WorldWideScience

Sample records for food analysis

  1. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  2. Analysis of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1991-01-01

    Foods, e.g. chicken, shrimps, frog legs, spices, different dried vegetables, potatoes and fruits are legally irradiated in many countries and are probably also exported into countries, which do not permit irradiation of any food. Therefore all countries need analytical methods to determine whether food has been irradiated or not. Up to now, two physical (ESR-spectroscopy and thermoluminescence) and two chemical methods (o-tyrosine and volatile compounds) are available for routine analysis. Several results of the application of these four mentioned methods on different foods are presented and a short outlook on other methods (chemiluminescence, DNA-changes, biological assays, viscometric method and photostimulated luminescence) will be given. (author)

  3. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. CONTEXT BASED FOOD IMAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ye; Xu, Chang; Khanna, Nitin; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a dietary assessment system that records daily food intake through the use of food images. Recognizing food in an image is difficult due to large visual variance with respect to eating or preparation conditions. This task becomes even more challenging when different foods have similar visual appearance. In this paper we propose to incorporate two types of contextual dietary information, food co-occurrence patterns and personalized learning models, in food image analysis to r...

  5. Food insecurity: A concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Krista; Smaldone, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report an analysis of the concept of food insecurity, in order to 1) propose a theoretical model of food insecurity useful to nursing and 2) discuss its implications for nursing practice, nursing research, and health promotion. Background Forty eight million Americans are food insecure. As food insecurity is associated with multiple negative health effects, nursing intervention is warranted. Design Concept Analysis Data sources A literature search was conducted in May 2014 in Scopus and MEDLINE using the exploded term “food insecur*.” No year limit was placed. Government websites and popular media were searched to ensure a full understanding of the concept. Review Methods Iterative analysis, using the Walker and Avant method Results Food insecurity is defined by uncertain ability or inability to procure food, inability to procure enough food, being unable to live a healthy life, and feeling unsatisfied. A proposed theoretical model of food insecurity, adapted from the Socio-Ecological Model, identifies three layers of food insecurity (individual, community, society), with potential for nursing impact at each level. Conclusion Nurses must work to fight food insecurity. There exists a potential for nursing impact that is currently unrealized. Nursing impact can be guided by a new conceptual model, Food Insecurity within the Nursing Paradigm. PMID:25612146

  6. Hydrolyzable tannin analysis in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of plant polyphenols in food is perhaps one of the biggest breakthroughs in modern food science. Plant polyphenols are known for their role in food quality and safety, since they contribute significantly to taste, flavour, colour, stability etc., while they are increasingly recognised as important factors in long-term health, contributing towards reducing the risk of chronic disease. Almost 200years ago, hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) were the first group of plant polyphenols subjected to analytical chemical research. Despite the lack of commercially available standards, food analysis research offers a wealth of papers dealing with extraction optimisation, identification and quantification of HTs. The object of this review is to summarise analytical chemistry applications and the tools currently used for the analysis of HTs in food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sugar amount analysis in food from Lithuanian food market

    OpenAIRE

    Gudauskaitė, Milda

    2015-01-01

    When taking too much simple sugar, especially sucrose, harmful health effects occur: more tooth decay occurs, the excess sugar coverts into fat, digestive system gets irritated, increase of weight, possibility in increasing of developing cancer cells, pancreatic and other misbalances in the endocrine organs. Thesis goal: to perform sugar amount analysis in Lithuanian food market Analysis methodology. Assessing the amount of sugar (g/100g) there was analyzed 147 major food la...

  8. Sensitivity analysis of the terrestrial food chain model FOOD III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1980-10-01

    As a first step in constructing a terrestrial food chain model suitable for long-term waste management situations, a numerical sensitivity analysis of FOOD III was carried out to identify important model parameters. The analysis involved 42 radionuclides, four pathways, 14 food types, 93 parameters and three percentages of parameter variation. We also investigated the importance of radionuclides, pathways and food types. The analysis involved a simple contamination model to render results from individual pathways comparable. The analysis showed that radionuclides vary greatly in their dose contribution to each of the four pathways, but relative contributions to each pathway are very similar. Man's and animals' drinking water pathways are much more important than the leaf and root pathways. However, this result depends on the contamination model used. All the pathways contain unimportant food types. Considering the number of parameters involved, FOOD III has too many different food types. Many of the parameters of the leaf and root pathway are important. However, this is true for only a few of the parameters of animals' drinking water pathway, and for neither of the two parameters of mans' drinking water pathway. The radiological decay constant increases the variability of these results. The dose factor is consistently the most important variable, and it explains most of the variability of radionuclide doses within pathways. Consideration of the variability of dose factors is important in contemporary as well as long-term waste management assessment models, if realistic estimates are to be made. (auth)

  9. Activation analysis in food analysis. Pt. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented on the application of activation analysis (AA) techniques for food analysis, as reflected at a recent international conference titled Activation Analysis and its Applications. The most popular analytical techniques include instrumental neutron AA, (INAA or NAA), radiochemical NAA (RNAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis and mass spectrometry. Data are presented for the multielemental NAA of instant soups, for elemental composition of drinking water in Iraq, for Na, K, Mn contents of various Indian rices, for As, Hg, Sb and Se determination in various seafoods, for daily microelement takeup in China, for the elemental composition of Chinese teas. Expected development trends in AA are outlined. (R.P.) 24 refs.; 8 tabs

  10. Food Irradiation Update and Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Natick). Significant contributions were made by Dr. Irwin Taub and Mr. Christopher Rees of the Technology Acquisition Division, Food Engineering...stability. 5 Food Irradiation Update C-ost Analysis I. Introduction In the book The Physioloqy of Taste (1825), one of the pioneers of gastronomy ...review of the utility that radiation preserved foods might offer the military food service system. To date, this technology has seen limited use in the

  11. Rheological Principles for Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

    Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

  12. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  13. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  14. Hyperspectral Image Analysis of Food Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten

    inspection.Near-infrared spectroscopy can address these issues by offering a fast and objectiveanalysis of the food quality. A natural extension to these single spectrumNIR systems is to include image information such that each pixel holds a NIRspectrum. This augmented image information offers several......Assessing the quality of food is a vital step in any food processing line to ensurethe best food quality and maximum profit for the farmer and food manufacturer.Traditional quality evaluation methods are often destructive and labourintensive procedures relying on wet chemistry or subjective human...... extensions to the analysis offood quality. This dissertation is concerned with hyperspectral image analysisused to assess the quality of single grain kernels. The focus is to highlight thebenefits and challenges of using hyperspectral imaging for food quality presentedin two research directions. Initially...

  15. Development of microbial biosensors for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasiak, Justyna

    in order to fulfill the needs of different fields, from environmental sciences to food industry. Moreover, they can be an answer for the need of novel, less expensive and environmentally neutral methods of analysis particularly in food ingredients assessment. The aim of this PhD thesis was to develop...... heteropolysaccharide commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent and food stabilizer. The chemical analysis of the pectin carbohydrate composition is a significant issue during the study of its function and properties. Arabinoxylan is one of the main non-starch polysaccharide derived from the cell wall of cereal...... grains. It is a dietary fiber, with potential as a functional food ingredient. In this study, reporter strains targeting specifically L-rhamnose, L-arabinose and Dxylose using three different signal transducers: bioluminescence (luxCDABE), fluorescence (gfp) and ice nucleation (inaZ) were developed...

  16. Sensory Analysis of Stored Tray Pack Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    microbiological and/or chemical analysis in the event that food deterioration was observed or on an "as needed" basis. Proximate, mineral, vitamin , and...144 Q. LASAGMA IH!’£IAL 6 HOMTHS FIGURE 2: BEEF HEDOMIC RATINGS BV STORAGE TIME AND TEHPEKATURE *• SCALE: 1 TO 9 H 7e DEGREES DEGREES k3 3

  17. Activation analysis for food chemistry Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.; Gundorin, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The nondestructive determination of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and P content of animal tissues was reported. The IBR-30 (Dubna) reactor was used as the thermal neutron source for all the (n,ν) reactions needed for the analyses (tabulated), and as the source of fast neutrons for the (n,α) reaction of the P determination, too. Results and errors of the analyses (5-15%) were discussed comparing the reproducibility of the methods in case of different animal tissues, liver, bones, blood, etc. The nondestructive neutron activation multielemental analysis for food chemistry can be recommended in the case of a large scale monitoring program of food samples. (Sz.J.)

  18. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per...

  19. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Keigo; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Shoei; Sakamoto, Yuhki; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    By electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed free radicals in γ-ray irradiated foods; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng. We also analyzed the decay behavior of radiation induced free radicals during storage of irradiated foods. The ESR spectrum of experimental irradiated foods consists of a sextet signal centered at g=2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position and a singlet signal at g=4.0. The singlet signal at g=2.0 is originated from organic free radicals and its peak intensity showed the dependence of γ-ray irradiation dose levels. The signal intensity was decreased during storage. Only after 3 hours of radiation treatment the peak intensity was decreased fast and after that the intensity was decreased slowly. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , of radiation induced free radicals showed the variations before and after irradiation. During long time storage period it was shown that T 1 was increased and T 2 was decreased. By analysis of decay process using the simulation methods based on the theory of reaction speed, it is considered that at least two kinds of radicals were induced in irradiated foods during long time storage. (author)

  20. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Porkka

    Full Text Available Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (15% of dietary energy supply increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  1. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  3. CHNS ANALYSIS TOWARDS FOOD WASTE IN COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High food waste generation in Malaysia that reached up to 15, 000 tonnes per day assign for major problems towards environment, economy and social aspect. Alternative method had been studied for the past years, but composting was seen among the best possible solution to treat this matter. Composting not only has an environmentally method but it also produces a valuable end product that will benefit in agricultural sector. Further studies had been done in this paper to represent their macro and micro nutrient quality as well as their bioavailability towards plant and the analysis of data collected in both CHNS analyser and mathematical method using ultimate analysis. This study also applied enhanced composting process with its segregation, drying, grinding and standard aeration time. Each container has been rotated for 5 minutes yet different resting time was applied which are 25, 55, 155 minutes namely A, B, C and D within 2 hours period. Result shown that overall Carbon (C, Nitrogen (N and Sulphur (S concentration increases as the higher aeration was applied while the Hydrogen vice versa. The highest elemental percentage distribution recorded is carbon (31% while the lowest recorded is S (0.115%. The data collected from Ultimate Analysis was seen not applicable to be use as it has the same content as food waste after composting. The compound molecular formula recorded was C29H7N5S. Regarding ratio of carbon to nitrogen results, it was found that it ranged from 5.39 to 5.71% for different compost treatment under study, where the lowest value of C and N ratio (5.39% for sample C and the highest value (5.71% was obtained for sample B with all has the same C/N ratio which is 6: 1 which suitable range in application of soil amendment. Therefore, this study found a significant relationship between chemical factors and compost formation which contribute to better analysis, especially to food waste management.

  4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Wendi L.; Love, H. Alan; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in the food industry are analyzed using logit regression analysis. Factors affecting the food processing, food retailing and food service sectors are considered. Results indicate merger and acquisition activity in all three sectors are significantly influenced by antitrust activity, profitability and real gross domestic product.

  5. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food

  6. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  7. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL FLOWS IN FOOD INDURSTRY ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie SPIVACENCO

    2015-01-01

    In the present study it was used the analysis of food industry and the financial flows generated by them. The analysis was based on information from the financial statements of these entities, and the study of evolution: food industry output, number of enterprises and employees in food industry, import and export of food production. Following the undertaken analysis are highlighted some shortcomings and made some concrete proposals need to be considered in the sustainable development of the f...

  8. Colilert® applied to food analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colilert® (IDEXX was originally developed for the simultaneous enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in water samples and has been used for the quality control routine of drinking, swimming pools, fresh, coastal and waste waters (Grossi et al., 2013. The Colilert® culture medium contains the indicator nutrient 4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG. MUG acts as a substrate for the E. coli enzyme β-glucuronidase, from which a fluorescent compound is produced. A positive MUG result produces fluorescence when viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. If the test fluorescence is equal to or greater than that of the control, the presence of E. coli has been confirmed (Lopez-Roldan et al., 2013. The present work aimed to apply Colilert® to the enumeration of E. coli in different foods, through the comparison of results against the reference method (ISO 16649-2, 2001 for E. coli food analysis. The study was divided in two stages. During the first stage ten different types of foods were analyzed with Colilert®, these included pastry, raw meat, ready to eat meals, yogurt, raw seabream and salmon, and cooked shrimp. From these it were approved the following: pastry with custard; raw minced pork; soup "caldo-verde"; raw vegetable salad (lettuce and carrots and solid yogurt. The approved foods presented a better insertion in the tray, the colour of the wells was lighter and the UV reading was easier. In the second stage the foods were artificially contaminated with 2 log/g of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and analyzed. Colilert® proved to be an accurate method and the counts were similar to the ones obtained with the reference method. In the present study, the Colilert® method did not reveal neither false-positive or false-negative results, however sometimes the results were difficult to read due to the presence of green fluorescence in some wells. Generally Colilert® was an easy and rapid method, but less objective and more expensive than the reference method.

  9. The power law and dynamic rheology in food analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein networks impart functional and structural characteristics to food, and should be examined to gain an understanding of properties of the product. Food matrices are investigated nondestructively by small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis, which provides information on viscoelasticity, incl...

  10. Junk Food Marketing on Instagram: Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Amy Jo; Kelly, Bridget; Zhang, Lelin; Wang, Zhiyong; Young, Sarah; Freeman, Becky

    2018-06-05

    Omnipresent marketing of processed foods is a key driver of dietary choices and brand loyalty. Market data indicate a shift in food marketing expenditures to digital media, including social media. These platforms have greater potential to influence young people, given their unique peer-to-peer transmission and youths' susceptibility to social pressures. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of images and videos posted by the most popular, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverage brands on Instagram and the marketing strategies used in these images, including any healthy choice claims. A content analysis of 15 accounts was conducted, using 12 months of Instagram posts from March 15, 2015, to March 15, 2016. A pre-established hierarchical coding guide was used to identify the primary marketing strategy of each post. Each brand used 6 to 11 different marketing strategies in their Instagram accounts; however, they often adhered to an overall theme such as athleticism or relatable consumers. There was a high level of branding, although not necessarily product information on all accounts, and there were very few health claims. Brands are using social media platforms such as Instagram to market their products to a growing number of consumers, using a high frequency of targeted and curated posts that manipulate consumer emotions rather than present information about their products. Policy action is needed that better reflects the current media environment. Public health bodies also need to engage with emerging media platforms and develop compelling social counter-marketing campaigns. ©Amy Jo Vassallo, Bridget Kelly, Lelin Zhang, Zhiyong Wang, Sarah Young, Becky Freeman. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 05.06.2018.

  11. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovsky, L.; Soliman, K.

    1999-01-01

    Food samples were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons. The average ratios of thermal to epithermal activity were determined for 80 Br, 49 Ca, 38 Cl, 60m Co, 42 K, 27 Mg, 56 Mn, 24 Na, and 86m Rb. They were equal to 2.1, 26, 24, 6.6, 19, 16, 11, 23 and 1.9, respectively. Then, 57 food samples were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis for Br and Rb. The concentrations (in ppm) of Br and Rb were in asparagus (2) 2.3, 11.5; beets (3) 0.5, 0.8; beef (3) 1.7, 3.6; cabbage (5) 0.5, 10.8; carrot (3) 0.2, 3.7; chicken (3) 0.6, 4.4; chocolate (7) 11.1, 18.7; egg (3) 0.9, 1.9; french bean (3) 0.3, 1.0; goose (2) 1.3, 9.3; lettuce (2) 0.9, 1.7; pork (1) 1.5, 4.4; potato (7) 1.0, 1.2; sausage (3) 4.8, 3.5; spinach (3) 3.6, 4.0; strawberry jam (3) 0.4, 1.4; tomato (1) 13.5, 14.6; turkey (3) 1.2, 4.9. respectively. The number of samples and analyzed is indicated in parentheses. (author)

  12. Analysis of polonium-210 in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Luciana; Cunha, Ieda Irma Lamas

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the polonium levels in food products. The analysis procedure consisted of acid leaching of the samples, solution evaporation, addition of hydrochloric acid, spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disk counting by alpha spectroscopy. The method was applied in reference materials and in foodstuffs, resulting in the following values: tea samples 0.4 to 1.7 Bq/unit; fish = 0.17 to 0.40 Bq/Kg, fruits = 0.048 to 0.067 Bq/kg, vegetables = 0.12 to 0.31 Bq/kg, cereal = 0.036 to 0.042 Bq/kg and legumes = 0.024 to 0.51 Bq/kg. The results are very important for public health due to the possible effects to the human organism by the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. (author)

  13. Ways of life analysis and food culture

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Birgit

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary 1. People's food patterns are among other things influenced by their social environments. Analysing the relationship between the social environment and food culture is an important lead in trying to derive consumer objectives directed towards the food sector. 2. The way of life typology proposed by Højrup may be a useful device for analysing how the social environment impacts food patterns. Højrup proposes three ways of life: the independent way of life, the wage-earner way ...

  14. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  15. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Product Quality Assurance Project for Teaching of Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the challenges in teaching Food Analysis are bringing relevance to the various chemical and physical analyses discussed and exposing students to the realities of quality assurance in the food industry. In a project to help meet those objectives, each student, with the assistance of a "resource person" from the food industry, completes the…

  17. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  18. Hazard analysis of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Kiser, P. R.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Food System presented unique microbiological problems because food was warmed in null-gravity and because the heat source was limited to 69.4 C (to prevent boiling in null-gravity). For these reasons, the foods were manufactured using critical control point techniques of quality control coupled with appropriate hazard analyses. One of these hazard analyses evaluated the threat from Clostridium perfringens. Samples of food were inoculated with C. perfringens and incubated for 2 h at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 C. Generation times were determined for the foods at various temperatures. Results of these tests were evaluated taking into consideration: food-borne disease epidemiology, the Skylab food manufacturing procedures, and the performance requirements of the Skylab Food System. Based on this hazard analysis, a limit for C. perfringens of 100/g was established for Skylab foods.

  19. Nuclear methods for food analysis at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.; Capar, S.G.; Baratta, E.J.; Mackill, P.

    2001-01-01

    An overview radioanalytical techniques used in support of research, monitoring programs, and field assignments directed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) is presented. The Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center annually determines radionuclide concentrations in 260 Total Diet Study foods, approximately 80 imported foods, and a selection of domestic foods collected near U.S. nuclear power plants. Radioanalytical techniques used at CFSAN's neutron analysis laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are discussed along with applications for research, quality control, and special projects. (author)

  20. Analysis of the European Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; McDonald, Scott; Joint Research Centre; Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Kaditi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a study assigned to the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) by the European Commission¿s Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS) to investigate recent developments in the European food industry and the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade flows on the food industry in the EU-25. The report illustrates trends in and the structure of the European food industry. Past and possible future developments are ana...

  1. Ways of life analysis and food culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    Executive Summary 1. People's food patterns are among other things influenced by their social environments. Analysing the relationship between the social environment and food culture is an important lead in trying to derive consumer objectives directed towards the food sector. 2. The way of life...... typology proposed by Højrup may be a useful device for analysing how the social environment impacts food patterns. Højrup proposes three ways of life: the independent way of life, the wage-earner way of life, and the career-bound way of life. He relates these types to empirical observation by qualitative...

  2. Food Marketing to Children Online: A Content Analysis of Food Company Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B; Montague, Heather; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Since 2006, many U.S. food and beverage companies have pledged to market healthier foods to children to help combat the childhood obesity epidemic. Despite this, companies' expenditures on online advertising have increased of late. To explore this seemingly contradictory situation, the authors conducted a content analysis of approximately 100 food and beverage brand websites, examining a multitude of online marketing practices across a variety of different products, as well as the relationship between marketing techniques and the nutritional profile of promoted foods. This is the first study to examine if nutrition varied by marketing technique. Few brands maintained child-oriented websites, but the brands that did have child-oriented websites included a large number of games promoting particularly obesogenic food products. Somewhat surprisingly, games with many brand identifiers were paired with slightly less obesogenic foods. These findings present a mixed picture of the threat posed by online child-oriented food marketing.

  3. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  4. Novel foods dossier analysis (Annex 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cachapa Rodrigues, I.

    2009-01-01

    In the NFR case study by Isabel Cachapa Rodrigues three novel foods dossiers have been analysed. The dossiers have been chosen from the UK because in this country they are made available on the internet. Remarkably in all three a qualification other than novel food would have been defendable. These

  5. Exergy analysis in industrial food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and

  6. Aptamer-based technology for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are short and functional single-stranded oligonucleotide sequences selected from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, which have the capacity to recognize various classes of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Various analytical aptamers acquired by SELEX are widely used in many research fields, such as medicine, biology, and chemistry. However, the application of this innovative and emerging technology to food safety is just in infant stage. Food safety plays a very important role in our daily lives because varieties of poisonous and harmful substances in food affect human health. Aptamer technique is promising, which can overcome many disadvantages of existing detection methods in food safety, such as long detection time, low sensitivity, difficult, and expensive antibody preparation. This review provides an overview of various aptamer screening technologies and summarizes the recent applications of aptamers in food safety, and future prospects are also discussed.

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through proper understanding of the terms of quality, adulteration and food safety. The essential aim of this article is played understanding and easy identification of counterfeit food. Thus the awareness of counterfeit food products consumers are becoming more aware and responsible on quality of life. Quality will always be one of the most important competitive factors of ensuring health and environmental protection.

  8. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  9. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  10. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  11. Energy analysis in sterilization process of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Sun; Pyun, Yu Ryang

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed for predicting energy consumption of batch type thermal processing of food. From mass and energy balance equations various energy usages or losses were estimated for steam sterilization of model food system in No.301-7 can (Φ74.1 x 113.0mm) at three different temperatures. Selected models were 5 % bentonite solution for conductive food and tap water for convective food. Total steam or energy consumption was higher at 110 deg C than at two other higher temperatures (121 deg C and 130 deg C). High energy consumption at low sterilization temperature was mainly due to high bleeding steam energy and convective and radiative heat losses. Thermal energy efficiency was also disscussed. (Author)

  12. Actual situation of radiation analysis of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takakazu

    2011-01-01

    The measurement methods of radioactivity of food and quality control are described. 'Manual for Measuring Radioactivity of Foods in Case of Emergency' was published by Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan, on March 17, 2011. It explained the analytical methods such as radioactive iodine by NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter, radionuclide by gamma-ray spectrometry using germanium semiconductor detector, uranium and plutonium rapid analytical method for emergency, and radioactive strontium analytical method. This report gave a detailed explanation of the measurement method of radioactive iodine by NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter and radionuclide by γ-ray spectrometry using germanium semiconductor detector. Indices for Food and Beverage Intake Restriction, germanium semiconductor detector and lead shield, activity standard gamma volume sources and the calibration certificate, Eu-152 radioactivity standard gamma ray sources and energy calibration curve, Food Safety Risk Assessment on Radioactive Nuclides in Food, measurement results of food by germanium semiconductor detector, and the measurement results of vegetables before and after the nuclear accident are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  14. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  15. Content analysis of food advertising in Turkish television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, Tulay; Turan, Serap; Akcay, Teoman; Degirmenci, Fatih; Avci, Okan; Asan, Abdulkerim; Erdil, Emre; Majid, Abdulaziz; Bereket, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Television (TV) viewing has been implicated in children's weight gain. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of TV food advertising in Turkey. TV advertisements (ads) in the four most popular national free to air Turkish TV channels, were assessed on two weekdays and two weekend days at four time periods of the day; 0800-1200,1200-1600,1600-2000 and 2000-2400 h for each TV channel (64 h assessed for each TV channel), making a total of 256 h. Each ad was analysed for food and drink content, duration and audiovisual properties. There were 8853 TV ads and 2848 of these were related to food (32.1%). A majority of food ads included high-calorie, high-fat, high-sugar food and drink rather than core/healthy foods (81%). Chocolate and chocolate bars were the most frequently advertised food/drink product, followed by cakes, coffee, tea, candies, gum, fast food, chips, juices/carbonated beverages, margarine and ice-cream formed the highest rate of food products advertised in decreasing order. Thirty per cent of all obesogenic/unhealthy ads targeted childhood by using audiovisual techniques. The proportion of total advertisements which were for food or drink, and the proportion of food advertisements that were for unhealthy foods were both much higher at the weekend (33% vs. 30% and 84% vs. 78%, respectively). The time period between 1600 and 2000 h was the most concentrated time slot (33%) for food advertising. This study provides data for the first time on the high levels of obesogenic food advertising on Turkish TV. This should alarm policy-makers to set limits on food advertising targeted towards children especially in countries like Turkey in which childhood obesity is emerging as an important public health issue.

  16. A European regional analysis of selected food consumption statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines different European regions of food culture. It does so by analyzing statements about food attitudes and food consumption from a general, commercial life style survey. The data were collected in 1989 through 20.000 interviews in European countries broken down into 80 regions. T...... for more advanced statistical analysis, this paper should definitely be regarded as a work progress paper, incomplete as it is....

  17. An analysis of food irradiation : genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPhee, D.; Hall, W.

    1988-01-01

    A series of studies undertaken at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in India in the 1970s reported the occurrence of polyploidy in bone-marrow or peripheral lymphocytes in a number of species, including children, fed on freshly irradiated wheat. Opponents of food irradiation use these studies as evidence that genetic damage is caused by the consumption of irradiated food. This review of those NIN studies and of the attempts to replicate them and of two other relevant studies concludes that the claim that consumption of irradiated food causes genetic damage has not been substantiated. Other researchers have been unable to replicate the NIN studies. Polyploidy appears to be a poor indicator of genetic damage and the NIN results are biologically implausible

  18. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  19. Image Analysis for X-ray Imaging of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur

    for quality and safety evaluation of food products. In this effort the fields of statistics, image analysis and statistical learning are combined, to provide analytical tools for determining the aforementioned food traits. The work demonstrated includes a quantitative analysis of heat induced changes......X-ray imaging systems are increasingly used for quality and safety evaluation both within food science and production. They offer non-invasive and nondestructive penetration capabilities to image the inside of food. This thesis presents applications of a novel grating-based X-ray imaging technique...... and defect detection in food. Compared to the complex three dimensional analysis of microstructure, here two dimensional images are considered, making the method applicable for an industrial setting. The advantages obtained by grating-based imaging are compared to conventional X-ray imaging, for both foreign...

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-01-01

    The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through...

  1. A content analysis of food advertising on Turkish television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçil Ok, Mehtap; Ercan, Aydan; Kaya, Fatih Suleyman

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of Television (TV) food advertising and compare various food advertisements on free-to-air Turkish national TV channels by broadcast time (duration) and frequency over the period of a week (19-25 April 2012). TV food advertisements were the unit of content analysis in this study. Each advertisement identified as promoting a food product was analysed for content; non-food advertisements were not analysed, although they were counted as a proportion of the advertisements aired. We recorded all programmes for 4 h each per day (7 p.m.-11 p.m.), totalling 84 h. Five types of food-related advertisements were identified (basic foods, junk foods, meat products, beverages and fast food), and six types of non-food advertisements. The Student t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the mean broadcast time of all prime time advertising for the two groups. The mean broadcast times for prime time, non-food advertisements showed a statistically significant difference (p advertisements increased during this time period, while the broadcast time per beverage advertisement decreased (ratio = 20.8 s per ads). As a result, TV food advertising increased not only during dinner time but also in overall broadcast time (per advertisement). These findings may be useful for explaining how advertising can negatively influence food choices, thereby increasing public awareness of the need for health messages targeting obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  3. Food Prices Transmission In Rwanda: Econometric Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahavugimana

    (2010) found that if markets are efficient and policies are not an obstacle to their operation, changes in the world price of any given commodity should be similarly reflected in changes in domestic prices – phenomenon known as 'price transmission'. In many poor countries, the recent increases in prices of staple foods have ...

  4. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus...... imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  5. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alshannaq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds. These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn, cereals, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and other food and feed crops in the field and in grain during transportation. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed can cause acute or chronic toxicity in human and animals. In addition to concerns over adverse effects from direct consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods and feeds, there is also public health concern over the potential ingestion of animal-derived food products, such as meat, milk, or eggs, containing residues or metabolites of mycotoxins. Members of three fungal genera, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, are the major mycotoxin producers. While over 300 mycotoxins have been identified, six (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and patulin are regularly found in food, posing unpredictable and ongoing food safety problems worldwide. This review summarizes the toxicity of the six mycotoxins, foods commonly contaminated by one or more of them, and the current methods for detection and analysis of these mycotoxins.

  6. Analysis of the relationship between food habits and health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes nutrition of students, based on the assessment of frequency of consumption of basic food products. The study involved 50 students aged 21-22 years. Set that the nutrition of the majority of students is irrational, in the daily life of young people there is a number of risk factors associated with inadequate intake of healthy food products. Have far-reaching enough food habits due to the consumption of so-called "food waste". The analysis of the correlation relationship between nutrition, mental performance and lifestyle factors, confirmed that a violation of the rules of a healthy diet affects the performance efficiency, increases the likelihood of bad habits. Slow food culture, lack of knowledge of young people on healthy food cause the need for appropriate health education.

  7. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-09-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990. The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared with objective measures. There was marked heterogeneity between studies regardless of type of assessment or food item considered, and in most analyses this persisted after age stratification. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. There is a marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of food allergy that could be a result of differences in study design or methodology, or differences between populations. We recommend that measurements be made by using standardized methods, if possible food challenge. We need to be cautious in estimates of prevalence based only on self-reported food allergy.

  8. Analysis of food demand among rural households in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of food demand among rural households in Kwara State, North Central ... Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ... Contrary to the law of demand, this study shows that the demand for animal products and fats/oil increased with ...

  9. Analysis of Food Insecurity and Surveillance Based on the FANP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    In this paper, we seek to use the Fuzzy analytical network process (FANP) for analysis of food insecurity surveillance and selecting the best strategies for ... population in different research reports (Bickel et. all, ..... Inability of financial motivation.

  10. In Depth Analysis of Food Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    over time. In this paper we demonstrate the use- fulness of our SLS system for characterizing food items. We use a laser source that can be tuned to any wavelength in the range of 455 nm - 1020 nm by applying an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) to an optical beam generated by a Super......In this paper we describe a computer vision system based on SLS (Subsurface Laser Scattering) for industrial food inspection. To ob- tain high and uniform quality, in for example dairy products like yoghurt and cheese, it is important to monitor the change in size and shape of microscopic particles......K (supercontinuum) laser system. In our experiments we show how the system can be used for discriminating dairy products with dierent structure and how the structural change of a foam can be monitored over time. Time stability of the system is essential for measurements over several hours, and we demonstrate...

  11. Semantic Analysis of Fast Food Advertisement Slogans

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Enda Christiani Nora

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to find out the types of meaning,and explain the ways of fast food advertisement slogans. This research is conducted by using descriptive qualitative design. The data are analyze by using The seven types of meaning is conducted by using Semantics (the study of meaning) theory by G. Leech (1983). The data are divided into Seven Types of meaning,they are; Conceptual meaning, Connotative meaning, Social meaning, Affective meaning, Reflected meaning, C...

  12. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of chemical food contaminants in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been mainly applied in pharmaceutical and forensic analysis. We expect that DESI will find its way in many different fields, including food analysis. In this review, we summarize DESI developments aimed at

  14. Geospatial analysis of food environment demonstrates associations with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Suter, Melissa A; Ballas, Jerasimos; Ramin, Susan M; Monga, Manju; Lee, Wesley; Hu, Min; Shope, Cindy D; Chesnokova, Arina; Krannich, Laura; Griffin, Emily N; Mastrobattista, Joan; Dildy, Gary A; Strehlow, Stacy L; Ramphul, Ryan; Hamilton, Winifred J; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of most common complications of pregnancy, with incidence rates varying by maternal age, race/ethnicity, obesity, parity, and family history. Given its increasing prevalence in recent decades, covariant environmental and sociodemographic factors may be additional determinants of GDM occurrence. We hypothesized that environmental risk factors, in particular measures of the food environment, may be a diabetes contributor. We employed geospatial modeling in a populous US county to characterize the association of the relative availability of fast food restaurants and supermarkets to GDM. Utilizing a perinatal database with >4900 encoded antenatal and outcome variables inclusive of ZIP code data, 8912 consecutive pregnancies were analyzed for correlations between GDM and food environment based on countywide food permit registration data. Linkage between pregnancies and food environment was achieved on the basis of validated 5-digit ZIP code data. The prevalence of supermarkets and fast food restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants for each ZIP code were gathered from publicly available food permit sources. To independently authenticate our findings with objective data, we measured hemoglobin A1c levels as a function of geospatial distribution of food environment in a matched subset (n = 80). Residence in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of fast food restaurants (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing GDM (relative to first quartile: adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.19). In multivariate analysis, this association held true after controlling for potential confounders (P = .002). Measurement of hemoglobin A1c levels in a matched subset were significantly increased in association with residence in a ZIP code with a higher fast food/supermarket ratio (n = 80, r = 0.251 P analysis, a relationship of food environment and risk for gestational diabetes was

  15. Incidence of food anaphylaxis in people with food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasunthar, T; Leonardi-Bee, J; Turner, P J; Hodes, M; Gore, C; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2015-11-01

    Food allergy is a common cause of anaphylaxis, but the incidence of anaphylaxis in food allergic people is unknown. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, using the inverse variance method. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale. We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS and AMED between January 1946 and September 2012 and recent conference abstracts. We included registries, databases or cohort studies which described the number of food anaphylaxis cases in a defined population and time period and applied an assumed population prevalence of food allergy. We included data from 34 studies. There was high heterogeneity between study results, possibly due to variation in study populations, anaphylaxis definition and data collection methods. In food allergic people, medically coded food anaphylaxis had an incidence rate of 0.14 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.05, 0.35; range 0.01, 1.28). In sensitivity analysis using different estimated food allergy prevalence, the incidence varied from 0.11 to 0.21 per 100 person-years. At age 0-19, the incidence rate for anaphylaxis in food allergic people was 0.20 (95% CI 0.09, 0.43; range 0.01, 2.55; sensitivity analysis 0.08, 0.39). At age 0-4, an incidence rate of up to 7.00 per 100 person-years has been reported. In food allergic people, hospital admission due to food anaphylaxis had an incidence rate of 0.09 (95% CI 0.01, 0.67; range 0.02, 0.81) per 1000 person-years; 0.20 (95% CI 0.10, 0.43; range 0.04, 2.25) at age 0-19 and 0.50 (0.26, 0.93; range 0.08, 2.82) at age 0-4. In food allergic people, the incidence of food allergic reactions which are coded as anaphylaxis by healthcare systems is low at all ages, but appears to be highest in young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors

  17. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-05-27

    While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) - a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant.Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 - 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Although we found an independent

  18. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  19. Supercontinuum light sources for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    . One track of Light & Food will target the mid-infrared spectral region. To date, the limitations of mid-infraredlight sources, such as thermal emitters, low-power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation, have precluded mid-IR applications where the spatial coherence, broad...... bandwidth,high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. DTU Fotonik has now demonstrated the first optical fiber based broadband supercontinuum light souce, which covers 1.4-13.3μm and thereby most of the molecular fingerprint region....

