled water, big-impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. (author)

  17. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  18. Subclinical mastitis occurs frequently in association with dramatic changes in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory breast milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaillon, Edouard; Viljoen, Johanes; Dujols, Pierre; Cambonie, Gilles; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Nagot, Nicolas; Bland, Ruth M; Badiou, Stéphanie; Newell, Marie-Louise; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is a frequent, but poorly characterized entity that may influence immune development of breastfed infants. Mechanisms driving the emergence of SCM and changes in immunological content of human milk during SCM remain to be explored. In this study, the breast milk environment was to describe during SCM. One hundred and ten samples of mature breast milk were collected from 44 healthy, HIV-negative mothers, included in a large infant feeding intervention cohort (ANRS 1271/Vertical Transmission Study). Immune markers related to inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balances and secreted in response to bacterial exposure were explored in SCM breast milk samples (Na/K ratio > 1) and compared to non-SCM controls. SCM was observed in 23% of women (95% confidence interval (CI): 21-24) and associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers (β2 microgobulin, PS100A9, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and RANTES) and Th1-related cytokines (IL-2R, IL-12p40/70, IFN-α, IFN-γ, CXCL-9, andIP-10). High levels of factors secreted in response to bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure were observed in SCM breast milk samples (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, LPS binding protein, α-defensins, and antileukoproteinase 1). SCM is associated with important changes in breast milk microenvironment, with a proinflammatory/Th1-cytokine predominant profile. During SCM, cytokine imbalances in breast milk may have a notable influence on mucosal immune system of the infant early in life.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the serum and breast milk of the resident population from production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province in China, but little is known about the PBDE exposure level of residents to these compounds. We set out to assess potential health risks of PBDEs in the south coast area of the Laizhou Bay by determining the concentrations of PBDEs in serum and breast milk. We measured concentrations of eight PBDE congeners in serum and breast milk. The arithmetic means of Sigma(8)PBDE in pooled serum and breast milk were 613 ng/g lipid and 81.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The highest concentration for Sigma(8)PBDE in all serum pools was 1830 ng/g lipid from the 41-50 year old female group. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, with the mean concentrations of 403 ng/g lipid in serum and 45.6 ng/g lipid in breast milk, respectively. BDE-209 averagely accounted for 65.8% and 54.2% of the total PBDEs, respectively. Our results suggest that high exposures to PBDEs have led to very high PBDE concentrations in serum and breast milk from the residents living in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay. High PBDE concentrations in human serum, particularly in women, pose a potential public health threat to local residents.

  20. Bacterial microbiome of breast milk and child saliva from low-income Mexican-American women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Veronica; Street, Kelly; Francis, Stephen; Bradman, Asa; Riley, Lee; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2016-06-01

    The childhood salivary microbiome, which plays an important role in healthy development, may be influenced by breast milk consumption. The composition of the milk microbiome and the role it plays in the establishment of the infant microbiome are not well understood. Here, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities in breast milk and 5-year-old child saliva from 10 low-income, Mexican-American mother-child pairs with a high prevalence of obesity. Members of the genus Streptococcus dominated both milk and salivary microbial communities in most subjects. Staphylococcus was observed predominately in milk samples while Prevotella was more prevalent in child saliva. No statistically significant relationships were observed between maternal and child microbiomes or between child microbiome and BMI. However, prepregnancy BMI was correlated with both lower Streptococcus abundance (r = -0.67) and higher microbial diversity (r = 0.77) in breast milk (P milk and salivary microbiomes in mother-child pairs and may inform future studies seeking to elucidate the relationship between early-life microbial exposures and pediatric health.

  1. Bacterial invasion of HT29-MTX-E12 monolayers: effects of human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; Dymock, David; Corfield, Anthony P; Weaver, Gillian; Woodward, Mark; Berry, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The supramucosal gel, crucial for gut barrier function, might be compromised in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Breast milk is associated with a reduced incidence of NEC. We compared the effects of human breast milk (BM) versus a neonatal formula, Nutriprem 1 (FF), on adherence, internalisation, and penetration of NEC-associated Escherichia coli through monolayers of mucus producing intestinal cells, HT29-MTX-E12 (E12). E12 cells were grown to confluence on membranes permeable to bacteria. E. coli, reference strain and isolated from a NEC-affected intestine, were cultured in LB broth, labelled with fluorescein and biotinylated. Bacteria were suspended in tissue culture medium (TC) or mixtures of TC with BM or FF and applied to the E12 cultures. Bacterial numbers were assessed by fluorescence. DyLight 650-labelled neutravidin, which cannot cross cell membrane, evaluated extracellular bacteria. Fluorescence of basolateral medium was measured to quantify translocation. Bacterial concentrations were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. After 1h exposure, E12 cultures adhered or internalised more NEC-derived bacteria than standard strain E. coli and more suspended in FF than BM (Pmilk was associated with relatively less adhesion and internalisation of NEC-associated E. coli to mucus covered E12s compared to formula milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Polidori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g, very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g. Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  3. Effects of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 on a murine breast cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra de; Matar, Chantal; LeBlanc, Nicole; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to the lactic acid bacteria and their products of fermentation. Previous studies in mice demonstrated that bioactive compounds released in milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 contribute to its immunoenhancing and antitumour properties. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of the consumption of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 or its proteolytic-deficient variant, L. helveticus L89, on a murine hormone-dependent breast cancer model. Mice were fed with milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 or L. helveticus L89, during 2 or 7 days. The tumour control group received no special feeding. At the end of the feeding period, the mice were challenged by a subcutaneous injection of tumour cells in the mammary gland. Four days post-injection, the mice received fermented milk on a cyclical basis. The rate of tumour development and the cytokines in serum, mammary gland tissue and tumour-isolated cells were monitored. Bcl-2-positive cells in mammary glands and cellular apoptosis in tumour tissue were also studied. Seven days of cyclical administration of milk fermented by either bacterial strain delayed or stopped the tumour development. Cytokines demonstrated that L. helveticus R389 modulated the immune response challenged by the tumour. IL-10 and IL-4 were increased in all the samples from this group. In comparison with the tumour control, all test groups showed a decrease of IL-6, a cytokine involved in oestrogen synthesis. Seven days of cyclical feeding with milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 produced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, compared with all other groups. This study demonstrated that 7 days of cyclical administration of milk fermented by both strains of L. helveticus diminishes tumour growth, stimulating an antitumour immune response. Compounds released during milk fermentation with L. helveticus R389 would be implicated in its immunoregulatory capacity

  4. Bacterial Contamination of Expressed Breast Milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Karimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The milks expressed from the mothers’ breast might be infected during squeeze, storage and/or transmission. The infection level has been reported as different in various studies up to 97 percent. The main purpose of this study is to determine the infection level and its relevant organisms as well as to specify drug allergy of the expressed milks from the mothers with their infant admitted to NICU ward. Materials and Methods: In this study, among the expressed milks from 80 mothers, were cultured each in an amount of 0.5-1cc and antibiotic discs selected for every strain was placed.Results: The results indicate that 85 percent of samples were infected and dominant microorganisms were firstly Klebsiella (13.7% and then S. epidermidis (12.5%. In addition, 95% of Gram negative bacteria strains were susceptible to imipenem. The most effective antibiotic on isolated staphylococci was ceftizoxime (46.6% resistance. The colony count in 32.4% gram negative bacteria and in 66.7% gram positive bacteria was between 104 to 105 CFU/ml and the remaining was above 105 CFU/ml (p=0.02. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between bacterial infection of the expressed milks with the site of milk expressing (house or hospital, mode of expressing (by pump or hand, storage duration and the mother’s demographic characteristics including age and/or literacy.Conclusion: The studies show that infection prevalence in the milk samples was 85%; the most common infection factor was Klebsiella and then S. epidermidis that is indicative of high prevalence of hospital infection (nosocomial infection in the infants ward.

  5. Strontium biokinetic model for the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk: application to Techa River studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Fell, T P; Smith, T J; Harrison, J D

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biokinetic model for strontium metabolism in the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk for members of Techa River communities exposed as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. This model was based on that developed for the International Commission for Radiological Protection with modifications to account for population specific features of breastfeeding and maternal bone mineral metabolism. The model is based on a biokinetic model for the adult female with allowances made for changes in mineral metabolism during periods of exclusive and partial breast-feeding. The model for females of all ages was developed earlier from extensive data on 90 Sr-body measurements for Techa Riverside residents. Measurements of 90 Sr concentrations in the maternal skeleton and breast milk obtained in the1960s during monitoring of global fallout in the Southern Urals region were used for evaluation of strontium transfer to breast and breast milk. The model was validated with independent data from studies of global fallout in Canada and measurements of 90 Sr body-burden in women living in the Techa River villages who were breastfeeding during maximum 90 Sr-dietary intakes. The model will be used in evaluations of the intake of strontium radioisotopes in breast milk by children born in Techa River villages during the radioactive releases and quantification of 90 Sr retention in the maternal skeleton. (paper)

  6. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in South China maternal and fetal blood and breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi Xinhui [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Qu Weiyue [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sheng Guoying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang Wenbing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Dunjin [Obstetrical and Gynecological Institute, Guangzhou Second People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510150 (China); Yu Lin [Obstetrical and Gynecological Institute, Guangzhou Second People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510150 (China); Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China) and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)]. E-mail: fujm@gig.ac.cn

    2006-12-15

    Twenty-one-paired human fetal and maternal serum and 27 breast milk samples at South China were analyzed for concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Seven PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This is the first report to present the residue levels of PBDEs in human samples of China. The concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from 1.5 to 17 ng/g in the samples and were within the range reported in European samples for a similar population, but lower than human tissue levels in North America. BDE-47 and -153 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all samples and accounted for 60% of the total PBDEs. Further research is needed to determine the exposure route of PBDEs and their health effects. - A survey of PBDE concentrations in human blood and milk helps identify background concentrations in South China population.

