WorldWideScience

Sample records for food additive specifications

  1. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  2. Solubility Testing of Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids in International Food Additive Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yukino; Kawano, Satoko; Motoda, Kenichiro; Tomida, Masaaki; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the solubility of 10 samples of sucrose esters of fatty acids (SEFA) products that are commercially available worldwide as food additives (emulsifiers). Although one sample dissolved transparently in both water and ethanol, other samples produced white turbidity and/or precipitates and did not meet the solubility criterion established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). When the sample solutions were heated, the solubility in both water and ethanol increased. All of the samples dissolved transparently in ethanol, and dispersed and became white without producing precipitates in water. The present study suggests that the current solubility criterion of the JECFA SEFA specifications needs to be revised.

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aspartame; cassia gum; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (CITREM); modified starches; octanoic acid; starch sodium octenyl succinate; and total colouring matters. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives, including flavouring agents, considered at this meeting.

  7. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  10. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  11. The dilemma of allergy to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahna, Sami L; Burkhardt, Joshua G

    2018-01-01

    To provide a brief summary on food additives and to outline a practical approach for evaluating subjects suspected of having reactions to food additives. Information was derived from selected reviews and original articles published in peer-reviewed journals, supplemented by the clinical experience of the authors. Priority was given to studies that used blinded, placebo controlled, oral challenges to confirm adverse reactions to food additives. In addition, selected, appropriately evaluated case reports were included. A large number of food additives are widely used in the food industry. Allergic reactions to additives seem to be rare but are very likely underdiagnosed, primarily due to a low index of suspicion. A wide variety of symptoms to food additives have been reported, but a cause-and-effect relationship has not been well documented in the majority of cases. Reactions to food additives should be suspected in patients who report symptoms related to multiple foods or to a certain food when commercially prepared but not when home made. It is also prudent to investigate food additives in subjects considered to have "idiopathic" reactions. Except for a limited number of natural additives, there is a small role for skin tests or in vitro testing. Oral challenge, in stages, with commonly used additives is the definitive procedure for detecting the offending agent. Once the specific additive is identified, management is strict avoidance, which can be difficult.

  12. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  14. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  15. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Xuening; ZHAN, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods, preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life, increasing varieties of foods, enhancing convenience of foods, facilitating food processing, and satisfying other demands. However, excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security. Therefore, it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food addi...

  16. The Philosophical Consideration about Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyu Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of food additives technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of food additives technology. As for the attitude towards the application of food additives, it is influenced by the public's gender, age, educational level, occupation and monthly expenditure for buying non-staple food and other variables, thus, the attitude towards food additives and green food, as well as the attitude towards using artificial...

  17. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  18. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food additives and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the issue of the irradiation of food containing food additives or pesticide residues. The conclusion is that there is no health hazard posed by radiolytic products of pesticides or food additives. 1 ref

  19. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0031] Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  20. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  1. Additives in food and their properties

    OpenAIRE

    TYLOVÁ, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to deepen the knowledge about additives in foods, the importance of technological additives in foods, their properties and effects on human health. The aim of this work is a study of technical and scientific literature on the topic: "additives in foods and their properties" and review of the literature. Also in the practical part, implementation and evaluation of a questionnaire survey of the experimental group related to the topic: "Validation and comparison of knowle...

  2. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to maintaining the quality of the food, they help control contamination that can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening ... still be considered safe. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing ... limit the amount of food ingredients used in foods to the amount necessary ...

  3. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Lloyd

    2012-06-01

    This reflects manufactured foods in NZ and it is likely that these results could be generalized to countries with similar food patterns and supplies. Quantitative data in manufactured foods is unlikely to be available to guide patient choice so qualitative information of where to find P additives can be helpful.

  4. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 fatty acids found in certain types of fish, flaxseed and other foods. With David C. Agerter, M.D Food colours and hyperactivity. NHS Choices. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/food-additive-intolerance/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed Sept. 18, 2017. ...

  5. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) has... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0103] Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption...

  6. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  7. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida Khodjaeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been presented.

  8. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  9. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  10. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriët F. A. Zoon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury, determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-weight females smelled four odours differing in the energy density and taste they signalled, one non-food odour, and one odourless solution (control, in random order, for three minutes each. Appetite for 15 food products was rated in the following two minutes. Mixed model analyses revealed that exposure to an odour signalling a specific taste (respectively sweet, savoury led to a greater appetite for congruent food products (sweet/savoury compared to incongruent food products (savoury p < 0.001; sweet p < 0.001 or neutral food products (p = 0.02; p = 0.003. A similar pattern was present for the energy-density category (respectively high-energy dense, low-energy dense signalled by the odours (low-energy products p < 0.001; high-energy products p = 0.008. Hunger state did not have a significant impact on sensory-specific appetite. These results suggest that exposure to food odours increases appetite for congruent products, in terms of both taste and energy density, irrespective of hunger state. We speculate that food odours steer towards intake of products with a congruent macronutrient composition.

  11. Food and food additives in severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, H P; Docx, M; Stevens, W J

    1989-11-01

    In this study the role of food additives, tyramine and acetylsalicylic acid, was investigated by double-blind placebo-controlled challenges (DBPCC) in 25 children with severe atopic dermatitis (AD). All children challenged with foods (n = 24), except one, showed one or more positive reactions to the DBPCC with foods. Positive reactions presented as different combinations of flares of skin symptoms, intestinal symptoms and respiratory symptoms. Seventeen children (70.8%) showed a positive challenge to egg, 12 to wheat (50%), eight to milk (33.3%) and eight to soya (33.3%). Six children underwent DBPCC with food additives, tyramine and acetylsalicylic acid. All were found to demonstrate positive skin and/or intestinal reactions to at least one of the food additives. Two children reacted to tartrazine, three to sodium benzoate, two to sodium glutamate, two to sodium metabisulfite, four to acetylsalicylic acid and one to tyramine. It is concluded that some foods, food additives, tyramine and acetylsalicylic acid, can cause positive DBPCC in children with severe AD.

  12. Interactions between Food Additive Silica Nanoparticles and Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ran Go

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials. There have been a number of studies carried out to investigate possible adverse effects of NPs on the gastrointestinal tract. The interactions between NPs and surrounding food matrices should be also taken into account since the interactions can affect their bioavailability, efficacy, and toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between food additive silica NPs and food matrices, such as saccharides, proteins, lipids, and minerals. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine food component-NP corona using HPLC, fluorescence quenching, GC-MS, and ICP-AES. The results demonstrate that zeta potential and hydrodynamic radius of silica NPs changed in the presence of all food matrices, but their solubility was not affected. However, quantitative analysis on the interactions revealed that a small portion of food matrices interacted with silica NPs and the interactions were highly dependent on the type of food component. Moreover, minor nutrients could also affect the interactions, as evidenced by higher NP interaction with honey rather than with a simple sugar mixture containing an equivalent amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. These findings provide fundamental information to extend our understanding about the interactions between silica NPs and food components and to predict the interaction effect on the safety aspects of food

  13. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. The teratology testing of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  15. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Lyn; Gillanders, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorous (P) intake is associated with an increased serum phosphate level which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality for people with chronic kidney disease. Dietary restriction of P is an important nutrition intervention as about 50% of daily intake of P is from P–containing food additives. Educating patients on P additives can effectively reduce serum P values over standard care. Avoidance can be achieved by reading the ingredient list to check for o...

  16. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5...

  17. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  18. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  19. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  20. 75 FR 17145 - Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...] Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... contact materials. Uses of BPA were approved by FDA under its food additive regulations in the early 1960s..., Division of 2009 Food Contact Notifications, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and...

  1. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or (c)(5...

  2. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    .... FDA-2011-F-0765] Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug... filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing that the food additive regulations... Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78866), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) had...

  3. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in food, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (d) Testing and certification of batches of a color... for humans or animals on FDA's initiative or in response to a petition, under parts 182, 184, 186, or... for humans or animals to use as animal feeds. (i) Approval of a food additive petition or GRAS...

  4. Food Technology. Specification for Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Ghana Standard specifies the requirements and methods of sampling and testing for foods processed by irradiation for sprout inhibition, insect disinfestation, microbial decontamination, delaying ripening, shelf-life extension and general phytosanitary treatment. The absorbed dose range covered by this guide is between 0.2kGy and 10kGy. The practical minimum or maximum dose of a treatment may be lower or higher than this range, depending on the purpose of irradiation and the radiation tolerance of the particular type of food. This standard does not apply to foods exposed to radiation imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes

  5. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  6. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... mammalian cells. (See discussion at 71 FR 47729 at 47730). As such, traditional animal testing of the... 51758 at 51759, August 25, 2000). Suitability relates to the effectiveness of the ingredient in... additive be shown to be safe prior to marketing. Under Sec. 170.3(i), a food additive is ``safe'' if...

  7. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18 Section 570.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances...

  8. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    .... FDA-2011-F-0765] Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded... Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP...

  9. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    .... FDA-2011-F-0853] Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for...-1390. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in 21 CFR part 173, Secondary Direct...

  10. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    .... FDA-2012-F-0138] Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug... that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories, 3300 Stelzer Rd...

  11. Artificial sweeteners and mixture of food additives cause to break oral tolerance and induce food allergy in murine oral tolerance model for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Matsuhara, H; Miotani, S; Sako, Y; Matsui, T; Tanaka, H; Inagaki, N

    2017-09-01

    Processed foods are part of daily life. Almost all processed foods contain food additives such as sweeteners, preservatives and colourants. From childhood, it is difficult to avoid consuming food additives. It is thought that oral tolerance for food antigens is acquired during early life. If tolerance fails, adverse immune responses to food proteins may occur. We hypothesized that food additives prevent acquisition of oral tolerance and aimed to verify the safety of food additives. We induced experimental oral tolerance in mice for ovalbumin (OVA), a food antigen, by previous oral treatment with OVA before sensitization with OVA injections. Food additives were administered at the induction of oral tolerance, and food allergy was induced by repeated administration of OVA. Symptoms of food allergy were defined as a change in body temperature and allergic diarrhoea. Saccharin sodium and a mixture of food additives inhibited acquisition of oral tolerance. Hypothermia and allergic diarrhoea with elevation of OVA-specific IgE were induced in the murine model of oral tolerance. Analyses of antigen-presenting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes showed that food additives affected their manner of migration. Additionally, food additives decreased the proportion of CD25 hi regulatory T cells among CD4 + T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. A large amount of food additives may prevent acquisition of oral tolerance. Intake of food additives in early life may increase the risk of food allergies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  13. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    .... FDA-2013-N-0888] Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition... the WhiteWave Foods Company proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe uses of vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 as nutrient supplements in food. DATES: The food additive...

  14. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 73, 172, 173, 176, 177, 178, 184, and 189 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0010] Food and Color Additives; Technical... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain regulations regarding food and color additives...

  15. Surface-specific additive manufacturing test artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrew; Racasan, Radu; Blunt, Liam

    2018-06-01

    Many test artefact designs have been proposed for use with additive manufacturing (AM) systems. These test artefacts have primarily been designed for the evaluation of AM form and dimensional performance. A series of surface-specific measurement test artefacts designed for use in the verification of AM manufacturing processes are proposed here. Surface-specific test artefacts can be made more compact because they do not require the large dimensions needed for accurate dimensional and form measurements. The series of three test artefacts are designed to provide comprehensive information pertaining to the manufactured surface. Measurement possibilities include deviation analysis, surface texture parameter data generation, sub-surface analysis, layer step analysis and build resolution comparison. The test artefacts are designed to provide easy access for measurement using conventional surface measurement techniques, for example, focus variation microscopy, stylus profilometry, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the test artefacts may be simply visually inspected as a comparative tool, giving a fast indication of process variation between builds. The three test artefacts are small enough to be included in every build and include built-in manufacturing traceability information, making them a convenient physical record of the build.

  16. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoon, H.F.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine

  17. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  18. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  19. Migration of fluorochemical paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, T H; Hsu, W; Noonan, G; Diachenko, G

    2008-03-01

    Fluorochemical-treated paper was tested to determine the amount of migration that occurs into foods and food-simulating liquids and the characteristics of the migration. Migration characteristics of fluorochemicals from paper were examined in Miglyol, butter, water, vinegar, water-ethanol solutions, emulsions and pure oil containing small amounts of emulsifiers. Additionally, microwave popcorn and chocolate spread were used to investigate migration. Results indicate that fluorochemicals paper additives do migrate to food during actual package use. For example, we found that microwave popcorn contained 3.2 fluorochemical mg kg(-1) popcorn after popping and butter contained 0.1 mg kg(-1) after 40 days at 4 degrees C. Tests also indicate that common food-simulating liquids for migration testing and package material evaluation might not provide an accurate indication of the amount of fluorochemical that actually migrates to food. Tests show that oil containing small amounts of an emulsifier can significantly enhance migration of a fluorochemical from paper.

  20. Identification of irradiated food additives by photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Joong Ho; KIm, Dong Ho; Hur, Jung Mu; Yang, Suh Yung; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2008-01-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) analyses were conducted to detect whether 258 kinds of extracted and powdered forms food additives were irradiated or not. In a view of the PSL results, 9 kinds of the extracted and powdered samples (3.2%) showed over 5,000 photon counts (60 sec) -1 and these samples were judged to be irradiation-positive. Thirty nine kinds of the samples (15.6%) yielded 700-5,000 photon counts (60 sec) -1 and these samples were grouped into irradiation-potential, while the samples showed below 700 photon counts (60 sec) -1 sec were judged to be irradiation-negative. TL glow curves for minerals separated from 5 samples were detected at 150 degrees C with high intensity. However, TL analysis did not apply to other irradiation-positive and irradiation-potential samples because the minerals for TL detection were not separated from the samples. ESR measurements for irradiation-positive and irradiation-potential samples, judged by PSL detection, showed no specific signals to irradiation. The results indicated that PSL could be applied to identify irradiation treatment of extracted and powdered food additives, while TL was optional and ESR was not suitable for detection extracted and powdered food additives

  1. Autoinducer-2-like activity associated with foods and its interaction with food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingeng; Hume, Michael E; Pillai, Suresh D

    2004-07-01

    The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecule produced by bacteria as part of quorum sensing is considered to be a universal inducer signal in bacteria because it reportedly influences gene expression in a variety of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected fresh produce and processed foods have AI-2-like activity and whether specific food additives can act as AI-2 mimics and result in AI-2-like activity. The luminescence-based response of the reporter strain Vibrio harveyi BB170 was used as the basis for determining AI-2 activity in the selected foods and food ingredients. Maximum AI-2 activity was seen on the frozen fish sample (203-fold, compared with the negative control) followed by tomato, cantaloupe, carrots, tofu, and milk samples. Interestingly, some samples were capable of inhibiting AI-2 activity. Turkey patties showed the highest inhibition (99.8% compared with the positive control) followed by chicken breast (97.5%), homemade cheeses (93.7%), beef steak (90.6%), and beef patties (84.4%). AI-2 activity was almost totally inhibited by sodium propionate, whereas sodium benzoate caused 93.3% inhibition, compared with 75% inhibition by sodium acetate. Sodium nitrate did not have any appreciable effect, even at 200 ppm. Understanding the relationships that exist between AI-2 activity on foods and the ecology of pathogens and food spoilage bacteria on foods could yield clues about factors controlling food spoilage and pathogen virulence.

  2. Food additives used in meat processing according to the Polish and European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uradziński, J; Weiner, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In addition, a definition of processing aids in the food industry is included. It shows that Polish legislation includes food additives used to ensure or improve food nutritional value, whereas in the EU legislation, these substances are not included in the list of food additives. Moreover, the Council Directives include food additive specific purity criteria, whereas the Polish regulations do not mention the legal regulations of this issue in practice. The European Union use mechanisms and procedures for the introduction of new food additives into internal markets as well as controlling the circulation of additives. The Polish legislation in practice, however, does not determine approval or methods for the introduction of new food additives to the market. Legal regulations on the monitoring of food additives no exist.

  3. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  4. Analysis of consumer preferences focused on food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to evaluate the role of additives in food production and to identify how these additives are known and used by consumers in their households. The questionnaire technique was used, the research involved 220 respondents. It was found that the respondents are perceptive to adding of additives into food. Cluster analysis confirmed that the majority of respondents is about the incidence of food additives only partially informed, although 87% of respondents knew what the (E letter of additive means. The correct answers for each question depended on the age and education of respondents and were not dependent on gender of respondents. We recommend to enhance public knowledge about nutrition, diet and food composition, functions, benefits and safety of food additives.

  5. Bacteria-eating virus approved as food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Not all viruses harm people. The Food and Drug Administration has approved a mixture of viruses as a food additive to protect people. The additive can be used in processing plants for spraying onto ready-to-eat meat and poultry products to protect consumers from the potentially life-threatening bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes).