  20. Analysis of consumer preferences focused on food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to evaluate the role of additives in food production and to identify how these additives are known and used by consumers in their households. The questionnaire technique was used, the research involved 220 respondents. It was found that the respondents are perceptive to adding of additives into food. Cluster analysis confirmed that the majority of respondents is about the incidence of food additives only partially informed, although 87% of respondents knew what the (E letter of additive means. The correct answers for each question depended on the age and education of respondents and were not dependent on gender of respondents. We recommend to enhance public knowledge about nutrition, diet and food composition, functions, benefits and safety of food additives.

  1. CE microchips: an opened gate to food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpa, Alberto; González, María Cristina; Crevillén, Agustín González; Blasco, Antonio Javier

    2007-03-01

    CE microchips are the first generation of micrototal analysis systems (-TAS) emerging in the miniaturization scene of food analysis. CE microchips for food analysis are fabricated in both glass and polymer materials, such as PDMS and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and use simple layouts of simple and double T crosses. Nowadays, the detection route preferred is electrochemical in both, amperometry and conductivity modes, using end-channel and contactless configurations, respectively. Food applications using CE microchips are now emerging since food samples present complex matrices, the selectivity being a very important challenge because the total integration of analytical steps into microchip format is very difficult. As a consequence, the first contributions that have recently appeared in the relevant literature are based primarily on fast separations of analytes of high food significance. These protocols are combined with different strategies to achieve selectivity using a suitable nonextensive sample preparation and/or strategically choosing detection routes. Polyphenolic compounds, amino acids, preservatives, and organic and inorganic ions have been studied using CE microchips. Thus, new and exciting future expectations arise in the domain of food analysis. However, several drawbacks could easily be found and assumed within the miniaturization map.

  2. Advances in isotopic analysis for food authenticity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Bontempo, L.; Camin, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stable isotope analysis has been used for food authenticity testing for more than 30 years and is today being utilized on a routine basis for a wide variety of food commodities. During the past decade, major analytical method developments have been made and the fundamental understanding...... authenticity testing is currently developing even further. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview of the latest developments in stable isotope analysis for food authenticity testing. As several review articles and book chapters have recently addressed this topic, we will primarily focus on relevant...... literature from the past 5 years. We will focus on well-established methods for food authenticity testing using stable isotopes but will also include recent methodological developments, new applications, and current and future challenges....

  3. Analysis of Food Taints and off-flavours - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway , Kathy; Lalljie , Samuel P.D.; Smith , Roger M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Taints and off-flavours in foods are a major concern to the food industry. Identification of the compound(s) causing a taint or off-flavour in food and accurate quantitation is critical in assessing the potential safety risks of a product or ingredient. Even when the tainting compound(s) are not at a level that would cause a safety concern, taints and off-flavours can have a significant impact on the quality and consumers' acceptability of products. The analysis of tai...

  4. Food Fish Identification from DNA Extraction through Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment exposed 3rd and 4th y undergraduates and graduate students taking a course in advanced food analysis to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analysis. Students provided their own fish sample, purchased from local grocery stores, and the class as a whole extracted DNA, which was then subjected to PCR,…

  5. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  6. A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Mostova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present work is to substantiate the use of tools for strategic analysis in order to develop a strategy for the country’s food security under current conditions and to devise the author’s original technique to perform strategic analysis of food security using a SWOT-analysis. The methodology of the study. The article substantiates the need for strategic planning of food security. The author considers stages in strategic planning and explains the importance of the stage of strategic analysis of the country’s food security. It is proposed to apply a SWOT-analysis when running a strategic analysis of food security. The study is based on the system of indicators and characteristics of the country’s economy, agricultural sector, market trends, material-technical, financial, human resources, which are essential to obtain an objective assessment of the impact of trends and factors on food security, and in order to further develop the procedure for conducting a strategic analysis of the country’s food security. Results of the study. The procedure for strategic analysis of food security is developed based on the tool of a SWOT-analysis, which implies three stages: a strategic analysis of weaknesses and strengths, opportunities and threats; construction of the matrix of weaknesses and strengths, opportunities, and threats (SWOT-analysis matrix; formation of the food security strategy based on the SWOT-analysis matrix. A list of characteristics was compiled in order to conduct a strategic analysis of food security and to categorize them as strengths or weaknesses, threats, and opportunities. The characteristics are systemized into strategic groups: production, market; resources; consumption: this is necessary for the objective establishing of strategic directions, responsible performers, allocation of resources, and effective control, for the purpose of further development and implementation of the strategy. A strategic analysis

  7. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  8. A content analysis of food advertisements appearing in parenting magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Sudakow, Katie; Summers, Amber C

    2013-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the USA. As parents play a major role in shaping a child's diet, the present study examines food advertisements (ads) directed towards parents in parenting and family magazines. Given the potential for magazines to influence attitudes and knowledge, we used content analysis to examine the food ads appearing in four issues each of six different parenting and family magazines from 2008 (n 24). USA. Food ads in parenting and family magazines. We identified 476 food ads, which represented approximately 32 % of all ads in the magazine sample. Snack foods (13 %) were the most frequently observed food ads, followed by dairy products (7 %). The most frequently used sales theme was ‘taste’ (55 %). Some ads promoted foods as ‘healthy’ (14 %) and some made specific health claims (18 %), such as asserting the product would help lower cholesterol. In addition to taste and health and nutrition appeals, we found several themes used in ad messages to promote products, including the following: ‘convenience’, ‘economical’, ‘fun’ and ‘helping families spend time together’. We also found that over half (n 405, 55·9 %) of products (n 725) advertised were products of poor nutritional quality based on total fat, saturated fat, sodium, protein, sugar and fibre contents, and that ads for such products were slightly more likely to use certain sales themes like ‘fun’ (P = 0·04) and ‘no guilt’ (P = 0·03). Interventions should be developed to help parents understand nutritional information seen in food ads and to learn how various foods contribute to providing a balanced family diet.

  9. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline of the st......In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  10. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the methods for determination of vitamin B6 in foods. To achieve this, the literature review focused on sample treatment and liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 related compounds. In the experimental part, the chosen sample pretreatment and the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method were validated, and used to produce vitamin B6 data on various food items commonly consumed in Finland. The main emphasis of the sample treatment was on the extraction efficiency and the maintenance of the original concentration profile of the vitamers. Several acid extraction procedures were tested for this purpose. Perchloric acid was chosen as the extraction agent. Routine food analysis was then performed using dilute ice-cold perchloric acid extraction followed by an internally standardized ion-paired reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Food samples were hydrolyzed with takadiastase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, phosphorylated and glycosylated vitamers were quantitated before and after the enzymatic digestion. This procedure enabled the extraction of vitamin B6 compounds in their intact forms, and the measurement of free, phosphorylated and glycosylated forms. The maintenance of the concentration profile of the vitamers was verified by using 14C -labeled pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the examination of the extraction procedure. The extraction efficiency and laboratory performance were confirmed by interlaboratory studies. Up-to-date data on vitamin B6 content of about fifty common food items was produced. The data includes the results from meat and poultry, fish and fish product, dairy product, cereal and vegetable, and ready-to-eat food samples. Free and phosphorylated vitamin B6 compounds were measured in all food groups, and the glycosylated vitamer fraction was analyzed in all plant-derived foods. The results obtained in this work showed that vitamin B6 content of nearly all foods of plant

  11. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  12. Multielement analysis of foods and related materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents FDA's use of prompt- and delayed-gamma thermal neutron activation analysis (PGAA and INAA, respectively), collectively referred to here is NAA, for the analysis of foods. Several elements of nutritional or toxicological importance can be simultaneously determined at levels ranging from trace to percent. Concentrations of aluminum, boron, bromine, calcium, chlorine, hydrogen, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, sodium, and sulfur can be determined in < 1 day in most foods. For INAA, after a few weeks of decay following irradiation, cobalt, cesium, iron, rubidium, scandium, and zinc can also be determined. Other elements that are detectable in only some food types include cadmium, chromium, copper, iodine, phosphorus, antimony, selenium, titanium, and vanadium

  13. Entman Framing Analysis of Food Governance in Online Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anggraeni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aim is to understand how kompas.com and sindonews.com on the period of 16 October 2017 up to 21 October 2017 framing the news related to food governance in Indonesia using Entman Framing Analysis. Entman Framing is an alternative method to see media differentiation in reveal the reality. According to the researcher, the two media possess its own differentiation in interpreting those realities, so that media could be considered as reader mindset influencer. The concept and theory of the article is agenda setting, reality construct, Entman framing, news and online media. The article method is qualitative using news article as analysis unit. The result show that the two online media emphasize issue about food governance management system. But the assertion of the two news are different; kompas.com tend to build and develop the village and farmer regeneration aspect, while sindonews.com emphasized on reinforcement the management system of food governance.

  14. Analysis of marketing instruments used by domestic organic food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehapi Semir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview of previous research results points out to the fact that the majority of the sources related to the organic food marketing belong to the literature based on the research of consumers, with the lack of extensive research of organic food producers. Thus, the results obtained by the quantitative research of organic food producers on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, are presented in this paper. The main marketing mix instruments (4P are in the focus of analysis, as the most beneficial way of determining the success of marketing activities of the organic food producers in Serbia. In order to get a comprehensive idea of the success of the market activity of the producers, the obtained results are explained in regard to the theoretical knowledge of consumer behavior, acquired by an extensive overview of the relevant literature. The research results are significant, both for the producers of organic food, as well as for traders, because they indicate the key elements to improve the placement of organic food products originating in Serbia. As an important contribution of the paper to the topic, recommendations for the development of an appropriate marketing strategy are given in the conclusion.

  15. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...

  16. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...

  17. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing ... that the environments were diverse; causing most of the variation in grain yield. ... component axes IPCA1, IPCA2 and IPCA3, which explained 58.06, 27.11 and ..... AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield (t ha-1) of food barley genotypes ...

  18. Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-01-01

    Substantial progress has been achieved in recent years in refining the analytical methods and evaluating the accuracy of carotenoid data. Although carotenoid analysis is inherently difficult and continues to be error prone, more complete and reliable data are now available. Rather than expressing the analytical results as retinol equivalents, there is a tendency to present the concentrations of individual carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, carotenoids found in the human plasma and considered to be important to human health in terms of the provitamin A activity and/or reduction of the risk for developing degenerative diseases. With the considerable effort directed to carotenoid analysis, many food sources have now been analyzed in different countries. The carotenoid composition of foods vary qualitatively and quantitatively. Even in a given food, compositional variability occurs because of factors such as stage of maturity, variety or cultivar, climate or season, part of the plant consumed, production practices, post-harvest handling, processing and storage of food. During processing, isomerization of trans-carotenoids, the usual configuration in nature, to the cis-forms occurs, with consequent alteration of the carotenoids' bioavailability and biological activity. Isomerization is promoted by light, heat and acids. The principal cause of carotenoid loss during processing and storage of food is enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of the highly unsaturated carotenoid molecules. The occurrence and extent of oxidation depends on the presence of oxygen, metals, enzymes, unsaturated lipids, prooxidants, antioxidants; exposure to light; type and physical state of the carotenoids present; severity and duration of processing; packaging material; storage conditions. Thus, retention of carotenoids has been the major concern in the preparation, processing and storage of foods. However, in recent years

  19. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  20. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  1. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Food advertising in the age of obesity: content analysis of food advertising on general market and african american television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Vani R; Kelly, Bridget

    2005-01-01

    To document the types of foods advertised and weight-related nutritional claims made during advertisements appearing on general market and African American television programming. Content analysis of 553 food advertisements appearing during 101.5 prime-time television hours. Advertisements were classified according to general category (fast-food restaurant, sit-down restaurant, packaged food), specific food type, and the presence of a weight-related nutritional claim. The type of foods advertised and nutritional claims made on general market and African American programs were compared using t and chi-squared tests. More food advertisements appeared during African American programs than general market programs. These advertisements were more likely to be for fast food, candy, soda, or meat and less likely to be for cereals, grains and pasta, fruits and vegetables, dessert, or alcohol. Of all of the food advertisements, 14.9% made a weight-related nutritional claim. More claims related to fat content appeared during African American programming, whereas more light and lean claims appeared in general market advertisements. Practitioners and policy makers should be aware of the prevalence of food advertisements and their potential impact on knowledge and behavior and should consider working more closely with food manufacturers to encourage the creation and promotion of weight-friendly foods. Meanwhile, nutrition educators can help by teaching consumers critical thinking skills as may relate to food advertisements.

  3. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p catering premises (p catering premises (p catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The importance of adequate training for food handlers and their managers as a pre-requisite for effective hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) based controls is therefore emphasised.

  4. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  5. Research and Development on Food Nutrition Statistical Analysis Software System

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Ke Yun

    2013-01-01

    Designing and developing a set of food nutrition component statistical analysis software can realize the automation of nutrition calculation, improve the nutrition processional professional’s working efficiency and achieve the informatization of the nutrition propaganda and education. In the software development process, the software engineering method and database technology are used to calculate the human daily nutritional intake and the intelligent system is used to evaluate the user’s hea...

  6. Traditional versus commercial food processing techniques - A comparative study based on chemical analysis of selected foods consumed in rural Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham I. C. Mwadiwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of industrialisation, food processors are constantly looking for ways to cut costs, increase production and maximise profits at the expense of quality. Commercial food processors have since shifted their focus from endogenous ways of processing food to more profitable commercial food processing techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the holistic impact of commercial food processing techniques on nutrition by comparing commercially (industrially processed food products and endogenously processed food products through chemical analysis of selected foods. Eight food samples which included commercially processed peanut butter, mealie-meal, dried vegetables (mufushwa and rice and endogenously processed peanut butter, mealie-meal, dried vegetables (mufushwa and rice were randomly sampled from rural communities in the south-eastern and central provinces of Zimbabwe. They were analysed for ash, zinc, iron, copper, magnesium, protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy, crude fibre, vitamin C and moisture contents. The results of chemical analysis indicate that endogenously processed mealie-meal, dried vegetables and rice contained higher ash values of 2.00g/100g, 17.83g/100g, and 3.28g/100g respectively than commercially processed mealie-meal, dried vegetables and rice, which had ash values of 1.56g/100g, 15.25g/100g and 1.46g/100g respectively. The results also show that endogenously processed foods have correspondingly higher iron, zinc and magnesium contents and, on the whole, a higher protein content. The results also indicate that commercially processed foods have higher fat and energy contents. The result led to the conclusion that the foods are likely to pose a higher risk of causing adverse conditions to health, such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases to susceptible individuals. Based on these findings, it can, therefore, be concluded that endogenously processed foods have a better nutrient value and health implications

  7. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The analysis of aspects of food industry competitiveness in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešić Cariša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive ability of the company in modern business conditions is difficult to achieve and easy to lose. The reason for this attitude is the fact that the rapid technological improvement enabled the technology with becoming available to everyone in the world under reasonable terms. Competitiveness of domestic companies is very low. Insufficient application of knowledge, low technological level of enterprises, unproductiveness and inefficiency are just part of the problem. Food industry in Serbia shares the fate of domestic economy - non-competitiveness is one of the main factors which affect the crisis in agricultural sector. The authors of this paper, based on the available national and international statistical data, have done analysis and display of competitive opportunities of domestic economy in general and in particular sectors of food industry. The authors also indicate the possibility of improving competitiveness.

  9. Analysis of natural radionuclides and lead in foods and diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Luciana

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine the lead-210, polonium-210 and lead concentrations in foods and diets. Consumption of food is generally the main route by which radionuclides can enter the human organism. Precision and accuracy of the methods developed were verifies by the analysis of reference materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The method for polonium-210 analysis consisted of sample dissolution by using a microwave digester (open system) employing concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, evaporation almost dryness, addition of hydrochloric acid, polonium deposition onto silver disc for six hours and counting by alpha spectrometry. Lead was analysed by atomic absorption technique. After sample dissolution in a microwave digester (using concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) and dilution to 50 ml, 20μl of the sample was injected in a pyrolytic graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with Zeeman background correction. The assessment of the contaminants in foods and diets allowed to estimate the intake of these elements and for the radionuclides were also evaluated the radiation doses that the individuals selected were exposed by the food consumption. The effective dose for lead-210 by diets intake ranged from 1.3 to 4.3 μSv/year, corresponding to 25% of the resulting from polonium-210 intake. The dose due to the both natural radionuclides varied from 6.8 to 23.0 μSv/year. These values are in good agreement with the literature data. The value estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1993) that is 60 μSv and lower than the dose of 0.02 Sv, limit established by ICRP, 1980. The lead levels found in the majority of the Brazilian foods are in good agreement with the values published by CONAT and FAO/WHO. However, some foods such as bean, potato, papaya, apple and rice present levels above of the recommended values by the Public

  10. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA--its role and potential in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2014-09-01

    DNA based methods play an increasing role in food safety control and food adulteration detection. Recent papers show that high resolution melting (HRM) analysis is an interesting approach. It involves amplification of the target of interest in the presence of a saturation dye by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent melting of the amplicons by gradually increasing the temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, sequence and strand complementarity of the product, HRM analysis is highly suitable for the detection of single-base variants and small insertions or deletions. The review gives an introduction into HRM analysis, covers important aspects in the development of an HRM analysis method and describes how HRM data are analysed and interpreted. Then we discuss the potential of HRM analysis based methods in food analysis, i.e. for the identification of closely related species and cultivars and the identification of pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Impacts and Hotspots of Food Losses: Value Chain Analysis of Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stucki, Matthias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2017-10-03

    Reducing food losses and waste is crucial to making our food system more efficient and sustainable. This is the first paper that quantifies the environmental impacts of food waste by distinguishing the various stages of the food value chain, 33 food categories that represent the whole food basket in Switzerland, and including food waste treatment. Environmental impacts are expressed in terms of climate change and biodiversity impacts due to water and land use. Climate change impacts of food waste are highest for fresh vegetables, due to the large amounts wasted, while the specific impact per kg is largest for beef. Biodiversity impacts are mainly caused by cocoa and coffee (16% of total) and by beef (12%). Food waste at the end of the food value chain (households and food services) causes almost 60% of the total climate impacts of food waste, because of the large quantities lost at this stage and the higher accumulated impacts per kg of product. The net environmental benefits from food waste treatment are only 5-10% of the impacts from production and supply of the wasted food. Thus, avoiding food waste should be a first-line priority, while optimizing the method of treatment is less relevant.

  12. Activation analysis of microelement contents in food stuff of traditional children food in Republics Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Recent years Hematogists and Pediatricians pay more attention to the issue of disturbance of microelement homeostasis which is the most important in formation of microelementosis in children. To prevent and to treat the deficient forms of microelementosis the determination of microelement contents in traditional food of the population in any particular region is an issue of great importance. Provision of school age children with essential microelements and deficiency of many micronutrients are not sufficiently studied. In this aspect the issue of microelement contents in food stuffs of the children of Zarafshan valley is not enough investigated. Therefore, it is advisable to study the specific weight of microelements such as iron, zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese in vegetable and animal products and phytomedium which are consumed as the traditional food of the population of this region. We have studied 47 types of food stuffs mainly of vegetable and animal origin as well as widely used phytomedium. Microelement concentration in food stuffs were defined by neutron-activation analysis method worked out at Nuclear Physics Institute Republic of Uzbekistan. For the first time we have investigated national dishes - sumalak, halisa, shinni which are the essential part of traditional food of Central Asian population and the contents of microelements being studied. As per results of investigation it was found out that the most highest contents of iron was in dried apricot (358 mg/kg), then in black (180 mg/kg) and white (110 mg/kg) raisins. National dish - shinni ( the grapes syrup) contained iron equal to 103 mg/kg, local apple - 100 mg/kg. It should be noted that not only raisins and shinni are rich with iron but the decoction from wild vineyard stalks too which contains 366 mg/l. Moderate iron contents ( 50-100 mg/kg) was found in the following dried fruits: blackberry, haw, bitter and sweet almond, dried fig, and mulberry. Low concentration of iron (less

  13. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....

  14. Homogeneity and heterogeneousness in European food cultures: An exploratory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed

    One type pf boundaries rarely explored in international marketing but of potentially vital importance to international marketing are the cultural boundaries dividing Europe into regions with indidvidual cultural background and different consumptui patterns. This paper explores information about...... such cultural patterns of food consumption based on information from an existing database originating from a 1989 pan-European life style suvey questioning around 20,000 people in 16 European countri divided into 79 regions. A factor analysis reduced the number of variables from 138 to 41, discovering...

  15. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  16. European food cultures: An exploratory analysis of food related preferences and behaviour in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed

    and its potential expansion, the relative importance of national boundaries must be expected to diminish whereas other boundaries will become more apparent. One type of boundaries of vital impo to international marketing is the cultural boundaries dividing Europe into regions with individual cultural...... to the point where some people ta about a 'world cuisine'. However, local, national, and regional differences continue to play a decisive role in the way elements, products, and ingredients are combined, and when, how, with what, and with whom they are eaten. 4. This paper explores information about...... such cultural patterns of food consumption based on information from an exisiting database originating from a 1989 pan-European lifestyle survey questioning around 20.000 people in 16 European countries divided into 79 regions. 5. A factor analysis reduced the number of variables from 138 to 41, discovering...

  17. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  18. Applying a food processing-based classification system to a food guide: a qualitative analysis of the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Medeiros, Kharla Janinny; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aimed to identify the stakeholders, as well as their arguments and recommendations, in the debate on the application of a food processing-based classification system to the new Brazilian Food Guide. Qualitative approach; an analysis was made of documents resulting from the consultation conducted for the development of the new Brazilian Food Guide, which uses the NOVA classification for its dietary recommendations. A thematic matrix was constructed and the resulting themes represented the main points for discussion raised during the consultation. Brazil. Actors from academia, government and associations/unions/professional bodies/organizations related to the area of nutrition and food security; non-profit institutions linked to consumer interests and civil society organizations; organizations, associations and food unions linked to the food industry; and individuals. Four themes were identified: (i) conflicting paradigms; (ii) different perceptions about the role and need of individuals; (iii) we want more from the new food guide; and (iv) a sustainable guide. There was extensive participation from different sectors of society. The debate generated by the consultation revealed two main conflicting opinions: a view aligned with the interests of the food industry and a view of healthy eating which serves the interests of the population. The first group was against the adoption of a food processing-based classification system in a public policy such as the new Brazilian Food Guide. The second group, although mostly agreeing with the new food guide, argued that it failed to address some important issues related to the food and nutrition agenda in Brazil.

  19. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  20. Web-Based Virtual Laboratory for Food Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Khoerunnisa, I.; Sugiarti, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation of learning on food analysis course in Program Study of Agro-industrial Technology Education faced problems. These problems include the availability of space and tools in the laboratory that is not comparable with the number of students also lack of interactive learning tools. On the other hand, the information technology literacy of students is quite high as well the internet network is quite easily accessible on campus. This is a challenge as well as opportunities in the development of learning media that can help optimize learning in the laboratory. This study aims to develop web-based virtual laboratory as one of the alternative learning media in food analysis course. This research is R & D (research and development) which refers to Borg & Gall model. The results showed that assessment’s expert of web-based virtual labs developed, in terms of software engineering aspects; visual communication; material relevance; usefulness and language used, is feasible as learning media. The results of the scaled test and wide-scale test show that students strongly agree with the development of web based virtual laboratory. The response of student to this virtual laboratory was positive. Suggestions from students provided further opportunities for improvement web based virtual laboratory and should be considered for further research.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  2. News from EU Research: SAFE FOODS : Promoting Food Safety through a New, Integrated Risk Analysis Approach for Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnudde, F.

    2005-01-01

    The European food chain is generally considered as one of the safest in the world. Paradoxically, consumers in Europe have little confidence in the safety of their food supply and remain sceptical and distrustful of the institutions and the procedures currently in place. Consumer trust has declined

  3. [Analysis of foods advertised to childhood audience on chilean television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    To examine food advertising aimed at childhood's audience broadcast on Chilean television. Cross-sectional study. Food advertising broadcast by 4 open signal TV channels was recorded for 12 hours daily on twelve days randomly selected. Notices were classified according to food groups and level of processing. The frequency of food advertisement aimed to childhood audience was compared with those for adults. Nutrient profile of foods advertised was described. In 144 hours of recording appeared 530 food advertisement; 53.2% were aimed to childhood audience. The most advertised foods were sugary dairy (28.4%), sweetened beverages (25.5%), and sweetened cereals (17.7%). Of the foods advertised to childhood audience, 75% exceeds the criterion for free sugars. Chilean television advertises ultra-processed foods that exceed the limits of free sugars.

  4. FoodMicrobionet: A database for the visualisation and exploration of food bacterial communities based on network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Cocolin, Luca; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Ferrocino, Ilario; O'Sullivan, Orla; Neviani, Erasmo; De Angelis, Maria; Cotter, Paul D; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-02-16

    Amplicon targeted high-throughput sequencing has become a popular tool for the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities. Although the data obtained with this approach are portable and the number of sequences available in public databases is increasing, no tool has been developed yet for the analysis and presentation of data obtained in different studies. This work describes an approach for the development of a database for the rapid exploration and analysis of data on food microbial communities. Data from seventeen studies investigating the structure of bacterial communities in dairy, meat, sourdough and fermented vegetable products, obtained by 16S rRNA gene targeted high-throughput sequencing, were collated and analysed using Gephi, a network analysis software. The resulting database, which we named FoodMicrobionet, was used to analyse nodes and network properties and to build an interactive web-based visualisation. The latter allows the visual exploration of the relationships between Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and samples and the identification of core- and sample-specific bacterial communities. It also provides additional search tools and hyperlinks for the rapid selection of food groups and OTUs and for rapid access to external resources (NCBI taxonomy, digital versions of the original articles). Microbial interaction network analysis was carried out using CoNet on datasets extracted from FoodMicrobionet: the complexity of interaction networks was much lower than that found for other bacterial communities (human microbiome, soil and other environments). This may reflect both a bias in the dataset (which was dominated by fermented foods and starter cultures) and the lower complexity of food bacterial communities. Although some technical challenges exist, and are discussed here, the net result is a valuable tool for the exploration of food bacterial communities by the scientific community and food industry. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  5. Primary metabolism in Lactobacillus sakei food isolates by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Champomier-Vergès Marie-Christine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus sakei is an important food-associated lactic acid bacterium commonly used as starter culture for industrial meat fermentation, and with great potential as a biopreservative in meat and fish products. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms underlying the growth performance of a strain to be used for food fermentations is important for obtaining high-quality and safe products. Proteomic analysis was used to study the primary metabolism in ten food isolates after growth on glucose and ribose, the main sugars available for L. sakei in meat and fish. Results Proteins, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source were identified, such as a ribokinase and a D-ribose pyranase directly involved in ribose catabolism, and enzymes involved in the phosphoketolase and glycolytic pathways. Expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were also affected by the change of carbon source. Interestingly, a commercial starter culture and a protective culture strain down-regulated the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the rest of the strains when grown on ribose. The overall two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE protein expression pattern was similar for the different strains, though distinct differences were seen between the two subspecies (sakei and carnosus, and a variation of about 20% in the number of spots in the 2-DE gels was observed between strains. A strain isolated from fermented fish showed a higher expression of stress related proteins growing on both carbon sources. Conclusions It is obvious from the data obtained in this study that the proteomic approach efficiently identifies differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source. Despite the basic similarity in the strains metabolic routes when they ferment glucose and ribose, there were also interesting differences. From the application point of view, an understanding of regulatory

  6. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  7. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78....../116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella......Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews...

  8. Analysis of thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Heinze, Cailin R

    2014-01-15

    To measure thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats as an initial assessment of the variation among canned foods and to determine the effects of flavor (fish vs nonfish) of the food, texture (paté vs nonpaté) of the food, country of manufacture, and size of the company on thiamine concentration. Prospective cross-sectional study. 90 canned, nontherapeutic diets formulated for cats (1 fish and 1 nonfish flavor for each of 45 brands). Each canned food was homogenized, and thiamine concentration was analyzed with a fluorometric method. Thiamine concentration was below the minimums of the Association of American Feed Control Officials in 12 of 90 (13.3%) foods and below the recommended allowance of the National Research Council in 14 of 90 (15.6%) foods. Paté foods had significantly lower thiamine concentrations than did nonpaté foods, and foods from smaller companies had significantly lower thiamine concentrations, compared with concentrations in foods from larger companies. Flavor of food and country of manufacture were not significantly associated with thiamine concentration. A wide range of thiamine concentrations was found in the foods evaluated. Thiamine concentration in a substantial percentage of commercially available canned foods was below the amount recommended for adult cats. Additional research on interlot and intralot variation in thiamine concentrations of foods formulated for cats is warranted. Companies should implement strict quality control and analysis practices regarding food products. Clinicians should consider thiamine deficiency as a differential diagnosis in a cat with acute neurologic dysfunction.

  9. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  10. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  11. Satellite Imagery Analysis for Automated Global Food Security Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.; Brumby, S. P.; Chartrand, R.; Keisler, R.; Mathis, M.; Beneke, C. M.; Nicholaeff, D.; Skillman, S.; Warren, M. S.; Poehnelt, J.

    2017-12-01

    The recent computing performance revolution has driven improvements in sensor, communication, and storage technology. Multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes/year of daily high-resolution global coverage imagery. Cloud computing and storage, combined with recent advances in machine learning, are enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of detail never before feasible. We present results from an ongoing effort to develop satellite imagery analysis tools that aggregate temporal, spatial, and spectral information and that can scale with the high-rate and dimensionality of imagery being collected. We focus on the problem of monitoring food crop productivity across the Middle East and North Africa, and show how an analysis-ready, multi-sensor data platform enables quick prototyping of satellite imagery analysis algorithms, from land use/land cover classification and natural resource mapping, to yearly and monthly vegetative health change trends at the structural field level.

  12. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk

  13. Food Cost and Nutrient Availability in Urban Indonesia: Estimates for Food Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teklu, Tesfaye; Jensen, Helen H.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of economic growth and the effectiveness of targeted government intervention requires identification of tarket groups and information on food and nutrient consumption patterns. A model of nutrient consumption linked to food choice behaviour is used to evaluate nutrient availability in urban Indonesia. Nutrient demand responses varied significantly across income levels

  14. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  15. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...

  16. The SAFE FOODS Risk Analysis Framework suitable for GMOs? A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Davies, H.V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the current EU regulatory framework for risk analysis of genetically modified (GM) crop cultivation and market introduction of derived food/feed. Furthermore the risk assessment strategies for GM crops and derived food/feed as designed by the European Food Safety Authority

  17. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  18. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  19. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  20. Food recognition and recipe analysis: integrating visual content, context and external knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz, Luis; Min, Weiqing; Jiang, Shuqiang

    2018-01-01

    The central role of food in our individual and social life, combined with recent technological advances, has motivated a growing interest in applications that help to better monitor dietary habits as well as the exploration and retrieval of food-related information. We review how visual content, context and external knowledge can be integrated effectively into food-oriented applications, with special focus on recipe analysis and retrieval, food recommendation, and the restaurant context as em...

  1. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  2. Growth promoting antibiotics in food animal production: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Boland, John J; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Considerable controversy persists regarding the use of human antibiotics to promote growth in animals raised for food. The authors examined the economic effect of removing antibiotics used for growth promotion in commercial broiler chickens. The authors utilized data published by the Perdue company, the fourth largest poultry producer in the United States, in which a non-randomized controlled trial of growth-promoting antibiotic (GPA) use was conducted with seven million broiler chickens to evaluate the impact of removing GPAs on production. Positive production changes were associated with GPA use, but were insufficient to offset the cost of the antibiotics. The net effect of using GPAs was a lost value of 0.0093 dollars per chicken (about 0.45% of total cost). Based upon these data, the authors found no basis for the claim that the use of GPAs lowers the cost of production. Note that this study does not include veterinary cost changes or changes in performance variability associated with the removal of GPAs. This economic analysis is the first study to the authors' knowledge utilizing large-scale empirical data collected by U.S. industry, in which it is demonstrated that the use of GPAs in poultry production is associated with economic losses to the producers. These data are of considerable importance in the ongoing national debate concerning the continued use of antibiotics for growth promotion of food animals. Based on the industry study and the resulting economic impact, the use of GPAs in U.S. poultry production should be reconsidered.

  3. Isolation and Analysis of Phospholipids in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of milk is one of the most complex matrixes in foodstuffs due to the presence of a high number of moieties with different physical and chemical properties. Glycerolipids include glycerol and two fatty acids esterified in positions sn-1 and sn-2 with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids than in the triglyceride fraction of milk. Sphingolipids consist of a sphingoid base linked to a fatty acid across an amide bond. Their amphiphilic nature makes them suitable to be added into a variety of foods and recent investigations show that phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin, can exert antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer activities as well as positive effects in Alzheimer’s disease, stress, and memory decline. Polar lipids can be found as natural constituents in the membranes of all living organisms with soybean and eggs as the principal industrial sources, yet they have low contents in phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin. Animal products are rich sources of these compounds but since there are legal restrictions to avoid transmission of prions, milk and dairy products are gaining interest as alternative sources. This review summarizes the analysis of polar lipids in dairy products including sample preparation (extraction and fractionation/isolation and analysis by GC or HPLC and the latest research works using ELSD, CAD, and MS detectors.