  8. ß-defensin-2 in breast milk displays a broad antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Baricelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of ß-defensin-2 produced in the mammary gland and secreted in human breast milk. METHODS: The peptide production was performed by DNA cloning. ß-defensin-2 levels were quantified in 61 colostrum samples and 39 mature milk samples from healthy donors, by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using halo inhibition assay, this study assessed activity against seven clinical isolates from diarrheal feces of children between 0 and 2 years of age. The activity of ß-defensin-2 against three opportunistic pathogens that can cause nosocomial infections was determined by microdilution test. RESULTS: The peptide levels were higher in colostrum (n = 61 than in mature milk samples (n = 39, as follows: median and range, 8.52 (2.6-16.3 µg/ml versus 0.97 (0.22-3.78, p < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney test. The recombinant peptide obtained showed high antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria. Its antibacterial activity was demonstrated in a disk containing between 1-4 µg, which produced inhibition zones ranging from 18 to 30 mm against three isolates of Salmonella spp. and four of E. coli. ß-defensin-2 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL for S. marcescen and P. aeruginosa, respectively, while a higher MIC (4 µg/mL was obtained against an isolated of multidrug-resistant strain of A. baumannii. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report ß-defensin-2 levels in Latin American women. The production and the activity of ß-defensin-2 in breast milk prove its importance as a defense molecule for intestinal health in pediatric patients.

  9. Regional variation and possible sources of brominated contaminants in breast milk from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Ito, Yoshiko; Harada, Kouji H.; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the regional trends and possible sources of brominated organic contaminants accumulated in breast milk from mothers in southeastern (Okinawa) and northwestern (Hokkaido) areas of Japan. For persistent brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; major components, BDE-47 and BDE-153) were distributed at higher levels in mothers from Okinawa (mean, 2.1 ng/g lipid), while hexabromobenzene (HeBB) and its metabolite 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene were more abundantly detected in mothers from Hokkaido (0.86 and 2.6 ng/g lipid), suggesting that there are regional differences in their exposure in Japan. We also detected naturally produced brominated compounds, one of which was identified as 2′-methoxy-2,3′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′-MeO-BDE68) at higher levels in mothers from Okinawa (0.39 ng/g lipid), while the other was identified as 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromo-5,5′-dichloro-2,2′-dimethyl-1,1′-bipyrrole in mothers from Hokkaido (0.45 ng/g lipid). The regional variation may be caused by source differences, i.e. southern seafood for MeO-PBDEs and northern biota for halogenated bipyrroles in the Japanese coastal water. - Highlights: ► In this study, we detected brominated organic contaminants in Japanese breast milk. ► Naturally produced brominated organic contaminants were also detected. ► Northern and southern Japan showed regional differences in these contaminants. ► Exposure to the contaminants is suggested to arise from different specific sources. - Brominated organic contaminants were detected in Japanese breast milk.

  10. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and prevalence of allergic disorders in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Masuzaki, Yuko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshirou; Chisaki, Youichi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been shown to have immunomodulating effects in humans. However, epidemiological evidence regarding the relationships between organochlorine compound exposure and allergic disorders coming from studies of children has been limited and inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the associations between the concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk and the prevalence of allergic disorders in 124 adult Japanese women. The definition of wheeze and asthma was based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas that of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, family history of allergic disorders, and education. The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 9.7%, 4.8%, 13.7%, and 29.8%, respectively. The median concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk were 28.3, 7.0, 71.6, and 23.9 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively (range, 4.5-253, 2.1-14.5, 7.5-362, and 1.8-130 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively). When the exposures were treated as continuous variables, no significant associations were found between concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDE, or trans-nonachlordane and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Our results suggest that concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk are not evidently associated with the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis in young female Japanese adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinova, Marie; Kuda, Ondrej; Hansikova, Jana; Rombaldova, Martina; Balas, Laurence; Bardova, Kristina; Durand, Thierry; Rossmeisl, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Stranak, Zbynek; Kopecky, Jan

    2018-02-01

    To achieve optimal development of a newborn, breastfeeding is extensively recommended, but little is known about the role of non-nutritive bioactive milk components. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), namely palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs)-endogenous lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, in human breast milk. Breast milk samples from 30 lean (BMI=19-23) and 23 obese (BMI>30) women were collected 72h postpartum. Adipose tissue and milk samples were harvested from C57BL/6J mice. FAHFA lipid profiles were measured using reverse phase and chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. PAHSA regioisomers as well as other FAHFAs were present in both human and murine milk. Unexpectedly, the levels of 5-PAHSA were higher relative to other regioisomers. The separation of both regioisomers and enantiomers of PAHSAs revealed that both R- and S-enantiomers were present in the biological samples, and that the majority of the 5-PAHSA signal is of R configuration. Total PAHSA levels were positively associated with weight gain during pregnancy, and 5-PAHSA as well as total PAHSA levels were significantly lower in the milk of the obese compared to the lean mothers. Our results document for the first time the presence of lipid mediators from the FAHFA family in breast milk, while giving an insight into the stereochemistry of PAHSAs. They also indicate the negative effect of obesity on 5-PAHSA levels. Future studies will be needed to explore the role and mechanism of action of FAHFAs in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Milk, social acceptance of a new food in Europe: Catalonia, 19th-20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau-Nos, Roser; Pujol-Andreu, Josep; Hernández, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    In this article we analyse the time course of the consumption of fresh milk in different regions of Europe between the 1870s and 1930s. Working from the case of Catalonia, we affirm that the increasing consumption of milk in that period must be especially linked to the spreading of new scientific knowledge in microbiology and nutrition that followed Pasteur's discoveries. We particularly highlight the information dissemination activities in this direction carried out by health sector professionals (medical doctors and pharmacists), governing local institutions and the milk industry. The initiatives developed by these groups changed people's preferences--fresh milk became accepted as a necessary food-stuff, and demand for it increased. However, the evolution of consumption was not the same in all regions of Europe due to their different environmental and agronomic conditions.

  13. Milk and other dairy foods and risk of hip fracture in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskanich, D; Meyer, H E; Fung, T T; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A; Willett, W C

    2018-02-01

    The role of dairy foods for hip fracture prevention remains controversial. In this study, among US men and women, a glass of milk per day was associated with an 8% lower risk of hip fracture. This contrasts with a reported increased risk with higher milk intake in Swedish women. The purpose of this study was to examine whether higher milk and dairy food consumption are associated with risk of hip fracture in older adults following a report of an increased risk for milk in Swedish women. In two US cohorts, 80,600 postmenopausal women and 43,306 men over 50 years of age were followed for up to 32 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative risks (RR) of hip fracture per daily serving of milk (240 mL) and other dairy foods that were assessed every 4 years, controlling for other dietary intakes, BMI, height, smoking, activity, medications, and disease diagnoses. Two thousand one hundred thirty-eight incident hip fractures were identified in women and 694 in men. Each serving of milk per day was associated with a significant 8% lower risk of hip fracture in men and women combined (RR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 0.97). A suggestive inverse association was found for cheese in women only (RR = 0.91, CI 0.81 to 1.02). Yogurt consumption was low and not associated with risk. Total dairy food intake, of which milk contributed about half, was associated with a significant 6% lower risk of hip fracture per daily serving in men and women (RR = 0.94, CI 0.90 to 0.98). Calcium, vitamin D, and protein from non-dairy sources did not modify the association between milk and hip fracture, nor was it explained by contributions of these nutrients from milk. In this group of older US adults, higher milk consumption was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture.

  14. Knowledge and Behaviors about Breast Milk and Breastfeeding on Mothers who have 0–24 Months Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diren Kaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is done to mothers who applied to Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic, for determining the mothers’ knowledge, attitude about breastfeeding and breast milk. METHOD: This descriptive type study was practiced with a questionnaire form which is including 44 questions by the 453 mothers who has 0–24 month children applied to the Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic for consultation. RESULTS: The age mean of the mothers comprised in the research is 28.04±5.49 years old. %56.5 of mothers have got information about breast milk and breastfeeding before birth. Course of to get information was %64.0 in postpartum time. %80.6 of mothers have give breast milk as first nutriment to their babies. %49.9 of mothers have suckled their babies in first hour after the birth. %90.9 of mothers said that they have give the colostrum to their babies. Babies breastfeeding time average was 6.66±5.37 months. Breastfeeding time average is low because of babies low age average. In study; %65.3 of babies are nourished with breast milk in first month and this rate as %60.0 in fourth month. This rate has decreased to %28.0 end of the sixth month. CONCLUSION: Consequently the mothers who applied to Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic, percent of feeding with breast milk after the birth is high. However the percent of nursing with only breast milk is low in first six month and percent of starting to additional nourishment is high in early period. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2009; 8(6: 479-484

  15. In which regions is breast-feeding safer from the impact of toxic elements from the environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Cinar, Nursan; Ozdemir, Sami; Yucel, Oya; Ucar, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, breast milk is the most important food source for infants. But, children are at greater risk for exposure to environmental toxicants from breast milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution on essential and toxic element contents of breast milk and determine the risky locations in our population. This study was conducted on women who were breastfeeding (n=90). Milk samples were collected...

  16. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    from HIV-uninfected women. Clinical samples from HIV-infected women receiving a single-dose of nevirapine were analyzed. Results: Precision and accuracy were evaluated with two concentrations of quality control materials analyzed in three replicates on four different days and was......, requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 μL) and no pre-treatment of the samples. Methods: Commercial enzyme and antibody were used and calibration standards and quality controls were prepared from pooled breast milk...