  6. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  7. Children with Crohn's Disease Frequently Consume Select Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dale; Swan, C Kaiulani; Suskind, David; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Vanamala, Jairam; Baldassano, Robert N; Leonard, Mary B; Lampe, Johanna W

    2018-06-04

    Certain food additives may promote the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), but thus far the evaluation of food additive exposures in humans has been limited. The objective of this study was to quantify food additive exposures in children with CD. In a trial for bone health in CD, children were followed over 24 months with evaluation of disease characteristics, dietary intake, and body composition. At baseline, participants completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Foods were categorized, and the ingredient list for each item was evaluated for the presence of select food additives: polysorbate-80, carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum, soy lecithin, titanium dioxide, carrageenan, maltodextrin, and aluminosilicates. The frequency of exposures to these food additives was described for study participants and for food categories. At study baseline, 138 participants, mean age 14.2 ± 2.8 years, 95% having inactive or mild disease, were enrolled and dietary recalls were collected. A total of 1325 unique foods were recorded. Mean exposures per day for xanthan gum was 0.96 ± 0.72, carrageenan 0.58 ± 0.63, maltodextrin 0.95 ± 0.77, and soy lecithin 0.90 ± 0.74. The other additives had less than 0.1 exposures per day. For the 8 examined food additives, participants were exposed to a mean (SD) of 3.6 ± 2.1 total additives per recall day and a mean (SD) of 2.4 ± 1.0 different additives per day. Children with CD frequently consume food additives, and the impact on disease course needs further study.

  8. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    additives to be assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, many years ago, (ii) because of concern regarding possible health effects of artificial colours arising since the original evaluations.Concerns includedbehavioural effects in children, allergic reactions, genotoxicity and possible carcinogenicity......Aryl azo compounds are widely used as colorants (azo dyes) in a wide range of products including textiles, leather, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food.As part of its systematic re-evaluation of food additives, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has carried out new risk assessments...

  9. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  10. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  11. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  12. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  13. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  14. Processed foods and the consumer: additives, labeling, standards, and nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Packard, Vernal S

    1976-01-01

    ... supplements; and it brings together under one cover the health-related issues of food additives and nutrition. If I were to point to one objective of this work, it would be to guide student and consumer alike through the maze of food ingredients, regulations, and standards in order to make as clear as present knowledge allows the critical issues co...

  15. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    , rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  16. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canham, L T

    2007-01-01

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study

  18. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, L T [pSiNutria Ltd, Malvern Hills Science Park, Geraldine Road, Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-09

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study.

  19. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  20. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  1. Interfacial behavior of common food contact polymer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiserman, W M; Can, S Z; Walker, R A; Begley, T H; Limm, W

    2007-07-15

    Irganox 1076 (IN1076) and Irganox 1010 (IN1010), phenol containing species often used as antioxidant additives in food packaging polymers have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. Consequently these additives are likely to absorb to surfaces where their free energy is minimized. Experiments described in this work examine the two-dimensional phase behavior and vibrational structure of IN1076 and IN1010 films adsorbed to the air/water interface. Surface pressure isotherms show that repeated compression of these films leads to continued irreversible loss of molecules and that on a per molecule basis, this loss is more pronounced for IN1076 than for IN1010. Differences in the surface properties of these two antioxidant additives are interpreted based on differences in molecular structure. Surface specific vibrational measurements of these organic films show very little conformational order, implying that even when closely packed, both antioxidant species have little affinity for forming highly organized domains. These findings have important ramifications for mechanisms that reduce antioxidant activity in polymers as well as descriptions of antioxidant blooming on polymer surfaces.

  2. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty.

  3. The chaos and control of a food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the

  4. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0853] Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium... dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) as an antimicrobial agent for use in wash water for fruits and vegetables...

  5. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  6. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  7. ADME-Tox profiles of some food additives and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Dana; Modra, Dorina; Isvoran, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    Within this study we compute the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles of several commonly used food additives and some pesticides. As expected, all the food additives considered in this study provided to be safe, their ADME-Tox profiles indicating that they have a good oral bioavailability and they do not produce phosphoslipidosis. The ADME-Tox profiles of the pesticides indicate that, with a few exceptions, they are highly toxic (some of them being not approved in the EU, but still used in other countries) and may cause many diseases. Our results are in good agreement with published data concerning the considered food additives and pesticides revealing that the ADME-Tox profiling method may be successfully used to test other chemicals than drug candidates.

  8. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Delores; Phan, Uyen T X; Chanadang, Sirichat; Maughan, Curtis; Sanchez, Karolina; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Gomez, David; Higa, Federica; Li, Han; Chambers, Edgar; Esen, Eyyup

    2016-05-24

    Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey.

  9. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delores Chambers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey.

  10. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Delores; Phan, Uyen T. X.; Chanadang, Sirichat; Maughan, Curtis; Sanchez, Karolina; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Gomez, David; Higa, Federica; Li, Han; Chambers, Edgar; Esen, Eyyup

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey. PMID:28231134

  11. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  12. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... amending the food additive regulations to permit the use of hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent in... Group, 801 N. Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801 filed a food additive petition (FAP 0A4781). The... as an antimicrobial agent in the manufacture of modified whey by ultrafiltration methods. In...

  13. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Erel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects of food additives and preservatives in CIU. As possible prognostic factors we observed sex, age, atopy, intolerance to food additives and preservatives. Allergic reactions were seen to appear in 37% (n=50 cases due to natural foods, in 36% (n=49 cases due to foods containing additives, and in 27% (n=37 cases due to both natural foods and foods containing additives. For patients with CIU, food colors, sweeteners and preservatives that are added into foods are an important etiological factor. Moreover, histamine and histamine-like endogen pharmacological agents can cause allergic reactions. Hence, these foods should be taken into consideration in etiology especially in patients with CIU, and due to potential etiology, elimination of patients from these foods for a while is a significant step in treatment. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 351-356

  14. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  15. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.

  16. High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the efficacy of high oxygen as an additional hurdle for food preservation is studied. At high oxygen conditions and at low temperature, significant impairment of growth and viability of bacterial cells is found to occur as the result of free

  17. Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Anna; Klinger, Andrew; Choquette, Suzanne S; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Bell, Emmy K; Darnell, Betty; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives increase the total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear. To examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate 4-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (∼2,000 kcal/day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day), and it contained minimally processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly processed foods were substituted for minimally processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake. The low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided approximately 2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium, and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared with the low-additive diet. When averaged over the 4 menu days, the measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured versus estimated phosphorus contents. Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of the phosphorus content in processed foods. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney

  18. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...

  19. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  20. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. The potential application of European market research data in dietary exposure modelling of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David Robin; Bruyninckx, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Consumer exposure assessments for food additives are incomplete without information about the proportions of foods in each authorised category that contain the additive. Such information has been difficult to obtain but the Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) provides information about product launches across Europe over the past 20 years. These data can be searched to identify products with specific additives listed on product labels and the numbers compared with total product launches for food and drink categories in the same database to determine the frequency of occurrence. There are uncertainties associated with the data but these can be managed by adopting a cautious and conservative approach. GNPD data can be mapped with authorised food categories and with food descriptions used in the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Surveys Database for exposure modelling. The data, when presented as percent occurrence, could be incorporated into the EFSA ANS Panel's 'brand-loyal/non-brand loyal exposure model in a quantitative way. Case studies of preservative, antioxidant, colour and sweetener additives showed that the impact of including occurrence data is greatest in the non-brand loyal scenario. Recommendations for future research include identifying occurrence data for alcoholic beverages, linking regulatory food codes, FoodEx and GNPD product descriptions, developing the use of occurrence data for carry-over foods and improving understanding of brand loyalty in consumer exposure models.

  2. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0518] Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register...) is notifying the public that notices of filing of petitions for food additives and color additives...

  3. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current developments in food additive toxicology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattan, David G.; Kahl, Linda S.

    2002-01-01

    A recently published proposal (Fed. Reg. 66 (2001) 4706) for mandatory submission of information on all plant-derived bioengineered foods fed to humans or animals will be reviewed. Under this proposal, information such as data on identity, level and function of the introduced substance(s); an estimate of dietary exposure; allergenic potential of the protein; data relevant to other safety issues that may be associated with the substance; selection of a comparable food; historic uses of comparable food; composition and characteristics of bioengineered food versus those of the comparable food should be provided. In addition, characterization of the parent plant; construction of the transformation vector and introduced genetic material along with number of insertion sites and genes; data on the genetic material and any newly inserted genes for antibiotic resistance should be submitted with the notification. The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was identified by the U.S. Congress as the organization to review and validate new alternative toxicological test methods for 14 U.S. government agencies. Validated and accepted alternative toxicity tests will be incorporated into toxicity testing recommendations for regulatory agencies

  5. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  6. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind...... the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital...

  7. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food... announcing that Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations..., Davis, CA 95618. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives...

  8. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.

    1994-01-01

    and 335 were subjected to open challenge. A total of 23 children developed positive reactions after the open challenge. Sixteen of these patients accepted the double-blind challenge, and six showed a positive reaction to preservatives (atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis), coloring agents (atopic......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... for the open challenge. Two doses were used: a low dose and a 10-fold higher dose. Gelatin capsules were used for a double-blind challenge. The children were 4-15 years old, and they were attending an outpatient pediatric clinic for the first time. Of the 379 patients who entered the study, 44 were excluded...

  9. Public worry about specific food safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Brennan, M.; Kuznesof, S.; Ness, M.; Ritson, C.; Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Consumers may encounter a number of potential food hazards through their food choice decisions and consumption behaviour. It is psychologically determined risk perceptions that drive acceptance of such potential food hazards, and define people's risk-taking or self-protective behaviours.

  10. Food additives and children's behaviour: evidence based policy at the margins of certainty

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The possible effects of food additives (specifically artificial colours) have been debated for over 30 years. The evidence accumulated suggests that for some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) food colours exacerbate their condition. Two studies undertaken by a research group at the University of Southampton have extended these findings to the effects on hyperactivity in children from the general population who do not show ADHD. This article reviews the response ...

  11. Lack of genotoxicity in vivo for food color additive Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Pant, Kamala; Kulkarni, Rohan

    2017-07-01

    Tartrazine is approved as a food color additive internationally with INS number 102, in the United States as food color subject to batch certification "Food, Drug, and Cosmetic" (FD&C) Yellow No. 5, and in Europe as food color additive with E number 102. In their evaluation of the color (2013), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) expressed concerns of potential genotoxicity, based primarily on one genotoxicity study that was not conducted according to Guidelines. The present in vivo genotoxicity study was conducted according to OECD Guidelines in response to EFSA's request for additional data. The animal species and strain, and the tissues examined were selected specifically to address the previously reported findings. The results of this study show clear absence of genotoxic activity for Tartrazine, in the bone marrow micronucleus assay and the Comet assay in the liver, stomach, and colon. These data addressed EFSA's concerns for genotoxicity. The Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2016) also reviewed these data and concluded that there is no genotoxicity concern for Tartrazine. Negative findings in parallel genotoxicity studies on Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R (published separately) are consistent with lack of genotoxicity for azo dyes used as food colors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  13. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  14. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...

  15. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  16. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives.

    Reviewed in the report is research on hyperkinesis, specifically B. Feingold's hypotheses on the role of salicylates and food additives. Criticisms of Feingold's studies are seen to include methodological weaknesses (no double blind controlled experiments), nutritional concerns over the adequacy of prescribed diets, and lack of a specifically…

  17. 76 FR 15985 - Hartech Corporation; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...] (Formerly Docket No. 91F-0111) Hartech Corporation; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition...) is denying a food additive petition (FAP 1M4246) proposing that the food additive regulations be... of April 16, 1991 (56 FR 15373), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 1M4246) had been...

  18. 76 FR 15986 - Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...] (Formerly Docket No. 90F-0074) Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is denying a food additive petition (FAP 0M4181) proposing that the food additive... 15, 1990 (55 FR 9772), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 0M4181) had been filed by...

  19. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  20. Food additives, food and the concept of 'food addiction': Is stimulation of the brain reward circuit by food sufficient to trigger addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, A Y; Onaolapo, O J

    2018-04-12

    In the last few years, the concept of 'food addiction' has continued to gain popularity, with human and animal studies demonstrating the differential effects of foods that are high in fat, sugar or protein on appetite, satiety, eating behaviour and the development of food addiction. However, a number of studies have disputed the occurrence of food addiction in humans. Questions have also arisen regarding the possible impacts that food additives may have on the development of food addiction or eating disorders. Also, it is known that alterations in food composition and the presence of food additives (flavour enhancers, sugars, sugar substitutes, and non-nutritive sweeteners) are factors that generally influence the sensory perception of food. Our understanding of the potential roles of central neurotransmitters (such as dopamine) and certain neuropeptides in the evolution of food addiction is also evolving; but presently, there isn't sufficient scientific evidence to consider any food ingredient, micronutrient or standard food-additive as addictive. In this review, the relevant literatures dealing with the concept of 'food addiction' are examined, and the factors which may predispose to food addiction are discussed. The possible influences that flavour-enhancers, sugars, sugar substitutes and non-nutritive sweeteners may exert on central neurotransmission, neurotransmitter/receptor interactions, appetite, satiety, conditioned- preferences and the brain reward system are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  2. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    .... FDA-2012-F-1100] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM...

  3. 77 FR 9608 - American Chemistry Council; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    .... FDA-2012-F-0031] American Chemistry Council; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug... that the American Chemistry Council (ACC) has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 1B4783) has been filed by the American...

  4. 77 FR 2492 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ..., and 180 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0320] United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention requesting that the food additive regulations that incorporate by...

  5. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    .... FDA-2013-F-1539] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive... U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2276) has been filed by DSM...

  6. 75 FR 22411 - Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...] Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of... that a food additive petition (FAP 0A4781) has been filed by Fonterra (USA), Inc., c/o Burdock Group...

  7. 75 FR 62545 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin AGENCY: Food and... that Ferm Solutions, Inc. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive...

  8. 76 FR 48751 - Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    .... FDA-2011-F-0549] Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate AGENCY... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Lanxess Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive..., PA 15275-1112. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in part 573 Food...

  9. 75 FR 48353 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ...] United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug.... Pharmacopeial Convention has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations that incorporate by... that a food additive petition (FAP 0A4782) has been filed by U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601...

  10. 75 FR 17928 - Nisso America, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...] Nisso America, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... a petition proposing that the food additive regulations for hydroxypropyl cellulose be amended by...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 0A4780) has been filed by...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use... Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification. The following substances may be safely used as diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification, subject to the...

  12. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  13. Prediction of Liquid Specific Heat Capacity of Food Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyi; Phinney, David M; Paluri, Sravanti; Heldman, Dennis R

    2018-04-01

    Specific heat capacity (c p ) is a temperature dependent physical property of foods. Lipid-being a macromolecular component of food-provides some fraction of the food's overall heat capacity. Fats/oils are complex chemicals that are generally defined by carbon length and degree of unsaturation. The objective of this investigation was to use advanced specific heat capacity measurement to determine the effect of fatty acid chemical structure on specific heat capacity of food lipids. In this investigation, the specific heat capacity of a series of triacylglycerols were measured to quantify the influence of fatty acid composition on specific heat capacity based on two parameters; the -average carbon number (C) and the average number of double bonds (U). A prediction model for specific heat capacity of food lipids as a function of C, U and temperature (T) has been developed. A multiple linear regression to the three-parameter model (R 2 = 0.87) provided a good fit to the experimental data. The prediction model was evaluated by comparison with previously published specific heat capacity values of vegetable oils. It was found that the model provided a 0.53% error, while three other models from the literature predicted c p values with 0.85% to 1.83% average relative deviation from experimental data. The outcomes from this research confirm that the thermophysical properties of fat present in foods are directly related to the physical chemical properties. The specific heat capacity of food products is widely used in process design. Improvements of current models to predict specific heat capacity of food products will assist in the development of efficient processes and in the control of food quality and safety. Furthermore, the understanding of how changes in chemical structure of macromolecular components of foods effect thermophysical properties may begin to allude to models that are not just empirical, but represent portions of the differences in chemistry. © 2018

  14. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-contamination in the food production process, FDA investigations concluded that no peanut protein was present... . (c) The ingredient is used in food in accordance with good manufacturing practices under the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No...