  4. Brazilian underutilised species to promote dietary diversity, local food procurement, and biodiversity conservation: a food composition gap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brazil is home to a large portion of the world's biodiversity, but, paradoxically, the country's agriculture and food security are very reliant on exotic or introduced crops or species. Native species are being neglected and forgotten with natural landscapes and traditional foods being replaced by monocultures of commodity crops and pasture for livestock, causing habitat and biodiversity loss. At the same time, Brazil faces dietary simplification and high levels of malnutrition. Much of the neglected native biodiversity is highly nutritious and exploring these food sources could help provide sustainable solutions to diversifying diets, tackling malnutrition problems, and promoting agricultural development through local food procurement, while also promoting biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation and resilience. However, notable knowledge and evidence gaps still need to be addressed to better integrate biodiversity for enhancing food and nutrition security, including scientific data on the nutritional value and composition of native underutilised species. In Brazil, the Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition (BFN project generated food composition data, developed recipes, and increased appreciation and awareness of the value of underutilised, nutrient-rich biodiversity through strategic research partnerships with universities and research institutes. Methods: For this food composition gap analysis of native Brazilian biodiversity, the BFN project established partnerships with universities and research institutes for the generation of food composition data (macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and the development of recipes for 70 native underutilised species of fruits and vegetables of economic potential. Food composition data was gathered by doing a literature review, using compilation methods developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Network for Food Data Systems

  5. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix A: Active heating system-screening analysis. Appendix B: Reconstituted food heating techniques analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems

  6. Comparative Analysis of Food Price Policies in the Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linrong; LI

    2015-01-01

    As the basis for maintenance of national security and global strategic material,food has always captured the attention of governments in the world.After reaching a certain stage of industrialization,most countries will take the food support and protection measures,and the policy objectives and policy tools have evolved into a set of policy systems through continuous adjustment,but the intervention in food price has always been present.The food price intervention only plays a role in regulating food market supply and demand and guaranteeing minimum income for grain producers,and it can not reflect the cost of food production and continuously improve grain producers’ income,but because of its simple operation,low cost and immediate effect,it is suitable for the countries with a large number of grain producers but small operation scale in the short term.

  7. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  8. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  9. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  10. Food marketing on popular children's web sites: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that food marketing was a contributor to childhood obesity in the United States. One recommendation of the IOM committee was for research on newer marketing venues, such as Internet Web sites. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to answer the IOM's call by examining food marketing on popular children's Web sites. Ten Web sites were selected based on market research conducted by KidSay, which identified favorite sites of children aged 8 to 11 years during February 2005. Using a standardized coding form, these sites were examined page by page for the existence, type, and features of food marketing. Web sites were compared using chi2 analyses. Although food marketing was not pervasive on the majority of the sites, seven of the 10 Web sites contained food marketing. The products marketed were primarily candy, cereal, quick serve restaurants, and snacks. Candystand.com, a food product site, contained a significantly greater amount of food marketing than the other popular children's Web sites. Because the foods marketed to children are not consistent with a healthful diet, nutrition professionals should consider joining advocacy groups to pressure industry to reduce online food marketing directed at youth.

  11. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.

  12. Distorted food pyramid in kids programmes: a content analysis of television advertising watched in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone K; Schulz, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    In the light of increasing childhood obesity, the role of food advertisements relayed on television (TV) is of high interest. There is evidence of food commercials having an impact on children's food preferences, choices, consumption and obesity. We describe the product categories advertised during kids programmes, the type of food promoted and the characteristics of food commercials targeting children. A content analysis of the commercials aired during the kids programmes of six Swiss, one German and one Italian stations was conducted. The commercials were collected over a 6-month period in 2006. Overall, 1365 h of kids programme were recorded and 11 613 advertisements were found: 3061 commercials (26.4%) for food, 2696 (23.3%) promoting toys, followed by those of media, cleaning products and cosmetics. Regarding the broadcast food advertisements, 55% were for fast food restaurants or candies. The results of the content analysis suggest that food advertising contributes to the obesity problem: every fourth advertisement is for food, half of them for products high in sugar and fat and hardly any for fruit or vegetables. Long-term exposure to this distortion of the pyramid of recommended food should be considered in the discussion of legal restrictions for food advertising targeting children.

  13. Influencing Factors of Catering and Food Service Industry Based on Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zi Tang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific analysis of influencing factors is of great importance for the healthy development of catering and food service industry. This study attempts to present a set of critical indicators for evaluating the contribution of influencing factors to catering and food service industry in the particular context of Harbin City, Northeast China. Ten indicators that correlate closely with catering and food service industry were identified and performed by the principal component analysis method u...

  14. Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Food Production in China Based on Time Series Trend Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangjin; WANG; Jianying; LI

    2014-01-01

    Based on the annual sample data on food production in China since the reform and opening up,we select 8 main factors influencing the total food production( growing area,application rate of chemical fertilizer,effective irrigation area,the affected area,total machinery power,food production cost index,food production price index,financial funds for supporting agriculture,farmers and countryside),and put them into categories of material input,resources and environment,and policy factors. Using the factor analysis,we carry out the multi-angle analysis of these typical influencing factors one by one through the time series trend chart. It is found that application rate of chemical fertilizer,the growing area of food crops and drought-affected area become the key factors affecting food production. On this basis,we set forth the corresponding recommendations for improving the comprehensive food production capacity.

  15. Climate change and food security in Tanzania: analysis of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...

  16. Nutrient Analysis of Indigenous Fortified Baby Weaning Foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in. Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and. Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia ...

  17. Manuals of food quality control 10. training in mycotoxins analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This manual is designed to cover a course of about three weeks to train food analysts in developing countries. Mycotoxins are described and analytical methods for detecting their presence in food and animal feeds are presented, with especial emphasis on immunoassay and thin-layer chromatographic procedures. 40 figs, 10 tabs

  18. analysis of differences in rural-urban households food expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kwara households spend more on food (74.39% in rural and 75% in urban) than their Kogi counterpart (57.41% in rural and ... food consumption is likely to change with changes in prices, ... is the neoclassical model of consumer choice. This.

  19. Analysis of food radiation monitoring system in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Food radiation monitoring system in Belarus due to the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Structure of radiation monitoring network, instrumentation and modern developments. Information on permissible concentration levels in foodstuffs and water is presented and calculations of radionuclide intake for man are performed. Proposals on the creation of social centres of food radiation monitoring for Belarussian population are considered. 4 tabs

  20. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) produces high-quality data for USDA food composition databases: Two decades of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytowitz, David B; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food composition databases (FCDB) through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. NFNAP employs statistically valid sampling plans, the Key Foods approach to identify and prioritize foods and nutrients, comprehensive quality control protocols, and analytical oversight to generate new and updated analytical data for food components. NFNAP has allowed the Nutrient Data Laboratory to keep up with the dynamic US food supply and emerging scientific research. Recently generated results for nationally representative food samples show marked changes compared to previous database values for selected nutrients. Monitoring changes in the composition of foods is critical in keeping FCDB up-to-date, so that they remain a vital tool in assessing the nutrient intake of national populations, as well as for providing dietary advice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analysis of the Relationship between Tourism and Food Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Jiménez-Beltrán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, gastronomy has established itself as one of the key elements for the enhancement, sustainable and consolidation of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on gastronomic tourism in European countries, specifically in the analysis of the relationship between gastronomy, culture and tourism as the research focuses on the city of Córdoba, Spain. The methodology of this research involved conducting surveys with foreign travelers who were lunching or dining at various restaurants in the historic area, and these facilities were characterized by having in their gastronomic menus major typical culinary products of the city using the concept of tapas, i.e., the presentation of gastronomy through small portions of food. The results of the study indicate that the healthy component of the gastronomy represents the main dimension. Based on the detected dimensions, three types of international visitors are established (healthy-cultural tourist, cultural tourist and generic tourist which are considered valid and useful for segmenting the market. This highlights the importance given to gastronomy by tourists as part of the cultural identity of a place and the satisfaction achieved through the gastronomy of the city of Córdoba.

  2. [Assessing food acceptance in scholar children; qualitative visual record versus food waste analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Patiño Villena, Begoña; Periago Castón, María Jesús; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; González Martínez-Lacuesta, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    School canteens have rules of management and supervision of menus, however has not been assessed if they are totally consumed. To assess the acceptance of food by weigh food leftovers and validation of a methodology for visual estimation in school canteens of Murcia. Participated pupils in the second and third cycle of primary education, between 8 and 12 years. The estimate of leftovers was performed by 765 food trays. Visual estimation of 300 trays was based on a categorical scale as follow: 1 (0-25%), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51- 75%), 4 (76-100%) by two dietitians and reliability was assessed with respect to the weighed food. The reliability between both methods was assessed in two samples stratified by presence or absence of school kitchen. The first dishes with leftovers were pasta, rice and vegetable purees and was higher in those schools without kitchen (p foods according to the type of menu offered. The visual scale is a reliable to measure acceptance indirectly, but training to catering staff is needed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO 2 -e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO 4 3 -e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO 2 -e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO 2 -e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of melamine migration from melamine food contact articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Z; Haron, D E Mohamad; Ahmad, E D; Taha, H; Mustafa, A M

    2011-01-01

    Migration of melamine has been determined for 41 types of retail melamine-ware products in Malaysia. This study was initiated by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, in the midst of public anxiety on the possibility of melamine leaching into foods that come into contact with the melamine-ware. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the level of melamine migration in melamine utensils available on the market. Samples of melamine tableware, including cups and plates, forks and spoons, tumblers, bowls, etc., were collected from various retail outlets. Following the test guidelines for melamine migration set by the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN 2004) with some modifications, the samples were exposed to two types of food simulants (3% acetic acid and distilled water) at three test conditions (25°C (room temperature), 70 and 100°C) for 30 min. Melamine analysis was carried out using LC-MS/MS with a HILIC column and mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/formic acid (0.05%) in water and ammonium acetate/formic acid (0.05%) in acetonitrile (95 : 5, v/v). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5 ng/ml. Melamine migration was detected from all samples. For the articles tested with distilled water, melamine migration were [median (interquartile range)] 22.2 (32.6), 49.3 (50.9), 84.9 (89.9) ng/ml at room temperature (25°C), 70 and 100°C, respectively. In 3% acetic acid, melamine migration was 31.5 (35.7), 81.5 (76.2), 122.0 (126.7) ng/ml at room temperature (25°C), 70 and 100°C, respectively. This study suggests that excessive heat and acidity may directly affect melamine migration from melamine-ware products. However the results showed that melamine migration in the tested items were well below the specific migration limit (SML) of 30 mg/kg (30,000 ng/ml) set out in European Commission Directive 2002/72/EC.

  5. The determination of trace elements in new food grain SRM's using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.; Gallorini, M.; Rook, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Potentially toxic metals in the food chain that can lead to deleterious effects on human health have been well documented. Because of the toxicity of some metals, levels of 1 ppm or less must be routinely monitored in foods to ensure human safety. To ensure the accuracy of measurement, NBS in a cooperative interagency agreement with the Food and Drug Administration is involved in developing and certifying selected elements in food grain as a part of the Standard Reference Material program. Both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were used to analyze two food grain standard reference materials (Rice and Wheat Flours) for trace element certification. (author)

  6. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Food Chain Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Jones, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA and the uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values for the food chain model provided by the expert panels that were used for the analysis. Two expert panels were convened, covering the areas of soil and plant transfer processes and transfer to and through animals. The aggregated uncertainty distributions from the experts for the elicited variables were used in an uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA. The main aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes large contributions to the overall uncertainty and so should be included in the overall analysis. (author)

  7. Forecasting and Monetary Policy Analysis in Low-Income Countries; Food and non-Food Inflation in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Andrle; Andrew Berg; R. Armando Morales; Rafael Portillo; Jan Vlcek

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semi-structural new-Keynesian open-economy model, with separate food and non-food inflation dynamics, for forecasting and monetary policy analysis in low-income countries and apply it to Kenya. We use the model to run several policy-relevant exercises. First, we filter international and Kenyan data (on output, inflation and its components, exchange rates and interest rates) to recover a model-based decomposition of most variables into trends (or potential values) and temporary mo...

  8. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe

    2014-10-01

    Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  9. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jain

    Full Text Available Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  10. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anupam; N K, Rakhi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  11. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food. PMID:26430895

  12. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL FOOD SECURITY OBSERVATORY: ANALYSIS OF FOOD PRODUCTION INDICATORS AT THE MUNICIPAL LEVEL IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina da Siqueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990, the theme of Human Rights and Food Security (FS has been developed in Brazil, culminating in the construction of the National Policy and Plan of Food Security (PNSAN Observatório Socioambiental em Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional: análise dos indicadores... Redes (St. Cruz Sul, Online, v. 21, nº 2, p. 49 - 62, maio/ago. 2016 50 and PLANSAN 2012/2015. The PLANSAN proposes sixty indicators divided into seven dimensions, which are clearly related to the Millennium Development Goals. In order to operationalize these indicators in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, the Socio-Environmental Food Security Observatory of Rio Grande do Sul (OBSSAN-RS was created in partnership with the State Council for Nutrition and Food Security (CONSEA-RS and the Informatics Department of UFRGS. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present the analysis of indicators of Dimension I (Food Production of the OBSSAN-RS at municipal level, discussing the importance of this tool for monitoring the establishment of the Human Right to Adequate Food (DHAA. The data available to the municipal level were compared with the indicators suggested by PLANSAN. It was observed that although contemplate important information for understanding the context of food production in the municipalities of the state, the proposed indicators have not reached entirely the requirements to monitoring the SAN in this territorial level, so adapting it is necessary to rating the state of SAN in municipalities of the RS.

  13. Climate Change and Food Security in Tanzania: Analysis of Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food systems in Tanzania are highly vulnerable to climate change and variability due to poor adaptive capacity of ... available GCMs and downscaling techniques ... water for hydroelectric power generation ... for farm-level decision making.

  14. Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish (Bagrus bayad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    were studied for feeding adaptations and stomach contents. Feeding adaptive ... importance of different categories of the food substances in juvenile and adult fish from the two water bodies during ... diets in fish culture (Fagade, 1978). Studies.

  15. Augmented halal food traceability system: analysis and design using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Y. V.; Fauzi, A. M.; Irawadi, T. T.; Djatna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Augmented halal food traceability is expanding the range of halal traceability in food supply chain where currently only available for tracing from the source of raw material to the industrial warehouse or inbound logistic. The halal traceability system must be developed in the integrated form that includes inbound and outbound logistics. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable initial model of integrated traceability system of halal food supply chain. The method was based on unified modeling language (UML) such as use case, sequence, and business process diagram. A goal programming model was formulated considering two objective functions which include (1) minimization of risk of halal traceability failures happened potentially during outbound logistics activities and (2) maximization of quality of halal product information. The result indicates the supply of material is the most important point to be considered in minimizing the risk of failure of halal food traceability system whereas no risk observed in manufacturing and distribution.

  16. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Analysis of Cl, Mn, Na, Zn in Food Samples by a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Chung, Yong Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ok Hee [YongIn University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Due to their westernized dietary habit, Korean children are still threatened by the increasing risks of chronic disease such as obesity, hypertension, low immunity, etc. In addition, they are often exposed to a deficiency of Ca, Mg, Fe and micro-minerals which are necessary for their growth, immunity, and prevention of anemia. Nonetheless, the nutritional adequacy of mineral intakes for children is difficult to assess because of a lack of related studies and a nutritional database with respect to Korean children's foods. In this study, ninety kinds of foods consisting of lunch meals from an elementary and a middle school and children's favorite snacks were collected and prepared for an analysis. INAA which has an advantage of a non-destructive technique was employed to determine the elements like Cl, Mn, Na, Cl in the pretreated food samples. Quality control was carried out by using certified reference materials. From the analytical results, elemental concentration range in the collected samples according to the food groups was summarized.

  18. Analysis of Cl, Mn, Na, Zn in Food Samples by a Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Chung, Yong Sam; Lee, Ok Hee

    2008-01-01

    Due to their westernized dietary habit, Korean children are still threatened by the increasing risks of chronic disease such as obesity, hypertension, low immunity, etc. In addition, they are often exposed to a deficiency of Ca, Mg, Fe and micro-minerals which are necessary for their growth, immunity, and prevention of anemia. Nonetheless, the nutritional adequacy of mineral intakes for children is difficult to assess because of a lack of related studies and a nutritional database with respect to Korean children's foods. In this study, ninety kinds of foods consisting of lunch meals from an elementary and a middle school and children's favorite snacks were collected and prepared for an analysis. INAA which has an advantage of a non-destructive technique was employed to determine the elements like Cl, Mn, Na, Cl in the pretreated food samples. Quality control was carried out by using certified reference materials. From the analytical results, elemental concentration range in the collected samples according to the food groups was summarized

  19. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  20. Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

    2009-08-31

    Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future

  1. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  2. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. [Junk food consumption and child nutrition. Nutritional anthropological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Portia; Romo, Marcela M; Castillo, Marcela A; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2004-10-01

    The increasing consumption of junk food and snacks in Chile in recent years and its association with marketing strategies and prevalent diseases, is reviewed. In the context of world economy, junk food is a global phenomenon. The availability of junk food and snacks at low prices and marketing has triggered an evolution of consumption of foods that require neither the structure nor the preparation of a formal meal. Many studies have suggested that the increase in snack consumption is associated with an increase in obesity, tooth decay and other chronic diseases among children and adolescents. The hypothesis suggests a link between the pattern of snack consumption and an increase increase in the energy density of food consumed, a decrease in satiety, passive over consumption, and an increase in obesity. Between 1977 and 1996, the contribution: of snacks to daily energy intake among children between 2 and 5 years increased by 30% in the United States. In each age group in Chile the frequency of non-transmissible chronic diseases is increasing due primarily to a westernized diet that is high in fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar and a sedentary lifestyle. Education about junk food consumption and healthy eating habits in the family, starling since childbirth and public policies about healthy lifestyles should be strengthened.

  4. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  5. Analysis of a benthic community food web using isotopically labelled potential food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beviss-Challinor, M.H.; Field, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was designed to reveal the trophic structure of a benthic community using kelp holdfasts as microcosms within the kelp-bed community. The experimental food comprised zooplankton represented by 3 H 2 O-labelled Artemia sp. eggs and nauplii (200 to 300 μm), detritus derived from 14 C-labelled kelp (60 to 90 μm), and phytoplankton represented by 14 C-labelled Dunaliella primolecta (5 to 10 μm) cultures. Separate experiments of short duration (1 to 2 h) were used to indicate the primary consumers on each type of food, while longer experiments (4, 8 and 16 h) suggested the secondary consumers (coprophagous and carnivorous species). Several species were found to be omnivorous. (orig.)

  6. Speciation analysis of cobalt in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio; Koyama, Motoko

    1994-01-01

    A combined method by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, as a separation method) with neutron activation analysis (as a detection method) have been applied to the speciation analysis of cobalt in daily foods (e.g. egg, fish and milk). Cobalt species including free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were separated with a preparative HPLC and a centrifuge. Subsequently, the determination of cobalt in the separated species was made by neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the content of the total cobalt in the foods was found to lie in the range 0.4-11ng/g(0.4-11ppb) based on wet weight. The compositions of free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were ranged 16-43%, 55-73%, 2.3-17%, respectively. These experimental evidences suggest that the combination of HPLC and neutron activation analysis is expected to be a useful tool for speciation analysis of trace elements in biological as well as environmental materials. (author)

  7. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh Anne M; Bentley Rebecca J; Thornton Lukar E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study con...

  8. Influence of oral processing on appetite and food intake - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Krop, EM; Hetherington, MM; Nekitsing, C; Miquel, S; Postelnicu, L; Sarkar, A

    2018-01-01

    Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appeti...

  9. Food choices and diet costs: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2005-04-01

    Obesity in the United States is a socioeconomic issue. It is related to limited social and economic resources and may be linked to disparities in access to healthy foods. Added sugars and added fats are far more affordable than are the recommended "healthful" diets based on lean meats, whole grains, and fresh vegetables and fruit. There is an inverse relationship between energy density of foods (kJ/g) and energy cost ($/MJ), such that energy-dense grains, fats, and sweets represent the lowest-cost dietary options to the consumer. Good taste, high convenience, and the low cost of energy-dense foods, in conjunction with large portions and low satiating power, may be the principal reasons for overeating and weight gain. Financial disparities in access to healthier diets may help explain why the highest rates of obesity and diabetes are found among minorities and the working poor. If so, then encouraging low-income households to consume more costly foods is not an effective strategy for public health. What is needed is a comprehensive policy approach that takes behavioral nutrition and the economics of food choice into account.

  10. Assessing the effect of oil price on world food prices: Application of principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Shokoohi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index, especially the oil price, by principal component analysis to further understand the influence of the macroeconomic index on food prices. We examined the food prices of seven major products: eggs, meat, milk, oilseeds, rice, sugar and wheat. The macroeconomic variables studied were crude oil prices, consumer price indexes, food production indexes and GDP around the world between 1961 and 2005. We use the Scree test and the proportion of variance method for determining the optimal number of common factors. The correlation coefficient between the extracted principal component and the macroeconomic index varies between 0.87 for the world GDP and 0.36 for the consumer price index. We find the food production index has the greatest influence on the macroeconomic index and that the oil price index has an influence on the food production index. Consequently, crude oil prices have an indirect effect on food prices. - Research Highlights: →We investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index. →The crude oil price has indirect effect on the world GDP via its impacts on food production index. →The food production index is the source of causation for CPI and GDP is affected by CPI. →The results confirm an indirect effect among oil price, food price principal component.

  11. Capacity development for food policy analysis: What works best? Adding evidence from IFPRI's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents major results of a meta-assessment of experience of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) with different kinds of capacity strengthening (CS) activities for food policy analysis. Collaborative research, on-the-job-training, and ID support for building data

  12. Multivariate data analysis as a tool in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; van den Berg, F.; Thybo, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes some recent advances in mathematical modeling of relevance in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain. Using chemometrics-multivariate data analysis - it is illustrated how to tackle problems in food science more efficiently and, moreover, solve problems...

  13. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Texture Formation of Whey Protein-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Andoyo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein in the form of isolate or concentrate is widely used in food industries due to its functionality to form gel under certain condition and its nutritive value. Controlling or manipulating the formation of gel aggregates is used often to evaluate food texture. Many researchers made use of fractal analysis that provides the quantitative data (i.e., fractal dimension for fundamentally and rationally analyzing and designing whey protein-based food texture. This quantitative analysis is also done to better understand how the texture of whey protein-based food is formed. Two methods for fractal analysis were discussed in this review: image analysis (microscopy and rheology. These methods, however, have several limitations which greatly affect the accuracy of both fractal dimension values and types of aggregation obtained. This review therefore also discussed problem encountered and ways to reduce the potential errors during fractal analysis of each method.

  14. Do food blogs serve as a source of nutritionally balanced recipes? An analysis of 6 popular food blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elizabeth P; McGovern, Emily E; Lynch, Colleen L; Brown, Lisa S

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether sampled food blogs provide nutritionally balanced recipes. Two entree recipes per season, per year (2010-2011) were selected from 6 highly ranked food blogs (n = 96). Food Processor Nutrition and Fitness software was used to analyze sodium, saturated fat, and energy content. Analysis was separated by protein type (vegetarian, poultry, red meat, and seafood). Recipes met energy recommendations but were excessive in saturated fat and sodium. Vegetarian and seafood recipes were significantly lower in risk nutrients compared with red meat and poultry recipes. Red meat recipes were not significantly different from poultry recipes for risk nutrients studied; poultry recipes were higher in sodium and energy compared with red meat recipes. The public should be aware of the nutritional limitations of popular food blogs; dietitians could assist in modifying blog recipes for individuals and partner with bloggers to improve the nutritional profile of recipes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Internet food marketing strategies aimed at children and adolescents: a content analysis of food and beverage brand web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristi; Story, Mary; Harnack, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    Americans are spending an increasing amount of time using "new media" like the Internet. There has been little research examining food and beverage Web sites' content and marketing practices, especially those that attract children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of food- and beverage-brand Web sites and the marketing techniques and advertising strategies present on these sites. The top five brands in eight food and beverage categories, 40 brands in total, were selected based on annual sales data from Brandweek magazine's annual "Superbrands" report. Data were collected using a standardized coding form. The results show a wide variety of Internet marketing techniques and advertising strategies targeting children and adolescents. "Advergaming" (games in which the advertised product is part of the game) was present on 63% of the Web sites. Half or more of the Web sites used cartoon characters (50%) or spokescharacters (55%), or had a specially designated children's area (58%) with a direct link from the homepage. With interactive media still in its developmental stage, there is a need to develop safeguards for children. Food and nutrition professionals need to advocate for responsible marketing techniques that will support the health of children.

  16. Implicit Communication of Food Product Healthfulness through Package Design: A Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2018-01-01

    of twelve food product categories across two countries (Denmark and USA), our findings indicate that: (a) implicit package design elements (colors, imagery, material, shape) differ between health-positioned and regular products, and (b) these differences are product category-specific rather than universal......How do food companies use package design to communicate healthfulness? The present study addresses this question by investigating the most typical implicit package design elements used by food companies for their health-positioned food products. Using a content analysis on the packaging design...

  17. Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish ( Bagrus bayad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding habits of the two size class of Bagrus bayad caught in River Rima and Goronyo Dam in north western Nigeria between October, 2002 and September, 2003 were studied for feeding adaptations and stomach contents. Feeding adaptive features such as mouth, gill rakers, dentition and gut system were ...

  18. ELISA analysis of soybean trypsin inhibitors in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, D L; Bates, A H; Friedman, M

    1991-01-01

    Soybean proteins are widely used in human foods in a variety of forms, including infant formulas, flour, protein concentrates, protein isolates, soy sauces, textured soy fibers, and tofu. The presence of inhibitors of digestive enzymes in soy proteins impairs the nutritional quality and possibly the safety of soybeans and other legumes. Processing, based on the use of heat or fractionation of protein isolates, does not completely inactivate or remove these inhibitors, so that residual amounts of inhibitors are consumed by animals and humans. New monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays can measure low levels of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and the Bowman-Birk trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BBI) and the Bowman-Birk foods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the inhibitor content of soy concentrates, isolates, and flours, both heated and unheated; a commercial soy infant formula; KTI and BBI with rearranged disulfide bonds; browning products derived from heat-treatment of KTI with glucose and starch; and KTI exposed to high pH. The results indicate that even low inhibitor isolates contain significant amounts of specific inhibitors. Thus, infants on soy formula consume about 10 mg of KTI plus BBI per day. The immunoassays complement the established enzymatic assays of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and have advantages in (a) measuring low levels of inhibitors in processed foods; and (b) differentiating between the Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The significance of our findings for food safety are discussed.

  19. Recovering from conflict: An analysis of food production in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Speelman, S.; Vandamme, E.; Nkunzimana, T.; Ndimubandi, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the devastating food insecurity in two densely populated provinces in the north of Burundi as a result of overpopulation and low production capacity in the aftermath of conflict. We compare data that was collected in the Ngozi and Muyinga Province in 2007 with data of

  20. Analysis of food security and poverty status of rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the relationship between poverty and food security among rural faming households in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and eighty households who were randomly selected from three different Local ...

  1. Trust in food: a comparative and institutional analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kjærnes, Unni; Warde, Alan; Harvey, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ... and institutional performance 2.6 Institutionalized relationships of trust 2.7 Determinants of trust in institutionalized arrangements 2.8 Forms of institutionalization and forms of trust in contemporary food markets 18 19 21 23 25 27 29 34 37 3 Enquiring into Trust: Some Methodological Considerations 3.1 The project 3.2 The nature of the comparative inst...

  2. Comparative analysis of women's contribution to food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women in Nigeria form a significant part of the population and are practically involved in agricultural activities. Based on the involvement of women in agriculture and in the rural economies of Nigeria, this study evaluates the contribution of women to food crop production. This is to establish knowledge about what farm ...

  3. Communication needs and food allergy: An analysis of stakeholder views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, Susan; Crevel, Rene; Chryssochoidis, George

    2006-01-01

    that required by other stakeholders (for example, consumers). The results therefore suggest that targeted information strategies may be the most resource-efficient way to communicate effectively to different stakeholders about food allergy. However, those information channels which are best suited to specific...

  4. Household food demand analysis: a survey of semiurban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In like manner, increased supply of the highly price-elastic commodities would benefit both the consumer and the producer in that an accompanying reduction in prices with increased supply would lead to a higher margin of demand than the fall in price. Finally, it is suggested that food demand problems in the study area ...

  5. Analysis awkward posture at food production activity using RULA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the workers continuously perform the activities throughout the working hours, they may experience prolonged standing which creates fatigue and causes an occupational hazard which includes slips and falls. The goal of this study was to identify awkward postures during food production activities. 40 workers with minimum ...

  6. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  7. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Sekyere, Kofi Boateng; Addy, Ernestine Akosua

    2013-11-04

    Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18-55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to

  8. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  9. Quantification of Food Waste Disposal in the United States: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyberg, Krista L; Tonjes, David J; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2015-12-15

    Food waste has major consequences for social, nutritional, economic, and environmental issues, and yet the amount of food waste disposed in the U.S. has not been accurately quantified. We introduce the transparent and repeatable methods of meta-analysis and systematic reviewing to determine how much food is discarded in the U.S., and to determine if specific factors drive increased disposal. The aggregate proportion of food waste in U.S. municipal solid waste from 1995 to 2013 was found to be 0.147 (95% CI 0.137-0.157) of total disposed waste, which is lower than that estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the same period (0.176). The proportion of food waste increased significantly with time, with the western U.S. region having consistently and significantly higher proportions of food waste than other regions. There were no significant differences in food waste between rural and urban samples, or between commercial/institutional and residential samples. The aggregate disposal rate for food waste was 0.615 pounds (0.279 kg) (95% CI 0.565-0.664) of food waste disposed per person per day, which equates to over 35.5 million tons (32.2 million tonnes) of food waste disposed annually in the U.S.

  10. Mandatory food labeling of trans fat acids: qualitative analysis of the public consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernandes Davies

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the stakeholders and their contributions to the public consultation carried out with regard to the mandatory trans fat acids food labeling proposal in Brazil. Methodology thematic analysis of the documents. Results 25 stakeholders made suggestions regarding the proposed law, and the majority belonged to the food industry sector. The following issues were raised: lack of knowledge among the consumers about trans fat acids; lack of information about trans fat acids in food composition tables and infrastructure to analyse the trans fat content of foods; voluntary trans fat labelling. Conclusions The stakeholders addressed important issues, such as improving nutritional knowledge among the population. However, few stakeholders linked to consumers took part in the public consultation, which might lead to disproportionate influence of the food industry on the development of future food policies.

  11. Methods for the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industry--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamjala, Karthik; Nainar, Meyyanathan Subramania; Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of azo dyes are generally added for coloring food products not only to make them visually aesthetic but also to reinstate the original appearance lost during the production process. However, many countries in the world have banned the use of most of the azo dyes in food and their usage is highly regulated by domestic and export food supplies. The regulatory authorities and food analysts adopt highly sensitive and selective analytical methods for monitoring as well as assuring the quality and safety of food products. The present manuscript presents a comprehensive review of various analytical techniques used in the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industries of different parts of the world. A brief description on the use of different extraction methods such as liquid-liquid, solid phase and membrane extraction has also been presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Online marketing of food and beverages to children: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Mendelson, Rena; Farrell, Amber; Wong, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to assess websites sponsored by food and beverage manufacturers that have pledged to market branded food and beverage products to children responsibly, by ratifying the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). A content analysis was conducted of 24 purposively sampled websites sponsored by 10 companies that promote food and beverage products to children. All are participant members of the CFBAI. Of the 24 websites analyzed, the majority targeted children below age 12 (83%). An array of innovative online marketing techniques, most notably free website membership (63%), leader boards (50%), adver-games (79%), and branded downloadable content (76%), were used to encourage children's engagement with branded food and beverage promotions. Food and beverage manufacturers are engaging children with dynamic online marketing techniques that challenge regulatory codes governing broadcast media. These techniques may contradict the spirit of the CFBAI. Innovative regulatory guidelines are needed to address modern marketing media.

  13. Introduction of the system of hazard analysis critical control point to ensure the safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive system for food safety. It identifies safety risks faced by food. Identified points are controlled ensuring product safety. Because of presence of many of the pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in food which caused cases of food poisoning and many diseases transmitted through food, the current methods of food production could not prevent food contamination or prevent the growth of these pathogens completely because of being a part of the normal flora in the environment. Irradiation technology helped to control diseases transmitted through food, caused by pathological microorganisms and parasites present in food. The application of a system based on risk analysis as a means of risk management in food chain, demonstrated the importance of food irradiation. (author)

  14. Barriers and Strategies for Healthy Food Choices among American Indian Tribal College Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda

    2018-06-01

    American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal

  15. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  16. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  17. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  18. Analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Food cold chain is very important for ensuring food safety and decreasing the loss in the supply process. It is also benefit for the citizen, because cold chain could promise the food safety and the demand of the special cold food. Beijing, as the capital, the level of food chain is high, compared to other cities, and analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing is necessary, it could direct the scientific and health development of cold chain all over our country. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, in accordance with the investigation, we analysis the demand status of food cold chain from two aspects, then according to the status, we forecast the demand of refrigerated cars and warehouse for food cold chain in Beijing with the multivariate statistics. Findings: From the analysis of the paper, we can see that the need of cold chain logistics grows rapidly, but most consumers are lack of the awareness of the importance of the cold chain and many companies cannot bear the huge investment, it make the gap of the resources of cold chain logistics large and cannot meet the normal need of cold chain logistics in Beijing. Originality/value: The result of this paper could support the relative enterprise to run business in terms of the refrigerated car and warehouse. 