  17. Advances in food packaging films from milk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most commercial petroleum-based food packaging films are poor oxygen barriers, do not biodegrade, and some are suspected to even leach compounds into the food product. For instance, three-perfluorinated coatings were banned from convenience food packaging earlier this year. These shortcomings are a ...

  18. Comparison of dioxin and PCB concentrations in human breast milk samples from Hong Kong and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Chan, S.M.; Nelson, E.A.; Brouwer, A.; Sauer, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The adverse effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human health are of increasing concern. These lipophilic compounds are concentrated through the food chain and are present in human milk. This study compares PCB levels in human milk samples from Hong Kong and Dutch mothers. Ten

  19. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATION OF BREAST MILK IN RELATION WITH AGE AND PARITY OF NURSING WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Goc

    2012-08-01

    . Additionally, r Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between analyzed metals (Mg/Ca: r2=0.589; p=0.000. These observations suggest that mothers’ age and parity have influence on calcium concentration in milk but did not impact on magnesium level in breast milk.

  20. Xanthophyll and hydrocarbon carotenoid patterns differ in plasma and breast milk of women supplemented with red palm oil during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Georg; Mulokozi, Generose; Henry, Jeya C K; Tomkins, Andrew M

    2006-07-01

    Currently limited information exists on how maternal supplementation with provitamin A carotenoids might influence the carotenoid pattern in breast milk during lactation. This study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal red palm oil supplementation ( approximately 12 g/d) throughout the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and the first 3 mo postpartum on carotenoid pattern in both plasma and breast milk. Plasma and breast milk alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations increased in response to red palm oil supplementation and were different (P lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were reduced (P milk lutein concentrations, expressed per gram of milk fat, increased (P milk, whereas xanthophylls, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are proportionally more prevalent in breast milk. More importantly, red palm oil supplementation increases the milk concentrations of provitamin A carotenes without decreasing the milk concentrations of xanthophylls. In summary, this study demonstrates that a regulated uptake of polar carotenoids into breast milk exists and that supplementation with alpha- and beta-carotene does not negatively affect this transfer. The mechanisms behind this transport are not fully understood and merit further study.

  1. Milking drylands : gender networks, pastoral markets and food security in stateless Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nori, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Milking Drylands research initiative addresses the critical issues of food security, market integration, gender roles and governance matters in a peculiar area of the world, the Somali ecosystem. The research aims at exploring interesting dynamics of ongoing social change, in order to stimulate

  2. Implementation of international code of marketing breast-milk substitutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Dai, Yaohua; Xie, Xiaohua; Chen, Li

    2014-11-01

    Breastmilk is the best source of nourishment for infants and young children, and breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival. In May 1981, the World Health Assembly adopted the International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes. Since then several subsequent resolutions have been adopted by the World Health Assembly, which both update and clarify the articles within the International Code (herein after the term "Code" refers to both the International Code and all subsequent resolutions). The Code is designed to regulate "inappropriate sales promotion" of breastmilk substitutes and instructs signatory governments to ensure the implementation of its aims through legislation. The Chinese Regulations of the Code were adopted by six government sectors in 1995. However, challenges in promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding remain. This study aimed to monitor the implementation of the Code in China. Six cities were selected with considerable geographic coverage. In each city three hospitals and six stores were surveyed. The International Baby Food Action Network Interview Form was adapted, and direct observations were made. Research assistants administered the questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of infants under 6 months old who were in the outpatient department of the hospitals. In total, 291 mothers of infants, 35 stores, 17 hospitals, and 26 companies were surveyed. From the whole sample of 291 mothers, the proportion who reported exclusively breastfeeding their infant was 30.9%; 69.1% of mothers reported feeding their infant with commercially available formula. Regarding violations of the Code, 40.2% of the mothers reported receiving free formula samples. Of these, 76.1% received the free samples in or near hospitals. Among the stores surveyed, 45.7% were found promoting products in a way that violates the Code. Also, 69.0% of the labeling on the formula products did not comply with the regulations set

  3. Milk and social media: online communities and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Sheryl W

    2012-08-01

    The advent of social networking sites and other online communities presents new opportunities and challenges for the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding. This study examines the presence of infant formula marketing on popular US social media sites, using the World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) as a framework. We examined to what extent each of 11 infant formula brands that are widely available in the US had established a social media presence in popular social media venues likely to be visited by expectant parents and families with young children. We then examined current marketing practices, using the Code as a basis for ethical marketing. Infant formula manufacturers have established a social media presence primarily through Facebook pages, interactive features on their own Web sites, mobile apps for new and expecting parents, YouTube videos, sponsored reviews on parenting blogs, and other financial relationships with parenting blogs. Violations of the Code as well as promotional practices unforeseen by the Code were identified. These practices included enabling user-generated content that promotes the use of infant formula, financial relationships between manufacturers and bloggers, and creation of mobile apps for use by parents. An additional concern identified for Code enforcement is lack of transparency in social media-based marketing. The use of social media for formula marketing may demand new strategies for monitoring and enforcing the Code in light of emerging challenges, including suggested content for upcoming consideration for World Health Assembly resolutions.

  4. Health food store recommendations: implications for breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Edward; Ernst, Edzard; Singh, Rana; Ross, Cory; Wilson, Kumanan

    2003-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We aimed to determine what advice health food store employees present to individuals seeking treatment options for breast cancer. Eight data gatherers asked employees of all retail health food stores in a major Canadian city, what they recommended for a patient with breast cancer. The data gatherers inquired about product safety, potential drug interactions, costs and efficacy. They also enquired about employee training related to the products. Thirty-four stores were examined. A total of 33 different products were recommended, none of which are supported by sufficient evidence of efficacy. The average cost of the products they recommended was $58.09 (CAD) (minimum $5.28, median $32.99, maximum $600) per month. Twenty-three employees (68%) did not ask whether the patient took prescription medications. Fifteen employees (44%) recommended visiting a healthcare professional (naturopaths (9), physicians (5), nutritionists (1). Three employees (8.8%) discussed potential adverse effects of the products. Eight employees (23.5%) discussed the potential for drug interactions. Two employees (5.9%) suggested a possible cure with the products and one employee (2.9%) suggested discontinuing Tamoxifen. Four employees (11.8%) recommended lifestyle changes and three employees (8.8%) recommended books for further reading on the products. This study draws attention to the heterogeneity of advice provided by natural health food stores to individuals seeking treatments for breast cancer, and the safety and cost implications of some of the products recommended. Physicians should enquire carefully about the use of natural health food products by patients with breast cancer. Regulators need to consider regulations to protect vulnerable patients from incurring significant costs in their purchasing of natural health food products lacking evidence of benefit and of questionable safety

  5. The Presence and Anti-HIV-1 Function of Tenascin C in Breast Milk and Genital Fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G Mansour

    Full Text Available Tenascin-C (TNC is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower concentration and frequency compared to that of colostrum and mature breast milk, potentially due to genital fluid protease degradation. However, TNC was able to neutralize HIV-1 after exposure to low pH, suggesting that TNC could be active at low pH in the vaginal compartment. As mucosal fluids are complex and contain a number of proteins known to interact with the HIV-1 envelope, we further studied the relationship between the concentration of TNC and neutralizing activity in breast milk. The amount of TNC correlated only weakly with the overall innate HIV-1-neutralizing activity of breast milk of uninfected women and negatively correlated with neutralizing activity in milk of HIV-1 infected women, indicating that the amount of TNC in mucosal fluids is not adequate to impede HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal IgG from milk of HIV-1 infected women, but not other HIV-1 envelope-binding milk proteins or monoclonal antibodies, blocked the neutralizing activity of TNC. Finally, as exogenous administration of TNC would be necessary for it to mediate measurable HIV-1 neutralizing activity in mucosal compartments, we established that recombinantly produced TNC has neutralizing activity against transmitted/founder HIV-1 strains that mimic that of purified TNC. Thus, we conclude that endogenous TNC concentration in mucosal fluids is likely inadequate to block HIV-1 transmission to uninfected individuals.

  6. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  7. Characterization of bacterial isolates from the microbiota of mothers' breast milk and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (≥ 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance.

  8. Traditional Galactagogue Foods and Their Connection to Human Milk Volume in Thai Breastfeeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntuchai, Ganokwun; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

    2017-08-01

    Thai traditional galactagogue consumption is still observed today. However, there are few scientific studies that describe this practice. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the connection between traditional galactagogue consumption and human milk volume. Self-reported maternal surveys ( N = 36) were conducted of mothers and their infants who breastfeed exclusively. The mothers were interviewed about traditional galactagogue consumption and intake of protein-rich foods using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. They were also assessed for energy and nutrient intake using the 24-hr dietary recall method. Their infants were between 1 and 3 months of age and were test weighed for 24 hr to measure their mother's own milk volume. Partial correlation was used to test the relationship between galactagogue consumption and milk volume by controlling the infants' birth weight, weight-for-age, maternal energy, and carbohydrate intake. The results revealed that consumption of some traditional galactagogues was significantly correlated to human milk volume, including banana flower, lemon basil, Thai basil, bottle gourd, and pumpkin ( p traditional galactagogues and proteins are associated with human milk volume. However, studies related to the active ingredients in these galactagogues are required to secure a recommendation about use of traditional galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers.