  15. Genotoxicity assessment of some cosmetic and food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Maffei, Francesca; Hrelia, Patrizia; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Pagano, Ester; Borrelli, Francesca; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    α-Hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) and p-tert-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (BMHCA) are synthetic aldehydes, characterized by a typical floral scent, which makes them suitable to be used as fragrances in personal care (perfumes, creams, shampoos, etc.) and household products, and as flavouring additives in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aldehydic structure suggests the need for a safety assessment for these compounds. Here, HCA and BMHCA were evaluated for their potential genotoxic risk, both at gene level (frameshift or base-substitution mutations) by the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), and at chromosomal level (clastogenicity and aneuploidy) by the micronucleus test. In order to evaluate a primary and repairable DNA damage, the comet assay has been also included. In spite of their potential hazardous chemical structure, a lack of mutagenicity was observed for both compounds in all bacterial strains tested, also in presence of the exogenous metabolic activator, showing that no genotoxic derivatives were produced by CYP450-mediated biotransformations. Neither genotoxicity at chromosomal level (i.e. clastogenicity or aneuploidy) nor single-strand breaks were observed. These findings will be useful in further assessing the safety of HCA and BMHCA as either flavour or fragrance chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological effects of some synthetic food colouring additives on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Zahab, H; el-Khyat, Z; Sidhom, G; Awadallah, R; Abdel-al, W; Mahdy, K

    1997-11-01

    Three different synthetic chocolate colourant agents (A, B and C) were administered to healthy adult male albino rats for 30 and 60 day periods to evaluate their effects on body weight, blood picture, liver and kidney functions, blood glucose, serum and liver lipids, liver nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and growth hormone. In addition, histopathological examinations of liver, kidney and stomach sections were studied. These parameters were also investigated 30 days after colourant stoppage (post effect). Ingestion of colourant C (brown HT and indigocarmine) significantly decreased rat body weight, serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol fraction, while, T4 hormone, liver RNA content, liver enzymes (S. GOT, S. GPT and alkaline phosphatase), total protein and globulin fractions were significantly elevated. Significant increases were observed in serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, globulin and serum transaminases in rats whose diets were supplemented with chocolate colours A and B (sunset yellow, tartrazine, carmoisine and brilliant blue in varying concentrations). Haematological investigations demonstrated selective neutropenia and lymphocytosis with no significant alterations of total white blood cell counts in all rat groups, while haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the rats who were administered food additives A and B. Eosinophilia was noted in rats fed on colourant A only. No changes were recorded for blood glucose, growth hormone and kidney function tests. Histopathological studies showed brown pigment deposition in the portal tracts and Van Küpffer cells of the liver as well as in the interstitial tissue and renal tubular cells of the kidney mainly induced by colourant A. Congested blood vessels and areas of haemorrhage in both liver and renal sections were revealed in those rats who were given colourants B and C. There were no-untoward-effects recorded in the

  17. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  18. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in...

  19. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0949] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for...

  20. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  1. Recent trends in the use of food additives in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Mike

    2015-03-15

    The E number system for food additives was introduced in the 1960s and the E was intended to reassure consumers that permitted additives were safe. In the 1980s full ingredient declarations had to be provided on food products for the first time and manufacturers were permitted to use either the name or the number of the additive on the ingredient list. This paper outlines some of the trends in the sourcing, use and labelling of additives since the introduction of full ingredient listing. Generally, sourcing has become more global with a large number of suppliers being based in China. From an initial use of E numbers in ingredient lists, manufacturers are increasingly using the names of additives. This trend is being extended to avoid the use of anything the consumer might consider an additive, particularly in connection with colours and preservatives. Specifically, the colours used in the Southampton study on the impact of food colours on hyperactivity in children have largely been replaced by colouring foodstuffs, and the preservative used in the study, sodium benzoate, has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. 77 FR 65340 - Ajinomoto Co., Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    .... FDA-2009-F-0303] Ajinomoto Co., Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and...) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Ajinomoto Co., Inc., to indicate... additive petition (FAP 9A4778) had been filed by Ajinomoto, Co., Inc., c/o Ajinomoto Corporate Services LLC...

  3. 78 FR 43093 - Richard C. Theuer; Filing of Food Additive Petition and Citizen Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... [Docket Nos. FDA-2013-F-0700 and FDA-2013-P-0472] Richard C. Theuer; Filing of Food Additive Petition and... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to prohibit the use of carrageenan and salts of... that Richard C. Theuer, Ph.D., 7904 Sutterton Ct., Raleigh, NC 27615, has filed a food additive...

  4. 76 FR 22904 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...] Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate AGENCY... announcing that Ferm Solutions, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive...

  5. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... collection of information. Sec. 571.1(c) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex... burden of 3,000 hours. Sec. 571.1(c) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex.... Sec. 570.17 Moderate Category: For an investigational food additive file without complex chemistry...

  6. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and..., 379e. 0 2. Section 172.381 is added to subpart D to read as follows: Sec. 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers...

  7. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence

  8. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... antimicrobial agent in poultry process chiller water. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Judith Kidwell, Center... Zentox Corp., c/o Burdock Group, 801 North Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801, had filed a food... safe use of monochloramine as an antimicrobial agent in poultry process chiller water. Zentox Corp. has...

  9. 78 FR 8101 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of.... Department of Health and Human Services, is sponsoring a public meeting on February 11, 2013, from 9:00 a.m... Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex...

  10. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...

  11. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY...) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to...

  12. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

  13. Food additives and their health implications on children in Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food additives and their health implications on children in Africa: a systematic review. ... Research Journal of Health Sciences ... at which many food industries turn out novel 'chemicals' aimed at increasing the acceptability of their products.

  14. Prevalence of Phosphorus-Based Additives in the Australian Food Supply: A Challenge for Dietary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Jemma; Campbell, Katrina; Ferguson, Maree; Day, Sarah; Rossi, Megan

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives may pose a significant risk in chronic kidney disease given the link between hyperphosphatemia and cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-based food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to establish how they were reported on food labels. A data set of 3000 best-selling grocery items in Australia across 15 food and beverage categories was obtained for the 12 months ending December 2013 produced by the Nielsen Company's Homescan database. The nutrition labels of the products were reviewed in store for phosphorus additives. The type of additive, total number of additives, and method of reporting (written out in words or as an E number) were recorded. Presence of phosphorus-based food additives, number of phosphorus-based food additives per product, and the reporting method of additives on product ingredient lists. Phosphorus-based additives were identified in 44% of food and beverages reviewed. Additives were particularly common in the categories of small goods (96%), bakery goods (93%), frozen meals (75%), prepared foods (70%), and biscuits (65%). A total of 19 different phosphorus additives were identified across the reviewed products. From the items containing phosphorus additives, there was a median (minimum-maximum) of 2 (1-7) additives per product. Additives by E number (81%) was the most common method of reporting. Phosphorus-based food additives are common in the Australian food supply. This suggests that prioritizing phosphorus additive education may be an important strategy in the dietary management of hyperphosphatemia. Further research to establish a database of food items containing phosphorus-based additives is warranted. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carnauba wax (E 903) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of carnauba wax (E 903). Carnauba wax (E 903) is authorised in the EU as food additive as glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) who allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 7 mg/kg bw/day. The SCF did not establish an ADI but considered the use of ca...

  17. Replacing Phosphorus-Containing Food Additives With Foods Without Additives Reduces Phosphatemia in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fornasari, Margareth Lage Leite; Dos Santos Sens, Yvoty Alves

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of replacing phosphorus-containing food additives with foods without additives on phosphatemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Randomized clinical trial. Adult patients on hemodialysis for ≥6 months at a single center. A total of 134 patients with phosphorus levels of >5.5 mg/dL were included and were randomized into an intervention group (n = 67) and a control group (n = 67). The IG received individual orientation to replace processed foods that have phosphorus additives with foods of similar nutritional value without these additives. The CG received only the nutritional orientation given before the study. Clinical laboratory data, nutritional status, energy and protein intake, and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 90 days. There was no initial difference between the groups in terms of serum phosphorus levels, nutritional status, and energy intake. After 3 months, there was a decline in phosphorus levels in the IG (from 7.2 ± 1.4 to 5.0 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P food additives with foods without additives reduced serum phosphorus without interfering in the nutritional status of ESRD patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Food Design Thinking: A Branch of Design Thinking Specific to Food Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampollo, Francesca; Peacock, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for a set of methods within Design Thinking tailored specifically for the Food Design process? Is there a need for a branch of Design Thinking dedicated to Food Design alone? Chefs are not generally trained in Design or Design Thinking, and we are only just beginning to understand how they ideate and what recourses are available to…

  19. Polysaccharides from Probiotics: New Developments as Food Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Michaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polysaccharides with nutraceutical potential and bioactive properties have been investigated in detail during the last few decades. There is an increasing demand in food industries for live microbes or polysaccharides produced by them which assert health benefits other than dietetic constituents. Although there are a large number of exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing bacteria, the titers are low for commercialization. This manuscript deals with the polysaccharides produced by probiotic strains, with major emphasis on the EPSs, their properties, applications and some of the strategies adopted which would be helpful in better understanding of the process in the near future. Research on the improved EPS biosynthesis is essential for obtaining high yields. Therefore, to reach commercialization, metabolic engineering must be applied.

  20. Food additives and food components in total diets in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Vos, R.H. de; Cloughley, F.A.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Dukel, F.; Wijsman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    During a period of 2 years, every 2 months 126 different food items forming a 'market basket' were purchased, prepared and divided into twelve food commodity groups. The 'market basket' was based on a study of the dietary pattern of 16- to 18-year-old male adolescents. In the (homogenized) food

  1. Estimated daily intake and safety of FD&C food-colour additives in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-06-01

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight-colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ('synthetic' food colours) approved in the United States. The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children aged 2-5 and 6-12 years, adolescents aged 13-18 years, and adults aged 19 or more y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies that are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food-consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group Ltd. The results of the analysis indicate that (1) the use levels reported by the industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; and (2) exposure to food-colour additives in the United States by average and high-intake consumers is well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practised in the United States is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  2. Not all food additive related reactions originate from commercial foods: chronic urticaria due to home-made canned tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, S; Karaayvaz, M; Caliskaner, Z; Gulec, M

    2005-01-01

    Additives and preservatives in commercial foods have been implicated in the etiology of chronic urticaria, but such foods have not been widely accepted. In some countries, as in ours, people prefer to use home-made foodstuffs to avoid potentially hazardous commercial additives. However, not all home-made foodstuffs are safe, especially regarding allergies. In this report, we describe a patient with chronic urticaria due to home-made canned tomato prepared using "tomato drug" as a "safe (!)" additive.

  3. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  4. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  5. 75 FR 30844 - General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ...] (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0454) General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and... 7M4770) had been filed by General Mills, Inc., One General Mills Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55426. The... use in food production. General Mills, Inc., has now withdrawn the petition without prejudice to a...

  6. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment under...

  7. Aminocarminic acid in E120-labelled food additives and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Lazzaro, Francesco; Borzì, Marco A; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for investigating aminocarminic acid occurrence in E120-labelled red-coloured-beverages and in E120 additives, with the aim of controlling the purity of the carmine additive in countries where the use of aminocarminic acid is forbidden. The carminic acid and the aminocarminic acid were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-tandem mass spectrography (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The method was statistically validated. The regression lines, ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L, showed r(2 )> 0.9996. Recoveries from 97% to 101% were obtained for the fortification level of 50 mg/L; the relative standard deviations did not exceed 3%. The LODs were below 2 mg/L, whereas the LOQs did not exceed 4 mg/L. The method was successfully applied to 27 samples of commercial E120-labelled red-coloured beverages and E120 additives, collected in Italy during quality control investigations conducted by the Ministry. The results demonstrated that more than 50% of the samples contained aminocarminic acid, evidencing the alarming illicit use of this semi-synthetic carmine acid derivative.

  8. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Juan; Alheiro, Joana; Pinto, Ana Luisa; Soares, Luciana; Falco, Virgilio; Fraqueza, Maria João; Patarata, Luis

    2017-06-10

    Utilization of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, a w and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, a w , presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs.

  10. Decree of the Ministry of Health about conditions of irradiation of food, permissible additional substances or other food components, which can be subjected to ionizing radiation action, their specification, maximum irradiation doses as well as about requirements for marking and introducing into turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions of irradiation of food and its components for radappertization and radurization using gamma radiation from cobalt 60 or cesium 137, X radiation or electron beam up to maximum total medium absorbed dose 10 kGy

  11. A new application for food customization with additive manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenó, L.; Vallicrosa, G.; Delgado, J.; Ciurana, J.

    2012-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have emerged as a freeform approach capable of producing almost any complete three dimensional (3D) objects from computer-aided design (CAD) data by successively adding material layer by layer. Despite the broad range of possibilities, commercial AM technologies remain complex and expensive, making them suitable only for niche applications. The developments of the Fab@Home system as an open AM technology discovered a new range of possibilities of processing different materials such as edible products. The main objective of this work is to analyze and optimize the manufacturing capacity of this system when producing 3D edible objects. A new heated syringe deposition tool was developed and several process parameters were optimized to adapt this technology to consumers' needs. The results revealed in this study show the potential of this system to produce customized edible objects without qualified personnel knowledge, therefore saving manufacturing costs compared to traditional technologies.

  12. 76 FR 3600 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, are sponsoring a public meeting on February... of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which...

  13. An analysis of the possibility for health implications of joint actions and interactions between food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Butler, W.; Feron, V.J.; Kozianowski, G.; Renwick, A.G.; Walker, R.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility that structurally unrelated food additives could show either joint actions or interactions has been assessed based on their potential to share common sites and mechanisms of action or common pathways of elimination. All food additives approved in the European Union and allocated

  14. 77 FR 5483 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, are sponsoring a public meeting on February... of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which...

  15. 75 FR 55798 - North American Bioproducts Corporation; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...] North American Bioproducts Corporation; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin G... food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of penicillin G procaine as an... Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of penicillin G procaine as an...

  16. The food additive vanillic acid controls transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitzinger, Marc; Kemmer, Christian; Fluri, David A; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Trigger-inducible transcription-control devices that reversibly fine-tune transgene expression in response to molecular cues have significantly advanced the rational reprogramming of mammalian cells. When designed for use in future gene- and cell-based therapies the trigger molecules have to be carefully chosen in order to provide maximum specificity, minimal side-effects and optimal pharmacokinetics in a mammalian organism. Capitalizing on control components that enable Caulobacter crescentus to metabolize vanillic acid originating from lignin degradation that occurs in its oligotrophic freshwater habitat, we have designed synthetic devices that specifically adjust transgene expression in mammalian cells when exposed to vanillic acid. Even in mice transgene expression was robust, precise and tunable in response to vanillic acid. As a licensed food additive that is regularly consumed by humans via flavoured convenience food and specific fresh vegetable and fruits, vanillic acid can be considered as a safe trigger molecule that could be used for diet-controlled transgene expression in future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  17. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Khinchi, M.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  18. Additive manufacturing of patient-specific tubular continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Ernar; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Tubular continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved, elastic tubes, provide more dexterity than traditional surgical instruments at the same diameter. The tubes can be precurved such that the resulting manipulator fulfills surgical task requirements. Up to now the only material used for the component tubes of those manipulators is NiTi, a super-elastic shape-memory alloy of nickel and titan. NiTi is a cost-intensive material and fabrication processes are complex, requiring (proprietary) technology, e.g. for shape setting. In this paper, we evaluate component tubes made of 3 different thermoplastic materials (PLA, PCL and nylon) using fused filament fabrication technology (3D printing). This enables quick and cost-effective production of custom, patient-specific continuum manipulators, produced on site on demand. Stress-strain and deformation characteristics are evaluated experimentally for 16 fabricated tubes of each thermoplastic with diameters and shapes equivalent to those of NiTi tubes. Tubes made of PCL and nylon exhibit properties comparable to those made of NiTi. We further demonstrate a tubular continuum manipulator composed of 3 nylon tubes in a transnasal, transsphenoidal skull base surgery scenario in vitro.

  19. Some Technological Challenges in the Addition of Probiotic Bacteria to Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.

    In North-America, up to 93% of consumers believe certain foods have health benefits that may reduce the risk of disease (Clydesdale, 2005). Using a strict definition, limited to food and drinks that tend to make specific health claims of some kind on the packaging or in advertising, the functional foods (FF) and drinks market in the five major European markets, the USA, Japan and Australia had a combined value of 16 billion USD in 2005 (Leatherhead Food International, 2006). Dairy products account for nearly 43% of this market, which is almost entirely made up of fermented dairy products (Leatherhead Food International, 2006).

  20. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  2. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  3. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  4. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu eValdés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  5. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  6. Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C; Ha, Shin-Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.

  7. [FADCC in NIHS for prior consultation system of application of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of inquiries about application of food additives have been made from businesses in and outside Japan. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is requested to expedite the procedure for designation and revision of use standards. In June 2014, the MHLW set up a center for consultation on application concerning food additives (Food Additive Designation Consultation Center, FADCC) in the National Institute of Health Sciences, aiming to smoothly and expeditiously handle clerical work for designation or revision of the use standards. FADCC gives advice on how to prepare documents on the information such as physicochemical characteristics, effectiveness, safety, daily intake and use standards, based on actual cases and experience.