  19. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries - A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Atter, Amy; Ackah, Nina Bernice; Mbugua, Samuel; Asagbra, Agnes; Abdelgadir, Warda; Nakavuma, Jesca; Jakobsen, Mogens; Fang, Weihuan

    2017-05-16

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78/116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31.6% in RTE foods. The corresponding prevalence for Salmonella was 19.9% vs 21.7%; S. aureus, 27.8% vs 25.1% and L. monocytogenes, 19.5% vs 6.7%. The average prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these countries was 34.2% (29.0-39.3%). Differences in food types as well as non-uniform protocols for sampling and identification might have contributed to high heterogeneity (I 2 >97%) although some high prevalence data could be factual with extensive varieties of raw and RTE foods

  20. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  1. Stable-isotope analysis: a neglected tool for placing parasites in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadel, A J M; Stumbo, A D; MacLeod, C D

    2018-02-28

    Parasites are often overlooked in the construction of food webs, despite their ubiquitous presence in almost every type of ecosystem. Researchers who do recognize their importance often struggle to include parasites using classical food-web theory, mainly due to the parasites' multiple hosts and life stages. A novel approach using compound-specific stable-isotope analysis promises to provide considerable insight into the energetic exchanges of parasite and host, which may solve some of the issues inherent in incorporating parasites using a classical approach. Understanding the role of parasites within food webs, and tracing the associated biomass transfers, are crucial to constructing new models that will expand our knowledge of food webs. This mini-review focuses on stable-isotope studies published in the past decade, and introduces compound-specific stable-isotope analysis as a powerful, but underutilized, newly developed tool that may answer many unresolved questions regarding the role of parasites in food webs.

  2. Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask 2010 Global 1 km V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask Global 1 kilometer...

  3. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.; Makejchik, A.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  5. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...

  6. Consumers' Views Regarding Health Claims on Food Packages. Contextual Analysis by Means of Computer Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gunilla Svederberg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown consumers to generally have only a limited understanding of the nutritional information on packaged-food labels. This suggests it is difficult for them to select properly between different foods on the basis of such information. As a basis for information on the requirements of groups of consumers, the present study aimed at investigating how, when presented with health claims and other nutritional information on the labels of food products, consumers' thinking about foods is affected by various background factors as well as by various types of food-related experiences. Semi-structured interviews of 30 consumers in Sweden—men and women aged 25 to 64, with and without food-related health problems—were carried out. The interviews were tape-recorded and were transcribed word-for-word. In the analysis of the interview data, the qualitative methodology of contextual analysis was utilised. For the purpose of method development, the computer programme Atlas.ti was used to support the analysis. The objective of this article is to show step by step how the analysis was carried out. In connection with the analysis, some results are presented. However, the focus in the article is on methodology. The conclusion drawn is that Atlas.ti has qualities that can facilitate the contextual analysis of the interview data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201109

  7. Acrylamide analysis in food by liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Omar, Mei M Ali; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Schmitz, Oliver J; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a compound classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. It was first discovered to be present in certain heated processed food by the Swedish National Food Administration (SNFA) and University of Stockholm in early 2002. The major pathway for AA formation in food is the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar and the amino acid asparagine at high temperature. Since the discovery of AA's presence in food, many analytical methods have been developed for determination of AA contents in different food matrices. Also, several studies have been conducted to develop extraction procedures for AA from difficult food matrices. AA is a small, highly polar molecule, which makes its extraction and analysis challenging. Many articles and reviews have been published dealing with AA in food. The aim of the review is to discuss AA formation in food, the factors affecting AA formation and removal, AA exposure assessment, AA extraction and cleanup from food samples, and analytical methods used in AA determination, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Special attention is given to sample extraction and cleanup procedures and analytical techniques used for AA determination.

  8. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A.

    2013-01-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  9. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  10. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty.

  11. An analysis of the content of food industry pledges on marketing to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-08-01

    To identify pledges made by the food industry to change food marketing to children worldwide, examine their content and discuss their potential to reduce the harmful effects of food marketing to children. A search for pledges and specific commitments made by participating companies and a content analysis of their scope and criteria used to define the marketing covered or excluded. Global. Food industry pledges. Between 2005 and 2009, the food industry developed thirteen pledges on food marketing to children, involving fifty-two food companies. Two of the pledges were global, two were regional and nine applied to specific countries. Three were specific to the soft drinks industry and to the fast-food industry, with the rest being food industry wide. Ten of the pledges required companies to publish individual commitments; a total of eighty-two such commitments were published, many of which extended beyond the minimum standards set in the pledges. All pledges included definitions of children and child-targeted media, as well as the communication channels and marketing techniques covered, and permitted companies to set criteria for foods that are exempted from any restrictions. There were many similarities between the pledges and individual commitments; however, there were also many differences. The development of pledges on food marketing to children in such a short span of time is impressive. However, limitations and inconsistencies in the pledges and commitments suggest that the food industry has a long way to go if its pledges are to comprehensively reduce the exposure and power of marketing to children.

  12. A conjoint analysis to consumer choice in Brazil: Defining device attributes for recognizing customized foods characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, L P; Barbosa, J; Marodin, G A; Fettermann, D C

    2018-07-01

    the availability of information about food products may be an essential factor in the consumer's value perception in their purchasing decision. As the food product becomes personalized, the customization of this information becomes complex due to the possible combinations of product components. The use of smart technology in devices is one way to provide customers with customized food information. In the following research five attributes were identified in the composition of these devices: (A) portability; (B) precision; (C) diet customization; (D) food quality analysis; and (E) price. This study aims to identify the appropriate combination of possible functionalities or attributes that must be present in a device in order to detect the food composition of customized foods and their relation to market characteristics. One experiment used fractional factorial project to present the attributes in the form of scenarios following the Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (CBCA) method. The data collection was done using survey methodology, through online questionnaire, with some 303 Brazilian respondents. So, the Logistic Regression was applied to data analysis. The moderating variables-gender, age, gluten restriction, lactose restriction and other restrictions-were also added to verify potential interactions with the primary attributes. From the results obtained, it was possible to observe higher significance for the primary attributes of diet personalization and quality food analyzes function. Our study contributes to the literature by enhancing the understanding about what the attributes should be in a technological device that has the purpose of recognizing food characteristics and is capable of generating information about customized food products. Furthermore, this device can enabler the production of mass customized food with the nutritional labels for each possible combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  14. Organic foods in Danish municipal school food systems – a multistakeholder analysis of available evidence on constraints and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Olsen, Tenna Doktor

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic supply and healthy eating initiatives in school food services share common features. Both types involves changes in supply, the collaboration of a number of different stakeholders and both include a physical food part as well as a non physical symbolic aspect. Studies have shown that introducing organic food in public food systems seems to affect the nutritional profile of the food service and anecdotal evidence suggest that organic supply forces food ...

  15. Analysis of Personal Hygiene and Food Handling on Patients Food Managementt in Rsup Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Mirawati, Mirawati; Sitorus, Rico Januar; Hasyim, Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Background : Hospital food hygiene and sanitation are generally less awake, which originated in the less hygienic food processing particularly related to personal hygiene of food handlers and poor food handling at every stage of implementation. This study aims to analyze the personal hygiene and food handling on Patients Food management in RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang, 2010. Method : This study was descriptive using a qualitative approach. Sources of information in this study amounted...

  16. Applications of X-ray emission to elemental analysis of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocchini, R.G.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Perley, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element analysis via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were applied to several samples of fresh and processed foods. Thin samples of fresh fruits and vegetables, processed dry foods, and spices were included in these analyses. The results indicate that XRF and/or PIXE analysis is applicable to these types of samples but require special and simple modifications in sample preparation techniques, and the inclusion of new matrix type corrections for data analysis. However, the non-destructive nature, reproducibility, efficiency and high sensitivity that characterize these multi-element analytical procedures can provide new potential methods for detecting trace elements in foods and in many agricultural commodities. Toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, and As were detected in some foods. In addition, other essential or neutral trace elements such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cr, V, Zn, Mo, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Cl, S, and P were also detected. These and other elements can be analyzed rapidly and with high sensitivity for applications in process control and for certification of food quality. Developing these techniques and procedures specifically for food and for various agricultural products may provide new analytical options and help mitigate the expected impact of forthcoming regulations intended to establish limits and tolerance levels for micro toxicants and other essential nutrients in foods and agricultural products. (author)

  17. Food redistribution in Stockholm : A comparative analysis of two scenarios – with and without a food bank

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Food waste is a serious problem in today’s society. Functional food waste is going to waste treatment while people are suffering from food insecurity. Food redistribution in form of a central food bank which collects food waste at food companies and delivers it to social organizations is a measure to deal with this issue. Stockholm City Mission plans to start up a central food bank in Stockholm and it is this implementation that is of focus in this report. The purpose of this study is to comp...

  18. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  19. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p analysis of food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen analysis in Japan.

  20. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel Preliminary Food & Fuel Gap Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Grosshans; Kevin M. Kostelnik; Jake Jacobson

    2007-04-01

    traditionally discarded plant biomass to produce food, feed, fiber, energy, and value-added products.

  1. From mutual recognition to mutual scientific opinion? Constitutional framework for risk analysis in EU food safety law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation 178/2002 (the so-called General Food Law – GFL) codifies risk analysis as the core principle of the modern food safety policy. This article places the GFL in EU multi-level food safety governance and analyses the impact of risk analysis, the precautionary principle and mechanisms of

  2. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, L; Dudkiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility

  3. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, L.; Dudkiewicz, A.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility.

  4. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lee, Chang Kil; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.

  5. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  6. Everyday distinction and omnivorous orientation: An analysis of food choice, attitudinal dispositions and social background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahma, Nina; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Jallinoja, Piia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years studies on cultural consumption have experienced a Bourdieusian renaissance. This is indicated by a growing body of research analysing distinctions in different areas of culture, and numerous studies on the homology thesis applying the concepts of distinction, field and capital. Concurrently, however, it has been argued that instead of distinctive tastes, distinction and class status are increasingly manifested by cultural omnivorousness. For a good part studies focussing on distinction in food have analysed eating out and stylization through restaurant preferences, rather than everyday food choices. In this article we investigate everyday food choices from the perspective of distinction and omnivorousness. Our analysis draws on cross-sectional quantitative data collected in 2012 among 15-64-year-old Finns (N = 2601). The article maps out the relationship between food choice frequencies, dispositions and social background with Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results show that the consumption of fruit and vegetables, ready-meals and convenience foods were among the most divisive food choices. The first structuring dimension juxtaposed processed, fatty and sugared foods with unprocessed foods and fresh ingredients. This dimension was associated with healthiness and weight control as dispositions. On the second structuring dimension there were differences in the valuation of taste, pleasure and sociability, and a contrast between moderate and restrictive choices. Particularly the first dimension was associated with educational, occupational, and gender differences. Distinction within everyday food choices was manifested in the use of healthy and unprocessed foods and 'moderate hedonism' in contrast to more restrictive tastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intimate partner violence, common mental disorders and household food insecurity: an analysis using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect associations between psychological and physical intimate partner violence and the occurrence of common mental disorders (CMD) and how they relate to the occurrence of household food insecurity (HFI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and HFI was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The propositional analytical model was based on a review of the literature and was tested using path analysis. Duque de Caxias, Greater Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (April-December 2010). Women (n 849) who had been in a relationship in the 12 months preceding the interview. Both psychological and physical violence were found to be major risk factors of HFI. Psychological violence was associated with HFI indirectly via physical violence and CMD, and directly by an unidentified path. The effects of physical violence seemed to be manifested exclusively through CMD. Most of the variables in the propositional model related to socio-economic position, demographic characteristics, degree of women's social support and partner alcohol misuse were retained in the 'final' model, indicating that these factors contribute significantly to the increased likelihood of HFI. The results reinforce the importance of considering domestic violence and other psychosocial aspects of family life when implementing interventions designed to reduce/eradicate HFI.

  8. Food advertisements on UK television popular with children: a content analysis in relation to dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazyad, M; Flannigan, N; Burnside, G; Higham, S; Boyland, E

    2017-02-10

    Objective To quantify the prevalence of advertising for foods and beverages potentially detrimental to dental health on UK television watched by children.Design Content analysis of pre-recorded television advertisements (adverts).Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty-two hours of television were recorded (one weekday and one weekend day, 6 am - 10 pm) from the main commercial channel (ITV1). All adverts were coded using pre-defined criteria.Setting UK television recorded between January and December 2012.Results Of 9,151 adverts, foods and beverages were the second most commonly advertised products (16.7%; n = 1,532). Nearly two-thirds of food adverts were for items that are potentially harmful to dental health (61%; n = 934). Of these, 96.6% were cariogenic and 11% were acidogenic foods. During peak children's viewing hours, the proportion of foods that are potentially harmful to dental health was significantly higher than for non-harmful foods (65.9% vs. 34.1%; p = 0.011). Adverts for foods potentially harmful to dental health were rare around children's programmes, but significantly more frequent during other programmes watched by children (p <0.001).Conclusion UK children are exposed to a particularly high proportion of advertisements for foods that are potentially detrimental to their dental health during their peak viewing hours and around the programmes they watch the most.

  9. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Lisa; Payne, Collin R; Whigham, Leah D; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela J; Hoverson, Bonita S; Kranz, Sibylle

    2014-09-23

    The nutritional content of Americans' shopping carts is suboptimal despite federal dietary guidance, in this case, the MyPlate consumer icon which displays desired proportions of vegetables, fruits, dairy, grains and protein foods for consumption. Consumers mention print advertising-such as weekly sales circulars-frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. To examine and describe the relative proportions of advertised foods aggregated into the MyPlate food grouping system, a content analysis of 9 209 foods advertised in 52 weekly supermarket newspaper sales inserts in 2009 from a local grocery chain was conducted in a Midwestern community. Overall, the protein foods group was most often represented in sales circulars (25% of total items), followed by grains (18%); dairy (10%); vegetables (8%) and fruits (7%). Less than 3% of sales advertisements were for dark green and red & orange vegetables. Over twice as much whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice was advertised (70% vs. 30%, respectively; P advertised in the fall, and slightly more dark green vegetables were advertised in winter and spring than in summer and fall (P = 0.05). The average American diet, including underconsumption of fruits and vegetables but overconsumption of protein foods, was reflected in the relative frequency of food groups advertised in weekly sales circulars. Modifying sales circulars to represent healthier food groups may preserve retail profits (considering these groups' higher profit margin) while promoting adherence to federal dietary guidance.

  10. Food advertising targeted at school-age children: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Meltzer, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the contents of food and beverage advertisements are associated with physical activity and athletic ability more often than those for toys and games, and to describe persuasive techniques used in advertising food and beverages to children. A content analysis of advertisements during 31 hours of school-age children's television programming. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in depictions of physical activity. Types of persuasive techniques were tabulated and, within each advertisement, categorized as implicit or explicit. Food and beverage ads depicted children engaged in physical activity and associated the advertised product with athletic ability significantly more than toy and game ads. Food was most often associated with fun and good times (75%), pleasant taste (54.1%), being hip or cool (43.2%), and feelings of happiness (43.2%). These findings raise concern that greater levels of physical activity and athletic ability in food advertising, in which the product is frequently associated with fun, may promote overconsumption, especially of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Further research would elucidate whether this concern is warranted. On the other hand, since food advertisements are presumably effective, health educators can use these techniques to formulate messages for nutritious foods. This concept should be tested with well-designed interventions.

  11. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: A phenomenological psychological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  12. Magnetic levitation in the analysis of foods and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, Katherine A; Phillips, Scott T; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2010-06-09

    This paper describes a method and a sensor that use magnetic levitation (MagLev) to characterize samples of food and water on the basis of measurements of density. The sensor comprises two permanent NdFeB magnets positioned on top of each other in a configuration with like poles facing and a container filled with a solution of paramagnetic ions. Measurements of density are obtained by suspending a diamagnetic object in the container filled with the paramagnetic fluid, placing the container between the magnets, and measuring the vertical position of the suspended object. MagLev was used to estimate the salinity of water, to compare a variety of vegetable oils on the basis of the ratio of polyunsaturated fat to monounsaturated fat, to compare the contents of fat in milk, cheese, and peanut butter, and to determine the density of grains.

  13. Social Network Analysis of Scientific Articles Published by Food Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Popp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses co-authorship and co-citation networks in Food Policy, which is the most important agricultural policy journal in the field of agricultural economics. The paper highlights the principal researchers in this field together with their authorship and citation networks on the basis of 714 articles written between 2006 and 2015. Results suggest that the majority of the articles were written by a small number of researchers, indicating that groups and central authors play an important role in scientific advances. It also turns out that the number of articles and the central role played in the network are not related, contrary to expectations. Results also suggest that groups cite themselves more often than average, thereby boosting the scientific advancement of their own members.

  14. A Data Analysis Toolbox for Modeling the Global Food-Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Sadegh, M.; Mallakpour, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water, Food and energy systems are highly interconnected. More than seventy percent of global water resource is used for food production. Water withdrawal, purification, and transfer systems are energy intensive. Furthermore, energy generation strongly depends on water availability. Therefore, considering the interactions in the nexus of water, food and energy is crucial for sustainable management of available resources. In this presentation, we introduce a user-friendly data analysis toolbox that mines the available global data on food, energy and water, and analyzes their interactions. This toolbox provides estimates of water footprint for a wide range of food types in different countries and also approximates the required energy and water resources. The toolbox also provides estimates of the corresponding emissions and biofuel production of different crops. In summary, this toolbox allows evaluating dependencies of the food, energy, and water systems at the country scale. We present global analysis of the interactions between water, food and energy from different perspectives including efficiency and diversity of resources use.

  15. Comparison and determination of elemental composition in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Gwang-Min Sun; Jong-Hwa Moon; Jong-Il Choi; Beom-Seok Song; Jae-Hun Kim

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of mineral contents in several kinds of foods is needed to obtain information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as an investigation on the effects of human health and nutrition based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. In 2012, six kinds of new Korean space foods (KSF) such as sweet pumpkin porridge, dakgalbi (spicy grilled chicken), Manila clam porridge, ox leg bone-cabbage soup, ginseng-chicken porridge, and chicken curry rice were developed by KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were determined using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. A certified reference material associated with a biological food sample was used for analytical quality control. The analytical results were evaluated according to the elemental concentrations with KSF samples and compared with the reported values. These results will be applied toward the identification of gamma-irradiated foods. (author)

  16. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high...... the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given....

  18. Trophic relationships in a tropical stream food web assessed by stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Bouchon, Claude; Lepoint, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    1. Stable isotope analysis, coupled with dietary data from the literature, was used to investigate trophic patterns of freshwater fauna in a tropical stream food web (Guadeloupe, French West Indies). 2. Primary producers (biofilm, algae and plant detritus of terrestrial origin) showed distinct delta C-13 signatures, which allowed for a powerful discrimination of carbon sources. Both autochthonous (C-13-enriched signatures) and allochthonous (C-13-depleted signatures) resources enter the food ...

  19. Influence of oral processing on appetite and food intake - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krop, Emma M; Hetherington, Marion M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Miquel, Sophie; Postelnicu, Luminita; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2018-06-01

    Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appetite" and "food intake". A literature search of six databases (Cochrane library, PubMed, Medline, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus), yielded 12161 articles which were reduced to a set of 40 articles using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. A further two articles were excluded from the meta-analysis due to missing relevant data. From the remaining 38 papers, detailing 40 unique studies with 70 subgroups, raw data were extracted for meta-analysis (food intake n = 65, hunger n = 22 and desire to eat ratings n = 15) and analyzed using random effects modelling. Oral processing parameters, such as number of chews, eating rate and texture manipulation, appeared to influence food intake markedly but appetite ratings to a lesser extent. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant effect of the direct and indirect aspects of oral processing that were related to chewing on both self-reported hunger (-0.20 effect size, 95% confidence interval CI: -0.30, -0.11), and food intake (-0.28 effect size, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.19). Although lubrication is an important aspect of oral processing, few studies on its effects on appetite have been conducted. Future experiments using standardized approaches should provide a clearer understanding of the role of oral processing, including both chewing and lubrication, in promoting satiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Consumer Emotional Response to Tastes and Foods through Facial Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Elizabeth Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are thought to play a crucial role in food behavior. Non-rational emotional decision making may be credited as the reason why consumers select what, how, and when they choose to interact with a food product. In this research, three experiments were completed for the overall goal of understanding the usefulness and validity of selected emotional measurement tools, specifically emotion questionnaire ballots and facial expression analysis, as compared to conventional sensory methods in ...

  1. Application of the neutron activation analysis method for determing trace elements in Brazilian food sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase of consciousness about the importance of trace elements in human health and disease as well as rising concern about food contamination. The development of sensitive, accurate and price methods is one of the most important of the knowledge of trace elements contents in foods and in biological samples. Neutron activation analysis is one of the most suitable tecniques because a great number of elements can be determined in concentrations in the range of μg/g to ng/g. The present work is a part of an AIEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the applications of nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Neutron activation analysis is applied to analysis of bread, milk powder and rice that are considered essential foods in the Brazilian diet. Some aspects of the activation analysis of biological matrices are discussed. (author) [pt

  2. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability.

  3. Recent trends in sorption-based sample preparation and liquid chromatography techniques for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Soares Maciel, Edvaldo; de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-04-20

    The accelerated rising of the world's population increased the consumption of food, thus demanding more rigors in the control of residue and contaminants in food-based products marketed for human consumption. In view of the complexity of most food matrices, including fruits, vegetables, different types of meat, beverages, among others, a sample preparation step is important to provide more reliable results when combined with HPLC separations. An adequate sample preparation step before the chromatographic analysis is mandatory in obtaining higher precision and accuracy in order to improve the extraction of the target analytes, one of the priorities in analytical chemistry. The recent discovery of new materials such as ionic liquids, graphene-derived materials, molecularly imprinted polymers, restricted access media, magnetic nanoparticles, and carbonaceous nanomaterials, provided high sensitivity and selectivity results in an extensive variety of applications. These materials, as well as their several possible combinations, have been demonstrated to be highly appropriate for the extraction of different analytes in complex samples such as food products. The main characteristics and application of these new materials in food analysis will be presented and discussed in this paper. Another topic discussed in this review covers the main advantages and limitations of sample preparation microtechniques, as well as their off-line and on-line combination with HPLC for food analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Food certification based on isotopic analysis, according to the European standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Stanciu, Vasile; Iordache, Andreea

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Under current EU research projects, several public research institutions, universities and private companies are collaborating to develop new methods of evidencing food adulteration and consequently assessing food safety. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratio of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the natural origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs - and therefore, to identify the fraud and consequently to reject the improper products or certify the food quality. Isotope analysis has been officially adopted by the EU as a means of controlling adulteration of some food stuffs. A network of research organizations developed the use of isotopic analysis to support training and technology transfer to encourage uptake of the technique. There were also developed proficiency-testing schemes to ensure the correct use of isotopic techniques in national testing laboratories. In addition, ensuring the food quality and safety is a requirement, which must be fulfilled for the integration in EU. The present paper emphasizes the isotopic analysis for D/H, 18 O/ 16 O, 13 C/ 12 C from food (honey, juice, wines) using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, Finnigan Delta V Plus, coupled to a three flexible continuous flow preparation device (GasBench II, TC Elemental Analyser and GC-C/TC). (authors)

  5. Advancements and application of immunosensors in the analysis of food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. SHOFIUL AZAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Azam MS, Rahman MRT, Lou Z, Tang Y, Raqib SM, Jothi JS. 2014. Advancements and application of immunosensors in the analysis of food contaminants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 186-195. Immunosensors are affinity ligand-based biosensor solid-state devices in which the immunochemical reaction is coupled to a transducer. The fundamental basis of all immunosensors is the specificity of the molecular recognition of antigens by antibodies to form a stable complex. This is similar to the immunoassay methodology. Immunosensors can be categorized based on the detection principle applied. The main developments are electrochemical, optical, and microgravimetric immunosensors. In contrast to immunoassay, modern transducer technology enables the label-free detection and quantification of the immune complex. The analysis of trace substances in environmental science, pharmaceutical and food industries is a challenge since many of these applications demand a continuous monitoring mode. The use of immunosensors in these applications is most appropriate. Food chemists should take advantage of immunosensors in food and clinical diagnostics. There are many recent developments in the immunosensor field which have potential impacts. The future role of this technique in intra-laboratory, as well as bedside testing, will become even more important as the food laboratory is faced with increasing pressure to contain costs. Objective of this paper is to give a general overview of the possible application of immunosensors to the food analysis field.

  6. Trend analysis of food crops production in Nigeria (1990-2005 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary data were obtained from Nigeria Institute for Social and Economic Research (NISER), and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Regression analysis was used for data analysis. The result shows that the physical output of food crops in Nigeria portrayed a clear trend over the period reviewed. Out of all the crops ...

  7. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-08-01

    The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0·6 mile2 (1·6 km2) area where more than 60·0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29·7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21·0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66·9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50·8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54·9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50·2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children's food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health.

  8. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Design Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0.6 mile2 (1.6 km2) area where more than 60.0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Setting Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Subjects Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Results Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29.7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21.0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66.9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50.8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54.9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50.2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Conclusions Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children’s food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health. PMID:28587693

  9. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed γ radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future

  10. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  11. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  12. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  13. Analysis of Consumer Attitudes and Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze consumer behaviour in relation to functional foods by a direct survey. To this end, the proposal is an analysis of the reasons for choosing to consume this type of food or not, accompanied by a supplementary investigation, mostly to assess the relationship between consumption patterns and willingness to pay (WTP for the most common categories of functional foods, such as milk fortified with CLA (conjugated linoleic acid. Our research shows that a proportion of the population is unaware of the existence of functional foods and their properties. Moreover, it shows that when the concept of functional foods is explained to consumers, this creates a greater willingness to pay for such food, which is strongly linked to type of product carrier but not greatly to income. So the knowledge and transparency of information appear to be decisive variables in the process of choice, with significant implications in terms of policies for classification, labelling of food and public health.

  14. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  16. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-05-10

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The "corporate political activity" (CPA) of the food industry includes six strategies (information and messaging; financial incentives; constituency building; legal strategies; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilisation). For this study, we aimed to gain a detailed understanding of the CPA strategies and practices of major food industry actors in Fiji, interpreted through a public health lens. We implemented a systematic approach to monitor the CPA of the food industry in Fiji for three months. It consisted of document analysis of relevant publicly available information. In parallel, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 stakeholders involved in diet- and/or public health-related issues in Fiji. Both components of the study were thematically analysed. We found evidence that the food industry adopted a diverse range of strategies in an attempt to influence public policy in Fiji, with all six CPA strategies identified. Participants identified that there is a substantial risk that the widespread CPA of the food industry could undermine efforts to address NCDs in Fiji. Despite limited public disclosure of information, such as data related to food industry donations to political parties and lobbying, we were able to identify many CPA practices used by the food industry in Fiji. Greater transparency from the food industry and the government would help strengthen efforts to increase their accountability and support NCD prevention. In other low- and middle-income countries, it

  17. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after passing through various culinary and processing treatments. A few literature reviews have indicated the general trend of reduction or concentration of pesticide residues by certain methods of food processing for a particular active ingredient. However, no review has focused on combining the obtained results from different studies on different active ingredients with differences in experimental designs, analysts and analysis equipment. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of response ratios as a possible method of combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residue levels. Reduction of residue levels was indicated by blanching, boiling, canning, frying, juicing, peeling and washing of fruits and vegetables with an average response ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.82. Baking, boiling, canning and juicing indicated both reduction and increases for the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Nutritional Analysis of the Food Basket in BIH: A Linear Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaut-Berilo Almira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents linear and goal programming optimization models for determining and analyzing the food basket in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH in terms of adequate nutritional needs according to World Health Organization (WHO standards and World Bank (WB recommendations. A linear programming (LP model and goal linear programming model (GLP are adequate since price and nutrient contents are linearly related to food weight. The LP model provides information about the minimal value and the structure of the food basket for an average person in BiH based on nutrient needs. GLP models are designed to give us information on minimal deviations from nutrient needs if the budget is fixed. Based on these results, poverty analysis can be performed. The data used for the models consisted of 158 food items from the general consumption of the population of BiH according to COICOP classifications, with average prices in 2015 for these products.

  20. Automated Text Analysis Based on Skip-Gram Model for Food Evaluation in Predicting Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Augustine Yongwhi; Ha, Jin Gwan; Choi, Hoduk; Moon, Hyeonjoon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate food taste, smell, and characteristics from consumers' online reviews. Several studies in food sensory evaluation have been presented for consumer acceptance. However, these studies need taste descriptive word lexicon, and they are not suitable for analyzing large number of evaluators to predict consumer acceptance. In this paper, an automated text analysis method for food evaluation is presented to analyze and compare recently introduced two jjampong ramen types (mixed seafood noodles). To avoid building a sensory word lexicon, consumers' reviews are collected from SNS. Then, by training word embedding model with acquired reviews, words in the large amount of review text are converted into vectors. Based on these words represented as vectors, inference is performed to evaluate taste and smell of two jjampong ramen types. Finally, the reliability and merits of the proposed food evaluation method are confirmed by a comparison with the results from an actual consumer preference taste evaluation.

  1. Proton activation analysis for the measurement of fluorine in food stamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroy, R.E.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Jacobson, J.S.; Heller, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a proton activation method for the determination of 19 F in food samples based on the use of the 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F reaction. Special techniques were used to obtain reproducible target conditions and low background values. Two calibration techniques not dependent on chemical analyses for fluorine gave values comparable to a third method which employed vegetation and cellulose containing from about 20 to 500 ppM (μg/g dry weight) of fluorine. Results are reported for FDA market basket food samples containing less than 10 ppM fluorine (dry weight) and are compared with the values obtained with two methods of chemical analysis for both vegetation and food samples. Proton activation and chemical methods gave values in excellent agreement for the fluorine content of the high fluorine vegetation samples; however, substantial disagreement remains for the low-fluorine food samples

  2. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (peducation, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for quality analysis of agricultural and food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C. B.; Jayas, D. S.; Paliwal, J.; White, N. D. G.

    2010-04-01

    Agricultural and food processing industries are always looking to implement real-time quality monitoring techniques as a part of good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to ensure high-quality and safety of their products. Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is gaining popularity as a powerful non-destructive tool for quality analysis of several agricultural and food products. This technique has the ability to analyse spectral data in a spatially resolved manner (i.e., each pixel in the image has its own spectrum) by applying both conventional image processing and chemometric tools used in spectral analyses. Hyperspectral imaging technique has demonstrated potential in detecting defects and contaminants in meats, fruits, cereals, and processed food products. This paper discusses the methodology of hyperspectral imaging in terms of hardware, software, calibration, data acquisition and compression, and development of prediction and classification algorithms and it presents a thorough review of the current applications of hyperspectral imaging in the analyses of agricultural and food products.

  4. Automated Text Analysis Based on Skip-Gram Model for Food Evaluation in Predicting Consumer Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Yongwhi Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate food taste, smell, and characteristics from consumers’ online reviews. Several studies in food sensory evaluation have been presented for consumer acceptance. However, these studies need taste descriptive word lexicon, and they are not suitable for analyzing large number of evaluators to predict consumer acceptance. In this paper, an automated text analysis method for food evaluation is presented to analyze and compare recently introduced two jjampong ramen types (mixed seafood noodles. To avoid building a sensory word lexicon, consumers’ reviews are collected from SNS. Then, by training word embedding model with acquired reviews, words in the large amount of review text are converted into vectors. Based on these words represented as vectors, inference is performed to evaluate taste and smell of two jjampong ramen types. Finally, the reliability and merits of the proposed food evaluation method are confirmed by a comparison with the results from an actual consumer preference taste evaluation.

  5. Food habits and nutrition education--computer aided analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, A; Liddell, J A; Lockie, G M

    1987-04-01

    Nutrition education messages should take into account the food habits of those who are to be educated. These can be revealed by computer analysis of weighed intake data, which has been collected for calculation of nutrient intakes. Seventy-six students and staff at Robert Gordon's Institute of Technology weighed their food for 1 week and the records were used to determine the frequency of consumption of foods and portion sizes, as well as nutrient intakes. There were only very minor relationships between the number of different foods chosen and nutritional variables. Nutrition students had successfully changed the frequency of consumption of certain foods relative to others and as a result consumed diets containing a lower proportion of energy from fat. Messages to non-nutrition students might profitably incorporate those beneficial changes that nutrition students had easily accomplished. This study revealed that certain (otherwise common and nutritionally unsound) food choices were not a major part of the subjects' habits, and could be given low priority in educational messages. It was suggested that foods exhibiting high variability of portion weight might be under greater individual control and hence more amenable to change. A study of the distribution of portion weights reveals information about number of slices, biscuits, etc, taken in each portion. This varied for different kinds of biscuit. It was concluded that messages should target specific foods rather than stress variation in the diet. It is suggested that educators should consider whether messages would be more effective in terms of frequency of consumption or size of portion for particular groups. The meal distribution pattern also shows which foods are most commonly consumed at home or in the canteen, hence whether education might be best directed to the individual or the caterer, respectively.

  6. Analysis on Peasants’ Diet Condition and Food Safety Awareness in Northern Jiangsu——From the Perspective of Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking three counties in northern Jiangsu (Suining,Ganyu and Sihong) as the respondents,the economic principles of food safety issues of rural areas in northern Jiangsu are described from three aspects which are information asymmetry,food supply and food safety issue and food consumption and food safety issue.From the two aspects-adverse selection of consumers and opportunistic behavior of producers,the paper introduces the influence of food safety issues of rural areas in northern Jiangsu.Based on the above analysis,economic theories for solving food safety issues of rural areas in northern Jiangsu are put forward:First,improve consumers’ knowledge of food safety;Second,normalize the behavior of main bodies of production and management;Third,improve the current situation of information asymmetry of food safety;Fourth,accelerate economic construction of rural areas in northern Jiangsu,practically increase peasant income and living standard.

  7. Analysis of the Relationship between Tourism and Food Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Jiménez-Beltrán; Tomás López-Guzmán; Francisco González Santa Cruz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, gastronomy has established itself as one of the key elements for the enhancement, sustainable and consolidation of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on gastronomic tourism in European countries, specifically in the analysis of the relationship between gastronomy, culture and tourism as the research focuses on the city of Córdoba, Spain. The methodology of this research involved conducting surveys with foreign traveler...