  9. Mulheres doadoras de leite humano Mujeres donantes de leche humana Reasons women donate breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão

    2006-06-01

    que las mujeres, en general, reciban informaciones respecto a los beneficios e importancia de la lactancia natural, incluyendo informaciones sobre donación de la leche humana mediante los bancos de leche.OBJECTIVE: to determine the socio-demographic profile of human milk donors and to identify the reasons they choose to donate their milk. METHODS: this was an exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study. Eleven women from a public maternity hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, participated in this study. Data were collected in May 2003 using a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: milk donors were 16 to 20 years old, married, and had an educational level ranging from elementary school to college. Women reported that the main reasons for donating their milk were breast engorgement and referral by health professionals. The most donors were not aware of the benefits of breast-feeding or the importance of their contribution to the maternity hospital milk bank. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS women should receive information about the benefits of breast feeding and donation of human milk through milk banks.

  10. Breast milk donors in France: a portrait of the typical donor and the utility of milk banking in the French breastfeeding context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azema, Emilie; Callahan, Stacey

    2003-05-01

    Although information regarding attitudes and characteristics of human blood donors has been researched, little is known about the motivations and demographic and personality characteristics of women who choose to donate their breast milk. Eight milk banks in France participated in a study examining donor characteristics, providing data on 103 women. The results showed that the donors were women of average childbearing age with strong support at home. Almost half did not work outside of the home, compared to the national average of 80% of women in this age group; similarly, a large number (currently working or not) were from the health and social services fields. Reasons for donation were largely altruistic, and a general optimistic attitude prevailed within the participants. The results of this study provide useful information for the recruitment of potential donors as well as information on how to facilitate and provide optimal service through milk donation.

  11. Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on growth factors in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelz, Rangmar; Hihn, Eva; Hamprecht, Klaus; Dietz, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard; Poets, Christian; Elmlinger, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, and epidermal-growth-factor-concentrations in a subgroup of 35 samples from 22 mothers. Two heating methods were applied: Short-term (5 s) pasteurisation at 62, 65, and 72 degrees C, and long-term Holder-Pasteurisation (30 min) at 63 degrees C. IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured by RIA, and EGF by ELISA. Heating for 30 min decreased significantly IGF-1 by 39.4%, IGF-2 by 9.9%, IGFBP-2 by 19.1%, and IGFBP-3 by 7.0%. In contrast, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were not altered significantly when using a short heating duration of 5 s, irrespective of the level of temperature, except for IGF-2 at 62 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.041) and IGFBP-2 at 72 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.025). Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62-72 degrees C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

  12. Donkey milk production: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies among children under one year of age. No specific therapy exists for this allergy, and thus the only feasible response is to avoid assumption of milk and derived products. Studies conducted on the serum of children with hypersensi- tivity to milk have shown that caseins are the proteins with the greater allergenic potential. However, in some cases, children have also shown hypersensitivity to the β-lactoglobulines and to the α-lactal- bumins. When food intolerance is diagnosed in an infant, it is often necessary to impose a period of total parenteral feeding, followed by breast feeding, considered the most correct method of re-feeding. When human milk can not be given, alternative food sources must be sought. Clinical studies have demonstrated that donkey milk could substitute breast feeding in infants affected by severe Ig-E me- diated milk allergies. In these subjects, donkey milk is not only useful, but also safer than other types of milk. In fact donkey milk composition in lipids (high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid and pro- teins (low caseins content is very close to human milk. Lysozyme content in donkey milk resulted to be very high (mean value 1.0 mg/ml if compared to bovine (traces, caprine (traces and human milk. The high lysozyme content of donkey milk may be responsible of the low bacterial count reported in literature and also makes this milk suitable to prevent intestine infections to infants. Among seropro- teins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin content in donkey milk was respectively 3.75 and 1.80 mg/ml and remained substancially the same during the different stages of lactation.

  13. How UK internet websites portray breast milk expression and breast pumps: a qualitative study of content

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, Rhona J; Arbuckle, Alix; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is recommended but few parents achieve this; particularly younger and less well-educated mothers. Many parents introduce infant formula milk to manage feeding but describe a desire to express breastmilk alongside a lack of support or information. The Internet is highlighted as a key resource. This study aimed to examine UK websites on expressing breastmilk to identify key messages and how information is provided. Methods We used search terms i...

  14. Persistent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) associated with passive acquisition of anti-D in maternal breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Marissa; Blaustein, John C

    2017-09-01

    Anti-D is a well-documented, significant cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but its presence in breast milk is not routinely described. Theoretically, breast milk containing anti-D could have the potential to exacerbate HDFN if ingested by the affected infant. This is a case report of a 28-week premature male neonate with hydrops fetalis born to a 32-year-old woman (gravidity 3/parity 3) with anti-D and anti-G. The male neonate experienced prolonged HDFN due to passive acquisition of anti-D in the mother's breast milk. The mother's breast milk reacted strongly (4+) with the D-positive cells in the antibody screen test. Discontinuation of breast milk feeding and addition of total parenteral nutrition led to the cessation of clinically significant HDFN. Although anti-D is a significant cause of HDFN through placental transfer of antibody, exacerbation of the condition through breast milk antibodies is rarely described. The current case highlights the possibility of this occurring. Discontinuation of maternal breast milk feedings should be considered in infants with HDFN who do not respond to standard treatment. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of Maya women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Inmaculada Riba López, M; Angel DelValls Casillas, T; León, Jesús Alfredo Araujo; Anjan Kumar Prusty, B; Álvarez Cervera, Fernando J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities. About 30% of the Maya population consumes water directly from contaminated wells and sinkholes, resulting in a chronic exposure to OCP. The samples served to identify and quantify high levels of OCP residues (18.43 mg/kg of heptachlor epoxide and 1.92 mg/kg of endrin in the metropolitan zone; 2.10 mg/kg of dieldrin, 0.117 mg/kg of endosulfan II, 0.103 mg/kg of heptachlor, 0.178 mg/kg of endrin, and 0.127 mg/kg of endrin aldehyde in the main agricultural zone and on the west coast). The detected levels of OCP residues are a major concern and represent a potential risk to women and children in the region. This could be associated with the high rates of cervical uterine and breast cancer mortality in Yucatan. Thus, regulations on the usage of OCP and their enforcement are necessary, and it is important to establish a yearly monitoring program for OCP residues in breast milk and groundwater, as well as to implement health promotion programs for women in particular and the general population in general.

  16. Determinants of DHA levels in early infancy: differential effects of breast milk and direct fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Casadio, Y; Dunstan, J A; Niels Krogsgaard-Larsen, N; Simmer, K; Prescott, S L

    2012-06-01

    Although omega (n)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), intakes are important during infancy, the optimal method of increasing infant status remains unclear. We hypothesized that high-dose infant fish oil supplementation would have greater relative effects upon n-3 LCPUFA status at six months of age than breast milk fatty acids. Infants (n=420) were supplemented daily from birth to six months with fish oil or placebo. In a subset of infants, LCPUFA levels were measured in cord blood, breast milk and in infant blood at 6 months. DHA levels increased in the fish oil group relative to placebo (p<05). Breast milk DHA was the strongest predictor of infant erythrocyte DHA levels (p=<001). This remained significant after adjustment for cord blood DHA, supplementation group and adherence. In this cohort, breast milk DHA was a greater determinant of infant erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA status, than direct supplementation with fish oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels and trends of PCB 28, PCB 153 and DDE in breast milk from primiparae women in Uppsala County, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Atuma, S.; Aune, M.; Glynn, A. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Since 1996, the Swedish NFA has made recurrent measurements of levels of selected POPs, chiefly PCBs, dioxins and persistent pesticides (e.g. DDTs), in human breast milk. The analyses were made on individual basis, which offer possibility to adjust the time trends in POP levels for differences among the participating women in life-style or other factors that could affect the levels in breast milk. The ambition with the NFA sampling is to follow changes in the levels of these environmental contaminants in human breast milk and to continue the Swedish time trend measurements that was started in the 1970s. The measured levels will be used as base for evaluation of possible health risks for the mother and in particular for the breastfed infant. This report presents breast milk results from 1996 to 2003, concentrating on the selected PCB congeners (PCB 28 and 153) and p,p'-DDE. The reason for selecting these compounds are the data showing differences in e.g. sources and persistence, which could make them interesting type substances for larger groups of compounds.

  18. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  19. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For

  20. High DMBT1 concentrations in breast milk correlate with increased risk of infection in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronellenfitsch, Sebastian; Weiß, Christel; Frommhold, David

    2012-01-01

    by Western blotting and its concentration was quantified by ELISA in 95 breast milk samples collected from mothers of preterm and term neonates during the first four weeks after delivery. Possible effects of maternal or neonatal parameters were analyzed by different statistical tests. Results: The mean DMBT1...

  1. [Association of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin in breast milk with the growth of infants with exclusive breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Li; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the association of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin in breast milk with the weight growth velocity of infants with exclusive breastfeeding. A total of 67 full-term singleton infants who received regular child care and exclusive breastfeeding and their mothers were enrolled. The nutritional status was evaluated based on the measurements of body weight and body length (underweight, growth retardation, emaciation, overweight, and obesity). Z score was used to calculate growth velocity, and according to the ΔZ score, the infants were divided into poor growth group, low growth velocity group, and normal growth velocity group. Mature breast milk samples were collected from their mothers, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin. The emaciation group had a significantly lower level of leptin in breast milk than the non-emaciation group (Pobesity group had a significantly lower level of adiponectin than the non-overweight/obesity group (Pmilk was positively correlated with Z score of current body weight and ΔZ score compared with birth weight (r s =0.280 and 0.290 respectively; Pmilk was an important influencing factor for the Z score of body weight (β=0.161, Pmilk, including leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, may regulate the growth and development of infants to a certain degree, but long-term studies and observation are needed to investigate their association with offspring growth and development and the health-promoting effect of breast milk on offspring.