  8. The Association between Food Security and Store-Specific and Overall Food Shopping Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaonan; Liese, Angela D; Hibbert, James; Bell, Bethany A; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A

    2017-12-01

    Food security is a severe problem in the United States. Few studies have examined its relationship with food shopping behaviors. This study aimed to examine the association between food security and store-specific and overall food shopping among residents of low-income neighborhoods. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Five hundred twenty-seven households were recruited from two counties in South Carolina from November 2013 to May 2014, and 474 households were included in the final analysis. Food security was assessed using the 18-item US-Household Food Security Module questionnaire, and classified into three categories: high or marginal food security (FS), low food security (LFS), and very low food security (VLFS). Store-specific shopping behaviors including frequency, store type, and transportation were queried via in-person interview for the three most-frequented grocery stores. Distance from participants' homes to their reported stores was calculated using Geographic Information Systems. Multivariate linear regression for analyses of distance and frequency and multinomial/ordinary logistic regression for analyses of store type and transportation were used. Compared to FS participants, a significantly higher proportion of VLFS participants reported a convenience/dollar store as their most-frequented store (odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.95) or a lack of transportation (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.33). They also shopped less frequently (b=-.31, P=0.03) at their third most-frequented store and traveled fewer total miles for shopping (b=-4.71, P=0.04). In analyses considering all stores jointly, LFS participants had lower odds of shopping at both supermarkets and convenience/dollar stores (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.91) compared to food-secure residents. The current findings suggest that households with VLFS tend to shop more frequently in stores that have less-healthful options, such as convenience/dollar stores. These findings lend support to ongoing

  9. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2013, on page 196, in Sec. 175.320, in paragraph (c), in...

  10. Possible use of food consumption surveys to estimate exposure to additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several methods can be and are being used to assess individual food consumption. Four types, namely 24-h recall, dietary records, food frequency and dietary history are discussed. For assessing the exposure to additives it is concluded that the dietary history method is probably the best choice

  11. Extra-phosphate load from food additives in commonly eaten foods: a real and insidious danger for renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Omar; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2011-07-01

    Restriction of dietary phosphorus is a major aspect of patient care in those with renal disease. Restriction of dietary phosphorus is necessary to control for phosphate balance during both conservative therapy and dialysis treatment. The extra amount of phosphorus which is consumed as a result of phosphate-containing food additives is a real challenge for patients with renal disease and for dieticians because it represents a "hidden" phosphate load. The objective of this study was to measure phosphorus content in foods, common protein sources in particular, and comprised both those which included a listing of phosphate additives and those which did not. Determinations of dry matter, nitrogen, total and soluble phosphate ions were carried out in 60 samples of foods, namely cooked ham, roast breast turkey, and roast breast chicken, of which, 30 were with declared phosphate additives and the other 30 similar items were without additives. Total phosphorus (290 ± 40 mg/100 g vs. 185 ± 23 mg/100 g, P additives than in foods without additives. No difference was detected between the 2 groups regarding dry matter (27.2 ± 2.0 g/100 g vs. 26.7 ± 1.9 g/100 g) or total nitrogen (3.15 ± 0.40 g/100 g vs. 3.19 ± 0.40 g/100 g). Consequently, phosphorus intake per gram of protein was much greater in the foods containing phosphorus additives (15.0 ± 3.1 mg/g vs. 9.3 ± 0.7 mg/g, P foods which contain phosphate additives have a phosphorus content nearly 70% higher than the samples which did not contain additives. This creates a special concern because this extra amount of phosphorus is almost completely absorbed by the intestinal tract. These hidden phosphates worsen phosphate balance control and increase the need for phosphate binders and related costs. Information and educational programs are essential to make patients with renal disease aware of the existence of foods with phosphate additives. Moreover, these facts highlight the need for national and international

  12. Clinical study of Clorella vulgaris as an additive to a food diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Tsyb, A.F.; Ogaki, M.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical study was conducted of preparation Clorella vulgaries (dried granules). This preparation is the source of vitamins, specific proteins and readily available salts. Commercial name of the preparation is Momotaro. Data of Japanses scientists on good tolerance of the preparation by human body were confermed in volunteers. Then during 2 mos study on the preparation was conducted in patients, oncologic patients oncologic patients with local injuries aftr radiotherapy, rescuers of the Chernobyl accident. A conclusion was made on expediency to use Momotaro as an additive to a food diet normalizing different body functions in amount 1-3 g in a day for children and 3-6 g in a day for adults. Negotiations are carried out on production of great amounts of Momotaro for the population of affected regions from the Chernobyl accident

  13. Worst case prediction of additives migration from polystyrene for food safety purposes: a model update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Brais; Gontard, Nathalie; Peyron, Stéphane

    2018-03-01

    A reliable prediction of migration levels of plastic additives into food requires a robust estimation of diffusivity. Predictive modelling of diffusivity as recommended by the EU commission is carried out using a semi-empirical equation that relies on two polymer-dependent parameters. These parameters were determined for the polymers most used by packaging industry (LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, HIPS) from the diffusivity data available at that time. In the specific case of general purpose polystyrene, the diffusivity data published since then shows that the use of the equation with the original parameters results in systematic underestimation of diffusivity. The goal of this study was therefore, to propose an update of the aforementioned parameters for PS on the basis of up to date diffusivity data, so the equation can be used for a reasoned overestimation of diffusivity.

  14. Is Patch Testing with Food Additives Useful in Children with Atopic Eczema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Bostanci, Ilknur; Ozmen, Serap; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Duman, Handan; Ertan, Ulker

    2015-01-01

    Atopy patch testing is a useful way to determine delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to foods and aeroallergens. Although food additives have been accused of worsening atopic eczema symptoms, according to recent studies the role of food additives in atopic eczema remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate food additive hypersensitivity in a group of children with atopic eczema by using standardized atopy patch testing and to determine the role of food additive hypersensitivity in atopic eczema. Thirty-four children with atopic eczema and 33 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Children who consumed foods containing additives and did not use either antihistamines or local or systemic corticosteroids for at least 7 days prior to admission were enrolled in the study. All children were subjected to atopy patch testing and after 48 and 72 hours their skin reactions were evaluated by using the guidelines. Positive atopy patch test results were significantly higher in the atopic eczema group. Forty-one percent of the atopic eczema group (n = 14) and 15.2% (n = 5) of the control group had positive atopy patch test results with food additives (p = 0.036) (estimated relative risk 1.68, case odds 0.7, control odds 0.17). Carmine hypersensitivity and the consumption of foods containing carmine, such as gumdrops, salami, and sausage, were significantly higher in the children with atopic eczema. This is the first study investigating hypersensitivity to food additives in children with atopic eczema. Our results indicate that carmine may play a role in atopic eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  16. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... agent in the manufacture of silica.'' PART 178--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND... pale orange or pinkish white powder. * * * * * * * * 0 21. Section 184.1845 is amended by revising the...

  17. DETERMINATION OF LEVEL OF FOOD ADDITIVES IN Labisia pumila (LP) BEVERAGES CONSUMED IN KUANTAN, MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Iwansyah, Ade Chandra; Yusoff, Masithah Mohammad; Kormin, Faridah

    2013-01-01

    The content levels of several food additives (gallic acid, benzoic acid and caffeine) in commercial Labisia pumila (LP) beverage samples in Kuantan, Malaysia were determined by high performances liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical measurements were undertaken primarily to assess the compliance of content levels of the investigated food additives and their daily intake doses with permissible levels. The results obtained from this study indicated that the average levels of GA, caffei...

  18. A study on the development of risk perception concerning food additives

    OpenAIRE

    臼井, 宗一

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the development process of risk perception concerning food additives, a sur vey was conducted with female college students (sophomores) for sources of information that made them feel insecure about food additives. The main source of the information when they were in infancy and at elementar y school was found to be family (mostly mother); that was teachers when they were at middle school and high school, and that was ...

  19. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  20. Food choice effects on herbivory: Intra-specific seagrass palatability and inter-specific macrophyte palatability in seagrass communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ramos, Rocío; Brun, Fernando G.; Egea, Luis G.; Vergara, Juan J.

    2018-05-01

    Interactions between the palatability and abundance of different food sources may influence herbivory patterns in seagrass-dominated communities. In addition, intra-specific differences in nutrient and structural quality of leaves may also alter seagrass palatability and generate different rates of consumption within these communities. We offered two temperate seagrasses species, (Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltei) from two different locations to look at intraspecific differences, and two other macrophytes, both of which occur at the same location as seagrasses but represent the extremes of palatability, to a generalist herbivore Paracentrotus lividus (purple sea urchin). Using feeding assays, we compared the consumption rates in individual (single plant species) and combined diets at different food availabilities. Intra-specific differences between seagrass species growing at different locations (inner and outer bay) were indeed found to significantly modify the consumption rate for one species. Structural traits such as carbon content were linked to the low consumption found in Cymodocea nodosa from the inner bay location. In addition, we found that the co-occurrence of different macrophyte species can result in preferential consumption of the more palatable macrophyte with high nutritional content and low structural defence over seagrasses, especially when P. lividus has an abundant food supply. Overall, our findings suggest that intra- and inter-specific differences in seagrass traits and the relative abundance of other macrophytes may explain the variability in patterns of herbivory found within seagrass communities.

  1. Identification of Characteristic Phenolic Constituents in Mousouchiku Extract Used as Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Morio; Ochi, Keisuke; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji; Maki, Jun; Tada, Atsuko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Amakura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Mousouchiku extract is prepared from the bamboo-sheath of Phyllostachys heterocycla MITF. (Poaceae), and is registered as a food manufacturing agent in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan. This study describes the chromatographic evaluation of characteristic components of this extract to obtain the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. We isolated 12 known compounds from this extract: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, N,N'-diferuloylputrescine, 4'-hydroxypropiophenone, β-arbutin, tachioside, isotachioside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone 3-O-glucoside, koaburaside, and (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-glucoside. Moreover, a new propiophenone glycoside, propiophenone 4'-O-(6-β-D-xylosyl)-β-D-glucoside (propiophenone 4'-O-primeveroside), was isolated. The structure of each isolated compound was elucidated based on NMR and MS data or direct HPLC comparisons with authentic samples. Among the isolates, (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-glucoside was found to be the major ingredients of the extract as observed using HPLC analysis. However, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, which is considered the main constituent of mousouchiku extract, was only detected as a trace constituent and not isolated in this study.

  2. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  3. The prediction of food additives in the fruit juice based on electronic nose with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Food additives are added to products to enhance their taste, and preserve flavor or appearance. While their use should be restricted to achieve a technological benefit, the contents of food additives should be also strictly controlled. In this study, E-nose was applied as an alternative to traditional monitoring technologies for determining two food additives, namely benzoic acid and chitosan. For quantitative monitoring, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme learning machine (ELM) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were applied to establish regression models between E-nose signals and the amount of food additives in fruit juices. The monitoring models based on ELM and RF reached higher correlation coefficients (R 2 s) and lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) than models based on PLSR and SVM. This work indicates that E-nose combined with RF or ELM can be a cost-effective, easy-to-build and rapid detection system for food additive monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DETERMINATION OF LEVEL OF FOOD ADDITIVES IN Labisia pumila (LP BEVERAGES CONSUMED IN KUANTAN, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Chandra Iwansyah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The content levels of several food additives (gallic acid, benzoic acid and caffeine in commercial Labisia pumila (LP beverage samples in Kuantan, Malaysia were determined by high performances liquid chromatography (HPLC. These analytical measurements were undertaken primarily to assess the compliance of content levels of the investigated food additives and their daily intake doses with permissible levels. The results obtained from this study indicated that the average levels of GA, caffeine and benzoic acid in the analyzed beverages were 37.62-229.35 ppm, 43.46 -168.00 ppm and 98.10-241.13 ppm, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of these food additives have been converted into daily intake doses based on beverage consumption. It was estimated that the mean daily intake of GA, caffeine and benzoic acid  by the adult population of Kuantan through the consumption of the analyzed beverages  were 0.39 mg/kg body weight/day for GA, 0.59 mg/kg body weight/day for caffeine (19.6 % ADI and 0.43 mg/kg body weight/day for benzoic acid (8.6%ADI. None of the analyzed beverage sample was found to violate the current legal limits as stipulated in Malaysian food regulation.   Keywords: beverages, daily intake, food additives, Labisia pumila

  5. Prey-predator dynamics with prey refuge providing additional food to predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Joydev; Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of interplay between prey refugia and additional food are reported. • Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. • Existence of unique limit cycle is shown analytically. • Predator extinction may be possible at very high prey refuge ecological systems. - Abstract: The impacts of additional food for predator on the dynamics of a prey-predator model with prey refuge are investigated. The equilibrium points and their stability behaviours are determined. Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. Most significantly, existence conditions for unique stable limit cycle in the phase plane are shown analytically. The analytical results are in well agreement with the numerical simulation results. Effects of variation of refuge level as well as the variation of quality and quantity of additional food on the dynamics are reported with the help of bifurcation diagrams. It is found that high quality and high quantity of additional food supports oscillatory coexistence of species. It is observed that predator extinction possibility in high prey refuge ecological systems may be removed by supplying additional food to predator population. The reported theoretical results may be useful to conservation biologist for species conservation in real world ecological systems.

  6. Gene expression profiling in colon of mice exposed to food additive titanium dioxide (E171).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proquin, Héloïse; Jetten, Marlon J; Jonkhout, Marloes C M; Garduño-Balderas, Luis G; Briedé, Jacob J; de Kok, Theo M; Chirino, Yolanda I; van Loveren, Henk

    2018-01-01

    Dietary factors that may influence the risks of colorectal cancer, including specific supplements, are under investigation. Previous studies showed the capacity of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) to induce DNA damage in vitro and facilitate growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these effects after E171 exposure. BALB/c mice were exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kg bw /day of E171 for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. Transcriptome changes were studied by whole genome mRNA microarray analysis on the mice's distal colons. In addition, histopathological changes as well as a proliferation marker were analysed. The results showed significant gene expression changes in the olfactory/GPCR receptor family, oxidative stress, the immune system and of cancer related genes. Transcriptome analysis also identified genes that thus far have not been included in known biological pathways and can induce functional changes by interacting with other genes involved in different biological pathways. Histopathological analysis showed alteration and disruption in the normal structure of crypts inducing a hyperplastic epithelium. At cell proliferation level, no consistent increase over time was observed. These results may offer a mechanistic framework for the enhanced tumour growth after ingestion of E171 in BALB/c mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Addition of High Strength Food Wastes on Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ramola Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and food wastes high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been an area of interest for waste water treatment facilities looking to increase methane production, and at the same time, dispose of the wastes and increase the revenue. However, addition of food wastes containing fats, oils and grease (FOG) to the conventional anaerobic digestion process can be difficult and pose challenges to utilities. Incorporating these wastes into the treatment plants c...

  8. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, M.; Bernillon, N.; Fabre, C.; Roubeix, M.; Ricort, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food'' and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate (R)) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate a...

  9. Importance of perceived naturalness for acceptance of food additives and cultured meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2017-06-01

    Four experiments examined some factors influencing the perceived naturalness of food products and their biasing effect on risk perception. The results of Experiment 1a showed that three food additives displaying their respective E-numbers (i.e., codes for food additives in the European Union and Switzerland) decreased perceived naturalness. Experiment 1b demonstrated that mentioning possible health effects decreased the perceived naturalness of a plant-based food additive. This experiment further showed that it would not matter for perceived naturalness whether the food was synthetic or nature-identical. Moreover, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggested that the same risk associated with meat consumption was much more acceptable for traditionally produced meat compared with in-vitro meat. Experiment 3 further indicated that the perceived naturalness of the meat (i.e., traditional or cultured meat) had a full mediation effect on participants' evaluation of the acceptability of the risk of colon cancer associated with the meat consumption. Even if the new production method (i.e., cultured meat) was more environmentally friendly and less harmful to animals, the perceived lack of naturalness might reduce the acceptability of the risk associated with such a product. The present study provides evidence that consumers rely on symbolic information when evaluating foods, which may lead to biased judgments and decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer exposures to anthocyanins from colour additives, colouring foodstuffs and from natural occurrence in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R; Klingenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3-6.3 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) and for adults at 0.6-2.8 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1). Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods.

  11. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  12. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  14. Effect of Micronutrient Powder Addition on Sensory Properties of Foods for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Katherine M; Duncan, Alison M; Keller, Heather H; Stark, Ken D; Duizer, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    Micronutrient fortification can improve nutrient intake of older adults in long-term care. However, previous studies indicate that micronutrient fortification can alter food sensory attributes and, potentially, consumer liking. Others have found no effect of fortification on liking. This research investigates the effect of micronutrient powder addition on the sensory properties of selected foods commonly served in long-term care. A micronutrient powder containing 9 vitamins and 3 minerals was added to tomato soup and oatmeal at different levels. Using projective mapping, changes in sensory properties were observed with powder addition. Descriptive analysis, used to quantify these changes, showed that both the tomato soup and oatmeal had reduced flavor as the amount of added micronutrient powder increased. Oatmeal also showed changes in texture with fortification. Consumer liking scores for tomato soup showed that micronutrient addition affected liking when 100% of a daily dose was added into the soup. Addition of 50% of the daily dose did not affect liking. Oatmeal liking did not differ between fortified and unfortified samples. Results from this research can be used to decide whether a micronutrient powder of selected vitamins and minerals can be added to foods served to older adults in long-term care. Although sensory properties of the foods will be altered, fortification of both tomato soup and oatmeal with the developed powder is possible without reducing consumer liking to the point where it is disliked. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  16. 76 FR 32332 - BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... FDA-2011-F-0365] BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of methyl... is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2269) has been filed by BASF Corp. (BASF), 100 Campus Dr...