  8. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  9. Do residents of food deserts express different food buying preferences compared to residents of food oases? A mixed-methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many people lack access to food stores that provide healthful food. Neighborhoods with poor supermarket access have been characterized as “food deserts” (as contrast with “food oases”). This study explored factors influencing food buying practices among residents of food deserts versus food oases in the city of Boston, USA. Methods We used the mixed-methods approach of concept mapping, which allows participants to identify, list, and organize their perceptions according to importance. Resulting maps visually illustrate priority areas. Results Sixty-seven low-income adults completed the concept mapping process that identified 163 unique statements (e.g. relating to affordability, taste, and convenience) that influence food buying practices. Multivariate statistical techniques grouped the 163 statements into 8 clusters or concepts. Results showed that average cluster ratings and rankings were similar between residents of food deserts and food oases. Conclusions The implication of this study pertains to the importance of community resources and emergency food assistance programs that have served to minimize the burden associated with hunger and poor food access among low-income, urban populations. PMID:22490237

  10. Do residents of food deserts express different food buying preferences compared to residents of food oases? A mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Renee E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people lack access to food stores that provide healthful food. Neighborhoods with poor supermarket access have been characterized as “food deserts” (as contrast with “food oases”. This study explored factors influencing food buying practices among residents of food deserts versus food oases in the city of Boston, USA. Methods We used the mixed-methods approach of concept mapping, which allows participants to identify, list, and organize their perceptions according to importance. Resulting maps visually illustrate priority areas. Results Sixty-seven low-income adults completed the concept mapping process that identified 163 unique statements (e.g. relating to affordability, taste, and convenience that influence food buying practices. Multivariate statistical techniques grouped the 163 statements into 8 clusters or concepts. Results showed that average cluster ratings and rankings were similar between residents of food deserts and food oases. Conclusions The implication of this study pertains to the importance of community resources and emergency food assistance programs that have served to minimize the burden associated with hunger and poor food access among low-income, urban populations.

  11. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  12. Exploring the relationship between food access and foodborne illness by using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Bruce; Watson, Susannah; Mackay, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy

    2013-09-01

    There is some evidence that neighborhood deprivation increases residents' risk of foodborne illnesses. Because urban areas with the least available access to adequate amounts of nutritious or affordable food options (or "food deserts") also tend to be the most deprived areas within a city, it is hypothesized that food access and foodborne illness risk are linked. However, the complexity of tracking numbers and sources of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses often leads researchers to speculate about reasons for disproportionate rates of pathogen outbreaks among demographic groups. This study explores the suitability of existing data to examine associations between food deserts and the spatial distribution of GI illnesses in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A spatial analysis by using GIS software methodology was used to identify and map food retail outlets and accessibility, as well as GI illness outbreaks and sales of antidiarrhea, antinausea, and rehydration products (used as a proxy for GI cases) within the city, based on available data. Statistical analysis of the maps shows no statistical relationship between location, access to food outlets, and rates of GI illness. The analysis points to shortfalls and gaps in the existing data, which leaves us unable to draw conclusions either supporting or refuting our hypothesis. This article includes recommendations to improve the current system of illness reporting and to continue to refine the definition and process of mapping food access issues. A more comprehensive set of data would enable municipalities to more easily identify groups most at risk, depending on exposures and the type of pathogen, and reduce the occurrence of foodborne disease.

  13. Prevention of Waste in the Circular Economy: Analysis of Strategies and Identification of Sustainable Targets - The food waste example

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTOBAL GARCIA JORGE; VILA Marta; GIAVINI Michele; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; MANFREDI SIMONE

    2016-01-01

    This report continues and further advances the work conducted by the JRC in the field of sustainable management of food waste, which resulted in the publication of the 2015 report “Improving Sustainability and Circularity of European Food Waste Management with a Life Cycle Approach”. It focuses on the broad European waste management context and, in particular, provides insight and analysis on the sustainability of food waste prevention strategies. Among other municipal waste streams, food ...

  14. Food labelled Information: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Banterle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing which kinds of currently labelled information are of interest and actually used by consumers, and which additional kinds could improve consumer choices. We investigate the attitude of consumers with respect to innovative strategies for the diffusion of product information, as smart-labels for mobile-phones. The empirical analysis was organised in focus groups followed by a survey on 240 consumers. Results show that the most important nutritional claims are vitamins, energy and fat content. Consumers show a high interest in the origin of the products, GMOs, environmental impact, animal welfare and type of breeding.

  15. The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah

    2014-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

  16. Experimental verification for standard analysis procedure of 241Am in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingfen; Zhu Hongda; Liu Shutian; Pan Jingshun; Yang Dating

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The briefly experimental verification for 'determination of 241 Am in food' has been described. Methods: The overall recovery, the MDL of method and decontamination experiment has been done by standard analysis procedure. Results: The overall recovery is 76.26 ± 4.1%. The MDL is 3.4 x 10 -5 Bq/g ash, decontamination factor is higher than 10 3 for Po, 10 2 for U, Th, Pu and 60 for 237 Np. Conclusion: The results showed that the overall recovery is quite high and reliable, the MDL of method is able to meet examining 241 Am limited values in foods. the obtained decontamination factors of recommended procedure can meet analysis of 241 Am in food examination. Venifying results of the procedure are satisfied by using 243 Am spike and 241 Am standard reference material. (authors)

  17. How, when and why do young women use nutrition information on food labels? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlich, Charlotte; Gardner, Benjamin; McGowan, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition information (NI) on food packaging offers a public health tool that could be used to promote informed consumer choice and aid consumption of a healthy diet. Research indicates that the use of NI can lead to reduced energy intake and lower BMI, but little evidence is available regarding how, when or why people use NI when making everyday food choices. This qualitative study explored motivations and contexts surrounding the use of NI among 25 UK-based female NI users aged 23-35 years, using semi-structured individual interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Six themes were identified: (1) understanding and (2) functions of NI, (3) health versus appearance motives, NI use in (4) affective and (5) symbolic food episodes, and (6) competing point-of-purchase influences. Notable observations included a difficulty in understanding and converting NI into personally meaningful terms, and eschewal of NI in settings where food plays an affective or symbolic role (e.g. food consumption after a stressful day, buying food for a dinner party). We suggest evidence-based directions for future research and offer policy and practice recommendations, including the adoption of clear and consistent NI formats.

  18. Green-Lean Synergy - Root-Cause Analysis in Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose_The goal of this paper is to explore the possible synergetic effects between lean philosophy and green endeavors in improving resource efficiency in the food sector. To that end, it is investigated how a proper and tailor-made adaptation of the lean six sigma root cause analysis method could help in overcoming the complexities of increased resource efficiency in food production.Design/methodology/approach_The case study concerned reduction of waste at an industrial production line of a dough-based product, through the implementation of the lean six sigma tool.Findings_An achievement of a 50% reduction of waste on the studied process line was reached, thus exceeding the initial improvement goal.Research limitations/implications (if applicable_While the explicit findings on the specific root causes of waste on this actual production line are not immediately transferrable to other cases, they show that applying this method to identifying and eliminating root causes of waste for other products and processes in the food sector could not only reduce costs but also contribute to more resource-efficient and sustainable industrial food production.Practical implications (if applicable_ Political and public high interest in environmental and social sustainability associated with food waste render this an important development.Originality/value_ While the potential of linking green and lean efforts has been acknowledged, the application of the lean six sigma methodology for more sustainable food production has not yet been explored. This paper contributes to this research

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AMONG SELECTED YOUNG CONSUMERS IN POLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zegan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the key factors infl uencing human health. Consuming foods that either naturally contain or have been enriched with bioactive substances may aid the organism’s proper development and functioning and, most importantly, be a vital element in the prophylaxis of many non-communicable diseases as well as improve general sense of well-being. The aim of the study was to compare behaviours related to functional foods among a selected group of young people. The survey was conducted among 153 purposively selected young consumers from Poland and Germany in March/April 2015. An original survey questionnaire was employed. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23 software was used for statistical analysis (chi-squared test p < 0.05. The term “functional foods” was largely unknown among the respondents. A defi nite majority of the survey participants reported having bought and consumed products that, in fact, belong to this group of foods. The main source of information on the topic of functional foods was the Internet. While buying these products, respondents from both countries chiefl y took into account the price, the quality and the list of ingredients. The results point to the need to popularize information about functional foods using trustworthy sources, in order to foster nutritional awareness. Consumer knowledge is the basis for the positive perception and acceptance of health-promoting foods and for making rational dietary choices. 

  20. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  1. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-06-01

    Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Weighed food records and duplicate portions of all foods consumed during one day were collected. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin A were assessed by: (i) estimating the nutrient intake from weighed food records based on an adjusted TACAM (a-TACAM); and (ii) chemical analysis of the duplicate portions. Agreement between the two methods was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman plots. Bamako, Mali. Apparently healthy non-pregnant, non-lactating women (n 36) aged 15-36 years. Correlation coefficients between estimated and analysed values ranged from 0·38 to 0·61. At population level, mean estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly for carbohydrates (203·0 v. 243·5 g/d), Fe (9·9 v. 22·8 mg/d) and vitamin A (356 v. 246 µg retinol activity equivalents). At individual level, all estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly; the differences tended to increase with higher intakes. The a-TACAM is sufficiently acceptable for measuring average intakes of macronutrients, Ca and Zn at population level in low-intake populations, but not for carbohydrate, vitamin A and Fe intakes, and nutrient densities.

  2. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2012-01-01

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  3. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  4. Soy food consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ye Won; Kim, Soo Young; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Youn Nam; Nam, Chung Mo

    2009-01-01

    Soybean products have been suggested to have a chemo preventive effect against prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the extent of the possible association between soy-based food consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. Five cohort studies and 8 case-control studies were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Korea Medical Database, KoreaMed, Korean studies Information Service System, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and a manual search. Summary odds ratios (ORs) comparing high versus low categories of soybean consumptions were calculated on the basis of the random effect model. We analyzed the associations based on the different types of soybean consumptions. The summary ORs (95% CI) for total soy foods were 0.69 (CI = 0.57-0.84) and 0.75 (CI = 0.62-0.89) for nonfermented soy foods. Among individual soy foods, only tofu yielded a significant value of 0.73 (CI = 0.57-0.92). Consumption of soybean milk, miso, or natto did not significantly reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Genistein and daidzein were associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. This systematic review suggests that soy food consumption could lower the risk of prostate cancer. This conclusion, however, should be interpreted with caution because various biases can affect the results of a meta-analysis.

  5. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  6. Interdependence between crude oil and world food prices: A detrended cross correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debdatta; Mitra, Subrata K.

    2018-02-01

    This article explores the changing interdependence between crude oil and world food prices at varying time scales using detrended cross correlation analysis that would answer whether the interdependence (if any) differed significantly between pre and post-crisis period. Unlike the previous studies that exogenously imposed break dates for dividing the time series into sub-samples, we tested whether the mean of the crude oil price changed over time to find evidence for structural changes in the crude oil price series and endogenously determine three break dates with minimum Bayesian information criterion scores. Accordingly, we divided the entire study period in four sample periods - January 1990 to October 1999, November 1999 to February 2005, March 2005 to September 2010, and October 2010 to July 2016, where the third sample period coincided with the period of food crisis and enabled us to compare the fuel-food interdependence across pre-crisis, during the crisis, and post-crisis periods. The results of the detrended cross correlation analysis extended corroborative evidence for increasing positive interdependence between the crude oil price and world food price index along with its sub-categories, namely dairy, cereals, vegetable oil, and sugar. The article ends with the implications of these results in the domain of food policy and the financial sector.

  7. Trace analysis in the food and beverage industry by capillary gas chromatography: system performance and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M A

    1988-04-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) is the most widely used analytical technique in the food and beverage industry. This paper addresses the problems of sample preparation and system maintenance to ensure the most sensitive, durable, and efficient results for trace analysis by GC in this industry.

  8. A RECOGNITION OF HEALTH AND NUTRITION FACTORS IN FOOD DEMAND ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Schmitz, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical framework in which to formally consider health and nutrition factors in demand analyses is developed. The framework is employed to empirically identify and assess the impacts of information pertaining to cholesterol on the demands for beef, pork, poultry, and fish. Issues in considering health and nutrition factors in food demand analysis are documented.

  9. Flow cytometric analysis of microbial contamination in food industry technological lines--initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwa, Wojciech; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-04-02

    Flow cytometry constitutes an alternative for traditional methods of microorganisms identification and analysis, including methods requiring cultivation step. It enables the detection of pathogens and other microorganisms contaminants without the need to culture microbial cells meaning that the sample (water, waste or food e.g. milk, wine, beer) may be analysed directly. This leads to a significant reduction of time required for analysis allowing monitoring of production processes and immediate reaction in case of contamination or any disruption occurs. Apart from the analysis of raw materials or products on different stages of manufacturing process, the flow cytometry seems to constitute an ideal tool for the assessment of microbial contamination on the surface of technological lines. In the present work samples comprising smears from 3 different surfaces of technological lines from fruit and vegetable processing company from Greater Poland were analysed directly with flow cytometer. The measured parameters were forward and side scatter of laser light signals allowing the estimation of microbial cell contents in each sample. Flow cytometric analysis of the surface of food industry production lines enable the preliminary evaluation of microbial contamination within few minutes from the moment of sample arrival without the need of sample pretreatment. The presented method of fl ow cytometric initial evaluation of microbial state of food industry technological lines demonstrated its potential for developing a robust, routine method for the rapid and labor-saving detection of microbial contamination in food industry.

  10. Impact of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Purcaro, Giorgia; Maimone, Mariarosa; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been on the separation-science scene for about 15 years. This three-dimensional method has made a great positive impact on various fields of research, and among these that related to food analysis is certainly at the forefront. The present critical review is based on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the untargeted (general qualitative profiling and fingerprinting) and targeted analysis of food volatiles; attention is focused not only on its potential in such applications, but also on how recent advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry will potentially be important for food analysis. Additionally, emphasis is devoted to the many instances in which straightforward gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is a sufficiently-powerful analytical tool. Finally, possible future scenarios in the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry food analysis field are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Microfluidic Gel Electrophoresis in the Undergraduate Laboratory Applied to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Bhattacharya, Sanchari; Ros, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidics-based laboratory experiment for the analysis of DNA fragments in an analytical undergraduate course is presented. The experiment is set within the context of food species identification via amplified DNA fragments. The students are provided with berry samples from which they extract DNA and perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)…

  12. Modelling extrudate expansion in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extruder operation parameters in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process. Buckingham's pi dimensional analysis method is applied to establish the model. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. pump efficiency, water content...

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  14. Activation analysis of selenium in odorous vegetable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji; Noda, Katsuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    The selenium in odorous vegetables was analyzed by nondestructive neutron activation analysis using 75 Se, by the γ-ray coincidence method with a Ge(Li) and a NaI(Tl) detectors of definite energy ranges. By means of the coincidence counting, the background spectrum in 75 Se in the vicinity of 265 KeV was able to be reduced to about 1/20 of that by the former detector alone, so that the 75 Se detection sensitivity was raised over fourfold. Thus the selenium in odorous vegetables was able to be determined down to the content as low as 0.02 μg/g. The selenium content in garlic bulbs was 0.02 - 0.31 μg/g, and in onion bulbs 0.02 - 0.05 μg/g, both of which agreed well with those by fluorometry. In other odorous vegetables, the selenium content was as little as 0.1 μg/g or lower. It has been said that the selenium content is relatively large along with sulfur because of the same group, but it was found to be fairly small in the odorous vegetables. (Mori, K.)

  15. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-01-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions

  16. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  17. Comparative analysis of functional food producers' profitability in Serbia: A leader-follower relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganac Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional food market in Serbia is relatively young and insufficiently explored both from the aspects of producers and consumers, the qualitative aspect and especially from the quantitative aspect. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the results of the comprehensive quantitative financial analysis of profitability which focuses on the example of two companies. The main criterion applied in the selection of companies for the analysis represents the fact that one company is recognizable as a producer of foods with nutritive and health claims and is a leader within that market segment, whereas the other analyzed company mostly produces traditional products and has entered the aforementioned market segment at a later stage. The key idea is to do a comparative analysis of the profitability of these two companies for a four-year period. The profitability ratio analysis and the Du Pont analysis system are used in the paper as well as the analysis of solvency and financial leverage effect. The vertical analysis of income statement is also done in order to reveal the relation between some cost categories and operating revenues. The research results lead to a conclusion that the company that mostly produces functional foods has higher profit margins and rates of return and is therefore in a more favourable position since it can benefit from positive effects of financial leverage to a higher extent. The profitability of the second relevant company is mostly based on the better asset turnover.

  18. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Eduardo A F; Spaniol, Ana M; Gonçalves, Vivian S S; Moura, Iracema; Silva, Sara A; L'Abbé, Mary; Jaime, Patricia C

    2017-07-12

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011-2017) and there was a significant 8-34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  19. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  20. What Happens to Patterns of Food Consumption when Food Prices Change? Evidence from A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Food Price Elasticities Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Green, Rosemary; Turner, Rachel; Dangour, Alan D; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen considerable interest in examining the impact of food prices on food consumption and subsequent health consequences. Fiscal policies targeting the relative price of unhealthy foods are frequently put forward as ways to address the obesity epidemic. Conversely, various food subsidy interventions are used in attempts to reduce levels of under-nutrition. Information on price elasticities is essential for understanding how such changes in food prices affect food consumption. It is crucial to know not only own-price elasticities but also cross-price elasticities, as food substitution patterns may have significant implications for policy recommendations. While own-price elasticities are common in analyses of the impact of food price changes on health, cross-price effects, even though generally acknowledged, are much less frequently included in analyses, especially in the public health literature. This article systematically reviews the global evidence on cross-price elasticities and provides combined estimates for seven food groups in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries alongside previously estimated own-price elasticities. Changes in food prices had the largest own-price effects in low-income countries. Cross-price effects were more varied and depending on country income level were found to be reinforcing, undermining or alleviating own-price effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. An analysis software of tritium distribution in food and environmental water in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Xu Cuihua; Ren Tianshan; Deng Guilong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of developing this analysis-software of tritium distribution in food and environmental water is to collect tritium monitoring data, to analyze the data, both automatically, statistically and graphically, and to study and share the data. Methods: Based on the data obtained before, analysis-software is wrote by using VC++. NET as tool software. The software first transfers data from EXCEL into a database. It has additive function of data-append, so operators can embody new monitoring data easily. Results: After turning the monitoring data saved as EXCEL file by original researchers into a database, people can easily access them. The software provides a tool of distributing-analysis of tritium. Conclusion: This software is a first attempt of data-analysis about tritium level in food and environmental water in China. Data achieving, searching and analyzing become easily and directly with the software. (authors)

  2. Mathematical modelling and analysis for a three-tiered microbial food web in a chemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miled El hajji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a mathematical six-dimensional dynamical system involving a three-tiered microbial food web without maintenance. We give a qualitative analysis of the model, and an analysis of the local stability of equilibrium points. Under general assumptions of monotonicity, we prove the uniqueness and the local stability of the positive equilibrium point corresponding to the persistence of the three bacteria. Possibilities of periodic orbits are not excluded and asymptotic coexistence is satisfied.

  3. Flow cytometric analysis of microbial contamination in food industry technological lines – initial study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Czaczyk; Wojciech Juzwa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Flow cytometry constitutes an alternative for traditional methods of microorganisms identifi cation and analysis, including methods requiring cultivation step. It enables the detection of pathogens and other microorganisms contaminants without the need to culture microbial cells meaning that the sample (water, waste or food e.g. milk, wine, beer) may be analysed directly. This leads to a signifi cant reduction of time required for analysis allowing monitoring of production process...

  4. Consumer acceptance of reformulated food products: A systematic review and meta-analysis of salt-reduced foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenke, Rachael; Barzi, Federica; McMahon, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-11-02

    Food product reformulation is promoted as an effective strategy to reduce population salt intake and address the associated burden of chronic disease. Salt has a number of functions in food processing, including impacting upon physical and sensory properties. Manufacturers must ensure that reformulation of foods to reduce salt does not compromise consumer acceptability. The aim of this systematic review is to determine to what extent foods can be reduced in salt without detrimental effect on consumer acceptability. Fifty studies reported on salt reduction, replacement or compensation in processed meats, breads, cheeses, soups, and miscellaneous products. For each product category, levels of salt reduction were collapsed into four groups: food products, which in turn will contribute to a healthier food supply.

  5. Application of sensory analysis in the enterprise of production of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Berketova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on the relationship of the implementation of sensory analysis in food production enterprises with the activities of these enterprises: from the development of new products and technologies, from the quality control of food at all stages of the product life cycle, the study of the structure of consumer demand, and ending with the preparation of forecasts for the sale of products and other production and marketing issues. Touch analysis helps the manufacturer to determine how his product is consumed and to assume the reaction of a potential buyer to a new product. The use of sensory or organoleptic analysis in the food industry requires the presence of specially trained people or testers who are the instrument of organoleptic analysis, and the constant improvement of their testing techniques and their sensitivity through constant training. Regulatory documents that establish the rules and conditions for conducting organoleptic studies, according to the all-Russian classifier of standards, are in the group «67. Food production»" in particular in the subgroup “67.240-Organoleptic analysis”. This group of standards includes requirements for the laboratory in which the research is carried out, for testers, requirements for utensils and reagents, and methods of research. Modern methods of sensory analysis together with the use of mathematical statistics allow to obtain results of equal and sometimes greater reliability than the results obtained by chemical or physical methods in the evaluation of quality indicators of food products. There are two areas of research: analytical and consumer

  6. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) for an ultrasound food processing operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Hoarau, Nicolas

    2004-05-01

    Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound (US), used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety. Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) is the most secure and cost-effective method for controlling possible product contamination or cross-contamination, due to physical or chemical hazard during production. The following case study on the application of HACCP to an US food-processing operation demonstrates how the hazards at the critical control points of the process are effectively controlled through the implementation of HACCP.

  7. Food value chain analysis: A review of selected studies for Pakistan and guidelines for further research

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Zahoor

    2012-01-01

    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added†in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a product. For agricultural products, value addition can also take place through differentiation of a product based on food safety and food functionality. Price of the resultant product shows its incremental value. The term chain refers to a supply c...

  8. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  9. [Analysis of TV food advertising in the context of recommendations by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Coelho, Francielly de Souza; Guimarães, Julia Soares; Fortaleza, Rafaela Garcia; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-05-18

    This study aimed to analyze TV food advertising in Brazil based on the recommendations of the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014. Programming from the four most popular TV channels was recorded on two non-consecutive days in January 2014. The commercials were categorized in (i) foods and beverages, (ii) restaurants, and (iii) non-food services, goods, and products, with those in the first category subdivided according to recommendations in the food guide. The commercials' categories were described by means of their frequency (and 95% confidence interval), for all the records and according to the day of the week. Of the 2,732 commercials that were identified, food and beverage advertising was the third largest category, with 10.2% of the total. In this category, ultra-processed foods accounted for 60.7% of the commercials, while fresh or minimally processed foods at around 7%. The findings run counter to the guide's recommendations, reinforcing the importance of measures to regulate food advertising in Brazil.

  10. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  11. o-TOF ICPMS analysis of environmental, food and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcova, A.; Cernohorsky, T.; Ludvikova, I.; Pouzar, M.; Capova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: o-TOF ICPMS was used for inorganic analysis of environmental, food and biological samples. The method validity was proved by analysis of spiked samples, reference materials, by determination without/with internal standards and the standard addition technique. The technique was shown to be powerful, and reliable for analysis of the samples mentioned, and high sample throughput enables environmental or biological screening studies. Independent of the number of elements analyzed, complete analysis and whole mass spectra are gained from a small sample amount in a very short time. (author)

  12. Water-food-energy nexus index: analysis of water-energy-food nexus of crop's production system applying the indicators approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Inas

    2017-10-01

    Analysis the water-food-energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water-food-energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water-food-energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water-food-energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.

  13. Steep discounting of delayed monetary and food rewards in obesity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, M; Petker, T; Jackson, J; Balodis, I; MacKillop, J

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of studies have investigated delay discounting (DD) in relation to obesity, but with mixed findings. This meta-analysis synthesized the literature on the relationship between monetary and food DD and obesity, with three objectives: (1) to characterize the relationship between DD and obesity in both case-control comparisons and continuous designs; (2) to examine potential moderators, including case-control v. continuous design, money v. food rewards, sample sex distribution, and sample age (18 years); and (3) to evaluate publication bias. From 134 candidate articles, 39 independent investigations yielded 29 case-control and 30 continuous comparisons (total n = 10 278). Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using Cohen's d as the effect size. Publication bias was evaluated using fail-safe N, Begg-Mazumdar and Egger tests, meta-regression of publication year and effect size, and imputation of missing studies. The primary analysis revealed a medium effect size across studies that was highly statistically significant (d = 0.43, p food rewards and child/adolescent samples. Limited evidence of publication bias was present, although the Begg-Mazumdar test and meta-regression suggested a slightly diminishing effect size over time. Steep DD of food and money appears to be a robust feature of obesity that is relatively consistent across the DD assessment methodologies and study designs examined. These findings are discussed in the context of research on DD in drug addiction, the neural bases of DD in obesity, and potential clinical applications.

  14. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2010-01-01

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  15. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Bias in estimating food consumption of fish from stomach-content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the bias introduced by using simplified methods to calculate food intake of fish from stomach contents. Three sources of bias were considered: (1) the effect of estimating consumption based on a limited number of stomach samples, (2) the effect of using average......, a serious positive bias was introduced by estimating food intake from the contents of pooled stomach samples. An expression is given that can be used to correct analytically for this bias. A new method, which takes into account the distribution and evacuation of individual prey types as well as the effect...... of other food in the stomach on evacuation, is suggested for estimating the intake of separate prey types. Simplifying the estimation by ignoring these factors biased estimates of consumption of individual prey types by up to 150% in a data example....

  17. Effect of food processing on plant DNA degradation and PCR-based GMO analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryson, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    The applicability of a DNA-based method for GMO detection and quantification depends on the quality and quantity of the DNA. Important food-processing conditions, for example temperature and pH, may lead to degradation of the DNA, rendering PCR analysis impossible or GMO quantification unreliable. This review discusses the effect of several food processes on DNA degradation and subsequent GMO detection and quantification. The data show that, although many of these processes do indeed lead to the fragmentation of DNA, amplification of the DNA may still be possible. Length and composition of the amplicon may, however, affect the result, as also may the method of extraction used. Also, many techniques are used to describe the behaviour of DNA in food processing, which occasionally makes it difficult to compare research results. Further research should be aimed at defining ingredients in terms of their DNA quality and PCR amplification ability, and elaboration of matrix-specific certified reference materials.

  18. The prevalence of Listeria spp. food contamination in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidiyan, Negar; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Rezaei, Zeynab; Dehghani-Tafti, Roohollah; Akrami-Mohajeri, Fateme

    2018-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause circling disease, encephalitis, meningitis, septicemia, and mastitis in dairy cattle. Contamination from the environment can contaminate foods with Listeria spp. Consumption of foods containing L. monocytogenes can lead to listeriosis in susceptible people (adults with a compromised immune system), pregnant women, and infants. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in various foods in Iran. We searched PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar, and Iranian local databases including Iranian scientific information database and Magiran for relevant studies up to May 2015 using related keywords. In our preliminary search, we retrieved 1344 articles. After removing duplicates and reviewing titles/abstracts, 117 articles were considered, out of which, 75 articles had sufficient quality for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of Listeria spp. contamination was about 18.3% in poultry, 8.5% in raw meat, 14.6% in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, 10% in sea foods, 7.3% in traditional dairy, 3.2% in commercial dairy, and 0.1% in eggs. The findings showed that L. monocytogenes was most prevalent in ready to eat (9.2%), seafood (5.1%), poultry (5%), traditional dairy (4%), raw meat (2.6%), commercial dairy (1.4%), and egg (0.2%), respectively. Furthermore, the presence of L. monocytogenes particularly in RTE foods (that are consumed without further heat processing) and under-cooked products could be a potential risk for public health. So, contamination should be controlled at all levels of the food chain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Indonesian CPO availability analysis to support food and energy security: a system dynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, T.; Arkeman, Y.; Setyaningsih, D.; Saparita, R.

    2017-05-01

    The development of biofuels could be a solution to overcome the energy problem. One of biofuel that has the potential to be developed, namely palm oil biodiesel that is also the raw material for food. As a provider of CPO raw materials, the production of palm biodiesel could trigger competitions, from biofuels demand growth and utilization of agricultural resources. Thus, it needs to be analyzed to determine the adequency of CPO supply to fulfill the need of food and policy recomendation which sets the development of palm oil biodiesel can be synergies with food need especially for the supply of raw material CPO. To obtain the optimal policy in the synergy between the raw material of CPO for food and energy is a need to establish some policy scenarios that allow to be applied and then chosen the best policy alternative of all scenarios. The purpose of this research were to : 1) analysis the availability of CPO to meet the needs of food and energy, 2) provide policy recommendation with regard biodiesel development of food security. The model made used system dynamic method. Several scenarios that used in the model are: 1) existing condition, 2) The scenario increase biodiesel production capacity and increase land productivity, 3) reduction scenario CPO export by 30%, 4) scenario use othe raw material for biodiesel by 20%. The simulation results showed the availability of CPO raw materials would answer all needs of both food and biodiesel when there was an increase in productivity, diversification of raw materials, and also a reduction in palm oil exports. It was needed an integrated policy from upstream to downstream along with the consistency of implementation. Policy suggestions that could be considered were increased productivity through agricultural intensification, enforcement disincentive policies of CPO to exports, and development of non-CPO biodiesel raw materials and development of renewable energy.

  20. Risk Analysis of Typhoid Fever Based on Personal Hygiene and Street Food Consumption Habit at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nuruzzaman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria transmission trought contaminated food and drink. Data from RSUD dr. Abdoer Rahem showing that from 2011–2013 typhoid fever case always increase and often happened to children age 5–14 years old. The objective research to analysis risk factor of typhoid fever according to snacking habit at school and at house of children age 7–12 years old. This research was observasional case control study. Data for case in this research are taken from medical record of ‘Unit Teratai’ for the past 1 year in RSUD dr. Abdoer Rahem Situbondo, whereas for control are case group. There are eighty person taken for this research as sample. This result was the risk of typhoid fever children which has habit of hand washing had after defecation at home OR 3.67 (1.29 < OR < 10.64, children which has habit of hand washing before eating had OR 4.33 (1.54 < OR < 12.44, children with short dirty fingernails had OR 7.79 (1.46 < OR < 46.18 frequent street food consumption OR 3.89 (1.39 < OR < 11.06, buy snack at food street OR 3.95 (1.40 < OR < 11.30, buy some snack with packing had OR 3.5 (1.26 < OR < 9.38. The conclusion is that habit hand washing after defecation, habit hand washing before eating, short dirty fingernail, frequent food street consumption, buy food street and buy some food with sealed packing can secrease the risk of typhoid fever for children age 7–12 years Keywords: typhoid fever, risk factor of typhoid fever, personal hygiene, street food consumption habit

  1. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method using qHNMR was applied and validated to determine SA in processed foods. ► This method has good accuracy, precision, selectiveness, and linearity. ► The proposed method is more rapid and simple than the conventional method. ► We found that the proposed method is reliable for the accurate determination of SA. ► This method can be used for the monitoring of SA in processed foods. - Abstract: An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg −1 (beverage: 0.013 g kg −1 ) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg −1 (beverage: 0.0063 g kg −1 ) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg −1 for foods (and 0.0063 g kg −1 for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method.

  2. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi, E-mail: ohtsuki@nihs.go.jp [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method using qHNMR was applied and validated to determine SA in processed foods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method has good accuracy, precision, selectiveness, and linearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method is more rapid and simple than the conventional method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that the proposed method is reliable for the accurate determination of SA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method can be used for the monitoring of SA in processed foods. - Abstract: An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg{sup -1} (beverage: 0.013 g kg{sup -1}) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg{sup -1} (beverage: 0.0063 g kg{sup -1}) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg{sup -1} for foods (and 0.0063 g kg{sup -1} for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method.

  3. Food/Hunger Macro-Analysis Seminar. A Do-It-Yourself Manual for College Courses and Action Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, William; Thorne, Erika

    This guide describes a fifteen-week macro-analysis seminar about food production, distribution, and consumption on international, national, and local levels. The macro-analysis approach emphasizes the interrelatedness of all parts of the food/hunger issue; therefore the seminar also addresses escalating military expenditures, widening poverty, and…

  4. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577{sup b} Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  5. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A.

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577 b Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  6. Analysis of phthalate migration to food simulants in plastic containers during microwave operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany A; André, Leiliane C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2013-12-30

    Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  7. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia; Salles, Paula Maria Borges de

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k 0 -method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k 0 - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  8. Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriany A. Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from

  9. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.

  10. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia, E-mail: maia.sathler@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Salles, Paula Maria Borges de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k{sub 0}-method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k{sub 0} - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  11. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  12. Analysis of 210Pb and 210Po in Brazilian foods and diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.L.; Bueno, L.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Cozzollino, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radiochemical procedures for the analysis of 210 Pb and 210 Po in foods and diets are presented. Because of the low beta energy of 210 Pb, its analysis was based on a separation of the daughter radionuclide 210 Bi by precipitation of lead sulphate, 210 Bi ingrowing and beta counting of this nuclide. 210 Po analysis was based on wet dissolution of the sample, deposition onto silver disc and counting by alpha-spectrometry. Levels of these radionuclides in individual items and diets of selected university students were determined in order to evaluate the intakes of 210 Pb and 210 Po as well as the dose due to ingestion of foods and diets in Sao Paulo city. (author)

  13. Genomic analysis of WCP30 Phage of Weissella cibaria for Dairy Fermented Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Duck; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the morphogenetic analysis and genome sequence of a new WCP30 phage of Weissella cibaria , isolated from a fermented food. Based on its morphology, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, WCP30 phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae . Genomic analysis of WCP30 phage showed that it had a 33,697-bp double-stranded DNA genome with 41.2% G+C content. Bioinformatics analysis of the genome revealed 35 open reading frames. A BLASTN search showed that WCP30 phage had low sequence similarity compared to other phages infecting lactic acid bacteria. This is the first report of the morphological features and complete genome sequence of WCP30 phage, which may be useful for controlling the fermentation of dairy foods.