  2. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  3. Development and Application of the Remote Food Photography Method to Measure Food Intake in Exclusively Milk Fed Infants: A Laboratory-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altazan, Abby D; Gilmore, L Anne; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ragusa, Shelly A; Apolzan, John W; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M

    Accurate methods of assessing food intake in infants are needed to assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and risk of childhood obesity. Current methods are either subjective or have limited ability for use beyond clinical research settings. To assess the accuracy of the RFPM to evaluate simulated milk intake including energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake compared to direct weighing within a controlled study. Individuals were recruited to prepare three 2 fl oz, 4 fl oz, 6 fl oz, and 8 fl oz servings of infant formula and to capture photographs at different stages of preparation (dry powdered formula, prepared formula, and liquid waste) using the SmartIntake® application. Gram weights of the bottles were obtained by the RFPM and direct weighing. Using the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient values were generated from gram weights. Intake of formula prepared from powder measured by the RFPM was equivalent to weighed intake within 7.5% equivalence bounds among all servings and each serving size. The mean difference between methods varied among servings sizes with the RFPM underestimating intake by 1.6 ± 0.4 kcals in 2 fl oz servings, 4.8 ± 0.6 kcals in 4 fl oz servings, and 6.2 ± 1.0 kcals in 6 fl oz servings, and overestimating intake by 0.1 ± 1.2 kcals in 8 fl oz servings. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the RFPM overestimated intake at lower levels food intake and underestimated intake at higher levels. Considering photographs of only the prepared formula bottle and the bottle with formula waste to simulate ready-to-feed formula and human breast milk, intake estimated by the RFPM was equivalent to the directly weighed intake within 7.5% for all servings. The RFPM has higher accuracy than subjective methods and similar accuracy as compared to the objective methods in estimating simulated intake of milk and formula with lower burden to

  4. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primipara breast milk from Shenzhen and exposure risk for breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Gang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Ai, Hua

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed at revealing the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from primipara in Shenzhen (China), and estimating daily intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants. Concentrations of 7 PBDEs were measured in 60 breast milk samples by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS (high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry). The intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants was estimated based on the infant's daily milk consumption. The range of total concentration of 7 PBDEs congeners in samples was 2.6-188.6 ng g(-1) lipid (mean: 14.8 ng g(-1) lipid; median: 7.2 ng g(-1) lipid). The mean estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast-fed infants ranged from 9.9 to 335.9 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day (mean: 52.5 ng kg(-1) bw per day; median: 28.6 ng kg(-1) bw per day). The levels of PBDEs body burden in the recruited mothers of Shenzhen were higher than those reported previously for the general population from other areas in China. No significant correlations were found between the body burden of PBDEs and the mothers' age, pre-pregnancy BMI, dietary habits, duration of residence in Shenzhen, weight and length of the newborns. BDE-47 and BDE-153 were major PBDE congeners in milk samples, while the congeners of BDE-183 and BDE-28 were also high in Shenzhen. The situation may be attributed to the special economic pattern including electronic production in Shenzhen in the past three decades. Continuous surveillance on PBDEs levels in human milk is needed in order to accurately evaluate the environmental impact of PBDEs to human health in Shenzhen. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Excretion of moxidectin into breast milk and pharmacokinetics in healthy lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Gossart, Sophie; Bryson, Philip; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Moxidectin, registered worldwide as a veterinary antiparasitic agent, is currently under development for humans for the treatment of onchocerciasis in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy lactating women, including the excretion into breast milk. Twelve women, ages 23 to 38 years, weighing 54 to 79 kg, all more than 5 months postpartum, were enrolled, following their plan to wean their infants and provision of informed consent. A single 8-mg, open-label dose was administered orally after consumption of a standard breakfast. Complete milk collection was done for approximately 28 days, and plasma samples were collected for 90 days. Moxidectin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, with a validated range of 0.08 to 120 ng/ml. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods were used to find the following results: peak concentration in plasma (C(max)), 87 ± 25 ng/ml; time to C(max) (t(max)), 4.18 ± 1.59 h; terminal-phase elimination half-life (t(1/2)), 832 ± 321 h; total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), 4,046 ± 1,796 ng · h/ml; apparent oral dose clearance (CL/F), 2.35 ± 1.07 l/h; ratio of CL/F to the terminal-phase disposition rate constant, λ(z) (Vλ(z)/F), 2,526 ± 772 liters; percentage of maternal dose excreted in milk, 0.701 ± 0.299%; absolute amount excreted in milk, 0.056 ± 0.024 mg; relative infant dose, 8.73 ± 3.17% of maternal dose assuming complete absorption; clearance in milk (CL(milk)), 0.016 ± 0.009 liter/h. Nine of 12 subjects reported adverse events, all of which were considered treatment emergent but not drug related and were mostly reported during the long outpatient period 8 to 90 days after dose administration. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and nausea (n = 4), oropharyngeal pain (n = 2), rhinitis, viral pharyngitis, and viral upper

  6. The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin

    2016-09-01

    In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

  7. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.R.; Prescott, M.C.; Herman, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples

  8. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  9. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Paige K; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fujiwara, Hideji; Goran, Michael I

    2018-05-24

    This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers ( n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. -2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  10. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA ISOLATED FROM SEWAGE, RAW MILK AND PACKED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Priya Seshadhri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 isolates (40 from sewage, 30 from raw milk and 20 from packed foods collected to study the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that 61 isolates (32 from sewage, 19 from raw milk and 10 from packed foods were found contaminated with the bacterium. All the isolated strains were confirmed to Yersinia enterocolitica, by using 16S rRNA PCR. Of 61 strains, only five strains (two from sewage and two from packed foods and one from raw milk were found to be the producers of haemolysin at 37 oC, while among the five strains only two strains from packed foods produced haemolysin at 28 oC. All the isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin and found sensitive to chloramphenicol. Seven strains were producer of High molecular weight proteins (HMWP. 53 strains have produced rough LPS, while the smooth LPS has been observed for 8 isolates. Eleven and six different profiles observed in outermembrane proteins and lipopolysaccaride respectively. Combined primer 1 and 2 RAPD-PCR dendogram shows eight different genotypic patterns.

  12. Severe Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Cow’s Milk in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk is the most common cause of food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and treatment outcomes of infants with severe FPIES to cow’s milk. We reviewed all infants ≤12 months of age who were hospitalized and diagnosed with severe FPIES to cow’s milk between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2014 in a tertiary Children’s Medical Center in China. Patients’ clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. A total of 12 infants met the inclusion criteria. All infants presented with diarrhea, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. Other main clinical manifestations included regurgitation/vomiting, skin rashes, low-grade fever, bloody and/or mucous stools, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. They had clinical remission with resolution of diarrhea and significant increase of serum albumin after elimination of cow’s milk protein (CMP from the diet. The majority of infants developed tolerance to the CMP challenge test after 12 months of avoidance. In conclusion, we reported the clinical experience of 12 infants with severe FPIES to cow’s milk, which resulted in malnutrition, hypoproteinemia, and failure to thrive. Prompt treatment with CMP-free formula is effective and leads to clinical remission of FPIES in infants.

  13. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Data were collected from 17 parents through 45 individual interviews with both mothers and fathers, from birth to 12 months of age. This data was then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results The analysis identified six primary themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breast milk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. This paper reports on the theme of 'breast milk as connection'. Providing expressed breast milk offered one way the mothers could be physiologically and emotionally connected to their preterm infant while they were in the constant care of hospital staff. Indeed, breast milk was considered the only way the new mother could connect her body (or part there of to her preterm baby in hospital. This sense of connection however, comes at a cost. On the one hand, the breast milk offers a feeling of connection to the baby, but, on the other, this connection comes only after disconnection of the mother and baby and – through breast expression – mother and her milk. This ability of breast milk to connect mother and baby makes the expressed breast milk highly valued, and places unexpected pressure on the mother to produce milk as integral to her sense of motherhood. Conclusion The findings of

  14. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  15. Status of food and raw milk supply and problem just after the reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Syunji; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Iodine 131 was detected in the environment and the food such as vegetables, raw milk and tap water just after the reactor accident following the East Japan Great Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. This article investigated status of refuge of Fukushima residents, their dietary life and food distribution from March 11 to 31 just after the accident so as to reevaluate internal exposure dose with Iodine 131. Investigation results showed most of food taken by refugees was confirmed food stock or relief supplies outside from the disaster area and suggested food contaminated with Iodine 131 was not widely consumed and distributed due to limit to send designated vegetables, restriction of tap water intake, damaged distribution facilities and closing down of retail stores. Restriction of tap water intake was only applied partly, so this might cause internal exposure dose due to tap water. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chebaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum. Canadian mothers (n = 124 consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69 were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI in pmol/L were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747, 452 (400, 504, and 506 (459, 552; in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687, 317 (256, 378, and 357 (312, 402. The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L: 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05; only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001.

  17. [Instinct therapy--raw food with meat with exclusion of milk products. Report No. 16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallut, O

    1989-06-13

    Instinct therapy is a diet consisting exclusively of food in its natural form, which has not been subjected to cooking, preserving or seasoning. Dairy products are forbidden. Indications are numerous and rather imprecise including especially cancer. Burger developed Instinct therapy in 1964 as a diet according to his own philosophy. 1980 he left Switzerland because the practice of "metasexuality" had caused him problems with the law. He founded a school of Instinct therapy in 1982 in France and published his book "La guerre du cru" (The Raw Food Fight) in 1985. In Switzerland, Besuchet took on the teaching of Burger in 1978 and was very active in giving lectures. He died in June 1985 of mediastinal cancer. According to Burger, man originally ate raw food and his instinct has not evolved since those pre-historic times, but has been "artificially modified" by cooked food and the consumption of non-human milk. If man could re-develop his natural instinct and eat only fresh food, which is not prepared in any way, he could solve his health problems and restore defenses against diseases such that these could become beneficial. Cooked food, milk and cereals are thought to be the cause of cancer but instinctive eating would help to avoid or to cure cancer. No preclinical or clinical trials have been carried out. The theories of Burger and Besuchet are based on unverifiable personal experiences.