  17. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D., E-mail: me00806@cc.uoi.g [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G. [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 {sup o}C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 {sup o}C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [{sup 60}Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since

  18. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2011-08-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected

  19. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 o C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 o C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [ 60 Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not

  20. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, A.J.; Vieira, F.F.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2000-01-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. (author)

  1. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J. E-mail: nlmastro@net.ipen.br; Vieira, F.F.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. (author)

  2. The use of antibiotics as food additives in poultry and their effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The widespread use and misuse of antimicrobials beyond human medicine, assisted in the alarming emergence of resistance amongst the bacterial strains. Aim: to determine the effect of the use of antibiotics as food additives on the intestinal flora of poultry. Methods: one hundred and eighty chickens at the age of two ...

  3. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Final Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In response to the issues raised by B. Feingold regarding the possible role of food additives as a cause of hyperactivity and learing disability, the Nutrition Foundation organized a critical review of Feinfold's claims by a group of behavioral and medical scientists. Among the cliams made by Feingold was that, when treated with the salicylate and…

  4. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  5. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  6. 76 FR 71248 - Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... survey of pet food products for dogs, cats, rabbits, and guinea pigs, however, found that only 13 of the... change the wording of their labels. Animal feeds for a limited number of production animals, such as... assumptions on the use of color additives in animal feeds for production animals in general, and in particular...

  7. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  8. Food-additive-induced urticaria: a survey of 838 patients with recurrent chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Gabriele; Pacor, Maria Luisa; Mansueto, Pasquale; Martinelli, Nicola; Esposito-Pellitteri, Maria; Lo Bianco, Claudia; Ditta, Vito; Leto-Barone, Maria Stefania; Napoli, Nicola; Di Fede, Gaetana; Rini, Giovambattista; Corrocher, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    Recurrent chronic idiopathic urticaria (RCIU) is a common skin condition that affects 0.1-3% of the population in the USA and Europe and accounts for nearly 75% of all 'ordinary' chronic urticaria (CU) cases. We studied 838 consecutive patients with RCIU referred to hospital between 1998 and 2003. Patients with known causes of CU were excluded. Clinical history, physical examination, and symptom diaries were evaluated during two periods, a diet-free period (1 week) and a food-additive-free diet (FAFD) period (4 weeks), respectively, and two double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenges of six food additives were administered. The first DBPC challenge included a mixture of the six food additives (DBPCmixed) given to all patients. The second DBPC challenge comprised the single food additives, administered at increasing doses (DBPCsingle) to patients with a positive DBPCmixed test and 105 patients with a negative DBPCmixed test, as a control. The DBPCmixed challenge was positive in 116 patients. None of the 105 control patients had a positive DBPCsingle test. Only 31 DBPCsingle tests were positive in patients with positive DBPCmixed challenge. Twenty-four of the 116 patients showing a positive DBPCmixed challenge also had a positive DBPCsingle result. Our results confirmed that food additive hypersensitivity reactions occurred in few RCIU patients using DBPCsingle challenge. The combination of the results of FAFD and DBPCmixed challenge seems to be of considerable practical interest for allergists, internists and dermatologists, rather than the data of clinical history and the results of DBPCsingle challenge, in patients with RCIU. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0178] Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray... Sadex Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for...

  10. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-1994-D-0007] Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds... Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is...

  11. The Use of Ascorbic Acid as a Food Additive: Technical-Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvara, Michele; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Celano, Giuseppe; Disanto, Chiara; Pagliarone, Cosimo Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is an organic compound belonging to the family of monosaccharide. It is highly soluble in water, and is often called one of the secrets of the Mediterranean diet. Its use is widespread in the food industry is also important, having always been exploited for its antioxidant and stabilising ability. Many indeed are the additive formulations that take advantage of these properties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristics that make ascorbic acid an important food additive and to emphasise the technical and legal issues related to its use in food productions. In particular, in the course of this employment, laws and scientific studies have been applied to the resolution of a lawsuit, having as its object the use of ascorbic acid in preparations of ground beef sold at a butcher shop. The views expressed in court by the technical consultant have led to the acquittal of the accused, in the light of the demonstrated and proven non-toxicity of the molecule and the use of a mixture of additives for the production of sausage. The European and national legislations, supported by numerous scientific studies, define the possible use of ascorbic acid according to the principle of quantum satis, and it can be used in foods for children. Our work aims to represent further evidence of the safety of use of ascorbic acid as a food additive, and – as confirmed by the legal decision reported – it wants to bring out the prospects for use of ascorbic acid for technological purposes even by registered establishments. PMID:27800425

  12. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  13. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  14. Meeting Expanding Needs to Collect Food Intake Specificity: The Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHeel, Nancy; Pettit, Janet; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Food and nutrient databases are populated with data obtained from a variety of sources including USDA Reference Tables, scientific journals, food manufacturers and foreign food tables. The food and nutrient database maintained by the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) at the University of Minnesota is continually updated with current nutrient data and continues to be expanded with additional nutrient fields to meet diverse research endeavors. Data are strictly evaluated for reliability and relevance before incorporation into the database; however, the values are obtained from various sources and food samples rather than from direct chemical analysis of specific foods. Precise nutrient values for specific foods are essential to the nutrition program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Specific foods to be included in the menus of astronauts are chemically analyzed at the Johnson Space Center for selected nutrients. A request from NASA for a method to enter the chemically analyzed nutrient values for these space flight food items into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software resulted in modification of the database and interview system for use by NASA, with further modification to extend the method for related uses by more typical research studies.

  15. Thermally Induced Encapsulation of Food Nutrients into Phytoferritin through the Flexible Channels without Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Liu, Yuqian; Yang, Zhiying; Wu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-11-22

    The cavity of phytoferritin provides a nanospace to encapsulate and deliver food nutrient molecules. However, tranditional methods to prepare the ferritin-nutrient complexes must undergo acid/alkaline conditions or apply additives. In this work, we provide a novel guideline that thermal treatment at 60 °C can expand ferritin channels by uncoiling the surrounding α-helix. Upon reduction of the temperature to 20 °C, food nutrient rutin can be encapsulated in apo-soybean seed ferritin (apoSSF) at pH 7.0 through channels without disassembly of the protein cage and with no addition of additives. Results indicated that one apoSSF could encapsulate about 10.5 molecules of rutin, with an encapsulation ratio of 8.08% (w/w). In addition, the resulting rutin-loaded SSF complexes were monodispersed in a size of 12 nm in aqueous solution. This work provides a novel pathway for the encapsulation of food nutrient molecules into the nanocavity of ferritin under a neutral pH condition induced by thermal treatment.

  16. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. General and food-specific parenting: measures and interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef; Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels-parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent-child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior.

  18. General and Food-Specific Parenting: Measures and Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels—parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Methods Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Results Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Conclusions Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent–child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior. PMID:23944921

  19. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, Marion; Bernillon, Noémie; Fabre, Claudie; Roubeix, Mathilde; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food" and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate®) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate and potato, 26% for apple, 37% for tomato and 41% for banana) or boiling in a large amount of water (73% for potato). Although Kayexalate® efficiently dose-dependently removed potassium from drinks (by 48% to 73%), resin addition during soaking or boiling did not eliminate more potassium from solid foods. Our results therefore provide useful information for dietitians who elaborate menus for people on potassium-restricted diets and would give an interesting alternative to the systematic elimination of all potassium-rich foods from their diet.

  20. Simple method for the selection of the appropriate food simulant for the evaluation of a specific food/packaging interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Muñoz, P; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the extent of food/packaging interactions is essential to provide assurance of food quality and shelf life, especially in migration and sorption processes that commonly reach equilibrium during the lifetime of a commercial packaged foodstuff. The limits of sorption and migration must be measured in the presence of the specific food or an appropriate food simulant. The partition equilibrium of food aroma compounds between plastic films and foods or food simulants (K(A,P/L) has been characterized. Two polymers (LLDPE and PET), three organic compounds (ethyl caproate, hexanal and 2-phenylethanol), four food products with varying fat content (milk cream, mayonnaise, margarine and oil) and three simulants (ethanol 95%, n-heptane and isooctane) were selectedfor study. The results show the effect of the aroma compound volatility, and polarity, as well as its compatibility with the polymer and the food or food simulant. Equilibrium constants for the organic compound between the polymers and a gaseous phase (K(A,P/V)) as well as between the food (or food simulant) and a gaseous phase (K(A,L/V)) were also determined. An approach is presented to estimate K(A,P/V) from the binary equilibrium constants K(A,P/V) and K(A,L/V). Calculated results were shown to describe experimental data very well and indicated that compatibility between the aroma and the food or food simulant is the main contributing factor to the partition equilibrium describing the extent of food/packaging interactions. Therefore, the measurement of liquid/vapour equilibrium can be regarded as a powerful tool to compare the effectiveness of food simulants as substitutes of a particular food product and can be used as a guide for the selection of the appropriate simulant.

  1. DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandir, Dilek

    2016-08-01

    The use of food additives has increased enormously in modern food technology but they have adverse effects in human healthy. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage of some food additives such as citric acid (CA), benzoic acid (BA), brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY) which were investigated in human male germ cells using comet assay. The sperm cells were incubated with different concentrations of these food additives (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/mL) for 1 h at 32 °C. The results showed for CA, BA, BB and SY a dose dependent increase in tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment in human sperm when compared to control group. When control values were compared in the studied parameters in the treatment concentrations, SY was found to exhibit the highest level of DNA damage followed by BB > BA > CA. However, none of the food additives affected the tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment at 50 and 100 μg/mL. At 200 μg/mL of SY, the tail DNA% and tail length of sperm were 95.80 ± 0.28 and 42.56 ± 4.66, for BB the values were 95.06 ± 2.30 and 39.56 ± 3.78, whereas for BA the values were 89.05 ± 2.78 and 31.50 ± 0.71, for CA the values were 88.59 ± 6.45 and 13.59 ± 2.74, respectively. However, only the highest concentration of the used food additives significantly affected the studied parameters of sperm DNA. The present results indicate that SY and BB are more harmful than BA and CA to human sperm in vitro.

  2. Effect of food additives on egg yolk gelation induced by freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primacella, Monica; Fei, Tao; Acevedo, Nuria; Wang, Tong

    2018-10-15

    This study demonstrates technological advances in preventing yolk gelation during freezing and thawing. Gelation negatively affects yolk functionality in food formulation. Preventing gelation using 10% salt or sugar limits the application of the yolk. Novel food additives were tested to prevent gelation induced by freezing. Significant reduction (p freezing at -20 °C) indicates that hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose (HCMC), proline, and hydrolyzed egg white and yolk (HEW and HEY) are effective gelation inhibitors. The mechanisms in which these additives prevented gelation were further studied through measuring the changes in the amount of freezable water, lipoprotein particle size, and protein surface hydrophobicity. Overall, this study provides several alternatives of gelation inhibitor that have great potentials in replacing the use of salt or sugar in commercial operation of freezing egg yolk for shelf-life extension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocational High School Students’ Creativity in Food Additives with Problem Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Supriyanti, T.; Rosbiono, M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the creativity of vocational students through Problem Based Learning approach in the food additives. The method which used quasi-experiment with one group posttest design. The research subjects were 32 students in grade XII of a vocational high school students courses chemical analysis in Bandung city. Instrument of creativity were essay, Student Worksheet, and observation sheets. Creativity measured include creative thinking skills and creative act skills. The results showed creative thinking skills and creative act skills are good. Research showed that the problem based learning approach can be applied to develop creativity of vocational students in the food additives well, because the students are given the opportunity to determine their own experiment procedure that will be used. It is recommended to often implement Problem Based Learning approach in other chemical concepts so that students’ creativity is sustainable.

  4. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  5. Antibacterial activity of kecombrang flower extract (Nicolaia speciosa) microencapsulation with food additive materials formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufalin, R.; Rukmini, H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Kecombrang flower (Nicolaia speciosa) contains bioactive components of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, steroids, saponins, and essential oils as potential antimicrobials. The use of antibacterials in the form of essential oils has constraints; therefore microencapsulation needs to be done to prevent damage to the bioactive components. Microencapsulation can prevent degradation due to radiation or oxygen, easy-mix with foodstuffs and also slow the occurrence of evaporation. This study aimed to determine the effect of types of kecombrang extract, the concentration of microcapsules in food additives (NaCl and sucrose), and concentration of flower extract in the microcapsules. This study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 18 treatment combinations and two replications. Factors studied were types of kecombrang flower extract of (semi polar and polar extract), Food Additive types (sucrose and NaCl), the concentration of microcapsules in food additive (0%; 15%; 30% w /v). The results showed that polar and non-polar extract microcapsules produced antibacterial activity of 7.178 mm and 7.145 respectively of Bacillus cereus bacteria, while Escherichia coli was 7.272 mm and 7.289 mm respectively. A 30 percent microcapsule concentration provides antibacterial activity with inhibiting zone of 7, 818 mm for B. cereus and 8,045 for E.coli. Food Additive of sucrose concentrations showed that microcapsules produced tend to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of E.coli and B. cereus bacteria than that of NaCl, with each inhibition zone of 7.499 mm and 7.357 mm

  6. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOOD ADDITIVES FROM PUMPKIN PROCESSING SECONDARY RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kupin G. A.; Kornen N. N.; Matvienko A. N.; Shahray T. A.; Pershakova T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents data characterizing the composition of macro and micronutrients from secondary resources of pumpkin processing – pumpkin pomace. We have found that extracts of pumpkin are valuable raw materials for the production of food additives, as they contain proteins, dietary fiber, including pectin and protopectin, minerals, as well as such biologically active substances as vitamin C, β- carotene and P-active substances using nuclear magnetic relaxation, it is shown that pretreatm...

  7. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  8. Formation and reduction of carcinogenic furan in various model systems containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sil; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse and reduce furan in various model systems. Furan model systems consisting of monosaccharides (0.5M glucose and ribose), amino acids (0.5M alanine and serine) and/or 1.0M ascorbic acid were heated at 121°C for 25 min. The effects of food additives (each 0.1M) such as metal ions (iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and calcium sulphate), antioxidants (BHT and BHA), and sodium sulphite on the formation of furan were measured. The level of furan formed in the model systems was 6.8-527.3 ng/ml. The level of furan in the model systems of glucose/serine and glucose/alanine increased 7-674% when food additives were added. In contrast, the level of furan decreased by 18-51% in the Maillard reaction model systems that included ribose and alanine/serine with food additives except zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mucus: An Underestimated Gut Target for Environmental Pollutants and Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillois, Kévin; Lévêque, Mathilde; Théodorou, Vassilia; Robert, Hervé; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2018-06-15

    Synthetic chemicals (environmental pollutants, food additives) are widely used for many industrial purposes and consumer-related applications, which implies, through manufactured products, diet, and environment, a repeated exposure of the general population with growing concern regarding health disorders. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physical and biological barrier against these compounds, and thus their first target. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiota represents a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants and food additives; however, little is known on the toxicological relevance of the mucus/pollutant interplay, even though mucus is increasingly recognized as essential in gut homeostasis. Here, we aimed at describing how environmental pollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, and other persistent organic pollutants) and food additives (emulsifiers, nanomaterials) might interact with mucus and mucus-related microbial species; that is, “mucophilic” bacteria such as mucus degraders. This review highlights that intestinal mucus, either directly or through its crosstalk with the gut microbiota, is a key, yet underestimated gut player that must be considered for better risk assessment and management of environmental pollution.

  10. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    OpenAIRE

    Saltman Y; Johnson TE; Wilkinson KL; Bastian SEP

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  11. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose.