  14. Governing Food Choices: A Critical Analysis of School Food Pedagogies and Young People's Responses in Contemporary Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Deana; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Recently a proliferation and intensification of school programmes that are directed towards teaching children and young people about food has been witnessed. Whilst there is much to learn about food, anxieties concerning the obesity epidemic have dramatically shaped how schools address the topic. This article draws on governmentality to consider…

  15. Quantification of sensory and food quality: the R-index analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Seong; van Hout, Danielle

    2009-08-01

    The accurate quantification of sensory difference/similarity between foods, as well as consumer acceptance/preference and concepts, is greatly needed to optimize and maintain food quality. The R-Index is one class of measures of the degree of difference/similarity, and was originally developed for sensory difference tests for food quality control, product development, and so on. The index is based on signal detection theory and is free of the response bias that can invalidate difference testing protocols, including categorization and same-different and A-Not A tests. It is also a nonparametric analysis, making no assumptions about sensory distributions, and is simple to compute and understand. The R-Index is also flexible in its application. Methods based on R-Index analysis have been used as detection and sensory difference tests, as simple alternatives to hedonic scaling, and for the measurement of consumer concepts. This review indicates the various computational strategies for the R-Index and its practical applications to consumer and sensory measurements in food science.

  16. A content analysis of food references in television programming specifically targeting viewing audiences aged 11 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Poor, Morgan; Stephenson, Tammy J

    2014-01-01

    Examine food in cable television programming specifically targeting 11- to 14-year-olds ("tweens"). Content analysis of food-related scenes (FRS)-in which food was shown, mentioned, and/or consumed-in 880 minutes of programming was conducted. Five days of afternoon/early evening television programs on the Disney Channel. Food references were compared with USDA MyPlate and classified according to modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components. The authors found 331 FRS, averaging 16.6 scenes/h. Preponderance of FRS was physiological needs (40.7%), followed by display (10%), party (8.5%), social event (8%), and retail store (6.6%). Snacks dominated 41% of FRS, and breakfast, lunch, and dinner were much lower in frequency. Half of FRS was visual only, followed by verbal only. Food references were not congruent with MyPlate recommendations; 42% of food items did not fit into MyPlate food groups. Only 24% of food items were fruit or vegetables, which is considerably less than recommended by MyPlate guidelines. Using modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components, 66% of food items scored food, which likely influences tweens' attitudes and behaviors. Television programming may consider past approaches to tobacco smoking and health messages on television. More attention is warranted regarding television programming by nutrition educators, researchers, health professionals, and industry specialists. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Affecting Relative Changes in U.S. Snack Foods Exports Among Countries: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Albert E.; Allen, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis to examine the competitiveness of U.S. snack food exports in terms of their revealed market shares and market potentials. The CMS analysis suggested that almost 99 percent of the gains in snack food exports were due to growth in world demand and 1.52 percent to the composition of snack food products between 2004 and 2008. Unfortunately, competitiveness of the world snack food market reduced U.S. exports by 1.52 percent during this same period.

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  19. A Comparative Analysis on Food Security in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, China proposed the Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Economic Corridor initiatives to enhance the economic cooperation between Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. To serve the priority setting of agricultural cooperation in the initiatives, an analysis is necessary to understand the food security situation and its key influencing factors in the three countries. For this purpose, this study applied a food security index (FSI to measure the food security level at state scale and analyze its changes in the three countries during 1990–2013. Further, a factor decomposition method was used to quantify the contribution of major factors to the FSI changes. The results showed that the food demand was generally secured in Myanmar and India during 1990–2013 but in shortage by around 10% in most years before 2008 in Bangladesh. The annual FSI values showed a rather obvious periodic variation and a slightly increasing trend during the whole period. Although the grain production in the three countries increased significantly, the FSI was not accordingly improved, as a result of the simultaneous increase of grain consumption. In Bangladesh and India, the grain production increase was mainly driven by the improvement of crop yield, while the grain consumption increase was mainly caused by the population growth. In Myanmar, the production increase was largely caused by the expansion of cropping area, and the consumption growth was mainly due to the increased grain requirement per capita. To meet the increasing food demand in the future, it is essential to improve the irrigation and drainage systems and crop management to increase the land use efficiency and crop yield. In addition, the adaptation of appropriate policy for family planning could be important to slow down the quick population growth and thus the food demand.

  20. Analysis of cadmium in food by multiple prompt γ-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Koizumi, M.; Osa, A.; Kimura, A.; Goto, J.; Hatsukawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Cd concentration in food is a public concern related to the human health. In order to remove Cd-polluted food, the development and validation of a rapid and sensitive method of Cd analysis is required. By applying the multiple γ-ray detection method to prompt γ-ray analysis (PGA), the influence from nuclei which emit only one prompt γ-ray at a time at every neutron capture reaction can be reduced, therefore the quantification limit of Cd is improved significantly. The limit of Cd contained in rice in the case of MPGA was evaluated, and under our proposed experimental conditions, it may be possible to quantify Cd content in rice to within 0.2 ppm in 10 min

  1. Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The increased separation efficiency provided by the new technology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological. The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis. Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large amount of samples must be analyzed fast using reliable and solvent-saving apparatus. The literature hereby described shows how the outstanding performances provided by core-shell particles column on a traditional HPLC instruments are comparable to those obtained with a costly UHPLC instrumentation, making this novel column a promising key tool in food analysis. PMID:27143972

  2. Risk analysis of main mycotoxins occurring in food for children: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manyes, Lara; Meca, Giuseppe; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi contaminating the food chain that are toxic to animals and humans. Children up to 12 years old are recognized as a potentially vulnerable subgroup with respect to consumption of these contaminants. Apart from having a higher exposure per kg body weight, they have a different physiology from that of adults. Therefore they may be more sensitive to neurotoxic, endocrine and immunological effects. For these reasons, a specific and up-to-date risk analysis for this category is of great interest. In this review, an accurate analysis of the main mycotoxins occurring in food intended for children (deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins) is presented. In particular, known mechanisms of toxicity and levels of exposure and bioaccessibility in children are shown. In addition, recent discoveries about the strategies of mycotoxins managing are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applications of capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection in clinical, environmental and food analysis. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Francisco J.; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F.; García-Campaña, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest developments and analytical applications of chemiluminescence detection coupled to capillary electrophoresis (CE-CL). Different sections considering the most common CL systems have been included, such as the tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) system, the luminol and acridinium derivative reactions, the peroxyoxalate CL or direct oxidations. Improvements in instrumental designs, new strategies for improving both resolution and sensitivity, and applications in different fields such as clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis have been included. This review covers the literature from 2010 to 2015. - Highlights: • An up-to-date critical review about the evolution of CE-CL is presented. • Tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and luminol as the most used CL systems. • Instrumental designs and strategies for improving resolution and sensitivity. • Applications in clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis.

  4. Nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors for pesticide detection: advances and challenges in food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Cinti, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    This overview (with 114 refs.) covers the progress made between 2010 and 2015 in the field of nanomaterial based electrochemical biosensors for pesticides in food. Its main focus is on strategies to analyze real samples. The review first gives a short introduction into the most often used bio recognition elements. These include (a) enzymes (resulting in inhibition-based and direct catalytic biosensors), (b) antibodies (resulting in immunosensors), and (c) aptamers (resulting in aptasensors). The next main section covers the various kinds of nanomaterials for use in biosensors and includes carbonaceous species (carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black and others), and non-carbonaceous species in the form of nanoparticles, rods, or porous materials. Aspects of sample treatment and real sample analysis are treated next before discussing vanguard technologies in tailor-made food analysis. (author)

  5. Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Preti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The increased separation efficiency provided by the new technology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological. The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis. Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large am...

  6. Adelie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Jarman

    Full Text Available The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  7. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  8. AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FAMILIARITY AND WILLINGNESS TO USE ONLINE FOOD SHOPPING SERVICES IN A LOCAL AREA OF TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Hiser, Jennifer; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Online food shopping is not only one of the newest innovations in grocery shopping but also one of the many services integrating the changing needs of consumers and the increasing use of modern technology. A survey was conducted in the Bryan/College Station area of Texas to determine a quantitative profile of consumers, via logit analysis, who are familiar with the concept of online food shopping and who are willing to use an online food shopping service. Older people, females, major shoppers...

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Food Animals in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founou, Luria Leslie; Amoako, Daniel Gyamfi; Founou, Raspail Carrel; Essack, Sabiha Yusuf

    2018-04-23

    This study critically reviewed the published literature and performed a meta-analysis to determine the overall burden of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals in Africa. English and French published articles indexed in EBSCOhost, PubMed, Web of Science, and African Journals Online were retrieved, with searches being conducted up to August, 2015. Data were pooled and meta-analysis performed using a random-effects model, and the results are described as event rates. According to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 articles out of the 852 retrieved were eligible for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The studies included were mainly conducted in Nigeria, with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. being the main bacteria. The pooled estimates showed high level of antibiotic resistance (ABR) (86%; p < 0.001) and multidrug resistance (73%; p = 0.003). Our results suggest that ABR is substantively prevalent and poses a serious threat for food safety and security in Africa. These findings shed light on areas for future research concerning antibiotic-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacteria in food animals as etiological agents of infectious diseases in humans. They further yielded some interesting findings on the burden of ABR that could be useful in developing measures to contain this threat in the farm-to-plate continuum in Africa.

  10. Landuse change identification using SPOT 6 for food security analysis of Denpasar City, Bali Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supardan, N.; Panularsih, M.; Darmawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Land use change was common in Indonesia, including Bali, especially land conversion from paddy field to other uses. Based on statistics data of Bali 2015, the area of rice fields continues to decline every year, both irrigated and rain-fed rice fields. This study was conducted to analyze land use change and its impact on food security in Denpasar. Land use change dynamics can be observed by multi-temporal land use changes. GIS analysis was performed to obtain spatial land use changes in the study area by using topographic map 1: 25,000 with data sources 2002 and land cover classification of SPOT 6 image acquisition 2015. The results of GIS analysis indicate that settlement and built-up area increased by 1,736 hectares and the area of rice field decreased by 1,695 hectares during 13 years. The increasing of settlement rate was 133,5 ha / year and the decreasing of rice field was 130 ha / year. Meanwhile, the result of food availability analysis shows that the Denpasar City still deficit of rice amount 48,997 tons in 2014, and 69,175 tons in 2015 or only fulfill about 45% of food requirement.

  11. Nursery nutrition in Liverpool: an exploration of practice and nutritional analysis of food provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mike; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Weston, Gemma; Macklin, Julie; McFadden, Kate

    2011-10-01

    To explore nutrition and food provision in pre-school nurseries in order to develop interventions to promote healthy eating in pre-school settings. Quantitative data were gathered using questionnaires and professional menu analysis. In the community, at pre-school nurseries. All 130 nurseries across Liverpool were a sent questionnaire (38 % response rate); thirty-four menus were returned for analysis (26 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents stated they had adequate knowledge on nutrition for pre-school children. Sixty-one per cent of cooks reported having received only a 'little' advice on healthy eating and this was often not specific to under-5 s nutrition. Fifty-seven per cent of nurseries did not regularly assess their menus for nutritional quality. The menu analysis revealed that all menus were deficient in energy, carbohydrate, Fe and Zn. Eighty-five per cent of nurseries had Na/salt levels which exceed guidelines. Nurseries require support on healthy eating at policy, knowledge and training levels. This support should address concerns relating to both menu planning and ingredients used in food provision and meet current guidelines on food provision for the under-5 s.

  12. Web Data Mining and Social Media Analysis for better Communication in Food Safety Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Meyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although much effort is made to prevent risks arising from food, food-borne diseases are an ever-present threat to the consumers’ health. The consumption of fresh food that is contaminated with pathogens like fungi, viruses or bacteria can cause food poisoning that leads to severe health damages or even death. The outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC in Germany and neighbouring countries in 2011 has shown this dramatically. Nearly 4.000 people were reported of being affected and more than 50 people died during the so called EHEC-crisis. As a result the consumers’ trust in the safety of fruits and vegetables decreased sharply.In situations like that quick decisions and reaction from public authorities as well as from privately owned companies are important: Food crisis managers have to identify and track back contaminated products and they have to withdraw them from the market. At the same time they have to inform the stakeholders about potential threats and recent developments. This is a particularly challenging task, because when an outbreak is just detected, information about the actual scope is sparse and the demand for information is high. Thus, ineffective communication among crisis managers and towards the public can result in inefficient crisis management, health damages and a major loss of trust in the food system. This is why crisis communication is a crucial part of successful crisis management, whereas the quality of crisis communication largely depends on the availability of and the access to relevant information.In order to improve the availability of information, we have explored how information from public accessible internet sources like Twitter or Wikipedia can be harnessed for food crisis communication. In this paper we are going to report on some initial insight from a web mining and social media analysis approach to monitor health and food related issues that can develop into a potential

  13. The theory of planned behaviour and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-12-30

    The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to examine the association between TPB variables and discrete food choice behaviours. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Calculation of the pooled mean effect size (r(+)) was conducted using inverse-variance weighted, random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed using the Q- and I(2)-statistics. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of moderator variables: type of food choice behaviour; participants' age and gender. A total of 42 journal articles and four unpublished dissertations met the inclusion criteria. TPB variables were found to have medium to large associations with both intention and behaviour. Attitudes had the strongest association with intention (r(+)  = 0.54) followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC, r(+)  = 0.42) and subjective norm (SN, r(+)  = 0.37). The association between intention and behaviour was r(+)  = 0.45 and between PBC and behaviour was r(+)  = 0.27. Moderator analyses revealed the complex nature of dietary behaviour and the factors that underpin individual food choices. Significantly higher PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health compromising compared to health promoting foods. Significantly higher intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health promoting foods compared to avoiding health compromising foods. Participant characteristics were also found to moderate associations within the model. Higher

  14. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  15. Image analysis of food particles can discriminate deficient mastication of mixed foodstuffs simulating daily meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, K; Hashimoto, Y; Fukuike, C; Kodama, N; Minagi, S

    2014-03-01

    Because food texture is regarded as an important factor for smooth deglutition, identification of objective parameters that could provide a basis for food texture selection for elderly or dysphagic patients is of great importance. We aimed to develop an objective evaluation method of mastication using a mixed test food comprising foodstuffs, simulating daily dietary life. The particle size distribution (>2 mm in diameter) in a bolus was analysed using a digital image under dark-field illumination. Ten female participants (mean age ± s.d., 27·6 ± 2·6 years) masticated a mixed test food comprising prescribed amounts of rice, sausage, hard omelette, raw cabbage and raw cucumber with 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the number of their masticatory strokes. A single set of coefficient thresholds of 0·10 for the homogeneity index and 1·62 for the particle size index showed excellent discrimination of deficient masticatory conditions with high sensitivity (0·90) and specificity (0·77). Based on the results of this study, normal mastication was discriminated from deficient masticatory conditions using a large particle analysis of mixed foodstuffs, thus showing the possibility of future application of this method for objective decision-making regarding the properties of meals served to dysphagic patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility programs of Big Food in Australia: a content analysis of industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone

    2015-12-01

    To examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) tactics by identifying the key characteristics of CSR strategies as described in the corporate documents of selected 'Big Food' companies. A mixed methods content analysis was used to analyse the information contained on Australian Big Food company websites. Data sources included company CSR reports and web-based content that related to CSR initiatives employed in Australia. A total of 256 CSR activities were identified across six organisations. Of these, the majority related to the categories of environment (30.5%), responsibility to consumers (25.0%) or community (19.5%). Big Food companies appear to be using CSR activities to: 1) build brand image through initiatives associated with the environment and responsibility to consumers; 2) target parents and children through community activities; and 3) align themselves with respected organisations and events in an effort to transfer their positive image attributes to their own brands. Results highlight the type of CSR strategies Big Food companies are employing. These findings serve as a guide to mapping and monitoring CSR as a specific form of marketing. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  19. Reducing consumption of confectionery foods: A post-hoc segmentation analysis using a social cognition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Mary; McCarthy, Sinéad

    2017-10-01

    Considering confectionary consumption behaviour this cross-sectional study used social cognition variables to identify distinct segments in terms of their motivation and efforts to decrease their consumption of such foods with the aim of informing targeted social marketing campaigns. Using Latent Class analysis on a sample of 500 adults four segments were identified: unmotivated, triers, successful actors, and thrivers. The unmotivated and triers segments reported low levels of perceived need and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in addition to high levels of habit and hedonic hunger with regards their consumption of confectionery foods. Being a younger adult was associated with higher odds of being in the unmotivated and triers segments and being female was associated with higher odds of being in the triers and successful actors segments. The findings indicate that in the absence of strong commitment to eating low amounts of confectionery foods (i.e. perceived need) people will continue to overconsume free sugars regardless of motivation to change. It is therefore necessary to identify relevant messages or 'triggers' related to sugar consumption that resonate with young adults in particular. For those motivated to change, counteracting unhealthy eating habits and the effects of hedonic hunger may necessitate changes to food environments in order to make the healthy choice more appealing and accessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of residual toluene in food packaging via headspace extraction method using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ying Chin; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric materials are used in many food contact applications as packaging material. The presence of residual toluene in this food packaging material can migrate into food and thus affect the quality of food. In this study, a manual headspace analysis was successfully designed and developed. The determination of residual toluene was carried out with standard addition method and multiple headspace extraction, MHE) method using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-FID). Identification of toluene was performed by comparison of its retention time with standard toluene and GC-MS. It was found that the suitable heating temperature was 180 degree Celsius with an optimum heating time of 10 minutes. The study also found that the concentration of residual toluene in multicolored sample was higher compared to mono colored sample whereas residual toluene in sample analyzed using standard addition method was higher compared to MHE method. However, comparison with the results obtained from De Paris laboratory, France found that MHE method gave higher accuracy for sample with low analyte concentration. On the other hand, lower accuracy was obtained for sample with high concentration of residual toluene due to systematic errors. Comparison between determination methods showed that MHE method is more precise compared to standard addition method. (author)

  1. Genotypic and Phylogenic Analysis of Lactobacilli Producing Bacteriocin Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazaneh Tafvizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a group of Gram-positive, non-spore forming, cocci or rod shaped, catalase negative organisms, considered as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS organisms. These bacteria are used for thousands of years for production of fermented foods because of their ability to produce desirable changes in taste, flavor and texture. Different antimicrobial molecules such as bacteriocins produced by these bacteria that can inhibit food pathogens, so enhancing the shelf life and improving the safety of food products. Because of important role of LAB to improving the human health, molecular identification and phylogenic analysis of these bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequencing play the critical role in investigation of local sources of LAB in Iran. Materials & Methods: 5 isolates were selected from 20 isolates for molecular identification. These strains produced the high level of bacteriocin. Total genomic DNA was extracted by lysosyme extraction protocol. PCR-mediated amplification was carried out by degenerate primers. Sequencing was performed after purification of PCR product. Results: Isolates were deposited as novel strains of Lactobacillus casei and Entrococcus facium in GenBank. Conclusion: Because of high potential of local probiotic bacteria in Iran, these strains may be useful and could be used in the food industry.

  2. Numerical analysis of heat transfer of canned liquid foods containing fibers or particles during sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.Z.; Sakai, N.; Hanzawa, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Food Science and Tech.

    2000-10-01

    The velocity profile, temperature distribution, and the slowest heating point of a canned liquid food containing fibers or particles were calculated numerically by using fundamental equations that take account of the effect of free convection in the can at an unsteady state under the assumption of imaginary fluid with apparent physical properties. To check these calculated results, the temperature distribution in the can was measured experimentally under the same operating conditions as those of the theoretical analysis. The calculated results agree closely with the experimental ones. Adaptable ranges of present numerical analysis and the positional characteristics of the slowest heating point are shown. (author)

  3. Analysis of polonium-210 in food products and bioassay samples by isotope-dilution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhichao; Wu Zhongyu

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and reliable radiochemical method coupled with a simple and compact plating apparatus was developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of 210 Po in variety of food products and bioassay samples. The method performance characteristics, including accuracy, precision, robustness, and specificity, were evaluated along with a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis. With high Po recovery, improved energy resolution, and effective removal of interfering elements by chromatographic extraction, the overall method accuracy was determined to be better than 5% with measurement precision of 10%, at 95% confidence level.

  4. Analysis of polonium-210 in food products and bioassay samples by isotope-dilution alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhichao; Wu, Zhongyu

    2009-05-01

    A rapid and reliable radiochemical method coupled with a simple and compact plating apparatus was developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of (210)Po in variety of food products and bioassay samples. The method performance characteristics, including accuracy, precision, robustness, and specificity, were evaluated along with a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis. With high Po recovery, improved energy resolution, and effective removal of interfering elements by chromatographic extraction, the overall method accuracy was determined to be better than 5% with measurement precision of 10%, at 95% confidence level.

  5. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety...

  6. Hot Food and Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Its two histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have been associated with different risk factors. The possibility of an association between the consumption of hot food and beverages and esophageal cancer, especially ESCC, has long been suspected, presenting a potentially modifiable risk factor. A meta-analysis of existing observational studies was performed to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. A search was conducted through MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Current Contents Connect to November 11, 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model for the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. Subgroup analyses were conducted for ESCC and EAC, as well as for studies that adjusted for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, two well-recognized risk factors for ESCC. Consumption of hot food and drink was associated with an increased risk of any esophageal cancer (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.46, 2.48). Heterogeneity was observed. There was an increased risk of ESCC (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.79, 2.93), which remained even after adjusting for significant confounding variables (OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.71, 3.33). The relationship was not significant for EAC. The consumption of hot food and beverages was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, particularly ESCC. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving packaged food quality and safety. Part 1: synchrotron X-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, A; Hernandez-Muñoz, P; Catala, R; Gavara, R; Lagarón, J M

    2005-10-01

    The objective was to demonstrate, as an example of an application, the potential of synchrotron X-ray analysis to detect morphological alterations that can occur in barrier packaging materials and structures. These changes can affect the packaging barrier characteristics when conventional food preservation treatments are applied to packaged food. The paper presents the results of a number of experiments where time-resolved combined wide-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis as a function of temperature and humidity were applied to ethylene-vinyl alcohol co-polymers (EVOH), polypropylene (PP)/EVOH/PP structures, aliphatic polyketone terpolymer (PK) and amorphous polyamide (aPA) materials. A comparison between conventional retorting and high-pressure processing treatments in terms of morphologic alterations are also presented for EVOH. The impact of retorting on the EVOH structure contrasts with the good behaviour of the PK during this treatment and with that of aPA. However, no significant structural changes were observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering in the EVOH structures after high-pressure processing treatment. These structural observations have also been correlated with oxygen permeability measurements that are of importance when guaranteeing the intended levels of safety and quality of packaged food.

  8. RILARA: Ibero-American laboratories network of radioactivity analysis in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. Lourdes; Fernandez, Isis M.; Aguirre, Jaime; Melo, Ana C. de; Flores, Yasmine; Igliki, Amanda; Osores, Jose M.; Vasquez, L. Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    The Ibero-American Laboratories Network of Radioactivity Analysis in Food (RILARA), is a thematic network that was established in the year 2007 with the financial support of the Ibero-American Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The network brings together laboratories from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. The main objective of thematic networks is the transfer of knowledge among the research groups and to foster the cooperation as a working method. Their mission is to create a collaboration framework that allows in the future developing new common actions. The main objective of RILARA is to guarantee the radioactive innocuousness in foodstuffs, to protect consumer's health. Besides, the network aims to facilitate the international trade among Ibero-American countries, by strengthening technical cooperation of radioactivity analysis laboratories in food and by maintaining a continuous exchange of information related to the topic. This paper presents how this network was conceived, its objectives and specific goals. Also actions taken to achieve a stable and continuous interaction among the Ibero-American laboratories controlling radioactivity in food are specified. The completion of these actions is expected to provide technological transfer among countries/Institutions and staff methodology training at developing laboratories. (author)

  9. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  10. Advantages and drawbacks of immunoaffinity columns in analysis of mycotoxins in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castegnaro, Marcel; Tozlovanu, Marianna; Wild, Christopher; Molinié, Anne; Sylla, Abdoulay; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2006-05-01

    A number of countries are setting legislations on mycotoxins. In order to reduce dispute between importing and exporting countries, the analytical data should be as comparable as possible, especially when levels are close to the regulatory limits. The present trend in the analysis of mycotoxins is to use immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a clean-up and enrichment technique, and Association of Official Analytical Chemists and European Union have validated methods which address a few food commodities. This study describes our experience using both conventional and IAC approaches in the analysis of three mycotoxins. Aflatoxins (AFs): Aflatoxin G1 has been detected by liquid-liquid partitioning methods with HPLC detection as false-positive in some maize. On IACs, this compound behaves as an AF, lowering the amount of the AFs trapped. The problem was solved using either TLC or HPLC with detection in the Kobra cell. Depending on the additives to food during the processing and cooking, the AFs might appear as an opened ring not recognised by the antibody. Fumonisins (FB): Compounds interfering with the FB's antibodies were also observed while analysing breakfast cereals leading to underestimation of FB. Ochratoxin A (OTA): Depending on the food composition and extraction techniques, OTA is underestimated with IAC in some breakfast cereals and coffee. These data strengthen the necessity to validate methods using IAC for each complex matrix.

  11. Post-factum detection of radiation treatment in processed food by analysis of radiation-induced hydrocarbons. Pt. 1. Applying the method L 06.00-37 defined in Para. 35 LMBG (German Act on Food Irradiation) to processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1995-01-01

    The German official method L 06.00-37 (Para. 35 German Act on Food Irradiation) is used for the identification of irradiated fat-containing food by GC-analysis of radiation-induced hydrocarbons. Simple modifications in sample preparation allow a distinctive improvement in detection possibilities and detection limits as well. The applicability of the modified method for the detection of irradiated ingredients in model-like processed food is shown. An identification of only 3% (irradiated fat to total fat ratio) irradiated ingredient (1,5 kGy) in processed food was possible. Additionally, the kind of irradiated ingredient could be identified by the pattern of radiation induced hydrocarbons. Their concentrations are corresponding with the fatty acid composition of the irradiated compound. (orig.) [de

  12. [Methodological novelties applied to the anthropology of food: agent-based models and social networks analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Córdova, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce two methodological strategies that have not often been utilized in the anthropology of food: agent-based models and social networks analysis. In order to illustrate these methods in action, two cases based in materials typical of the anthropology of food are presented. For the first strategy, fieldwork carried out in Quebrada de Humahuaca (province of Jujuy, Argentina) regarding meal recall was used, and for the second, elements of the concept of "domestic consumption strategies" applied by Aguirre were employed. The underlying idea is that, given that eating is recognized as a "total social fact" and, therefore, as a complex phenomenon, the methodological approach must also be characterized by complexity. The greater the number of methods utilized (with the appropriate rigor), the better able we will be to understand the dynamics of feeding in the social environment.

  13. Compton suppression spectrometry for analysis of short-lived neutron activation products in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Compton suppression spectrometry was used to analyze foods for elements with short-lived neutron activation products (half-lives of about 2 minutes to 1.5 days). Analysis conditions were optimized to provide quality assurance analyses for iodine in FDA's Total Diet Study. Iodine mass fractions (0.075 to 2.03 mg/kg) were measured in 19 of 42 foods analyzed, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.03 to 1.4 mg/kg, mostly depending on NaCl content. LODs were lowered by up to a factor of 2 for 16 elements. Suppression factors ranged from about 2 to 8 over the energy range 400 to 3200 keV. (author)

  14. Analysis of toxic trace elements in sea food samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.A.; Wood, A.K.; Hamzah, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of toxic and essential trace element were analysed such as As, Hg, Se and Zn by neutron activation analysis in coastal fishes consumed by the general population of Malaysia. The mean values of the elements analysed expressed in mg/kg fresh weight ranged 1.42-5.61, 0.06-0.42, 4.2-20.6, 0.41-1.28 for As, Hg, Zn and Se, respectively. The maximum permissible limit for As in food was set at 1.0 mg/kg under the Malaysian Food Regulations. The results showed that consumption of coastal fishes is not permitted under the regulations, while the levels of Hg, Se and Zn were within the permissible limits. The daily dietary intake of As and Hg at 400 μg and 30 μg respectively are still within the tolerance levels. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. Study on the effect of supplementation of ironfortified food to chinese juvenile athletes by nuclear analysis techniques and blood analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Q.F.; Feng, W.Y.; Zhang, P.Q.; Chai, C.F.; Pan, J.X.; Wu, Y.Y.; Chao, Z.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The iron contents in the hair and blood samples of 37 juvenile athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/day, respectively, in the food of ferrous gluconatecontaining chocolate for 3 months were determined before and after the supplementation by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results showed that after supplementation of the iron-fortified food, the normal ferritin level in the blood of the male athletes was attained and the iron content in the hair was increased with supplementation, but both are not in the positive proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplementation of 8 mg iron/day to juvenile athletes may be desirable. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Stability and Bifurcation Analysis of a Three-Species Food Chain Model with Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Pijush; Pal, Nikhil; Samanta, Sudip; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    In the present paper, we investigate the impact of fear in a tri-trophic food chain model. We propose a three-species food chain model, where the growth rate of middle predator is reduced due to the cost of fear of top predator, and the growth rate of prey is suppressed due to the cost of fear of middle predator. Mathematical properties such as equilibrium analysis, stability analysis, bifurcation analysis and persistence have been investigated. We also describe the global stability analysis of the equilibrium points. Our numerical simulations reveal that cost of fear in basal prey may exhibit bistability by producing unstable limit cycles, however, fear in middle predator can replace unstable limit cycles by a stable limit cycle or a stable interior equilibrium. We observe that fear can stabilize the system from chaos to stable focus through the period-halving phenomenon. We conclude that chaotic dynamics can be controlled by the fear factors. We apply basic tools of nonlinear dynamics such as Poincaré section and maximum Lyapunov exponent to identify the chaotic behavior of the system.

  17. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of a gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for food drying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Tsatsaronis, George; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Hepbasli, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between conventional and advanced exergoconomic analyses for food drying. • 74% of the total energy destruction can be avoided. • The condenser has the highest improvement potential. • Inefficiencies and options for improvement are identified for each component. - Abstract: Exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are often used to evaluate the performance of energy systems from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. While a conventional exergetic analysis can be used to recognize the sources of inefficiencies, the so-called advanced exergy-based analysis is convenient for identifying the real potential for thermodynamic improvements and the system component interactions by splitting the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. In this study for the first time an advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied to a gas-engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system used in food drying for evaluating its performance along with each component. The advanced exergoeconomic analysis shows that the unavoidable part of the exergy destruction cost rate within the components of the system is lower than the avoidable part. The most important components based on the total avoidable costs are drying ducts, the condenser and the expansion valve. The inefficiencies within the condenser could particularly be improved by structural improvements of the whole system and the remaining system components. Finally, it can be concluded that the internal design changes play a more essential role in determining the cost of each component

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment model for allergens in food: sensitivity analysis of the minimum eliciting dose and food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, A.G.; Briggs, D.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Knulst, A.C.; Bosch, L.M.C.v.d.; Houben, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, TNO developed a probabilistic model to predict the likelihood of an allergic reaction, resulting in a quantitative assessment of the risk associated with unintended exposure to food allergens. The likelihood is estimated by including in the model the proportion of the population who is

  19. A temporal analysis of the spatial clustering of food outlets around schools in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1966 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter L; Pearce, Jamie R; Pearson, Amber L

    2015-01-01

    To explore changes in urban food environments near schools, as potential contributors to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Addresses of food premises and schools in 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006 were geo-coded. For each year, the number and proportion of outlets by category (supermarket/grocery; convenience; fast-food outlet) within 800 m of schools were calculated. The degree of spatial clustering of outlets was assessed using a bivariate K-function analysis. Food outlet categories, school level and school social deprivation quintiles were compared. Christchurch, New Zealand. All schools and food outlets at 10-year snapshots from 1966 to 2006. Between 1966 and 2006, the median number of supermarkets/grocery stores within 800 m of schools decreased from 5 to 1, convenience stores decreased from 2 to 1, and fast-food outlets increased from 1 to 4. The ratio of fast-food outlets to total outlets increased from 0·10 to 0·67. The clustering of fast-food outlets was greatest within 800 m of schools and around the most socially deprived schools. Over the 40-year study period, school food environments in Christchurch can be characterized by increased densities of fast-food outlets within walking distance of schools, especially around the most deprived schools. Since the 1960s, there have been substantial changes to the food environments around schools which may increasingly facilitate away-from-home food consumption for children and provide easily accessible, cheap energy-dense foods, a recognized contributor to the rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people.

  20. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (2005, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  1. Empty pledges: A content analysis comparing Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites

    OpenAIRE

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the EU Pledge, the food industry has vowed to retain from unhealthy food promotion to children under the age of twelve. Nonetheless, food brands increasingly lure children to branded websites packed with unhealthy food and beverage advertising. This study first explores the prevalence of online marketing strategies on 49 Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites. Second, it examines the nutrient content of the advertised foods. Third, it scrutinizes whether Belgian and Du...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Noémi Hajdú; Katalin Lipták; Zsuzsa Săplăcan

    2018-01-01

    Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to rev...