  18. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  19. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E; Espíndola-Polis, José M; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41-90) and 276 (103-450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65-91) and 673 (454-866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group ( p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol ( Rho = -0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases ( Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37-78) vs. 70 (49-106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75-410) vs. 339 (160-500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a normal pregnancy, those with a high-risk pregnancy

  20. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Adipokine Levels in Breast Milk among Lactating Women of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Duk Hee; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-07

    Exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to alteration of lipid metabolism. Adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, are hormones that play roles in lipid metabolism, and have been suggested as markers of health effects that may lead to obesity. To date, only serum adipokines have been associated with POPs exposure. In the present study, for the first time, the associations between leptin and adiponectin in breast milk, and several POPs in serum were investigated among 82 lactating Korean women between 25 and 46 years of age. Breast milk adipokines are important because adipokine intake of infant through breastfeeding may influence the growth of infants. The median concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in skimmed milk of the Korean lactating women were 17.9 ng/L and 16.5 μg/L, respectively. Leptin concentrations in breast milk were negatively associated with ∑hexachlorohexane (HCH), oxychlordane, ∑chlordane, or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB 153) levels in maternal serum. Linear relationships between adiponectin and POPs concentrations were not observed, however, nonmonotonic relationship which showed generally positive associations was suggested for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ∑chlordane in quartile analysis. Our observations show that POPs at the current level of exposure may be associated with the alteration of lipid metabolism among lactating women. Implication of adipokine transfer to breastfed infants is of concern and deserves further investigation.

  1. Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwman, H. [School for Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)]. E-mail: drkhb@puk.ac.za; Sereda, B. [Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134 Queenswood, Pretoria 0121 (South Africa); Meinhardt, H.M. [South African Bureau of Standards, Testing and Conformity Services (Pty) Ltd, Private Bag X191, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2006-12-15

    DDT and pyrethroids were determined in 152 breast-milk samples from three towns in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of which had no need for DDT for malaria control. All compounds were found present in breast milk. Primiparae from one town had the highest mean {sigma}DDT whole milk levels (238.23 {mu}g/l), and multiparae from the same town had the highest means for permethrin (14.51 {mu}g/l), cyfluthrin (41.74 {mu}g/l), cypermethrin (4.24 {mu}g/l), deltamethrin (8.39 {mu}g/l), and {sigma}pyrethroid (31.5 {mu}g/l), most likely derived from agriculture. The ADI for DDT was only exceeded by infants from one town, but the ADI for pyrethroids was not exceeded. Since the ADI for DDT was recently reduced from 20 to 10 {mu}g/kg/bw, we suggest that this aspect be treated with concern. We therefore raise a concern based on toxicant interactions, due to the presence of four different pyrethroids and DDT. Breastfeeding however, remains safe under prevailing conditions. - The simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in breast milk raises the question of infant exposure and safety.

  2. Substitutos do leite materno: passado e presente Breast-milk substitutes: past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferreira Rea

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se revisão da evolução histórica da substituição do leite de peito por produtos industrializados cujas origens remontam ao século XVIII. Destaca-se a estratégia de promoção comercial de fórmulas infantis, já neste século, atribuindo-se as diferentes formas de comercialização utilizadas à necessidade de busca de novos mercados nos países do Terceiro Mundo. Frente às indicações precisas que os chamados substitutos do leite materno têm, chama-se a atenção para o processo de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e grupos de consumidores sobre as conseqüências do abuso da utilização desses substitutos, processo este que levou a Organização Mundial da Saúde e o United Nations Children's Fund a recomendarem a regulamentação de suas práticas comerciais, e o Brasil a adotá-la.The historical development of industrialized products used as breast-milk, substitutes a process begun in the 18th century, is studied. The marketing strategy currently adopted infant formula companies is stressed and the different commercial practices used in the search for new markets in third world countries are described. A warning is given as to the precise instructions giver for the use of the socalles breast-milk substitutes, and the attention of health professionals and consumer groups is called to the low level of awareness regarding this subject, a factor which led the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to recommend the preparation of an appropriate marketing code and to its adoption by Brazil.

  3. Role of the Human Breast Milk-Associated Microbiota on the Newborns' Immune System: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Grossi, Enzo; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the "initial" intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns' immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. The aim of the present Mini Review is to elucidate the specific immunologic role of the human milk-associated microbiota and its impact on the newborn's health and life, highlighting the importance to properly study the biological interactions in a bacterial population and between the microbiota and the host. The Auto Contractive Map, for instance, is a promising analytical methodology based on artificial neural network that can elucidate the specific role of bacteria contained in the breast milk in modulating the infants' immunological response.

  4. Neutron- and photon-activation detection limits in breast milk analysis for prospective dose evaluation of the suckling infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipenyuk, Yu.M.; Firsov, V.I.; Cantone, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Complex situations related to the environment, as in the regions affected by the Chernobyl accident and regions in which nuclear weapons testing were undertaken, as in Semipalatinsk, could be reflected in the trace element content in mothers' milk. The evaluation of fractional transfer to milk of ingested or inhaled activity and of the corresponding dose coefficients for the infant, following a mothers' radioactive intake, can take advantage from wide-ranging studies of elemental and radionuclide contents in mothers' milk. In this work the possibility to determine elements, such as Ru, Zr, Nb, Te, Ce, Th, U, in milk powder has been investigated. Although results from elemental analyses of breast milk are to be found in the literature, the determination of the identified elements has attracted poor attention since they are not considered essential elements from a biological point of view. Nevertheless, in the case of radioactive releases to the environment, such data could be of interest in evaluation of dose to the breast-fed infant

  5. Role of the Human Breast Milk-Associated Microbiota on the Newborns’ Immune System: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toscano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the “initial” intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns’ immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. The aim of the present Mini Review is to elucidate the specific immunologic role of the human milk-associated microbiota and its impact on the newborn’s health and life, highlighting the importance to properly study the biological interactions in a bacterial population and between the microbiota and the host. The Auto Contractive Map, for instance, is a promising analytical methodology based on artificial neural network that can elucidate the specific role of bacteria contained in the breast milk in modulating the infants’ immunological response.

  6. Breast milk pumping beliefs, supports, and barriers on a university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Lauren M; Pope, Gina A; Bai, Yeon K

    2015-02-01

    Compared to nonemployed mothers, employed mothers are more likely to terminate breastfeeding sooner than recommended, due in part to a lack of workplace support. The purpose of this study is to compare the beliefs of employees and students affiliated with a university regarding pumping breast milk on campus. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews grounded in the theory of planned behavior, focused on behavioral, normative, and control beliefs regarding pumping on campus. Responses were independently coded and categorized based on common themes. Response frequencies were calculated and compared between students, staff, and faculty. Thirty-two women (11 students, 8 staff, 13 faculty) participated in the interview. Overall, participants most frequently reported that maintaining milk supply/extending breastfeeding duration was an advantage to pumping on campus, and time/scheduling issues a disadvantage. The most commonly perceived supporters were peers, whereas those unaware, uninformed, and/or disapproving of breastfeeding were most commonly perceived as opponents to pumping on campus. Reporting within each category differed between students, staff, and faculty. It is notable that students most frequently identified the lack of available pumping space as a barrier, whereas faculty often reported that space availability made pumping on campus easier for them. In addition, both staff and faculty frequently stated that scheduling and time constraints were a pumping barrier. An inequality of current lactation support practice may exist at colleges and universities. It is necessary to extend this protection to all members of a workplace, regardless of their role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Improving the risk assessment of lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Geniece M; Verner, Marc-André; Luukinen, Bryan; Henning, Cara; Assimon, Sue Anne; LaKind, Judy S; McLanahan, Eva D; Phillips, Linda J; Davis, Matthew H; Powers, Christina M; Hines, Erin P; Haddad, Sami; Longnecker, Matthew P; Poulsen, Michael T; Farrer, David G; Marchitti, Satori A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Swartout, Jeffrey C; Sagiv, Sharon K; Welsh, Clement; Campbell, Jerry L; Foster, Warren G; Yang, Raymond S H; Fenton, Suzanne E; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Francis, Bettina M; Barnett, John B; El-Masri, Hisham A; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals (LPECs) have the potential to accumulate within a woman's body lipids over the course of many years prior to pregnancy, to partition into human milk, and to transfer to infants upon breastfeeding. As a result of this accumulation and partitioning, a breastfeeding infant's intake of these LPECs may be much greater than his/her mother's average daily exposure. Because the developmental period sets the stage for lifelong health, it is important to be able to accurately assess chemical exposures in early life. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant exposures to LPECs or for lifestage-specific effects of exposure to these chemicals. Because of their persistence and accumulation in body lipids and partitioning into breast milk, LPECs present unique challenges for each component of the human health risk assessment process, including hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment. Specific biological modeling approaches are available to support both dose-response and exposure assessment for lactational exposures to LPECs. Yet, lack of data limits the application of these approaches. The goal of this review is to outline the available approaches and to identify key issues that, if addressed, could improve efforts to apply these approaches to risk assessment of lactational exposure to these chemicals.

  8. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  9. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st. 6, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-15

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs.