  12. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Romanian Consumers’ Willingness to Buy Foodstuffs Containing Food Additives: Results of a Conjoint Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szucs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the literature and the authors’ previous studies showed consumers’ high anxiety regarding food additives as well as their high demand for additive-free products in Romania, even at higher prices. Hence, the aim of our work was to analyse the willingness to buy and preference of foodstuffs containing natural and artificial food additives in Romania.A complex conjoint analysis (rating-based and choice-based was performed amongst Romanian consumers. Conjoint cards were created from two groups of food additives (‘preservatives’ and ‘packaging gases’, and consisting of two ‘model foodstuffs’ (pre-packed sliced cheese and chips. For the study, three factors were selected: ‘preservatives’ (artificial/natural, ‘packaging gases’ (contains/does not contain and ‘price’ (average+10%/average+20%. Results were collected via the internet and data were analysed with the help of SPSS Conjoint and XLSTAT softwares. ‘Preservatives’ have a dominant importance and ‘natural preservatives’ have a high utility in shopping decisions. ‘Natural’ compounds have higher importance in the example of foodstuffs thought to contain less food additives (pre-packed sliced cheese, while the presence of ‘packaging gases’ is acceptable to respondents in easy to handle and convenient foodstuffs. With the help of the cluster analysis, the promising target group (‘desire for natural’ characterising additive-free foodstuffs  that contain natural compounds was identified. Restricted comparison of the rating-based and the choice-based analysis showed that the choice-based method was easier to handle and understand for the participants. Regarding the results, a threefold conclusion was established: the ‘prominence effect’ is greater for the choice-based than the rating-based analysis; the effect of ‘level focusing’ is smaller in the rating-based than in the choice-based analysis; the ‘compatibility effect’ the rating

  14. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  15. A safe strategy for addition of vitamins and minerals to foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Dragsted, L.O.

    2006-01-01

    Addition of vitamins and minerals to foods must be done without health risk to any consumer group. International expert groups have aimed at establishing tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals although lack of solid data on their safety is a major obstacle to this work....... The levels are applied in a model for calculation of safe fortification levels for all ages.We have estimated the upper 95(th) percentile intake of vitamins and minerals from food in various Danish age and gender groups and suggest that a daily multivitaminmineral pill is included in the calculation of total...... dietary intake levels of all vitamins and minerals. By subtracting this dietary intake level from the UL, GL or TGL, we calculate the amount that can be safely used for fortification. Since safety must be assured for all age groups, the smallest difference relative to energy intake calculated for any age...

  16. Critical review of the safety assessment of titanium dioxide additives in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Notter, Tina; Meyer, Urs; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2018-06-01

    Nanomaterial engineering provides an important technological advance that offers substantial benefits for applications not only in the production and processing, but also in the packaging and storage of food. An expanding commercialization of nanomaterials as part of the modern diet will substantially increase their oral intake worldwide. While the risk of particle inhalation received much attention, gaps of knowledge exist regarding possible adverse health effects due to gastrointestinal exposure. This problem is highlighted by pigment-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which confers a white color and increased opacity with an optimal particle diameter of 200-300 nm. However, size distribution analyses showed that batches of food-grade TiO 2 always comprise a nano-sized fraction as inevitable byproduct of the manufacturing processes. Submicron-sized TiO 2 particles, in Europe listed as E 171, are widely used as a food additive although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. For example, it is not possible to derive a safe daily intake of TiO 2 from the available long-term feeding studies in rodents. Also, the use of TiO 2 particles in the food sector leads to highest exposures in children, but only few studies address the vulnerability of this particular age group. Extrapolation of animal studies to humans is also problematic due to knowledge gaps as to local gastrointestinal effects of TiO 2 particles, primarily on the mucosa and the gut-associated lymphoid system. Tissue distributions after oral administration of TiO 2 differ from other exposure routes, thus limiting the relevance of data obtained from inhalation or parenteral injections. Such difficulties and uncertainties emerging in the retrospective assessment of TiO 2 particles exemplify the need for a fit-to-purpose data requirement for the future evaluation of novel nano-sized or submicron-sized particles added deliberately to food.

  17. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  18. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del

    2002-01-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against 60 Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  19. Interactive effects of prey refuge and additional food for predator in a diffusive predator-prey system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    a predator-prey system with prey refuge and additional food for predator apart from the focal prey in the presence of diffusion. Our main aim is to study the interactive effects of prey refuge and additional food on the system dynamics and especially on the controllability of prey (pest). Different types......Additional food for predators has been considered as one of the best established techniques in integrated pest management and biological conservation programs. In natural systems, there are several other factors, e.g., prey refuge, affect the success of pest control. In this paper, we analyze...... of Turing patterns such as stripes, spots, holes, and mixtures of them are obtained. It is found that the supply of additional food to the predator is unable to control the prey (pest) population when prey refuge is high. Moreover, when both prey refuge and additional food are low, spatial distribution...

  20. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2004-F-0069... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... radiation in the production of shelf stable foods, including multiple ingredient shelf stable foods. FOR...

  1. Clinical importance of non-specific lipid transfer proteins as food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) have recently been identified as plant food allergens. They are good examples of true food allergens, in the sense that they are capable of sensitizing, i.e. inducing specific IgE, as well as of eliciting severe symptoms. This is in contrast with most

  2. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases.

  3. Critical review of public health regulations of titanium dioxide, a human food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165050000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. © 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  4. Critical Review of Public Health Regulations of Titanium Dioxide, a Human Food Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-01-01

    From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165 050 000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:10–20. © 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25091211

  5. Safety assessment of sodium acetate, sodium diacetate and potassium sorbate food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Sohrabi, Yousef; Mohammadi, Ali; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Dehghan, Parvin; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2018-08-15

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium acetate (SA), sodium diacetate (SDA), and potassium sorbate (PS) was tested on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, while genotoxicity was evaluated using DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining assays. The growth of treated HUVECs with various concentrations of SA, SDA and PS decreased in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of 487.71, 485.82 and 659.96 µM after 24 h and IC50 of 232.05, 190.19 and 123.95 µM after 48 h of treatment were attained for SA, SDA and PS, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that early and late apoptosis percentage in treated cells was not considerable. Also neither considerable DNA fragmentation nor DNA smear was observed using DAPI staining and DNA ladder assays. Overall, it can be concluded that the aforementioned food additives can be used as safe additives at low concentration in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium intakes of US children and adults from foods and beverages by location of origin and by specific food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-05-28

    Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003-2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6-11 years of age), adolescents (12-19), and adults (20-50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6-11 year olds and 6.0% for 12-19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet.

  7. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non

  8. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  9. Cultural specificity in food choice - The case of ethnography in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Irith

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies examining food choice from a cross-cultural perspective were based primarily on quantitative research using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). This study suggests ethnography as a complementary research method in cross-cultural food choice studies. While use of the FCQ resulted in findings of cultural differences in food choice processes, within a preliminary motive list, ethnography allows the exploration of new, possibly culture-specific motives for food choice. Moreover, ethnography allows a deeper understanding of the cultural background of food choice processes in a studied culture. Using Japan as a case study, this research demonstrates the use of ethnography to argue that variety is a primary motive for food choice in contemporary Japanese culture. Variety is hence regarded here as a part of a larger food culture attribute, an "adventurous palate," which can also provide a background for previous FCQ findings (Prescott, Young, O'neill, Yau, & Stevens, 2002). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and fabrication of patient-specific knee implant using additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Robert; Rochman, Arif

    2017-10-01

    Total knee replacement is the most effective treatment to relief pain and restore normal function in a diseased knee joint. The aim of this research was to develop a patient-specific knee implant which can be fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques and has reduced wear rates using a highly wear resistant materials. The proposed design was chosen based on implant requirements, such as reduction in wear rates as well as strong fixation. The patient-specific knee implant improves on conventional knee implants by modifying the articulating surfaces and bone-implant interfaces. Moreover, tribological tests of different polymeric wear couples were carried out to determine the optimal materials to use for the articulating surfaces. Finite element analysis was utilized to evaluate the stresses sustained by the proposed design. Finally, the patient-specific knee implant was successfully built using additive manufacturing techniques.

  11. DNA damage in human lymphocytes exposed to four food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Unal, Fatma; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Celik, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    In vitro genotoxic effects of antioxidant additives, such as citric acid (CA) and phosphoric acid (PA) and their combination, as well as antimicrobial additives, such as benzoic acid (BA) and calcium propionate (CP), on human lymphocytes were determined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase in the DNA damage in human lymphocytes after 1 h of in vitro exposure to CA, PA, BA and CP (200, 25-200, 50-500, 50-1000 μg/mL, respectively). The combination of CA and PA significantly increased the mean tail intensity at all the concentrations used (25-200 μg/mL) and significantly increased the mean tail length mainly after higher concentrations (100 and 200 μg/mL). Data in this study showed that the concentrations of food additives used induce DNA damage and PA was the most genotoxic and CA was less genotoxic additives among them. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on plastic food packaging materials: a review. 2. Global migration, sensory changes and the fate of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, R.; Schuttler, C.; Bogl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Increased ''global'' migration into food simulants has been described as a consequence of irradiation, particularly with fatty media; development of off-odors and taint transfer into food simulants have been observed with various plastics. Additives, especially antioxidants, are destroyed during irradiation, and increased ''specific'' migration values have been observed under certain circumstances. Organotin stabilizers in PVC are ultimately degraded to SnCl4, and increased migration of tin compounds was observed after gamma irradiation. Degradation products of phenol antioxidants, that were also found as migrants, have only recently been identified; some of these structures seem to be radiation specific

  13. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    panel in that there were no prepared papers. Discussions took place on the value of various methods, and information on such matters as formulations, ingredients and techniques was assembled. The resulting draft report was thorough and reflected the great amount of work that had gone into its preparation. But the feeling of the senior members of the panel was that there was room for further refinement and improvement. This feeling was strengthened by the realization that significant work on microbiological methods, which had not been completed at the time of the panel meeting, was now available from the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Food of IAMS. Thus the panel was brought together again on 6-10 November 1967 in Vienna for the purpose of reviewing the draft report, reducing the number of methods proposed for the evaluation of food for specific micro-organisms, and drawing more fully upon the experience of the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for food. in addition to the draft report, the unpublished reports of the meetings of the International Committee held in Cambridge (UK). 1965, Moscow, 1966, and London, 1967, were used as working papers. The composition of the second panel varied only slightly from that of the first. This report, then, supplements 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', mentioned above. In formulating legislation or regulations clarity is essential; this is particularly so in microbiology where the values obtained for the microbial content of a food are likely to differ widely. If a regulation specifies that certain micro-organisms must be absent from a food, or that they are permitted only in certain quantities, the methods and techniques to be used in order to comply with the regulation should also be specified. The present report aims to provide the link between the regulatory microbiological requirements and the methods that should be used. The panel experts compared the

  14. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    panel in that there were no prepared papers. Discussions took place on the value of various methods, and information on such matters as formulations, ingredients and techniques was assembled. The resulting draft report was thorough and reflected the great amount of work that had gone into its preparation. But the feeling of the senior members of the panel was that there was room for further refinement and improvement. This feeling was strengthened by the realization that significant work on microbiological methods, which had not been completed at the time of the panel meeting, was now available from the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Food of IAMS. Thus the panel was brought together again on 6-10 November 1967 in Vienna for the purpose of reviewing the draft report, reducing the number of methods proposed for the evaluation of food for specific micro-organisms, and drawing more fully upon the experience of the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for food. in addition to the draft report, the unpublished reports of the meetings of the International Committee held in Cambridge (UK). 1965, Moscow, 1966, and London, 1967, were used as working papers. The composition of the second panel varied only slightly from that of the first. This report, then, supplements 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', mentioned above. In formulating legislation or regulations clarity is essential; this is particularly so in microbiology where the values obtained for the microbial content of a food are likely to differ widely. If a regulation specifies that certain micro-organisms must be absent from a food, or that they are permitted only in certain quantities, the methods and techniques to be used in order to comply with the regulation should also be specified. The present report aims to provide the link between the regulatory microbiological requirements and the methods that should be used. The panel experts compared the

  15. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-04-01

    panel in that there were no prepared papers. Discussions took place on the value of various methods, and information on such matters as formulations, ingredients and techniques was assembled. The resulting draft report was thorough and reflected the great amount of work that had gone into its preparation. But the feeling of the senior members of the panel was that there was room for further refinement and improvement. This feeling was strengthened by the realization that significant work on microbiological methods, which had not been completed at the time of the panel meeting, was now available from the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Food of IAMS. Thus the panel was brought together again on 6-10 November 1967 in Vienna for the purpose of reviewing the draft report, reducing the number of methods proposed for the evaluation of food for specific micro-organisms, and drawing more fully upon the experience of the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for food. in addition to the draft report, the unpublished reports of the meetings of the International Committee held in Cambridge (UK). 1965, Moscow, 1966, and London, 1967, were used as working papers. The composition of the second panel varied only slightly from that of the first. This report, then, supplements 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', mentioned above. In formulating legislation or regulations clarity is essential; this is particularly so in microbiology where the values obtained for the microbial content of a food are likely to differ widely. If a regulation specifies that certain micro-organisms must be absent from a food, or that they are permitted only in certain quantities, the methods and techniques to be used in order to comply with the regulation should also be specified. The present report aims to provide the link between the regulatory microbiological requirements and the methods that should be used. The panel experts compared the

  16. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  17. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  18. Specific elements of communication on agri-food products resulting from EU legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Timiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union a significant number of regulations aimed at agricultural and food sector thus creating the legal framework regarding the mode of production, pricing, distribution and communication in relation to agri-food products. Specificity agri-food marketing communication at EU level resulting in most of the measures taken with regard to ensuring consumer protection, food safety and security, some of them, in force in early 2012, referring to the labeling, presentation and advertising of agri-food products, sponsorship and distinctive signs of quality are shown in this paper.

  19. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  20. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Four types of SiO 2 particles were characterized by SdFFF, PCS and EM techniques. •Clusters of 10 nm nanoparticles were found in some SiO 2 samples. •A method was set up to extract SiO 2 particles from food matrices. •The effects of the carrier solution composition on SdFFF separations were evaluated. •Particle size distributions were obtained from SiO 2 particles extracted from foodstuffs. -- Abstract: Four types of SiO 2 , available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w −1 ) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO 2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO 2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO 2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w −1 ). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO 2 -rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification

  1. Characterization and biocompatibility of glucan: a safe food additive from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-03-15

    Exopolysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of an increasing number of studies for their potential applications in the food industry as stabilizing, bio-thickening and immunostimulating agents. In this regard, the authors isolated an exopolysaccharide producing probiotic lactic acid bacterium from fermented beverage Marcha of north eastern Himalayas. The isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 showed extracellular glucansucrase activity of 0.48 U mg⁻¹ by synthesizing natural exopolysaccharide glucan (1.87 mg mL⁻¹) from sucrose. Zymogram analysis of purified enzyme confirms the presence of glucosyltransferase of approximately 148 kDa with optimal activity of 18.7 U mg⁻¹ at 30 °C and pH 5.4. The exopolysaccharide was purified by gel permeation chromatography and had an average molecular weight of 1.11 × 10⁶ Da. Acid hydrolysis and structural characterization of exopolysaccharide revealed that it was composed of d-glucose residues, containing 86.5% of α-(1→6) and 13.5% of α-(1→3) linkages. Rheological study exhibited a shear thinning effect of glucan appropriate for food additives. A cytotoxicity test of glucan on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic biocompatible nature. This is the first report on the structure and biocompatibility of homopolysaccharide α-D-glucan (dextran) from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain and its unique physical and rheological properties that facilitate its application in the food industry as viscosifying and gelling agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of the food additive, citric acid, on kidney cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xg; Lv, Qx; Liu, Ym; Deng, W

    2015-01-01

    Citric acid is a food additive that is widely used in the food and drink industry. We investigated the effects of citric acid injection on mouse kidney. Forty healthy mice were divided into four groups of 10 including one control group and three citric acid-treated groups. Low dose, middle dose and high dose groups were given doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg of citric acid, respectively. On day 7, kidney tissues were collected for histological, biochemical and molecular biological examination. We observed shrinkage of glomeruli, widened urinary spaces and capillary congestion, narrowing of the tubule lumen, edema and cytoplasmic vacuolated tubule cells, and appearance of pyknotic nuclei. The relation between histopathological changes and citric acid was dose dependent. Compared to the control, T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the treated groups decreased with increasing doses of citric acid, NOS activity tended to increase, and H2O2 and MDA contents gradually decreased, but the differences between any treated group and the control were not statistically significant. The apoptosis assay showed a dose-dependent increase of caspase-3 activity after administering citrate that was statistically significant. DNA ladder formation occurred after treatment with any dose of citric acid. We concluded that administration of citric acid may cause renal toxicity in mice.

  3. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-07-25

    Four types of SiO2, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w(-1)) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w(-1)). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO2-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spiroketalcarminic Acid, a Novel Minor Anthraquinone Pigment in Cochineal Extract Used in Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusai; Harikai, Naoki; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Cochineal extract prepared from the scale insect Dactylopus coccus (American cochineal) has been used as a natural red dye for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The major pigment in cochineal extract is carminic acid (CA), an anthraquinone glucoside, and several minor pigments have been previously reported. Our investigation aimed at establishing the safety of cochineal dye products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-electrospray ionization-time of flight (UPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF)/MS found an unknown minor pigment, spiroketalcarminic acid (1), in three commercial cochineal extract samples; cochineal extract used in food additives, carmine that is an aluminum salt of cochineal extract used as natural dye, and a research reagent of CA. The purification of 1 from cochineal extract involved sequential chromatographic techniques, including preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two dimensional (2D)-NMR and mass analyses established the structure of 1 to be a novel anthraquinone with an unusual 6,5-spiroketal system instead of the C-glucosyl moiety of CA. The absolute stereochemistry of the spiroketal moiety in 1 was determined by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) correlations and optical rotation. No data corresponding to 1 had previously been reported for extracts of dried cochineal insects and traditional art products dyed with cochineal extract, indicating that 1 is likely produced during the preparation of commercial cochineal extract.