  3. Meeting on risk and monitoring analysis techniques for food safety - RLA/5/060/ARCAL Project (ARCAL CXXVIII): sampling plans and introduction to chemical risk assessment in food innocuousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Some of the Latinoamerican countries such us Bolivia, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela participant in the meeting gave an exposition about the risk analysis and monitoring techniques in food safety in their countyries. With the aim to study components of risk analysis, food innocuousness, evaluation and chemical dangers, toxicity, exposure, change of paradigms in the global food system, data sources, study in animals and in vitro, sensitivity analysis, risk assessment in health it carried out the meeting

  4. Analysis of food habits of skate Rioraja agassizii (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract Catches and exports of skate Rioraja agassizii place this species as “vulnerable to extinction” on the IUCN Red List; therefore, biological and ecological knowledge becomes an important instrument for its conservation control. This study described and quantified the diet composition of R. agassizii by means of stomach analysis contents in the periods 2005-2006 and 2012-2013. We analyzed and quantified stomach contents in terms of abundance (%N, weight (%M, frequency of occurrence (% FO, and index of relative importance (IRI. The results showed differences in the food rates between the periods. However, the groups of food items were the same: Teleostei fish, decapods, and mollusks. In 2005-2006, the diet consisted mainly of shrimp, however, in 2012-2013 it consisted of fish, followed by decapods, especially shrimps. The differences in diets may be attributed to shrimp abundance, which do not characterize a change in the eating habits in 2012-2013, because, in addition to fish, shrimps were also important food sources. The presence of a certain prey is more related to its availability rather than the feeding preference of skate. The amount of ingested items is associated to biological and environmental factors, so that further studies relating diet with capture area, seasonality, depth, and other factors should be conducted.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of recycled paper and board in contact with food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of wastepaper has been shown to increase the concentration of metals in the product. Although it is generally assumed that there is no risk of migration of chemical contaminants from recycled paper and board into food, the UK Food Standards Agency has identified limited evidence of such migration. Therefore, it is important to carry out research to establish the concentration of metals in recycled paper and board in contact with food. A previous study at Imperial College had resulted in the development of a neutron activation analysis method to determine trace metals in plastic packaging. An initial study is described to establish whether the same methodology could be applied to paper and board and to carry out a preliminary investigation into a small range of recycled paper and board products. The study was made on 22 elements in 17 products including pizza boxes, fries boxes, kitchen towel, table napkins, greaseproof paper, tea bags and cake cases. Elevated levels of some elements including barium (69 mg/kg in pizza bases) and chromium (5 mg/kg in napkins, 50 mg/kg in greaseproof paper, 2 mg/kg in cake cases, 90 mg/kg in baking parchment, 5 mg/kg in fries boxes and 5 mg/kg in pizza bases) have been shown. (author)

  6. Techno-economic and profitability analysis of food waste biorefineries at European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Caldeira, Carla; Corrado, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-07-01

    Food waste represents a potential source to produce value-added materials replacing the use of virgin ones. However, the use of food waste as feedstock in biorefineries is still at an early stage of development and studies assessing its economic viability at large scale are lacking in the literature. This paper presents a techno-economic and profitability analysis of four food waste biorefineries that use wastes from tomato, potato, orange, and olive processing as feedstock. The study includes the assessment of potentially available quantities of those waste flows in Europe. Due to the low technology readiness level of this kind of biorefineries, a screening methodology to estimate the investment and manufacturing costs as well as two profitability ratios (the return on investment and the payback time) was adopted. Results show that not all the waste feedstocks have the same potential. The most profitable options are those related to implementing fewer plants, namely concentrating the production and capitalising on economies of scale while being at risk of increasing externalities, e.g. due to logistics of the feedstocks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of food habits of skate Rioraja agassizii (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, N S; Della-Fina, N; Souza, C C A; Rodrigues, E S; Amorim, A F

    2016-06-01

    Catches and exports of skate Rioraja agassizii place this species as "vulnerable to extinction" on the IUCN Red List; therefore, biological and ecological knowledge becomes an important instrument for its conservation control. This study described and quantified the diet composition of R. agassizii by means of stomach analysis contents in the periods 2005-2006 and 2012-2013. We analyzed and quantified stomach contents in terms of abundance (%N), weight (%M), frequency of occurrence (% FO), and index of relative importance (IRI). The results showed differences in the food rates between the periods. However, the groups of food items were the same: Teleostei fish, decapods, and mollusks. In 2005-2006, the diet consisted mainly of shrimp, however, in 2012-2013 it consisted of fish, followed by decapods, especially shrimps. The differences in diets may be attributed to shrimp abundance, which do not characterize a change in the eating habits in 2012-2013, because, in addition to fish, shrimps were also important food sources. The presence of a certain prey is more related to its availability rather than the feeding preference of skate. The amount of ingested items is associated to biological and environmental factors, so that further studies relating diet with capture area, seasonality, depth, and other factors should be conducted.

  8. Analytical methods in sphingolipidomics: Quantitative and profiling approaches in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Mariné, Sílvia; Nadal, Pedro; Ras, Maria Rosa; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Arola, Lluís

    2016-01-08

    In recent years, sphingolipidomics has emerged as an interesting omic science that encompasses the study of the full sphingolipidome characterization, content, structure and activity in cells, tissues or organisms. Like other omics, it has the potential to impact biomarker discovery, drug development and systems biology knowledge. Concretely, dietary food sphingolipids have gained considerable importance due to their extensively reported bioactivity. Because of the complexity of this lipid family and their diversity among foods, powerful analytical methodologies are needed for their study. The analytical tools developed in the past have been improved with the enormous advances made in recent years in mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, which allow the convenient and sensitive identification and quantitation of sphingolipid classes and form the basis of current sphingolipidomics methodologies. In addition, novel hyphenated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies, new ionization strategies, and MS imaging are outlined as promising technologies to shape the future of sphingolipid analyses. This review traces the analytical methods of sphingolipidomics in food analysis concerning sample extraction, chromatographic separation, the identification and quantification of sphingolipids by MS and their structural elucidation by NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of decay of radicals induced in irradiated foods during long storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishita, Keigo; Kawamura, Shoei; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    By electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed free radicals in γ-ray irradiated foods ; black pepper, green coffee bean, cereal flour and ginseng. We also analyzed the decay behavior of radiation induced free radicals during long storage. The ESR spectrum of experimental irradiated foods consists of a sextet signal centered at g=2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position and a singlet signal at g=4.0. The ESR spectrum of the cereal flour sample showed only singlet signal at g=2.0. The singlet signal at g=2.0 is originated from organic free radicals and its peak intensity showed the dependence of γ-ray radiation dose levels. But the signal intensity was decreased during storage. Only after 3 hours of radiation treatment the peak intensity was decreased fast and after that the intensity was decreased slowly. The analysis of radical decay process using the simulation methods based on the theory of reaction speed, the three decay behavior was showed. It is considered that at least three or more kinds of radicals were induced in irradiated foods and in decay during long time storage. (author)

  10. [Food and nutritional security: situation analysis of decentralization in the national public policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Ana Beatriz Pinto de Almeida; Moura, Leides Barroso Azevedo de

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the situation with the decentralization of the Brazilian National System of Food and Nutritional Security (SISAN), created in 2006 under the Brazilian National Food and Nutritional Security Act (LOSAN). Based on the criteria for joining SISAN, as set out in Decree 7,272 of August 25, 2010, the authors analyzed data from the basic information surveys of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2014 (Estadic e Munic/2014). The results show that decentralization of SISAN is still incipient at the municipal level, although all the states of Brazil have already joined the system. The social assistance sector has played an outstanding role in coordinating SISAN at the state and municipal levels, while in the latter the health sector has also played a relevant role. The analysis of food and nutritional security activities conducted to date, based on the sources of federal, state, and municipal funds, further shows that the federal sphere has still not played a strong inductive role capable of leading the expansion of SISAN. More effective funding mechanisms and the assignment of responsibilities to the states and municipalities are relevant factors for consolidating the system's state-level base and expanding the municipal base in the search for an identity and capillarity for SISAN.

  11. The practical analysis of food: the development of Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün

    2013-11-15

    Practical and highly sensitive Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA) has been developed for the detection% of species-specific DNA amount in food products. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from multiple curves of real-time qPCR. The statistical analysis was done to estimate the concentration of standard dilutions. Amplicon concentrations versus each Ct value were assessed by the predictions of targets at known concentrations. SQT-DNA was prepared by using the percentage versus each Ct values. The applicability of SQT-DNA to commercial foods was proved by using sausages containing varying ratios of beef, chicken, and soybean. The results showed that SQT-DNA can be used to directly quantify food DNA by a single PCR without the need to construct a standart curve in parallel with the samples every time the experiment is performed, and also quantification by SQT-DNA is as reliable as standard curve quantification for a wide range of DNA concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Morisset

    Full Text Available In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of Leuconostoc mesenteroides from Korean vegetables and food products by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshul; Kaur, Jasmine; Lee, Sulhee; Park, Young-Seo

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, 35 Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from vegetables and food products from South Korea were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes (atpA, groEL, gyrB, pheS, pyrG, rpoA, and uvrC). The fragment sizes of the seven amplified housekeeping genes ranged in length from 366 to 1414 bp. Sequence analysis indicated 27 different sequence types (STs) with 25 of them being represented by a single strain indicating high genetic diversity, whereas the remaining 2 were characterized by five strains each. In total, 220 polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among seven housekeeping genes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the STs of the seven loci indicated that the 35 strains belonged to two major groups, A (28 strains) and B (7 strains). Split decomposition analysis showed that intraspecies recombination played a role in generating diversity among strains. The minimum spanning tree showed that the evolution of the STs was not correlated with food source. This study signifies that the multilocus sequence typing is a valuable tool to access the genetic diversity among L. mesenteroides strains from South Korea and can be used further to monitor the evolutionary changes.

  14. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP1 Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihyun; Ahn, Sojin; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Lee, Chanho; Kang, Jungsun; Cho, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Heebal

    2017-08-28

    As probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy gut flora environment through antitoxin activity and inhibition of pathogen colonization, they have been of interest to the medical research community for quite some time now. Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum , which can be found in fermented food, are of particular interest given their easy accessibility. We performed whole-genome sequencing and genomic analysis on a GB-LP1 strain of L. plantarum isolated from Korean traditional fermented food; this strain is well known for its functions in immune response, suppression of pathogen growth, and antitoxin effects. The complete genome sequence of GB-LP1 is a single chromosome of 3,040,388 bp with 2,899 predicted open reading frames. Genomic analysis of GB-LP1 revealed two CRISPR regions and genes showing accelerated evolution, which may have antibiotic and antitoxin functions. The aim of the present study was to predict strain specific-genomic characteristics and assess the potential of this new strain as lactic acid bacteria at the genomic level using in silico analysis. These results provide insight into the L. plantarum species as well as confirm the possibility of its utility as a candidate probiotic.

  15. Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis of the satisfaction with food-related life scale in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Grunert, Klaus G; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Hueche, Clementina; Bonilla, Héctor

    2017-06-01

    This study examined longitudinal measurement invariance in the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale using follow-up data from university students. We examined this measure of the SWFL in different groups of students, separated by various characteristics. Through non-probabilistic longitudinal sampling, 114 university students (65.8% female, mean age: 22.5) completed the SWFL questionnaire three times, over intervals of approximately one year. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine longitudinal measurement invariance. Two types of analysis were conducted: first, a longitudinal invariance by time, and second, a multigroup longitudinal invariance by sex, age, socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period. Results showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL exhibited strong longitudinal invariance (equal factor loadings and equal indicator intercepts). Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis also showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL displays strong invariance by socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period over time. Nevertheless, it was only possible to demonstrate equivalence of the longitudinal factor structure among students of both sexes, and among those older and younger than 22 years. Generally, these findings suggest that the SWFL scale has satisfactory psychometric properties for longitudinal measurement invariance in university students with similar characteristics as the students that participated in this research. It is also possible to suggest that satisfaction with food-related life is associated with sex and age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protease of Stenotrophomonas sp. from Indonesian fermented food: gene cloning and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kurnia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Screening of proteolytic and fibrinolytic bacteria from Indonesian soy bean based fermented food Oncom revealed several potential isolates. Based on 16s rDNA gene analysis, one particular isolate with the highest proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity was identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. The protease gene was amplified to generate a 1749 bp Polymerase Chain Reaction product and BLAST analysis, revealed 90% homology with gene encoding protease enzyme from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The putative amino acid sequence indicated a serine protease enzyme with typical amino acid aspartate, histidine and serine in the catalytic triad. The gene was translated into a pre-pro-protein consisted of cleavage site on its N terminal and Pre-Peptidase Cterminal domain. Cloning of the protease gene in pET22b with Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 as the host showed that the gene was expressed as insoluble protein fraction. This is the first report for analysis of protease gene from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp.

  17. Consumer segmentation based on food-related lifestyles and analysis of rabbit meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago-Vera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation divides the market into small groups of consumers who share similar characteristics. As all consumers within the same group have a common profile, marketing strategies can be adapted to target a specific type of consumer. Owing to the rapid changes in today’s society, consumer lifestyle has become the ideal criterion for market segmentation. In this study, we employed the food-related lifestyle model, which scholars have shown to be suitable and valid in several countries. Using data from a survey (with 3.53% error, we segmented the Spanish food market based on consumers’ food-related lifestyles. For each segment, we identified the consumer profile and analysed consumers’ consumption of rabbit meat. Factor analysis and cluster analysis yielded 4 segments: (i ‘Unconcerned’ (36.8% of the sample mainly consists of male consumers. Consumers in this segment value neither the freshness nor the price/quality ratio of their food items and consume rabbit meat rarely (39.4% or sporadically (29.3%. (ii ‘Cooks’ (18.4% predominantly consists of middle-aged women. Consumers in this segment are highly demanding and critical of the quality of food products. They like cooking and are regular consumers of rabbit meat (40.6%. (iii ‘Out-of-home consumers and convenience shoppers’ (28.6% mostly consists of consumers aged between 25 and 34 y old and contains a large proportion of upper-class consumers. Consumers in this segment prefer to eat out and consume convenience products. This segment has the second highest percentage of regular consumers of rabbit meat (36.9%. The segment also has the second highest percentage of consumers who rarely or never eat rabbit meat (43.9%. (iv ‘Rational purchaser with little interest in cooking’ (16.2% has the highest proportion of consumers aged 55 to 74 y old. Consumers in this segment have the least interest in cooking, the most interest in the purchasing process, and the lowest

  18. Ethnopharmacology—A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wai Kan Yeung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years.Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field.Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors. The 100 most cited articles were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software (VOSviewer was utilized to supplement the analysis and to generate a term map that visualized the citation patterns of the 100 articles containing different terms.Results: Forty-four of the 100 articles are reviews. On average, each of the 100 articles had 632 citations and since publication was cited 43 times annually. The four core journals were Journal of Ethnopharmacology (n = 17, Food Chemistry (n = 7, Life Sciences (n = 5, and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (n = 4. Anti-oxidant effects appeared to be a recurring and highly cited topic, whereas the links into drug discovery and neuropharmacology seemed to be less strong. Numerous medicinal plants and functional foods were the foci of research, and the foci shifted when comparing pre-2000 and post-2000 publications (with the later involving a broader spectrum of plants and foods and a wider range of biological effects. Contributions largely came from Asia, and also from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, besides Europe.Conclusion: We have identified and analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in ethnopharmacology. Within 50 years the field has gained a profile and while conventionally often linked to “traditional knowledge,” drug discovery and some areas of pharmacology, this analysis highlights its emerging importance in

  19. Ethnopharmacology-A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Heinrich, Michael; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2018-01-01

    Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years. Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations) and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field. Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors. The 100 most cited articles were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software (VOSviewer) was utilized to supplement the analysis and to generate a term map that visualized the citation patterns of the 100 articles containing different terms. Results: Forty-four of the 100 articles are reviews. On average, each of the 100 articles had 632 citations and since publication was cited 43 times annually. The four core journals were Journal of Ethnopharmacology ( n = 17), Food Chemistry ( n = 7), Life Sciences ( n = 5), and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ( n = 4). Anti-oxidant effects appeared to be a recurring and highly cited topic, whereas the links into drug discovery and neuropharmacology seemed to be less strong. Numerous medicinal plants and functional foods were the foci of research, and the foci shifted when comparing pre-2000 and post-2000 publications (with the later involving a broader spectrum of plants and foods and a wider range of biological effects). Contributions largely came from Asia, and also from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, besides Europe. Conclusion: We have identified and analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in ethnopharmacology. Within 50 years the field has gained a profile and while conventionally often linked to "traditional knowledge," drug discovery and some areas of pharmacology, this analysis highlights its emerging importance in the context

  20. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, U; Dhami, S; Arasi, S; Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C; Alvaro-Lozano, M; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; du Toit, G; Ebisawa, M; Eigenmann, P; Knol, E; Makela, M; Nadeau, K C; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N; Poulsen, L K; Sackesen, C; Sampson, H; Santos, A F; van Ree, R; Timmermans, F; Sheikh, A

    2017-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated Food Allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we sought to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of AIT in the management of food allergy. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis that involved searching nine international electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRS). Eligible studies were independently assessed by two reviewers against predefined eligibility criteria. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for RCTs and the Cochrane ACROBAT-NRS tool for quasi-RCTs. Random-effects meta-analyses were undertaken, with planned subgroup and sensitivity analyses. We identified 1814 potentially relevant papers from which we selected 31 eligible studies, comprising of 25 RCTs and six NRS, studying a total of 1259 patients. Twenty-five trials evaluated oral immunotherapy (OIT), five studies investigated sublingual immunotherapy, and one study evaluated epicutaneous immunotherapy. The majority of these studies were in children. Twenty-seven studies assessed desensitization, and eight studies investigated sustained unresponsiveness postdiscontinuation of AIT. Meta-analyses demonstrated a substantial benefit in terms of desensitization (risk ratio (RR) = 0.16, 95% CI 0.10, 0.26) and suggested, but did not confirm sustained unresponsiveness (RR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 1.13). Only one study reported on disease-specific quality of life (QoL), which reported no comparative results between OIT and control group. Meta-analyses revealed that the risk of experiencing a systemic adverse reaction was higher in those receiving AIT, with a more marked increase in the risk of local adverse reactions. Sensitivity analysis excluding those studies judged to be at high risk of bias demonstrated the

  1. A comparative analysis of selected wastewater pretreatment processes in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczyszyn, Katarzyna; Góra, Wojciech; Dymaczewski, Zbysław; Borowiak, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the classical coagulation with the iron sulphate and adsorption on bentonite for the pretreatment of wastewater in the food industry. As a result of the studies, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) reduction were found to be comparable in both technologies, and a 29% higher total phosphorus removal efficiency by the coagulation was observed. After the coagulation and adsorption processes, a significant difference between mineral and organic fraction in the sludge was found (49% and 51% for bentonite and 28% and 72% for iron sulphate, respectively).

  2. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.A.; Anil, A.C.

    of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India A B S T R A C T Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in the feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method utilising... naupliar instars and a pre-settling cyprid instar. The I instar nauplius is non-feeding and moults into II instar within a short interval of time. II to VI instars are phytoplanktivorus. Nauplii obtained from the adult broods of the barnacle Balanus...

  3. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    OpenAIRE

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, Mar?a ?.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  4. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Dzeparoski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  5. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-09-15

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  6. Exploring the Concern about Food Allergies among Secondary School and University Students in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majowicz, Shannon E; Jung, James K H; Courtney, Sarah M; Harrington, Daniel W

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the perceived risk of food allergies among students in Ontario, Canada. We analyzed blinding questions ("I am concerned about food allergies"; "food allergies are currently a big threat to my health") from three existing food safety surveys, given to high school and university undergraduate students ( n = 3,451) circa February 2015, using descriptive analysis, and explored how concern related to demographics and self-reported cooking ability using linear regression. Overall, high school students were neutral in their concern, although Food and Nutrition students specifically were significantly less concerned ( p = 0.002) than high school students overall. University undergraduates were moderately unconcerned about food allergies. Concern was highest in younger students, decreasing between 13 and 18 years of age and plateauing between 19 and 23 years. Among students aged 13-18 years, concern was higher among those who worked or volunteered in a daycare and who had previously taken a food preparation course. Among students aged 19-23 years, concern was higher among females and those with less advanced cooking abilities. Concern was significantly correlated with perceiving food allergies as a personal threat. This study offers a first exploration of perceived risk of food allergies among this demographic and can guide future, more rigorous assessments.

  7. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN THE FOREST BELT OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K.M. Kuwornu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to examine the Food Security Status of Farming Households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents that were interviewed. In all 134 farming households were interviewed but 120 were selected for analysis after removing the questionnaires which were not properly administered. The households were selected from eight communities in two districts. Food consumption data of 851 individuals in 120 households were used for the analysis. The study reveals that the majority of the farming households (60% were found to be food insecure. Further, the Binary Logit Model results reveal that an increase in household's income, having access to credit as well as increase in the quantity of own farm production improve the food security status of farming households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. However, holding all other factors constant, increases in non-working member of households worsens the food security status of farming households. Most of the food insecurity coping strategies adopted by household's are not severe and can only be used to avert the impact of food insecurity on a temporal basis. These results have policy implications for Food Security Status of Farming Households in developing countries.

  8. Measurement issues associated with quantitative molecular biology analysis of complex food matrices for the detection of food fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Malcolm; Wiseman, Gordon; Knight, Angus; Bramley, Peter; Foster, Lucy; Rollinson, Sophie; Damant, Andrew; Primrose, Sandy

    2016-01-07

    Following a report on a significant amount of horse DNA being detected in a beef burger product on sale to the public at a UK supermarket in early 2013, the Elliott report was published in 2014 and contained a list of recommendations for helping ensure food integrity. One of the recommendations included improving laboratory testing capacity and capability to ensure a harmonised approach for testing for food authenticity. Molecular biologists have developed exquisitely sensitive methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or mass spectrometry for detecting the presence of particular nucleic acid or peptide/protein sequences. These methods have been shown to be specific and sensitive in terms of lower limits of applicability, but they are largely qualitative in nature. Historically, the conversion of these qualitative techniques into reliable quantitative methods has been beset with problems even when used on relatively simple sample matrices. When the methods are applied to complex sample matrices, as found in many foods, the problems are magnified resulting in a high measurement uncertainty associated with the result which may mean that the assay is not fit for purpose. However, recent advances in the technology and the understanding of molecular biology approaches have further given rise to the re-assessment of these methods for their quantitative potential. This review focuses on important issues for consideration when validating a molecular biology assay and the various factors that can impact on the measurement uncertainty of a result associated with molecular biology approaches used in detection of food fraud, with a particular focus on quantitative PCR-based and proteomics assays.

  9. Knowledge and perceived implementation of food safety risk analysis framework in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, C; Mohr, A Hofelich; Lindsay, T; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Hueston, W; Sampedro, F

    2014-12-01

    Risk analysis is increasingly promoted as a tool to support science-based decisions regarding food safety. An online survey comprising 45 questions was used to gather information on the implementation of food safety risk analysis within the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Professionals working in food safety in academia, government, and private sectors in Latin American and Caribbean countries were contacted by email and surveyed to assess their individual knowledge of risk analysis and perceptions of its implementation in the region. From a total of 279 participants, 97% reported a familiarity with risk analysis concepts; however, fewer than 25% were able to correctly identify its key principles. The reported implementation of risk analysis among the different professional sectors was relatively low (46%). Participants from industries in countries with a long history of trade with the United States and the European Union, such as Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, reported perceptions of a higher degree of risk analysis implementation (56, 50, and 20%, respectively) than those from the rest of the countries, suggesting that commerce may be a driver for achieving higher food safety standards. Disagreement among respondents on the extent of the use of risk analysis in national food safety regulations was common, illustrating a systematic lack of understanding of the current regulatory status of the country. The results of this survey can be used to target further risk analysis training on selected sectors and countries.

  10. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  11. Looking beyond borders: integrating best practices in benefit-risk analysis into the field of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Poto, M; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, O; White, B C; Holm, F; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    An integrated benefit-risk analysis aims to give guidance in decision situations where benefits do not clearly prevail over risks, and explicit weighing of benefits and risks is thus indicated. The BEPRARIBEAN project aims to advance benefit-risk analysis in the area of food and nutrition by learning from other fields. This paper constitutes the final stage of the project, in which commonalities and differences in benefit-risk analysis are identified between the Food and Nutrition field and other fields, namely Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics and Marketing-Finance, and Consumer Perception. From this, ways forward are characterized for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition. Integrated benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition may advance in the following ways: Increased engagement and communication between assessors, managers, and stakeholders; more pragmatic problem-oriented framing of assessment; accepting some risk; pre- and post-market analysis; explicit communication of the assessment purpose, input and output; more human (dose-response) data and more efficient use of human data; segmenting populations based on physiology; explicit consideration of value judgments in assessment; integration of multiple benefits and risks from multiple domains; explicit recognition of the impact of consumer beliefs, opinions, views, perceptions, and attitudes on behaviour; and segmenting populations based on behaviour; the opportunities proposed here do not provide ultimate solutions; rather, they define a collection of issues to be taken account of in developing methods, tools, practices and policies, as well as refining the regulatory context, for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition and other fields. Thus, these opportunities will now need to be explored further and incorporated into benefit-risk practice and policy. If accepted, incorporation of these opportunities will also involve a paradigm shift in Food and Nutrition benefit

  12. Food references and marketing to children in Australian magazines: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the content and extent of food references and marketing within popular children's magazines in Australia. Sixteen popular Australian children's magazines were selected, as determined by readership and circulation data. Back copies of each magazine were purchased for publications released between January and December 2006 (n = 76). Each magazine was assessed for food references on the basis of 23 food categories and 7 food-referencing types and as either branded or non-branded food references. There were a high number of overall food references within the children's magazines, with the majority of these being for unhealthy food products (63.7% unhealthy versus 36.3% healthy foods, p marketing, were ice cream and iced confection (85.6% branded references), fast food restaurant meals (83.4%), high-sugar drinks (78.9%) and snack foods (73.4%). Of all magazines, those targeting males and children aged 7-12 years had the highest proportion of unhealthy food references (78.1 and 69.8% unhealthy food references, respectively). Food references within children's magazines are common and skewed towards unhealthy foods. Children's high magazine readership rates and a lack of advertising and product placement regulations for magazines in Australia make this media an attractive target for food marketers. The timely establishment of food marketing regulations within magazines are recommended to prevent further expansion of food marketing in this area.

  13. Comparing the Ecological Stoichiometry in Green and Brown Food Webs – A Review and Meta-analysis of Freshwater Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Evans-White

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The framework of ecological stoichiometry was developed primarily within the context of “green” autotroph-based food webs. While stoichiometric principles also apply in “brown” detritus-based systems, these systems have been historically understudied and differ from green ones in several important aspects including carbon (C quality and the nutrient [nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P] contents of food resources for consumers. In this paper, we review work over the last decade that has advanced the application of ecological stoichiometry from green to brown food webs, focusing on freshwater ecosystems. We first review three focal areas where green and brown food webs differ: (1 bottom–up controls by light and nutrient availability, (2 stoichiometric constraints on consumer growth and nutritional regulation, and (3 patterns in consumer-driven nutrient dynamics. Our review highlights the need for further study of how light and nutrient availability affect autotroph–heterotroph interactions on detritus and the subsequent effects on consumer feeding and growth. To complement this conceptual review, we formally quantified differences in stoichiometric principles between green and brown food webs using a meta-analysis across feeding studies of freshwater benthic invertebrates. From 257 datasets collated across 46 publications and several unpublished studies, we compared effect sizes (Pearson’s r of resource N:C and P:C on growth, consumption, excretion, and egestion between herbivorous and detritivorous consumers. The meta-analysis revealed that both herbivore and detritivore growth are limited by resource N:C and P:C contents, but effect sizes only among detritivores were significantly above zero. Consumption effect sizes were negative among herbivores but positive for detritivores in the case of both N:C and P:C, indicating distinct compensatory feeding responses across resource stoichiometry gradients. Herbivore P excretion rates responded

  14. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports...... a series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by how they employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been...... of cross-cultural comparability. 5. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward's method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were labelled the uninvolved food consumer, the careless food consumer, the rational food consumer, the conservative food consumer, the adventurous consumer...

  15. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  16. Simultaneous determination of color additives tartrazine and allura red in food products by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Maider; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Bordagaray, Ane; Ostra, Miren; Albizu, Gorka

    2018-07-01

    A method based on digital image is described to quantify tartrazine (E102), yellow, and allura red (E129) colorants in food samples. HPLC is the habitual method of reference used for colorant separation and quantification, but it is expensive, time-consuming and it uses solvents, sometimes toxic. By a flatbed scanner, which can be found in most laboratories, images of mixtures of colorants can be taken in microtitration plates. Only 400 µL of sample are necessary and up to 92 samples can be measured together in the same image acquisition. A simple-to-obtain color fingerprint is obtained by converting the original RGB image into other color spaces and individual PLS models are built for each colorant. In this study, root mean square errors of 3.3 and 3.0 for tartrazine and 1.1 and 1.2 for allura red have been obtained for cross-validation and external validation respectively. Results for repeatability and reproducibility are under 12%. These results are slightly worse but comparable to the ones obtained by HPLC. The applicability of both methodologies to real food samples has proven to give the same result, even in the presence of a high concentration of an interfering species, provided that this interference is included in the image analysis calibration model. Considering the colorant content found in most samples this should not be a problem though and, in consequence, the method could be extended to different food products. Values of LODs of 1.8 mg L -1 and 0.6 mg L -1 for tartrazine and allura red have been obtained by image analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul J.M.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Design: Weighed food records and

  18. A socio-historical approach to policy analysis: the case of the Brazilian Workers' Food Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Souza, Jamacy; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Policy analyses based on traditional or structuralist definitions of the state are important, but they have some limitations for explaining processes related to policymaking, implementation, and results. Bourdieusian sociology links the analysis to objective and subjective dimensions of social practices and can help elucidate these phenomena. This article provides such empirical evidence by analyzing the social genesis of a Brazilian policy that currently serves 18 million workers and was established by the state in 1976 through the Fiscal Incentives Program for Workers' Nutrition (PIFAT/PAT). The study linked the analysis of the trajectory of social agents involved in the policy's formulation to the historical conditions that allowed the policy to exist in the first place. Although the literature treats the policy as a workers' food program (PAT), the current study showed that it actually represented a new model for paying financial subsidies to companies that provided food to their employees, meanwhile upgrading the commercial market for collective meals. The study further showed that the program emerged as an administrative policy, but linked to economic agents. The program became a specific social space in which issues related to workers' nutrition became secondary, but useful for disguising what had been an explicit side of its genesis, namely its essentially fiscal nature.

  19. Unraveling the intricate dynamics of planktonic Arctic marine food webs. A sensitivity analysis of a well-documented food web model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Maps, Frédéric; Babin, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    The extreme and variable environment shapes the functioning of Arctic ecosystems and the life cycles of its species. This delicate balance is now threatened by the unprecedented pace and magnitude of global climate change and anthropogenic pressure. Understanding the long-term consequences of these changes remains an elusive, yet pressing, goal. Our work was specifically aimed at identifying which biological processes impact Arctic planktonic ecosystem functioning, and how. Ecological Network Analysis (ENA) indices reveal emergent ecosystem properties that are not accessible through simple in situ observation. These indices are based on the architecture of carbon flows within food webs. But, despite the recent increase in in situ measurements from Arctic seas, many flow values remain unknown. Linear inverse modeling (LIM) allows missing flow values to be estimated from existing flow observations and, subsequent reconstruction of ecosystem food webs. Through a sensitivity analysis on a LIM model of the Amundsen Gulf in the Canadian Arctic, we were able to determine which processes affected the emergent properties of the planktonic ecosystem. The analysis highlighted the importance of an accurate knowledge of the various processes controlling bacterial production (e.g. bacterial growth efficiency and viral lysis). More importantly, a change in the fate of the microzooplankton within the food web can be monitored through the trophic level of mesozooplankton. It can be used as a "canary in the coal mine" signal, a forewarner of larger ecosystem change.

  20. Nutrition and food security policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran: situation analysis and roadmap towards 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Abdollahi, Zahra; Hajifaraji, Majid; Rezazadeh, Arezoo

    2018-05-03

    All government policies and programmes for food and nutrition security should include providing healthy food, as well as providing economic and social availability for all people. This study aimed to analyse the current situation of Iranian food and nutrition security and establish a road map towards 2021. The applied methods were situation analysis and a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. The conceptual method used for developing this national document encompassed three areas: sustainable food supply, food safety and nutrition. The outcomes of the Iranian food and nutrition security system in the past three decades include development of management infrastructure and improvement in food and nutrition security status. However, analysis of current programmes showed that there were some overlapping, intertwining and parallel works in the responsibilities of related organizations in the field of supervision of food safety (from production to supply). The national document produced as the outcome of this paper was communicated by the Iranian Ministry of Health in 2012 and has been running for 2 years. Selected ministries are responsible for implementation of 20 national programmes by the end of the 5th Economic, Social and Cultural Development Programme (2016-2011). The consensus of stakeholders by the end of the 6th Development Programme (2021) is to put all of the provinces in a safe or very safe situation in terms of food and nutrition security. The most important challenge in establishing national documents is to make them operational. This aim was achieved by an intersectoral nutrition and food security working group, which produced a general memorandum of understanding with the main organizations, the media, universities and private sector. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  1. Food purchase patterns: empirical identification and analysis of their association with diet quality, socio-economic factors, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Silke; Peltner, Jonas; Richter, Almut; Mensink, Gert B M

    2017-10-12

    Empirically derived food purchase patterns provide information about which combinations of foods were purchased from households. The objective of this study was to identify what kinds of patterns exist, which level of diet quality they represent and which factors are associated with the patterns. The study made use of representative German consumption data in which approximately 12 million food purchases from 13,125 households are recorded. In accordance with healthy diet criteria the food purchases were assigned to 18 food groups of the German Food Pyramid. Based on these groups a factor analysis with a principal component technique was applied to identify food patterns. For these patterns nutrient and energy densities were examined. Using regression analysis, associations between pattern scores and socio-economic as well as attitude variables, reflecting personal statements about healthy eating, were analyzed. In total, three food purchase patterns could be identified: a natural, a processed and a traditional one. The first one was characterized by a higher purchasing of natural foods, the second by an increased purchasing of processed foods and the third by a meat-oriented diet. In each pattern there were specific diet quality criteria that could be improved whereas others were in line with actual dietary guidelines. In addition to socio-demographic factors, attitudes were significantly associated with the purchase patterns. The findings of this study are interesting from a public health perspective, as it can be assumed that measures focusing on specific aspects of diet quality are more promising than general ones. However, it is a major challenge to identify the population groups with their specific needs of improvement. As the patterns were associated with both socio-economic and attitude variables these grouping criteria could be used to define target groups.