  10. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Batoev, Valeriy B.; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs

  11. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low‐income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low‐income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low‐income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3‐polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6‐PUFA or ω3‐PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects. PMID:28198164

  12. Research to Understand Milk Consumption Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jaye Finnell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about what influences consumer behavior of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP recipients toward the type of milk used or the prevalence of low-fat milk use among this population. This cross-sectional telephone survey of SNAP recipients (n = 520 documented that 7.5% of this population usually consumes low-fat milk, a prevalence that lags behind national figures (34.4% for the same time-period. There was a weak association between sociodemographic characteristics of SNAP recipients and low-fat milk use. Instead, less low-fat milk consumption was associated with a knowledge gap and misperceptions of the nutritional properties of the different types of milk. Promoting low-fat milk use by correcting these misperceptions can improve the diet of America’s low-income population and reduce food insecurity by maximizing the nutritional value of the foods consumed.

  13. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Shen

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT. Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process.

  14. Minor drug-resistant HIV type-1 variants in breast milk and plasma of HIV type-1-infected Ugandan women after nevirapine single-dose prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Daniel; Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Mugenyi, Kizito; Kabasinguzi, Rose; Somogyi, Sybille; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV type-1 (HIV-1), but frequently induces resistance mutations in the HIV-1 genome. Little is known about drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in the breast milk of women who have taken NVP-SD. Blood and breast milk samples of 39 HIV-1-infected Ugandan women were taken 6-12 weeks after NVP-SD intake. Samples were analysed by population sequencing and allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) with detection limits for NVP-resistant HIV-1 variants (K103N and Y181C) of D n = 5, G n = 2 and C n = 1). A total of 7 (37%) and 10 (53%) women carried NVP-resistant virus in breast milk and plasma, respectively. Overall, 71% (5/7) women with NVP-resistant HIV-1 in breast milk displayed >1 drug-resistant variant. Resistance in breast milk was higher at week 6 (6/13 samples [46%]) compared with week 12 (1/6 samples [17%]). In total, 10 drug-resistant populations harbouring the K103N and/or Y181C mutation were detected in the 19 breast milk samples; 7 (70%) were caused by resistant minorities (< 5% of the total HIV-1 population). In the four women with drug-resistant virus in both plasma and breast milk, the mutation patterns differed between the two compartments. Minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 were frequently found in breast milk of Ugandan women after exposure to NVP-SD. Further studies need to explore the role of minor drug-resistant variants in the postnatal transmission of (resistant) HIV-1.

  15. Influence of Technological Treatments on the Functionality of Bifidobacterium lactis INL1, a Breast Milk-Derived Probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, María Florencia; Souza, Tassia Costa; Zaburlín, Natalia; Carmona Cara, Denise; Reinheimer, Jorge; Nicoli, Jacques; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the technological processing on the functionality of the human breast milk probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis INL1. In vitro antagonistic activity of B. lactis INL1 was detected for Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. B. lactis INL1 was administered to mice as fresh (F), frozen (Z), spray-dried (S), or lyophilized (L) culture. Immune parameters (IgA, IL-10, and IFN-γ) were determined and histological analysis was performed to assess functionality and protection capacity against Salmonella. In BALB/c mice, F and S cultures induced an increase in the number of IgA-producing cells in the small intestine and IL-10 levels were increased for L culture in the large intestine. In Swiss mice, B. lactis INL1 increased secretory-IgA levels in the small intestine before and after Salmonella infection, both as F or dehydrated culture. Also, an attenuation of damage in the intestinal epithelium and less inflammatory infiltrates were observed in animals that received F and S cultures, whereas in liver only F showed some effect. The anti-inflammatory effect was confirmed in both tissues by myeloperoxidase activity and by IFN-γ levels in the intestinal content. B. lactis INL1 showed inhibitory activity against pathogens and confirmed its probiotic potential in animal models. Technological processing of the probiotic strain affected its functionality. This work provides evidence about the influence of technology on the functionality of probiotics, which may help probiotics and functional food manufacturers to take processing into consideration when assessing the functionality of new strains. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  17. Association of Food Allergies, Cow’s Milk Allergy, and Asthma With Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Hossein Fallahi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are controversies on the association of childhood allergic diseases with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of this study was to examine the association between food allergy, cow’s milk allergy (CMA, and asthma with pediatric IBD in Iranian population. This case-control study was conducted on 200 individuals less than 18-year-old (100 with IBD and 100 as control group. Medical records, clinical presentation, and laboratory and para-clinical findings related to food allergy, CMA, and asthma were reviewed for all participants in both groups and were recorded. Among 100 children with IBD, 40 had Crohn's disease, and 60 had ulcerative colitis. The frequency of food allergy, cow's milk allergy, and asthma in children with IBD was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.001. Asthma in children with Crohn's disease was significantly more prevalent than children with ulcerative colitis (P=0.008. Food allergy (OR: 22.1, 95% CI: 5.1-95.05, P<0.001, CMA (OR: 15, 95% CI: 3-67, P<0.001, and asthma (OR: 10, 95% CI: 3-37.05, P<0.001 were significantly associated with increased risk of IBD in children. Food allergy, CMA in infancy and asthma are more prevalent in children with different subtypes of IBD. The diagnosis of these risk factors is associated with increased risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  18. [Adiponectin levels in breast milk of overweight/obese and normal weight mothers in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Gómez, Abelardo; Flores Scheufler, Pamela; Quevedo Escobar, Yamile; González Magaña, Regina; Rodríguez De Ita, Julieta

    Given the current epidemic of childhood obesity, it has become increasingly important to understand the risks and protective factors associated with this disease. Breastfeeding has been identified as a protective factor; however, the mechanism responsible has not been elucidated. One of the current theories analyzes the role of hormones in breast milk, with special emphasis on adiponectin. This study aims to compare adiponectin levels in breast milk of mothers with normal weight with those in breast milk of overweight/obese mothers as well as to correlate these levels with the infant's weight gain. Forty samples of breast milk were analyzed for adiponectin levels using ELISA, 20 from mothers with normal weight and 20 from overweight/obese mothers. Adiponectin levels were lower in breast milk obtained from overweight/obese mothers than in breast milk from mothers with normal weight (p Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. - Highlights: • Breast-feeding can be a factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme. • Extrahepatic UGT1A1 plays an important role in bilirubin metabolism. • We discuss the potential mechanism of breast milk-induced neonatal jaundice.

  20. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi, E-mail: fujiwarar@pharm.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Kitasato University, Tokyo (Japan); Maruo, Yoshihiro [Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Chen, Shujuan [Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Tukey, Robert H., E-mail: rtukey@ucsd.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. - Highlights: • Breast-feeding can be a factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme. • Extrahepatic UGT1A1 plays an important role in bilirubin metabolism. • We discuss the potential mechanism of breast milk-induced neonatal jaundice.

  1. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Megan L.; Hod, Nurul; Jayaraman, Jothsna; Marchant, Elizabeth A.; Christen, Lukas; Chiang, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Shellam, Geoffrey R.; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerab...

  2. Heat treatment of expressed breast milk is a feasible option for feeding HIV-exposed, uninfected children after 6 months of age in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H; Madzima, Rufaro C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-08-01

    In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers' EHT experiences, children's diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.

  3. Breast milk intake and mother to infant pesticide transfer measured by deuterium oxide dilution in agricultural and urban areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Rodriguez-Olibarria, Guillermo; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2017-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have increased pesticide use in urban areas (UA) and agricultural areas (AA) in Mexico. Breast milk can be contaminated by pesticide exposure. The objective of the study was to measure breast milk intake by deuterium oxide dilution as well as organochlorine and pyrethroid transfer from mother to infant in AA and UA of Sonora, Mexico. Human milk intake was determined by the 'dose-to-mother' technique using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution. Mothers' body composition was also assessed by this technique and the intercept method. Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and cyhalothrin) and organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p'- DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'- DDD) in breast milk samples were measured by gas chromatography. Sixty-two lactating women and their infants participated in the study, 32 lived in the UA and 30 lived in the AA. Breast milk intake was approximately 100 mL higher in the AA than in the UA 799 ± 193 and 707 ± 201 mL/day, respectively (p pesticides studied surpassed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in milk for humans according to EPA and FAO/WHO. In conclusion, breast milk intake was higher in the AA compared to the UA. The p,p'- DDT and cypermethrin levels in breast milk were higher in the UA compared to the AA. Since pesticide levels in human milk did not exceed the ADI, breastfeeding is still a safe practice and should be encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepe, K. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany); Becker, A. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  5. An Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Weight Gain of Very Low Birth Weight Babies with or without Addition of Coconut Oil to Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Paul, Thomas; Thomas, Nihal; Mathai, Sarah; Rebekah, Grace; Thomas, Niranjan

    2018-03-23

    Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone. Randomization was stratified according to intrauterine growth appropriate for gestational age (n = 30) and small for gestational age (n = 30). There was no difference in weight gain between the two groups. The weight gain velocity was 15 ± 3.6 and 14.4 ± 3.4 g/kg/day (p value = 0.49) in the breast milk alone and in the breast milk with coconut oil group, respectively. There was no difference in increase in head circumference and length. Triceps skinfold thickness (n = 56) was similar in both groups, but subscapular skinfold thickness was significantly more in the coconut oil group. Total body fat percentage did not differ between the groups (25.2 ± 4.3 vs. 25.5 ± 4.3%, p = 0.79). Oral supplementation of coconut oil along with breast milk did not increase growth parameters or result in change in body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies.