  5. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Andrew.

    1991-09-01

    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author)

  6. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Kramer, E.; Oomen, A.G.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Oegema, G.; Tromp, P.C.; Fokkink, R.; Rietveld, A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2012-01-01

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products

  7. CURRENCY OF THE MICROFLORA CORRECTION WHEN BEGINNING FEEDING WITH ADDITIONAL FOOD AND ARTIFICIAL MILK FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toptchiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children feeding with breast milk have significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal infectious diseases development, than children feeding with artificial milk formulas. At the beginning of feeding with additional food influence of allogenic antigens on child’s organism is increasing, which can lead to disturbances in microbiocoenosis of the gastro-intestinal tract. This causes stool disorders, intestinal colic, dyspepsia, dermatitis, allergic reactions, immunodeficiency with recurrent relapses of infections and development of non-infectious disease and their transition into chronic condition. Forming of the malabsorption syndrome at the background of such conditions leads to growth and mental development retardation of children. Numerous clinical trials proved the beneficial effects of the probiotic Hylak Forte on intestinal microflora in disbiosis.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene: additives and other chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sayama, Kayo; Yamada, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on additives, oligomers, and other chemicals in food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene were investigated. Polyethylene and polypropylene products contained several antioxidants, lubricants and plasticizers. After gamma irradiation, the contents of all the antioxidants significantly decreased. Irgafos 168 disappeared the fastest. Lubricants and plasticizers decreased to some extent or not at all. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was detected not only after irradiation but also before irradiation, and 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone were detected only after irradiation. They were presumed to be degradation products of the irradiation, though the former should be also a degradation product of the manufacturing process. On the other hand, the polystyrene products contained styrene dimers and trimers and their contents did not change after the gamma irradiation. (author)

  9. Structural and biocompatibility properties of dextran from Weissella cibaria JAG8 as food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingirikari, Jagan Mohan Rao; Kothari, Damini; Shukla, Rishikesh; Goyal, Arun

    2014-09-01

    Dextran produced from Weissella cibaria JAG8 was purified and characterized. The molecular mass of dextran as determined by the gel filtration and copper bicinchoninate method was approximately, 800 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that the polysaccharide comprised only glucose units. Dynamic light scattering study confirmed the mono-disperse nature of dextran with hydrodynamic radius of 900 nm. Surface morphology study of dextran by scanning electron microscopy showed the porous web like structure. Cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed non-toxic and biocompatible nature of dextran. The relative browning for dextran from W. cibaria JAG8 was similar to commercial prebiotic Nutraflora P-95 and 3-fold lower than Raftilose P-95. Synthesis of dextran by dextransucrase treated, sucrose-supplemented skimmed milk revealed the promising potential of dextran as a food additive.

  10. Effects of Some Chemical Food Additives on the Shelf-Life Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: The iodine value (101.5mg/100g), saponification (189.70mg/g), free fatty acid (0.25%), acid value (0.50mg/NaOH/g) and specific gravity (0.91) of the oil indicated that the oil was suitable for chips production. Samples treated with additives and their combinations retained their nutrient compositions, except for ...

  11. Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2013-03-01

    Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread use by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and "hidden" phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with CKD. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intake of these additives is not safe for public consumption and as such should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread utilization by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and “hidden” phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with chronic kidney disease. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intakes of these additives are not safe for public consumption and as such, should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. PMID:23439374

  13. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically

  14. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Certified reference materials for food packaging specific migration tests: development, validation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:certified reference materials; diffusion; food contact materials; food packaging; laurolactam; migration modelling; nylon; specific migration This thesis compiles several research topics

  16. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierum, Rob; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole

  17. Pattern formation and control of spatiotemporal chaos in a reaction diffusion prey–predator system supplying additional food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Santu; Poria, Swarup

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of a predator–prey system in presence of spatial diffusion is investigated in presence of additional food exists for predators. Conditions for stability of Hopf as well as Turing patterns in a spatial domain are determined by making use of the linear stability analysis. Impact of additional food is clear from these conditions. Numerical simulation results are presented in order to validate the analytical findings. Finally numerical simulations are carried out around the steady state under zero flux boundary conditions. With the help of numerical simulations, the different types of spatial patterns (including stationary spatial pattern, oscillatory pattern, and spatiotemporal chaos) are identified in this diffusive predator–prey system in presence of additional food, depending on the quantity, quality of the additional food and the spatial domain and other parameters of the model. The key observation is that spatiotemporal chaos can be controlled supplying suitable additional food to predator. These investigations may be useful to understand complex spatiotemporal dynamics of population dynamical models in presence of additional food.

  18. Carvacrol, a food-additive, provides neuroprotection on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Yu

    Full Text Available Carvacrol (CAR, a naturally occurring monoterpenic phenol and food additive, has been shown to have antimicrobials, antitumor, and antidepressant-like activities. A previous study demonstrated that CAR has the ability to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. This neuroprotection was in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with CAR still provided protection on infarct volume when it was administered intraperitoneally at 2 h after reperfusion; however, intracerebroventricular post-treatment reduced infarct volume even when the mice were treated with CAR at 6 h after reperfusion. These findings indicated that CAR has an extended therapeutic window, but delivery strategies may affect the protective effects of CAR. Further, we found that CAR significantly decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, suggesting the anti-apoptotic activity of CAR. Finally, our data indicated that CAR treatment increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and the neuroprotection of CAR was reversed by a PI3K inhibitor LY-294002, demonstrating the involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of CAR. Due to its safety and wide use in the food industry, CAR is a promising agent to be translated into clinical trials.

  19. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contado, Catia, E-mail: Catia.Contado@unife.it [University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [University of Ferrara, Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnologies, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Passarella, Martina [University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Four types of SiO{sub 2} particles were characterized by SdFFF, PCS and EM techniques. •Clusters of 10 nm nanoparticles were found in some SiO{sub 2} samples. •A method was set up to extract SiO{sub 2} particles from food matrices. •The effects of the carrier solution composition on SdFFF separations were evaluated. •Particle size distributions were obtained from SiO{sub 2} particles extracted from foodstuffs. -- Abstract: Four types of SiO{sub 2}, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w{sup −1}) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO{sub 2} sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO{sub 2} particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO{sub 2} content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w{sup −1}). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO{sub 2}-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification.

  20. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  1. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost estimation of a specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) additive manufacturing machine for precision printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    creating new opportunities for manufacturers in a variety of industrial sectors. AM is an essentialprototyping technique for product design and development that is used in many different fields. However, the suitability of AMapplications in actual production in an industrial context needs to be determined......Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a portfolio of novel manufacturing technologies based on a layer-by-layer fabrication method.The market and industrial application of additive manufacturing technologies as an established manufacturing process have increasedexponentially in the last years....... This study, presents a cost estimation model forprecision printing with a specifically designed Digital Light Processing (DLP) AM machine built and validated at the Technical Universityof Denmark. The model presented in this study can be easily adapted and applied to estimate within a high level...

  3. [Determination of the Plant Origin of Licorice Oil Extract, a Natural Food Additive, by Principal Component Analysis Based on Chemical Components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawahara, Nobuo; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Fukai, Toshio; Tamura, Yukiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tahara, Maiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    "Licorice oil extract" (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (a kind of multivariate analysis) using the data of LC/MS or (1)H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using (1)H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products.

  4. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  5. Food web of a tropical high mountain stream: Effects of nutrient addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Rebolledo, Maria Isabel; Munoz Gracia, Isabel; Donato Rondon, John Charles

    2014-01-01

    Using a nutrient enrichment experiment in an Andean mountain stream, we used stable isotope ratios (δ 15n and δ13c) to analyze different trophic compartments: 1) basal level: CPOM and biofilm; 2) primary consumers - macro invertebrates: collector-gatherers(heterelmissp, thraulodessp andtrichorythodessp), and collector-filterers (simuliumsp); 3) predators - fish (oncorhynchusmykiss and trichomycterusbogotensis). the average fractionation of nitrogen among the primary consumers with respect to CPOM was 4.7 and 1.7 with respect to biofilm. predators incremented their δ15n signal by 5.9% with respect to primary consumers. A depletion of δ15n was observed in impact with respect to control reach after fertilization in different compartments (biofilm, heterelmissp., simuliumsp. andtricorythodessp.), while depletion was not significant for top predators. In most cases, the δ13c signal of biofilm overlapped with that of primary consumers, but a clear enrichment was observed with respect to CPOM. The macro invertebrates referred to were selected to analyze their gut content and the results showed us that fine detritus is the most abundant food in invertebrates, and onlyheterelmis sp. showed significant differences in fine detritus and vegetal matter between control and impact reaches after the nutrient addition.

  6. The influence of synthetic food additives and surfactants on the body weight of larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Martynov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The broad spectrum of negative effects of food additives and surfactants on living organisms and the environment in general indicate a necessity of a detailed study on this issue. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of food additives and surfactants in a concentration of 350 mg/kg of fodder on the body weight of third age Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae larvae. A significant change in the body weight of T. molitor larvae was observed when they consumed a diet containing 350 mg/kg of sodium glutamate, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate. We observed a tendency towards increase in body weight after addition of the food colouring Allura Red, saccharin, benzoic acid, betaine, emulsifying wax, AOS and SLES, and also we observed a decrease in body weight after addition of Tartrazine and Indigo Carmine in the same concentration. Out of the 18 tested food additives, 3 significantly stimulated an increase in the body weight of third age T. molitor larvae, and 3 manifested the same effect at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in mass on average by 43–58% over the 14-day experiment, and 2 caused decrease in the body weight of larvae. Also, the 4 studied surfactants manifested a tendency towards increase in the body weight of T. molitor. This study on the impact of food additives and surfactants on organisms of insects is of great significance for protecting rare species of insects.

  7. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  8. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  9. Influence of tribomechanical micronization and hydrocolloids addition on enthalpy and apparent specific heat of whey protein model solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of thermophysical properties, especially the phase transitions temperature, specific heat and enthalpy, are essential in defining the freezing process parameters as well as storage conditions of frozen food. In this work thermophysical properties of 10% model solutions prepared with 60% whey protein concentrate (WPC with various hydrocolloids addition (HVEP, YO-EH, YO-L i YO-M were investigated. Powdered whey protein concentrate was treated in equipment for tribomechanical micronization and activation at 40000 rpm (Patent: PCT/1B99/00757 just before model solutions preparation. Particle size analysis was performed using Frich –laser particle sizer “analysette 22”. The phase transition temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA, while specific heat and enthalpy were calculated according to several mathematical equations. The results have shown that, due to tribomechanical treatment, certain changes in thermophysical and energetic properties of materials occurred. Tribomechanical treatment affects changes in granulometrical composition of WPC which result in higher abilities of reactions with hydrocolloids in model solutions and significant changes in thermophysical properties of the mentioned models.

  10. Does maternal exposure to artificial food coloring additives increase oxidative stress in the skin of rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, K; Başak, P Y; Doğuç, D K; Aylak, F; Oğuztüzün, S; Bozer, B M; Gültekin, F

    2017-10-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.

  11. Acquiring additional delayed PET images improves sensitivity and specificity in oncology cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamki, L.M.; Barron, B.J.; Mullani, N.; Joseph, U.; Ehert, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This study looked into utility of acquiring PET images at 2-3 hours in addition to the standard whole body PET done at 1-hour after FDG injection in certain oncology cases. The objective is to evaluate whether the delayed additional images can decipher equivocal foci of FDG accumulation commonly seen in oncology patients. Typical example is the bowel activity that moves with time. Materials and Methods: PET protocol at our Institution in patients with colon Cancer, Pancreas Ca, Ovarian Ca and Breast Ca include a whole body PET (6-7 bed positions) done at 1-hour after 15 mCi F-18-FDG followed by select limited area PET scan (typically 2 bed stops over the area of interest) at 2-3 hours. Acquisition was undertaken on Siemens ECAT-EXACT Camera - 2-D acquisition and 8 mins. per bed position (5 mins. Emission and 3 mins. Transmission), 16.3 cm FOV and then Iterative Reconstruction. Results: Analysis of the first 115 patients who had additional delayed images resulted in 80% of patients where delayed images helped in interpretation. In 70% of these, delayed images helped in identifying physiological structures, e.g., ureters, bowel, blood vessels and muscles versus pathology. In 25%, they actually helped in identifying malignancy, e.g. more definite FDG accumulation. Almost all helped to boost the confidence of the reader. The contribution was mainly in differentiating bowel and ureter activity from cancer in the abdomen, as these change position with time. In case of pancreas and breast cancer, delayed images contributed in clarifying tumor metabolic activity as well. Inflammation and motion artifacts could also be better defined and so was muscle uptake. Conclusion: (1) Additional delayed PET imaging is very helpful in certain cancers in identifying more lesions and avoiding pitfalls. (2) They can yield higher sensitivity and specificity for colon, ovarian, breast and pancreas cancers. (3) Identification of physiologic structures and differentiation of these from

  12. FOODBORNE VIRUSES AND FOOD HANDLERS TRAINING: A SPECIFIC PROJECT FOR OFFICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tentenni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the results of an official control project forwarded on the evaluation of prevention of foodborne viruses diseases. The authors describe the real diffusion of noroviruses and sapoviruses including their general features. The Official control carried out is focused on the valuation of specific prevention measures put in place by food business operators in order to avoid fecal-oral contaminations. Assessment on procedures on GMP, GHP and HACCP were followed by a specific valuation of food handlers training based on a questionnaire .The results show that in small and less developed food industries there is a lack in considering fecal-oral route contaminations and an important need of correct training aimed principally at improving knowledge of Good Hygienic Practices and contamination of food.

  13. Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, Duygu; Hapa, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Elçin, Gonca; Karaduman, Ayşen

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common disease of the oral mucosa with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to determine if food additives play a role in the etiology of RAS as well as to determine if patch testing can be used to detect which allergens cause RAS. This prospective study included 24 patients with RAS and 22 healthy controls. All the participants underwent patch testing for 23 food additives. In total, 21 (87.5%) RAS patients and 3 (13.6%) controls had positive patch test reactions to ≥1 allergens; the difference in the patch test positivity rate between groups was significant (P food additives might play a role in the etiology of RAS and that patch testing could be a method for determining the etiology of RAS. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-01-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  15. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...

  16. Food additions that consumers in the professional sector in the city

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    that the health-promoting benefits of consuming plant produce .... and health professionals, teaching professionals, and other professionals as .... food shows and demonstrations from abroad are ... their children (48,9%), and spoke English.

  17. Improved anaerobic biodegradation of biosolids by the addition of food waste as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-W.; Han, S.-K.; Song, Y.-C.; Baek, B.-C.; Yoo, K.-S.; Lee, J.-J.; Shin, H.-S.

    2003-07-01

    The temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process was applied to increase the performance of anaerobic treatment of biosolids. Previously obtained results indicate that this system showed the advantages of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion process. By comparing the performance of each reactor of the system, it was illustrated that the main stage of methane production was the thermophilic reactor which has faster microbial metabolism. However, the result revealed that substrate characteristics of low VS/TS limited the system performance. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of food waste as a co-substrate for improving anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted in thermophilic conditions with biomass of thermophilic reactor. It was confirmed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge mixed with food waste had a distinct improvement on biodegradability. The most significant advantages were the preferable environment provided by food waste for the growth and activity of anaerobes and the mutual assistance between biosolids and food waste. (author)

  18. Designing Lifestyle-specific Food Policies Based on Nutritional Requirements and Ecological Footprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Vetőné Mózner, Zsófia; Csutora, Mária

    2013-01-01

    Expanded understanding of the trends and determinants of food consumption is needed to reduce the ecological impacts of the contemporary agro-food system while also being attentive to broader issues pertaining to health and the environment. Incorporating these additional aspects and formulating meaningful dietary recommendations is a major challenge. This article seeks to highlight differences in ecological footprint (EF) by activity level for various so-cial groups to meet suggested physiolo...