  2. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  3. Change of trade balance analysis in agricultural and food products with using of index pyramidal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the trade balance in Czech Republic in the field of agricultural and food products. The main goal is to determine the influence of analytical indicators; in this case these are changes of quantity and average unit price of export and import; over the synthetic indicator – change of trade balance. Next step of this analysis is to calculate the portions of change of inputs volume and change of total productivity of inputs over the change of export caused by change of quantity. To fulfill this aim it is suitable to use methods for pyramidal decomposition of indicators – chain substitution, logarithmic and functional methods. These methods are compared and the results are interpreted.

  4. Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis of the satisfaction with food-related life scale in university students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal measurement invariance in the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale using follow-up data from university students. We examined this measure of the SWFL in different groups of students, separated by various characteristics. Through non......-probabilistic longitudinal sampling, 114 university students (65.8% female, mean age: 22.5) completed the SWFL questionnaire three times, over intervals of approximately one year. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine longitudinal measurement invariance. Two types of analysis were conducted: first, a longitudinal...... students of both sexes, and among those older and younger than 22 years. Generally, these findings suggest that the SWFL scale has satisfactory psychometric properties for longitudinal measurement invariance in university students with similar characteristics as the students that participated...

  5. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the food-yeast Candida utilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Tomita

    Full Text Available The industrially important food-yeast Candida utilis is a Crabtree effect-negative yeast used to produce valuable chemicals and recombinant proteins. In the present study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. utilis, which showed that this yeast diverged long before the formation of the CUG and Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clades. In addition, we performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing, which resulted in the identification of genes important for characteristic phenotypes of C. utilis such as those involved in nitrate assimilation, in addition to the gene encoding the functional hexose transporter. We also found that an antisense transcript of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, which in silico analysis did not predict to be a functional gene, was transcribed in the stationary-phase, suggesting a novel system of repression of ethanol production. These findings should facilitate the development of more sophisticated systems for the production of useful reagents using C. utilis.

  6. Food supplements complexes for pregnant' s: composition analysis and selection features at community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Tamelytė, Raimonda

    2016-01-01

    Compared food supplements complexes composition for pregnant women and adults. made a questionnaire survey. the composition of the food supplements complexes for pregnant women includes all major necessary vitamins and minerals for pregnancy. the assessment of active substances in the composition of the food supplements complexes for pregnant women are more suitable for use during pregnancy than, food supplements complexes for adults. in pharmacy, selecting food supplements complexes for preg...

  7. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  8. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew Z H; Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S

    2017-04-11

    The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e.g., unhealthy food). From a total of 6,448 titles extracted from Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO and PubMED, seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review, while thirty seven articles contained requisite statistical information for meta-analysis. The parental variables extracted include active guidance/education, restrictive guidance/rule-making, availability, accessibility, modeling, pressure to eat, rewarding food consumption, rewarding with verbal praise, and using food as reward. The food consumption behaviors examined include fruits and vegetables consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack consumption. Results indicate that availability (Healthy: r = .24, p parental modeling effects (Healthy: r = .32, p parenting practices might be dependent on the food consumption context and the age of the child. For healthy foods, active guidance/education might be more effective (r = .15, p children 7 and older, restrictive guidance/rule-making could be more effective in preventing unhealthy eating (r = - .20, p children 6 and younger, rewarding with verbal praise can be more effective in promoting healthy eating (r = .26, p parental behaviors are strong correlates of child food consumption behavior. More importantly, this study highlights 3 main areas in parental influence of child food consumption that are understudied: (1) active guidance/education, (2) psychosocial mediators, and (3) moderating influence of general parenting styles.

  9. Using means-end chain analysis to reveal consumers' motivation for buying local foods: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Arsil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article utilizes and discusses specific aspects of Means-End Chain (MEC analysis for understanding of the motives of Indonesian consumers who are involved in purchasing local foods. The MEC theory is used as a measure of attributes, consequences, and values of locally produced products involving specific aspects of this theory namely laddering methods of administration, content analysis procedure, constructing and interpreting Hierarchy Value Map (HVM. The results of the study indicate that MEC approach is a powerful method to reveal consumer motivation of local foods when associated with the various cultural groupings identified by the study particular between Javanese and Non-Javanese consumers. This study offers a practical implication and source of knowledge for other future studies and policies in term of (a a new approach for understanding the motives behind purchasing local foods for Indonesia consumers, and (b developing new categories of attributes, consequences and values of local foods.

  10. Estimation and evaluation of the radioactive contamination through a food web in an aquatic ecosystem, (2). System analysis of the transfer of radionuclides through a food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Isao; Inoue, Yoriteru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-06-01

    In order to estimate and evaluate the radioactivity concentration in an aquatic ecosystem, the transfer of radioactivity through a food web should be considered. In this paper, systems analysis on the above problem was performed and a quantity of radioactivity in organisms concentrated through their diet was presented. It was found from numerical evaluation that whether the transfer of radioactivity through a diet is significant or not depended on such ecological factors as ration rates, assimilation rates, uptake rates, and turnover rates. The degree of the importance of these parameters on the concentration process of radioactivity was quantitatively evaluated by the mathematical technique of sensitivity analysis.

  11. Research and analysis of modernization processes in food industry enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzhimska K.O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of domestic enterprises is a prerequisite for the integration of Ukraine into the European Union, first of all it concerns food industry enterprises, because they have the greatest potential for access to European markets with their own products. Accelerated modernization will provide an opportunity to improve the quality and safety of domestic food products and bring them closer to world standards. The methods and methodology of economic and statistical analysis remain the focus of the scholars. The analysis of trends, directions of development, and results of activities creates a basis for the adoption of quality management decisions, both at the strategic and operational levels. The study of the modernization process is impossible without the use of methods of economic and statistical analysis for a general evaluation of its state and efficiency. The paper proposes the relative indicators of asset value dynamics, residual value of fixed assets, volumes of sales, financial results before taxation, net profit for a generalizing assessment of the modernization process. It is substantiated that the modernization process is effective if the growth rate of asset value is greater than one unit, the growth rate of the residual value of fixed assets increases the growth rate of assets, the growth rate of sales of products is greater than the growth rate of residual value of fixed assets, the rate of growth of financial results before taxation is higher than the pace, the growth of sales volume, the growth rate of net profit is higher than the growth rate of the financial result before taxation. Using the Spirmeno coefficient, the authors obtained following results: the modernization process was most effective in 2011–2012, the modernization processes in food industry sharply slowed down during 2013–2015, but due to the already formed potential, they continue confirming the integral indices of the state and efficiency of

  12. Determination of the elements found in milk powder, infant food and soft drink by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood; Abdul Wahab Abdullah; Md Soot Haji Ahmad

    1987-01-01

    Three groups of drink and food samples such as milk powder infant food and light drink marketed around Kajand and Kuala Lumpur towns were analysed for their elemental contents using the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. 17 elements (Al, As, Br, Cl, Ca, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Ti, V, Zn, Fe, Au and Co) were detected. Some of the elements detected are shown on the label of the tin or package and the concentrations given lie within the range mentioned. (author)

  13. [Analysis on contamination of aflatoxins in food samples in Shaanxi Province from 2012-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Tian, Li; Wang, Caixia; Qiao, Haiou; Wang, Minjuan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the contamination of aflatoxins in food in Shaanxi Province, and provide the basic data of dietary intakes of aflatoxins for food safety assessment. In year 2012- 2015, 1007 food samples of eight kinds of food including grains, beans, vegetable oil, nuts and seeds, condiment, liquor, tea and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with UPLC. 1007 samples were detected aflatoxins and the total detection rate was 10. 7%. The detection range was 0. 070- 323 μg / kg, with the mean value of 2. 34 μg / kg. Among all food samples, only peanut products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods. The overall level of aflatoxins contamination in market food is low, but peanut products might be the contaminated foods with aflatoxins in Shaanxi Province, and should be given more attention.

  14. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  15. Bioelectronic tongues: New trends and applications in water and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz

    2016-05-15

    Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for fast, highly sensitive and selective methods of analysis to meet new challenges in environmental monitoring, food safety and public health. In response to this demand, biosensors have arisen as a promising tool, which offers accurate chemical data in a timely and cost-effective manner. However, the difficulty to obtain sensors with appropriate selectivity and sensitivity for a given analyte, and to solve analytical problems which do not require the quantification of a certain analyte, but an overall effect on a biological system (e.g. toxicity, quality indices, provenance, freshness, etc.), led to the concept of electronic tongues as a new strategy to tackle these problems. In this direction, to improve the performance of electronic tongues, and thus to spawn new application fields, biosensors have recently been incorporated to electronic tongue arrays, leading to what is known as bioelectronic tongues. Bioelectronic tongues provide superior performance by combining the capabilities of electronic tongues to derive meaning from complex or imprecise data, and the high selectivity and specificity of biosensors. The result is postulated as a tool that exploits chemometrics to solve biosensors' interference problems, and biosensors to solve electronic tongues' selectivity problems. The review presented herein aims to illustrate the capabilities of bioelectronic tongues as analytical tools, especially suited for screening analysis, with particular emphasis in water analysis and the characterization of food and beverages. After briefly reviewing the key concepts related to the design and principles of electronic tongues, we provide an overview of significant contributions to the field of bioelectronic tongues and their future perspectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing-season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  17. Analysis of plasmid profiling as a method for rapid differentiation of food-associated Clostridium perfringens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M K; Iwanejko, L A; Longden, M S

    1989-09-01

    Plasmid analysis of over 120 strains of Clostridium perfringens, isolated during food-poisoning incidents and from animal carcasses and food constituents with no association with food poisoning, showed the potential of plasmid profiling as a means of differentiating epidemiologically related strains. On average 65% of freshly isolated strains contained one or more plasmids which could be used in the analysis. Comparison of profiles of strains from unrelated sources or unrelated strains from the same source showed a particularly wide variety of plasmid profiles. Thus the possibility that epidemiologically-unrelated strains might possess similar profiles appears to be very low in this organism. Analysis of serologically-related strains from the same source revealed similar plasmid profiles in all the plasmid-bearing strains examined. A high proportion (71%) of fresh and well-characterized food-poisoning strains possessed plasmids of 6.2 kb in size (compared with 19% of non-food-poisoning strains). The possible role of these plasmids is discussed, since the structural gene encoding the enterotoxin type A was not present on any of the plasmids in the food-poisoning strains tested.

  18. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  19. Adaptive Governance and Market Heterogeneity: An Institutional Analysis of an Urban Food System in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Blekking

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available African cities face immense challenges over the coming decades. As countries urbanize, African cities must maintain service provision for rapidly increasing populations, yet with limited resources. In particular, urban food systems must be able to cope with regional food shortages and catalyze (or at least enable the distribution of food from diverse sources in order to ensure that the cost of food remains affordable for all of the segments of a city’s population. Food systems in most African cities are composed of wholesale sellers, formal markets, street vendors, shops, and increasingly large-scale international stores, creating an evolving landscape of food sources. At the same time, urban population growth can result in rapid changes in urban structure with new peri-urban development and transitions in socioeconomic status within existing areas. Governance plays an important role in the creation and coordination of formal and informal actors across different types of food providers. At the municipal level, new markets must be approved to keep pace with urban expansion. Within residential areas, market management committees must work to maintain traditional markets in the context of increasing competition from large-scale grocers and small-scale street vendors. We use household and market-level data that was collected in Lusaka, Zambia, to conduct an institutional analysis of residential areas to examine the interplay between households, public markets, and street vendors. Analysis of the city’s food system identifies a complex network of relationships featuring formal and informal governance arrangements, which may affect food system functionality.

  20. Standardized inspections of food premises during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: descriptive analysis and risk factors for unsatisfactory results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Varzakas, Theodoros; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    Standardized inspections of food premises are part of environmental health systems implemented worldwide. The food safety strategy for the 2004 Olympic Games included standardized inspections to ensure uniformity and consistency of procedures and effective electronic management of data. Inspections were carried out by 196 inspectors in the five Olympic cities: Athens, Thessalonica, Volos, Iraklio, and Patra. From January 2003 to September 2004, a total of 1,249 food premises were inspected. An unsatisfactory inspection result (C grade) was received by 347 (27.8%) food premises, a relatively satisfactory result (B grade) was received by 332 (26.6%), and a satisfactory result (A grade) was received by 570 (45.6%). About 16% of inspected premises did not hold a valid permit. Unsatisfactory inspection results were more frequent for premises located in the two largest Greek cities in comparison with the other smaller cities (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.80). Based on logistic regression analysis, unsatisfactory inspection results were positively associated with food premises that were not located on a ground floor (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.73) and negatively associated with application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.71). Food hygiene education through formal training programs should be encouraged to improve compliance of food premises. Food premises located on hotel floors and serving buffet meals are at higher risk for unsatisfactory conditions. Businesses that implemented a HACCP system within their operations to ensure food safety operated under more hygienic conditions. Future inspections by Public Health Authorities should involve elements of audit after the legislation for the application of HACCP principles.

  1. A Content Analysis of Infant and Toddler Food Advertisements in Taiwanese Popular Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Jung-Su; Gong, Yu-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Mothers who are exposed to formula advertisements (ads) are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than other mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine infant and toddler food ads in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. A content analysis of infant and toddler food ads printed in 12 issues of 4 magazines published in 2011 was performed. Coding categories of ads included product category, advertisement category, marketing information, and advertising appeal. The target age and health-related message of each product were coded. The researchers identified 756 infant and toddler food ads in the magazines. Compared with complementary food ads, formula product ads used more marketing strategies such as antenatal classes and baby contests to influence consumers and promote products. Nutritional quality and child health benefits were the two most frequently used advertising appeals. In addition, this study identified 794 formula products and 400 complementary food products; 42.8% of the complementary food products were intended for 4-month-old infants. Furthermore, 91.9% of the ads for formula products and 81% of the ads for complementary food products contained claims concerning health function or nutrient content. Taiwanese pregnancy and early parenting magazines contain numerous infant and toddler food ads. These ads generally use health-related claims regarding specific nutrient content and health functions to promote infant and toddler foods. Health professionals should provide more information to parents on the differences between breast milk and formula milk, and they should be aware of the potential effect of infant and toddler food ads on parents' infant feeding decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis method with UV-detection for analysis of free amino acids concentrations in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2017-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive capillary electrophoresis with UV-detection method (CE-UV) was optimized and validated for determination of six amino acids namely (alanine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, serine and valine) for Sudanese food. Amino acids in the samples were derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) prior to CE-UV analysis. Labeling reaction conditions (100mM borate buffer at pH 8.5, labeling reaction time 60min, temperature 70°C and NBD-Cl concentration 40mM) were systematically investigated. The optimal conditions for the separation were 100mM borate buffer at pH 9.7 and detected at 475nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision (repeatability) (RSD%) and accuracy (recovery). Good linearity was achieved for all amino acids (r(2)>0.9981) in the concentration range of 2.5-40mg/L. The LODs in the range of 0.32-0.56mg/L were obtained. Recoveries of amino acids ranging from 85% to 108%, (n=3) were obtained. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of amino acids for Sudanese food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Some Food Spices Consumed In Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali asghar fathivand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is a growing interest in determining the concentration of various elements in food spices. In the present study, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA was employed to measure the trace elements in 11 commonly food spices consumed in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods The levels of K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, Al, and As were determined and their effects on human health were discussed. The results were compared with the values reported in the literature. The accuracy and precision of the analytical procedure was estimated by analyzing the Lichen (IAEA-336 reference material. Results The concentrations of the measured elements in the spices were 3850-29157, 10-335, 153-2849, 186-3063, 0.2-2.8, 2.1-58.7, and 72-2102 ppm for K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, and Al, respectively. As was only detected in thyme (0.8 ppm and plantain (0.42 ppm. Conclusion As the findings of the present study indicated, the concentrations of K and Na in the black pepper, garlic, and ginger were significantly higher than the values reported in other countries. The Mn levels in the black pepper and garlic consumed in Tehran were comparable with those in Poland. Furthermore, the concentration of As in these spices were lower than the maximum permissible limit.

  4. Food and Gastronomy for Sustainable Place Development: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Different Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Rinaldi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food and gastronomy (F&G are increasingly recognized as potentially determinant elements for the sustainable development of places. A commonly held theory in many research fields is that F&G can contribute to the economic, social and environmental sustainability of places while potentially representing elements that increase those places’ attractiveness and competitiveness. This literature review investigates three main research streams: agriculture and rural studies, place branding and place marketing and food tourism. The aim is to reduce the research fragmentation by offering a more holistic perspective on how F&G are understood in different research areas to identify common and transversal elements that might represent the core of F&G’s potential for place development. These areas have been analysed to identify common, recurrent and significative local F&G resources. Significance in this context indicates that the identified local F&G resources have emerged as meaningful at the local and global levels; that is, they are embedded in the place (spatially and culturally and are able to identify and differentiate the place in global competition. The analysis reveals that all local F&G resources that support place distinctiveness and attractiveness should also address and strengthen the link between the place (territorial/geographical dimensions and the people (cultural dimensions.

  5. Dynamic analysis of bulk-fill composites: Effect of food-simulating liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweis, Ahmed Hesham; Yap, Adrian U-Jin; Yahya, Noor Azlin

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of food simulating liquids on visco-elastic properties of bulk-fill restoratives using dynamic mechanical analysis. One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. The specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37°C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. Specimens were assessed using dynamic mechanical testing in flexural three-point bending mode and their respective mediums at 37°C and a frequency range of 0.1-10Hz. The distance between the supports were fixed at 10mm and an axial load of 5N was employed. Data for elastic modulus, viscous modulus and loss tangent were subjected to ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p food-simulating liquids on the visco-elastic properties of bulk-fill composites was material and medium dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and adolescents in New Zealand: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Elizabeth; Kelly, Bridget; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10-17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10-17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10-17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012-January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. 'Snack items' such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while 'vegetables and fruits' were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In

  7. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-07

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  8. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  9. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB) [de

  10. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  11. Accounting for product substitution in the analysis of food taxes targeting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C; Jensen, Helen H

    2013-11-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. We calibrate this demand system approach using recent food intake data and existing estimates of price and income elasticities of demand. The demand system accounts for both the within-food group substitution and the substitution across these groups. Simulations of taxes on added sugars and solid fat show that the tax impact on consumption patterns is understated and the induced welfare loss is overstated when not allowing for the substitution possibilities within food groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. An empirical analysis of consumer awareness and trust in organic food legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Brčić-Stipčević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of the research conducted in March 2009 on a representative sample of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia using a highly structured survey questionnaire in households have shown that the majority of the respondents (76.6% are familiar with organic food. In the survey, special emphasis is put on the purchase of organic food, especially among regular buyers. Methods: Regular buyers were asked about their familiarity with the information on the organic food declaration and their trust in the reliability of the information on the organic food declaration. Furthermore, research explored respondents' familiarity with the label organic product of Croatia according to frequency of organic food purchase. Also, research explored consumer trust in organic food monitoring and control system in Croatia.  Results and conclusions:  The research gives insight into familiarity with measures for organic food consumer protection in Croatia and recommendations for organic food legislation bodies.  

  13. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban areas. The production systems use less labor, pesticide, water, and nutrition. However, food production of plant factories has many challenges including higher energy demand, energy costs, and installation costs of artificially controlled technologies. In the research, stochastic optimization model and linear complementarity models are formulated to conduct optimal and equilibrium food–energy analysis of plant factory production. A case study of plant factories in the Taiwanese market is presented.

  14. Simultaneous determination of some common food dyes in commercial products by digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Sorouraddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and relatively fast image-analysis method using digital images, obtained with a flatbed scanner, has been described. The method was used for the simultaneous determination of four common food dyes, namely, carmoisine, brilliant blue, sunset yellow, and quinoline yellow, in binary mixtures in commercial products without a need for any prior separation steps. The results obtained were validated against a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method and a good agreement was obtained. The parameters affecting the experimental results were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method provided acceptable linear ranges (20–250 mg/L with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998, suitable precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 4.5%, and limits of detection between 4.82 and 8.05 mg/L.

  15. Analysis of the key competitive advantage resources - the case of BRF Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacir Favretto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between organizational capabilities and the competitive performance of BRF Foods, using the Resource Based View method. It is a case study, developed in agribusiness with the controller of the BRF unit located in Concordia, Santa Catarina. A document analysis of sustainability and management reports was also conducted for the year 2014. It was found that technology, central planning of raw materials and centrally planned sales are considered valuable resources. Improvement of the usage conditions of natural resources (finite, through the reduction of water and energy consumption and programs for the sustainability of agriculture, pig farming and poultry farming are considered rare resources. Design, R & D, given technology, market vision and the existence of exclusive contract are difficult resources to imitate. Among the organizational resources, brand, structured distribution capacity, development of new products and market niches are particularly important.

  16. Real Time Analysis of Bioanalytes in Healthcare, Food, Zoology and Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ramnarayanan, Ashwin; Cheng, Huanyu

    2017-12-21

    The growing demand for real time analysis of bioanalytes has spurred development in the field of wearable technology to offer non-invasive data collection at a low cost. The manufacturing processes for creating these sensing systems vary significantly by the material used, the type of sensors needed and the subject of study as well. The methods predominantly involve stretchable electronic sensors to monitor targets and transmit data mainly through flexible wires or short-range wireless communication devices. Capable of conformal contact, the application of wearable technology goes beyond the healthcare to fields of food, zoology and botany. With a brief review of wearable technology and its applications to various fields, we believe this mini review would be of interest to the reader in broad fields of materials, sensor development and areas where wearable sensors can provide data that are not available elsewhere.

  17. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  18. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The ?corporat...

  19. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  20. Does Ethnicity Matter For Food Choices? An Empirical Analysis of Asian Immigrant Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tongyang; Berning, Joshua; Colson, Greg; Smith, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    As immigrants settle and extend their stay in the U.S., they may be exposed to a food culture and lifestyle that impacts their food choice decisions and health outcomes. This paper focuses on the behavioral changes and acculturation level of different generations of Asian immigrants on food choice decisions employing the 2013 American Time Use Survey. Heckman two-step regression results indicate that the 1st generation immigrants participate or spend more time on eating and drinking, food pre...

  1. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-07-01

    Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Analysis of Wine Consumption Trends and Food-Related Expenditures in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Makiko; Sakurai, Yuka; Ebihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to understand the mechanism of an upward trend in wine consumption in Japan by analysing its trend and possible correlations with food-related consumptions. Through the panel and time-series analyses of wine consumption and food-item expenditures, and of wine consumption and food-service industry sales, we investigate whether wine consumption is correlated with food westernization in Japan and whether wine is gaining its steady place in daily life of Japanese. Although not...

  3. Food advertising on British children's television: a content analysis and experimental study with nine-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M K; Hill, A J

    1998-03-01

    The nature and significance of food advertising during children's television was examined in two studies: a content analysis of advertising (Study 1) and an investigation of the impact of food adverts on the self-perception of overweight children (Study 2). Study 1 monitored 91 h of children's broadcasting on four terrestrial and satellite stations in the UK. In Study 2, 103 children aged 9.75 y viewed two videotaped cartoons containing either food or non-food product advertisements. Study 1 used a detailed record of advertisement style and content. Study 2 included a self-report measure of current state, and measures of self-esteem, dietary restraint, body weight and height. Half of the 828 adverts were for food products, 60% of which were for breakfast cereals and confectionery/ snacks. Food advertisements used significantly more animation, stories, humour and the promotion of fun/happiness/mood alteration. In Study 2, significant interactions between advertisement type and overweight were observed on ratings of perceived health and appetite for sweets. While small changes are apparent, advertisements during children's television are still dominated by those for foods of questionable nutritional value, in a manner designed to engage attention and emotional response. That overweight children appeared more influenced by their personal enhancement message, suggests the value of further work identifying who is most influenced and by what features of advertising.

  4. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-08-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  5. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-08-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  6. Biogas production supported by excess heat – A systems analysis within the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Lindkvist, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A systems analysis when moving from external to internal production and use of biogas at an industry. • The aim is to study the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and economics from this switch. • The study compares the choice of using biogas or industrial excess heat to heat the digester. • Internal biogas production supported by excess heat has environmental and economic benefits. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets

  7. Nutrient and Food Group Analysis in the 2016 ASA24® System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, clinicians, and educators can use the ASA24 system to analyze 65 nutrients and 37 food groups (U.S. and Canadian versions) from food recall or record data. Analyses for ASA24-Australia-2016 provide 41 nutrients and no food groups.

  8. Legal Limits on Food Labelling Law: Comparative Analysis of the EU and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore to what extent freedom of expression should protect food businesses against government intervention with corporate communications on food labels. A functional comparative method was used to analyse the objective. It was found that expression on food labels

  9. Study on effect of supplementing iron-fortified food to children athletes by nuclear analysis and blood analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qinfang; Sun Jianguo; Feng Weiyue

    1996-01-01

    The iron content in hair and blood for 37 children athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/d, respectively, in the form of ferrous gluconate-containing chocolate for 3 months was determined before and after the supplement by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results indicated that after the supplement of the iron-fortified food, the ferritin level in blood of the male athletes attained to normal and the iron content in hair was increased with the increasing level of supplement, but not in direct proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplement of 8 mg Fe/d to a child athlete may be adequate

  10. Analysis for toxic elements in food and drinking water in Thailand by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelhaphunt, N.; Chueinta, S.; Punnachaiya, M.; Chueinta, W.; Nouchpramool, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research aimed at the determination of several trace elements in foodstuffs and water in Thailand. The project included the development of adequate analytical procedures for the determination of As, Cd, Cu and Zn by ion exchange chromatography; Hg and Se by a direct combustion technique; Br, Co, Fe and Mn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); Pb by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry; and As, Co, Mn, Sb, U, V, Zn, and Cr in water samples by pre-concentration on activated carbon followed by INAA. The samples analyzed comprised various kinds of vegetables, meat, poultry, beans and peas, various species of rice, fish, shellfish and other marine products. Natural and tap water samples were collected at several locations in twenty-nice provinces in Southern, Northern, North-Eastern and Central parts of Thailand. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 49 tabs

  11. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of high school students' perception and attitude toward irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We chose high school students, who are expected to show significant response to education, to try to understand perception and behavior toward irradiated food, and derive evidential materials for education. High school students who had ever acquired information or received education on irradiated food, and students who had ever purchased or eaten irradiated food, tended to have aproper attitude regarding its necessity, safety, and purchase without prejudice. It is necessary to provide information and education to high school students. Additionally, exposure to the irradiated food could be helpful in changing perception and attitude toward irradiated food.

  13. Analysis of high school students' perception and attitude toward irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Han, Eun Ok

    2014-01-01

    We chose high school students, who are expected to show significant response to education, to try to understand perception and behavior toward irradiated food, and derive evidential materials for education. High school students who had ever acquired information or received education on irradiated food, and students who had ever purchased or eaten irradiated food, tended to have aproper attitude regarding its necessity, safety, and purchase without prejudice. It is necessary to provide information and education to high school students. Additionally, exposure to the irradiated food could be helpful in changing perception and attitude toward irradiated food

  14. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten trials, including 3,982 laboring women, were included. All the studies involved laboring singletons considered at low risk because they had no obstetric or medical complications that would increase the likelihood of cesarean delivery. In three studies, women were allowed to select from a low-residue diet throughout the course of labor. One study had honey date syrup as the allowed food intake. Five studies had carbohydrate drinks as food intake in labor. The last one was the only trial that allowed unrestrictive food intake. In the included studies, all women in the intervention group were allowed the assigned food intake until delivery, whereas women in a control group were allowed only ice chips, water, or sips of water until delivery. A policy of less-restrictive food intake was associated with a significantly shorter duration of labor (mean difference -16 minutes, 95% CI -25 to -7). No other benefits or harms in obstetric or neonatal outcome were noticed. Regurgitation during general anesthesia and Mendelson syndrome did not occur in either group. Women with low-risk singleton pregnancies who were allowed to eat more freely during labor had a shorter duration of labor. A policy of less-restrictive food intake during labor did not influence other obstetric or neonatal outcomes nor did it increase the incidence of vomiting. Operative delivery rates were similar.

  15. Soy food intake and risk of gastric cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ke-Gui; Yuan, Ya-Ling

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies were inconsistent on the association between soy food intake and risk of gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to determine the role of soy food intake in the development of GC.A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant studies. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model, and the dose-response relationship between soy food intake and GC risk was also assessed.Thirteen prospective studies were identified with a total of 517,106 participants and 5800 cases. Among 11 types of soy food, high intake of total soy food (the highest vs the lowest category: RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98) and nonfermented soy food (RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50-0.79) were inversely associated with GC risk, while high intake of miso soup was associated with the risk in male (RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02-1.36). In dose-response meta-analysis, total soy food intake (0-150 g/day) showed no significant association with GC risk, while high intake of nonfermented soy food was inversely related, especially an intake of more than 100 g/day. In male, miso soup intake (1-5 cups/day) was significantly associated with GC risk.High intake of nonfermented soy food might reduce the risk of GC, while miso soup intake might increase the risk in male.

  16. A cross-country analysis of climate shocks and smallholder food insecurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith T Niles

    Full Text Available Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks. We find that 71% of households reported experiencing a climate shock in the previous five years. Fifty-four percent reported experiencing food insecurity during one or more months annually. A multilevel statistical model estimated factors correlated with food insecurity as well as factors correlated with food insecurity among households that had experienced a climate shock. Households that reported experiencing a climate shock were 1.73 times more likely to be food insecure. As well, larger and poorer households were associated with higher odds of food insecurity while using pesticides, keeping large livestock, and being more educated are associated with lower odds of food insecurity. Among households that had experienced a climate shock, additional factors are correlated with lower odds of food insecurity when compared to otherwise similar households: use of fertilizers, pesticides, veterinary medicines, large livestock, and household assets. Together, these results demonstrate the extent of existing climate shocks affecting smallholder farmers and how interventions may potentially support adaptation and reduce food insecurity.

  17. A cross-country analysis of climate shocks and smallholder food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Meredith T; Salerno, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks. We find that 71% of households reported experiencing a climate shock in the previous five years. Fifty-four percent reported experiencing food insecurity during one or more months annually. A multilevel statistical model estimated factors correlated with food insecurity as well as factors correlated with food insecurity among households that had experienced a climate shock. Households that reported experiencing a climate shock were 1.73 times more likely to be food insecure. As well, larger and poorer households were associated with higher odds of food insecurity while using pesticides, keeping large livestock, and being more educated are associated with lower odds of food insecurity. Among households that had experienced a climate shock, additional factors are correlated with lower odds of food insecurity when compared to otherwise similar households: use of fertilizers, pesticides, veterinary medicines, large livestock, and household assets. Together, these results demonstrate the extent of existing climate shocks affecting smallholder farmers and how interventions may potentially support adaptation and reduce food insecurity.

  18. The diagnosis of food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S; Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Roberts, G; Halken, S; Poulsen, L; van Ree, R; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Sheikh, A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven databases were searched and international experts were contacted. Two reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and used QUADAS-2 to assess risk of bias. Where possible, meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty-four (2831 participants) studies were included. For cows' milk allergy, the pooled sensitivities were 53% (95% CI 33-72), 88% (95 % CI 76-94), and 87% (95% CI 75-94), and specificities were 88% (95% CI 76-95), 68% (95% CI 56-77), and 48% (95% CI 36-59) for APT, SPT, and sIgE, respectively. For egg, pooled sensitivities were 92% (95% CI 80-97) and 93% (95% CI 82-98), and specificities were 58% (95% CI 49-67) and 49% (40-58%) for skin prick tests and specific-IgE. For wheat, pooled sensitivities were 73% (95% CI 56-85) and 83% (95% CI 69-92), and specificities were 73% (95% CI 48-89) and 43% (95% CI 20-69%) for SPT and sIgE. For soy, pooled sensitivities were 55% (95% CI 33-75) and 83% (95% CI 64-93), and specificities were 68% (95% CI 52-80) and 38% (95% CI 24-54) for SPT and sIgE. For peanut, pooled sensitivities were 95% (95% CI 88-98) and 96% (95% CI 92-98), and specificities were 61% (95% CI 47-74), and 59% (95% CI 45-72) for SPT and sIgE. The evidence base is limited and weak and is therefore difficult to interpret. Overall, SPT and sIgE appear sensitive although not specific for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Harmonization of Food-Frequency Questionnaires and Dietary Pattern Analysis in 4 Ethnically Diverse Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-11-01

    Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r 2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r 2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be

  20. Monthly food insecurity assessment in rural mkushi district, Zambia: a longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzi Na

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perception-based scales are widely used for household food insecurity (HFI assessment but were only recently added in national surveys. The frequency of assessments needed to characterize dynamics in HFI over time is largely unknown. The study aims to examine longitudinal changes in monthly reported HFI at both population- and household-level. Methods A total of 157 households in rural Mkushi District whose children were enrolled in the non-intervened arm of an efficacy trial of biofortified maize were included in the analysis. HFI was assessed by a validated 8-item perception-based Likert scale on a monthly basis from October 2012 to March 2013 (6 visits, characterizing mostly the lean season. An HFI index was created by summing scores over the Likert scale, with a possible range of 0–32. The Wilcoxon matched signed-ranks test was used to compare distribution of HFI index between visits. A random effect model was fit to quantify the sources of variance in indices at household level. Results The median [IQR] HFI index was 4.5 [2, 8], 5 [1, 8], 4 [1, 7], 4 [1, 6], 3 [1, 7] and 4 [1, 6] at the six monthly visits, respectively. HFI index was significantly higher in visit 1 and 2 than visit 3–6 and on average the index decreased by 0.25 points per visit. Within- and between-household variance in the index were 10.6 and 8.8, respectively. Conclusions The small change in mean monthly HFI index over a single lean season indicated that a seasonal HFI measure may be sufficient for monitoring purposes at population level. Yet, higher variation within households suggests that repeated assessments may be required to avoid risk of misclassification at household level and to target households with the greatest risk of food insecurity.