  6. Influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal Regional influence on early consumption of foods other than breast milk in infants less than 6 months of age in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras. Analisaram-se dados de 18.929 crianças da II Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno nas Capitais Brasileiras - 2008. As frequências do consumo de chá, sucos, leite artificial e mingau/papa foram calculadas para as capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras. Curvas do consumo foram obtidas pela análise de logitos e estimativas das razões de prevalência (RP por modelos de Poisson. O consumo de leite artificial foi maior quando comparado aos demais alimentos em todas as capitais. As capitais do Sul apresentaram a maior razão de prevalência para o consumo de chá (RP = 2,37 e as do Nordeste e Sudeste, para o consumo de outros tipos de leite (RP = 1,50 e 1,47 e de suco (RP = 1,57 e 1,55. Nas capitais do Nordeste, o consumo precoce de mingau/papa foi maior (RP = 3,0. A região tem influência no consumo precoce de alimentos, o que deve ser levado em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas.The aim was to assess regional influences on food consumption in infants less than six months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 18,929 infants participating in the Second Survey on Breastfeeding Prevalence in Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District in 2008. Consumption rates for tea, fruit juices, formula milk, and porridge were calculated for the State capitals from the five geographic regions of the country. Food consumption was estimated by logit analyses and Poisson models. Differences in food consumption profile were observed between the different regions: tea was more common in State capitals in the South (RP = 2.37, while non-maternal milk (RP = 1.50 and 1.47 and juices (RP = 1.57 and 1.55 were more frequent in the Northeast and Southeast, respectively. Porridge was more common in the Northeast (RP = 3.0. Brazil's geographic regions

  7. Demand for carbon-neutral food – evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment for milk and apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Breustedt, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    To internalize climate-related external costs from agricultural production and food consumption Pigou taxes and carbon credits increase private costs for food. Voluntary consumer choices for carbon-neutral food can be advantageous over such policy measures since they avoid higher food prices for the poor. We empirically analyze consumers’ willingness-to-pay for hypothetical carbon-reduced as well as carbon-neutral milk and apple juice. Data are collected in Discrete Choice Experiments in a Ge...

  8. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  9. Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Marie; Kuda, Ondřej; Hansíková, Jana; Rombaldová, Martina; Balas, L.; Bardová, Kristina; Durand, T.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Černá, M.; Straňák, Z.; Kopecký, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1863, č. 2 (2018), s. 126-131 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-10088Y; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29182A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breast milk * PAHSA * chiral separation * obesity * lipogenesis * FAHFA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 5.547, year: 2016

  10. Consumer willingness to pay for food safety: the case of mycotoxins in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination in food is a serious source of health risks. This paper evaluates the Italian consumers’ perception of the mycotoxins’ risk through their willingness to pay (WTP for a hypothetical bottle of milk obtained by cows fed with, inter alia, maize certified for the “good practices” (GPs that reduce this risk. Therefore, a web-based stated choice experiment (SCE has been carried out involving a representative sample of 973 Italian consumers and the WTP has been measured using the panel data version of a Random Parameters Logit (RPL model. Results show that Italian consumers are willing to pay a 29% average price premium for “reduced-mycotoxins” milk. This premium increases for consumers between 44 and 54 years of age, who are students, have completed tertiary education, are economically well-off and shop fairly infrequently.

  11. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the beef/milk food-chain pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayno, D R

    1983-12-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the beef/milk food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po in plants and cattle. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. In this paper, data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk from cattle that have fed on forage contaminated with the tailings. The estimated doses from this technologically enhanced source are compared with those resulting from average dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  12. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  13. Arheological and archaeozoological evidence of milk as a food in the territory of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Trbojević-Vukičević

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent data the cattle domestication and use of milk as a food was older then considered before. Cattle domestication started 8,000 years B.C. that was proven from the various bones debris, whereas milk use was confirmed on the bases of fatty acid analyses on the pottery fragments as early as 5,000 years B.C. Early centres of cattle domestication were located at the Eastern Mediterranean area, and in the North Africa from where the cattle were spreading also to today’s Croatian area. In Copper and Bronze Age Europe new pottery forms appear that have been associated with dairying. Chemical analysis of late Eneolithic Baden culture pottery showed that some pottery types were used for production or storage of milk and its products. Based on the faunal data from the Eneolithic Vučedol archaeological site, numbers of bones, teeth and horn fragments were identified, with the significant domination of the female population throughout all cultural layers. It is believed they were most probably used for the reproduction and the milk production. Direct proofs for milk consumption by the local prehistoric population, based on the fatty acid determination from the pottery fragments were not evident. It can only be assumed that lactose tolerance was developed similarly to central and northern European populations. Simultaneously with genetic research, mentioned analyses and results will be valuable contribution for better understanding in development of metabolic and degenerative disease in modern humans, developed under the influence of the changes in dietary habits and environmental factors during the evolutionary interval.

  14. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on

  15. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increase Concentration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β in Breast Milk of Mothers With Psychological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamak Shariat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in depression and anxiety disorders. However, less attention has been paid to the role of cytokines in psychological disorder in mothers who breastfeed. This study looks at whether concentration levels of TGF-β2 are altered in anxious and depressive breastfeeding mothers. This study checked the concentration level of TGF-B2 in relation with psychological symptoms on 110 breastfeeding mothers; based on random sampling method with using of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Spielberger Stress Scale (STAI in 2015 also TGF-β2 was measured in breast milk using ELISA. We used of Pearson Correlation Method, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to analyze the data. Psychological symptoms (Anxiety and depression showed positive correlation with TGF-Beta level in which relationships were significant (P=0.01. Psychological problems may be uniquely associated with the level of TGF-β in breast milk. More attention should be paid to the mental health of mothers during breastfeeding, and more research needs to be done in this subject to clarify the relationship between psychological variables with the level of TGF-β in breast milk.

  17. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  18. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro

  19. Study protocol: a double blind placebo controlled trial examining the effect of domperidone on the composition of breast milk [NCT00308334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Yeo Marsha L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domperidone, a drug that enhances upper gastric motility, is an anti-dopaminergic medication that also elevates prolactin levels. It has been shown to safely increase the milk supply of lactating women. To date, researchers have analyzed the effects of domperidone on lactating woman with respect to the quantity of their milk production, adverse effects, and drug levels in the breast milk. However, the effect of domperidone on the macronutrient composition of breast milk has not been studied and current guidelines for fortification of human milk for premature infants do not distinguish between those women using or those not using domperidone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of domperidone (given to lactating mothers of very preterm infants on the macronutrient composition of breast milk. Methods/Design Mothers of infants delivered at less than 31 weeks gestation, who are at least 3 weeks postpartum, and experiencing lactational failure despite non-pharmacological interventions, will be randomized to receive domperidone (10 mg three times daily or placebo for a 14-day period. Breast milk samples will be obtained the day prior to beginning treatment and on days 4, 7 and 14. The macronutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate and energy and macromineral content (calcium, phosphorus and sodium will be analyzed and compared between the two groups. Additional outcome measures will include milk volumes, serum prolactin levels (measured on days 0, 4, and 10, daily infant weights and breastfeeding rates at 2 weeks post study completion and at discharge. Forty-four participants will be recruited into the study. Analysis will be carried out using the intention to treat approach. Discussion If domperidone causes significant changes to the nutrient content of breast milk, an alteration in feeding practices for preterm infants may need to be made in order to optimize growth, nutrition and neurodevelopment outcomes.

  20. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingorani, S.B.; Sathe, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90 Sr through its daughter 90 Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Ahlgren, Lars; Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -3} MBq/MBq administered. For {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10{sup -6} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 48 % ({sup 131}I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10{sup -5} mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 131}I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for {sup 131}I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for {sup 125}I-iodohippurate, {sup 131}I-iodohippurate, {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  2. Breast feeding: is it vital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasir, F A

    1990-12-01

    Human milk is the natural food of infants. It is a naturally balanced diet which meets the needs of the newborn. No artificial food can compare with human milk's natural, nutritional, and anti-infective properties. Various agencies have therefore strongly advocated every infant's right to be breast fed. For example, the International Confederation of Midwives at their 1984 meeting recommended that breast feeding be undertaken for at least 6 months especially in areas of the world where the incidence of infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition is high. The majority of women should be able to breast feed even if malnourished, and providing food for a lactating woman is less expensive than providing artificial formula for her baby. In some Western countries, breasts are seen more as sex symbols than sources of nourishment for infants. Women in developing countries should instead retain their tradition of breast feeding in the best interest of both their children and society.

  3. Study on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk and meat/fish based baby food available in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Serena; Albrizio, Stefania; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Mercogliano, Raffaelina

    2017-10-01

    The study compared the profile of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, frequently occurred in food, in milk (N = 22) and meat/fish based (N = 18) baby foods available on the Italian market. PAH total levels, markers (Regulation EC/835/2011) and carcinogenic PAHs were determined by high- performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The average of total PAHs was 52.25 μg kg -1 in milk and 11.82 μg kg -1 in meat/fish based baby foods. The levels of PAH markers were higher than the permissible EU limits of 1 μg kg -1 in 18.2% and 77.7% milk, and 5.6% and 44.4% meat/fish based baby foods. Milk based samples showed significant higher values (P carcinogenic and possible carcinogenic hydrocarbons than meat/fish based products. The Margins of Exposure (MOE) value of milk based baby food samples indicated a potential concern for consumer health. Monitoring programs, and good agriculture and manufacture practices should be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  6. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. A study on lipid content and fatty acid of breast milk and its association with mother′s diet composition

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk , and its association with the mother′s diet. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. Results: The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6 and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3 made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Conclusion: Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention.

  8. Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Stock, David C; Lou, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children. Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008. Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists. Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14). Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.

  9. PBDEs in U.S. milk, blood, and food, and temporal trends for PBDEs, PCDDs, and PCBs in US blood

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    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Ryan, J.J. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Rosen, R. [Southwestern Med