  19. Just-in-time Design and Additive Manufacture of Patient-specific Medical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidid, Darpan; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Brandt, Milan

    Recent advances in medical imaging and manufacturing science have enabled the design and production of complex, patient-specific orthopaedic implants. Additive Manufacture (AM) generates three-dimensional structures layer by layer, and is not subject to the constraints associated with traditional manufacturing methods. AM provides significant opportunities for the design of novel geometries and complex lattice structures with enhanced functional performance. However, the design and manufacture of patient-specific AM implant structures requires unique expertise in handling various optimization platforms. Furthermore, the design process for complex structures is computationally intensive. The primary aim of this research is to enable the just-in-time customisation of AM prosthesis; whereby AM implant design and manufacture be completed within the time constraints of a single surgical procedure, while minimising prosthesis mass and optimising the lattice structure to match the stiffness of the surrounding bone tissue. In this research, a design approach using raw CT scan data is applied to the AM manufacture of femoral prosthesis. Using the proposed just-in-time concept, the mass of the prosthesis was rapidly designed and manufactured while satisfying the associated structural requirements. Compressive testing of lattice structures manufactured using proposed method shows that the load carrying capacity of the resected composite bone can be recovered by up to 85% and the compressive stiffness of the AM prosthesis is statistically indistinguishable from the stiffness of the initial bone.

  20. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical rules on the assessment of antioxidant potential in food and food additives aimed at reducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2017-11-15

    Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e.g. fava beans) are consumed. Evolution produced potent detoxification mechanisms to handle these situations. When age/genetic/environmental factors negatively impact on detoxification mechanisms, nutrition helps on providing metabolites/precursors needed for boosting innate resources. Ambiguous techniques that attempt to measure in vivo aOX power, should give way to measuring the level of supplements and their metabolites in body fluids/tissues, and to measure the efficacy on antioxidant boosting REDOX pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.. The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are widespread and closely related to risk minimisation and enhanced food security among smallholders. Similarly, crop-specific programs mainly focusing on commercialisation tend to overlook important constraints associated to self-consumption and productivity.

  3. Effect of food additives on hyperphosphatemia among patients with end-stage renal disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine; Sayre, Srilekha S; Leon, Janeen B; Machekano, Rhoderick; Love, Thomas E; Porter, David; Marbury, Marquisha; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2009-02-11

    High dietary phosphorus intake has deleterious consequences for renal patients and is possibly harmful for the general public as well. To prevent hyperphosphatemia, patients with end-stage renal disease limit their intake of foods that are naturally high in phosphorus. However, phosphorus-containing additives are increasingly being added to processed and fast foods. The effect of such additives on serum phosphorus levels is unclear. To determine the effect of limiting the intake of phosphorus-containing food additives on serum phosphorus levels among patients with end-stage renal disease. Cluster randomized controlled trial at 14 long-term hemodialysis facilities in northeast Ohio. Two hundred seventy-nine patients with elevated baseline serum phosphorus levels (>5.5 mg/dL) were recruited between May and October 2007. Two shifts at each of 12 large facilities and 1 shift at each of 2 small facilities were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Intervention participants (n=145) received education on avoiding foods with phosphorus additives when purchasing groceries or visiting fast food restaurants. Control participants (n=134) continued to receive usual care. Change in serum phosphorus level after 3 months. At baseline, there was no significant difference in serum phosphorus levels between the 2 groups. After 3 months, the decline in serum phosphorus levels was 0.6 mg/dL larger among intervention vs control participants (95% confidence interval, -1.0 to -0.1 mg/dL). Intervention participants also had statistically significant increases in reading ingredient lists (Pfood knowledge scores (P = .13). Educating end-stage renal disease patients to avoid phosphorus-containing food additives resulted in modest improvements in hyperphosphatemia. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00583570.

  4. Effects of Food Additives on Immune Cells As Contributors to Body Weight Gain and Immune-Mediated Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Neto, Heitor A; Ausina, Priscila; Gomez, Lilian S; Leandro, João G B; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Food additives are compounds used in order to improve food palatability, texture, and shelf life. Despite a significant effort to assure safety of use, toxicological analysis of these substances, generally, rely on their direct toxicity to target organs (liver and kidney) or their genotoxic effects. Much less attention is paid to the effects of these compounds on cells of the immune system. This is of relevance given that metabolic dysregulation and obesity have a strong immune-mediated component. Obese individuals present a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the establishment of insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities known as the metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are currently recognized as worldwide epidemics that pose a profound socioeconomic impact and represent a concern to public health. Cells of the immune system contribute to both the maintenance of "lean homeostasis" and the metabolic dysregulation observed in obese individuals. Although much attention has been drawn in the past decades to obesity and metabolic syndrome as a result of ingesting highly processed food containing large amounts of fat and simple sugars, mounting evidence suggest that food additives may also be important contributors to metabolic derangement. Herein, we review pieces of evidence from the literature showing that food additives have relevant effects on cells of the immune system that could contribute to immune-mediated metabolic dysregulation. Considering their potential to predispose individuals to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome, their use should be taken with caution or maybe revisited.

  5. Effects of Food Additives on Immune Cells As Contributors to Body Weight Gain and Immune-Mediated Metabolic Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor A. Paula Neto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are compounds used in order to improve food palatability, texture, and shelf life. Despite a significant effort to assure safety of use, toxicological analysis of these substances, generally, rely on their direct toxicity to target organs (liver and kidney or their genotoxic effects. Much less attention is paid to the effects of these compounds on cells of the immune system. This is of relevance given that metabolic dysregulation and obesity have a strong immune-mediated component. Obese individuals present a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the establishment of insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities known as the metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are currently recognized as worldwide epidemics that pose a profound socioeconomic impact and represent a concern to public health. Cells of the immune system contribute to both the maintenance of “lean homeostasis” and the metabolic dysregulation observed in obese individuals. Although much attention has been drawn in the past decades to obesity and metabolic syndrome as a result of ingesting highly processed food containing large amounts of fat and simple sugars, mounting evidence suggest that food additives may also be important contributors to metabolic derangement. Herein, we review pieces of evidence from the literature showing that food additives have relevant effects on cells of the immune system that could contribute to immune-mediated metabolic dysregulation. Considering their potential to predispose individuals to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome, their use should be taken with caution or maybe revisited.

  6. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  7. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned food and coconut milk samples by addition of enterocin AS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martínez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    The cyclic bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of two Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains in canned food samples (corn and peas), and in coconut milk. AS-48 (7 microg/g) reduced viable cell counts below detection levels in samples from canned corn and peas stored at 45 degrees C for 30 days. In coconut milk, bacterial inactivation by AS-48 (1.75 microg/ml) was even faster. In all canned food and drink samples inoculated with intact G. stearothermophilus endospores, bacteriocin addition (1.75 microg per g or ml of food sample) rapidly reduced viable cell counts below detection levels and avoided regrowth during storage. After a short-time bacteriocin treatment of endospores, trypsin addition markedly increased G. stearothermophilus survival, supporting the effect of residual bacteriocin on the observed loss of viability for endospores. Results from this study support the potential of enterocin AS-48 as a biopreservative against G. stearothermophilus.

  8. GIDA KATKI MADDELERİ VE İNSAN SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ : FOOD ADDITIVES AND EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    ERFDEN ÇALIŞIR, Zeynep; ÇALIŞKAN, Deniz

    2003-01-01

    This review is going to be an evaluation food additives in ready-to-eat foods, which are a part of our lives. With increasing consumption of ready-to-eat-foods a lot of research has been going into the matter of increased exposure to additives. Addiüonally, it will mention the effect of food additives on the systems on the human body

  9. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  10. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jieru; Chen Xiaoyi; Yang Xianyan; Xu Sanzhong; Zhang Xinli; Gou Zhongru

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of ∼500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO − , HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic–organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  11. The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McCann, Donna; Grimshaw, Kate; Parker, Karen M; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J; Holloway, John W; Warner, John O

    2010-09-01

    Food additives can exacerbate ADHD symptoms and cause non-immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine release from circulating basophils. However, children vary in the extent to which their ADHD symptoms are exacerbated by the ingestion of food additives. The authors hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms affecting histamine degradation would explain the diversity of responses to additives. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, challenges involving two food color additive and sodium benzoate (preservative) mixtures in a fruit drink were administered to a general community sample of 3-year-old children (N = 153) and 8/9-year-old children (N = 144). An aggregate ADHD symptom measure (based on teacher and parent blind ratings of behavior, blind direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and--for 8/9-year-old children only--a computerized measure of attention) was the main outcome variable. The adverse effect of food additives on ADHD symptoms was moderated by histamine degradation gene polymorphisms HNMT T939C and HNMT Thr105Ile in 3- and 8/9-year-old children and by a DAT1 polymorphism (short versus long) in 8/9-year-old children only. There was no evidence that polymorphisms in catecholamine genes COMT Val108Met, ADRA2A C1291G, and DRD4-rs7403703 moderated the effect on ADHD symptoms. Histamine may mediate the effects of food additives on ADHD symptoms, and variations in genes influencing the action of histamine may explain the inconsistency between previous studies. Genes influencing a range of neurotransmitter systems and their interplay with environmental factors, such as diet, need to be examined to understand genetic influences on ADHD symptoms.

  12. Determination of migration of phosphorus-based additives from food packaging material into food-simulating solvents by neutron activation/Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickly, T.D.; Quinn, T.; Blanchard, F.A.; Murphy, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of food-simulating solvents exposed to food-packaging materials that contain phosphorus-based additives have been examined for migration of phosphorus-containing compounds from the packaging material, using neutron activation/Cerenkov counting. This method has the advantage that commercially produced packaging materials can be used (no elaborate sample preparation as with other radiotracer methods) and no elaborate sample processing techniques are needed to reach the desired levels (low ng/mL) as is usual with most chromatographic or spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  13. [Assessment of the effect of selected mixture of food additives on the protein metabolism--model studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Contemporarily, food production without food additives is very rare. Increasingly often, however, scientific works report on adverse effects of specified, single food additives on the body. Data is, in turn, lacking on the synergistic effect of a mixture of different food additives on body functions and its main metabolic pathways. The objective of this study, an animal model, was to evaluate if and in what way the compound of chosen and most frequently used and consumed food additives, along with the change of diet composition to processed, purified, influence the selected markers of protein metabolism. The animals were divided into four groups, which were fed with compound of feed pellets: group I and II with basic compound, group III and IV with modified compound in which part of the full grain was replaced by isocalorie wheat flour type 500 and saccharose. Animals from groups I and III received tap water, which was standing for some time, to drink. Animals from groups II and IV received solution of chosen additives to food and next they were given water to drink. The amount of given food additives was evaluated by taking into consideration their consumption by people recalculated to 1 kg of their body mass. The experiment spanned for 7 weeks. It was ascertained that the applied additives caused significant changes in total protein concentration and its fractions: albumin, alpha1-globulin, alpha2-globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in the blood serum of the animals under research, which can indicate and contribute to disclosure of creation of undesirable food reaction, especially when recommended levels of consumption of those additives are being exceeded. The organism response to the applied additives and accompanying it change of diet was essentially connected to sex of the animals. Undesirable character of changes taking place under the influence of applied additives, was observed both in animals fed with basic feed and modified feed with various

  14. The application of in vitro data in the derivation of the acceptable daily intake of food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, K.; Walker, R.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Castell, J.V.; Knapp, A.G.A.A.; Kozianowski, G.; Roberfroid, M.; Schilter, B.

    1999-01-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for food additives is commonly derived from the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) in long-term animal in vivo studies. To derive an ADI a safety or uncertainty factor (commonly 100) is applied to the NOAEL in the most sensitive test species. The 100-fold

  15. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  16. Anti radiation action of 'Vin-Vita' food additive solution in 'Kuyalnik' mineral water under sublethal gamma-irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraboj, V.A.; Lobasyuk, B.O.; Oleksyijenko, N.O.; Kujev, V.L.; Goncharov, M.Yi.; Smul's'kij, S.P.; Kolker, Yi.A.; Babov, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The study involved four groups of female Wistar rats. Protective anti radiation action of 'Vin-Vita' food additive solution in 'Kuyalnik' mineral water especially in the concentration of 500 mg/l has been revealed, which was proved by hemoglobin, hematocrit, ESR, white blood parameters and animal behaviour

  17. 78 FR 71457 - Food Additive Regulations; Incorporation by Reference of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... 172.800(b)(2) to replace ``parts per million'' with ``mg/kg'' to be consistent with terminology used... ``parts per million'' with ``mg/kg'' to be consistent with terminology used elsewhere in the regulations... medical supervision to meet nutritional requirements in specific medical conditions and comply with the...

  18. Hypersensitivity to tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5) and other dyes and additives present in foods and pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, S D

    1977-03-01

    Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5) and other allowed certified color additives may have an exacerbating effect in chronic urticaria and asthma sufferers. In the individual patient the only way to determine their relevance is to administer test doses. By altering doses, timing and substances and by interspacing controls a battery of tests has been developed. Methods of testing for sensitization to food additives and analgesics are described.

  19. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  20. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... want to foreclose access to a safe material whose use may be necessary in the future, reasoning that if... decision to approve the petition will be made available for inspection at the Center for Food Safety and... available for public disclosure before making the documents available for inspection. VI. Environmental...

  1. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Hicks, Clair L; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-06-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of approximately 1g cheese containing 1.5% or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of approximately 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8-9h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F approximately 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 95% and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Effect of anti-IgE therapy on food allergen specific T cell responses in eosinophil associated gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prussin Calman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-IgE therapy inhibits mast cell and basophil activation, blocks IgE binding to both FcεRI and CD23 and down regulates FcεRI expression by antigen (Ag presenting cells (APCs. In addition to its classical role in immediate hypersensitivity, IgE has been shown in vitro to facilitate Ag presentation of allergens, whereby APC bound IgE preferentially takes up allergens for subsequent processing and presentation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anti-IgE therapy, by blocking facilitated Ag presentation in vivo, attenuates allergen specific Th2 cell responses. Methods To test this hypothesis, food allergen specific T cell responses were examined during a 16-week clinical trial of omalizumab in nine subjects with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and food sensitization. Allergen specific T cell responses were measured using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dye dilution coupled with intracellular cytokine staining and polychromatic flow cytometry. Four independent indices of allergen specific T cell response (proliferation, Ag dose response, precursor frequency, and the ratio of Th2:Th1 cytokine expression were determined. Results Eight of the 9 subjects had measurable food allergen specific responses, with a median proliferation index of 112-fold. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was limited to CD4 T cells, whereas CD8 T cell did not proliferate. Food allergen specific responses were Th2 skewed relative to tetanus specific responses in the same subjects. In contradistinction to the original hypothesis, anti-IgE treatment did not diminish any of the four measured indices of allergen specific T cell response. Conclusions In sum, using multiple indices of T cell function, this study failed to demonstrate that anti-IgE therapy broadly or potently inhibits allergen specific T cell responses. As such, these data do not support a major role for IgE facilitated Ag presentation augmenting allergen specific T cell

  3. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  4. Comparing supply-side specifications in models of global agriculture and the food system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, S.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Willenbockel, D.; Valin, H.; Fujimori, S.; Masui, T.; Sands, R.; Wise, M.; Calvin, K.V.; Mason d'Croz, D.; Tabeau, A.A.; Kavallari, A.; Schmitz, C.; Dietrich, J.P.; Lampe, von M.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the theoretical and functional specification of production in partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two model families differ in their scope—partial

  5. Buffer Rod Design for Measurement of Specific Gravity in the Processing of Industrial Food Batters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.; Smith, Penny Probert

    2002-01-01

    A low cost perspex buffer rod design for the measurement of specific gravity during the processing of industrial food batters is reported. Operation was conducted in pulsed mode using a 2.25 MHz, 15 mm diameter transducer and the intensity and an analytic calibration curve relating buffer rod...

  6. Food color and appearance measurement, specification and communication, can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, John; Singleton, Mark; Plater, Keith; Dias, Benjamin

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods of color specification demand a sample that is flat, uniformly colored, diffusely reflecting and opaque. Very many natural, processed and manufactured foods, on the other hand, are three-dimensional, irregularly shaped unevenly colored and translucent. Hence, spectrophotometers and tristimulus colorimeters can only be used for reliable and accurate color measurement in certain cases and under controlled conditions. These techniques are certainly unsuitable for specification of color patterning and other factors of total appearance in which, for example, surface texture and gloss interfere with the surface color. Hence, conventional techniques are more appropriate to food materials than to foods themselves. This paper reports investigations on the application of digital camera and screen technologies to these problems. Results indicated that accuracy sufficient for wide scale use in the food industry is obtainable. Measurement applications include the specification and automatic measurement and classification of total appearance properties of three-dimensional products. This will be applicable to specification and monitoring of fruit and vegetables within the growing, storage and marketing supply chain and to on-line monitoring. Applications to sensory panels include monitoring of color and appearance changes occurring during paneling and the development of physical reference scales based pigment chemistry changes. Digital technology will be extendable to the on-screen judging of real and virtual products as well as to the improvement of appearance archiving and communication.

  7. Effects of complexity and intensity on sensory specific satiety and food acceptance after repeated consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (1) to study the effects of complexity and intensity of foods on sensory specific satiety (SSS) and their acceptance after repeated consumption, and (2) to determine the predictive value of SSS for acceptance over repeated consumption. Two studies were

  8. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  10. Specificity tests of an oligonucleotide probe against food-outbreak salmonella for biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-H.; Horikawa, S.; Xi, J.; Wikle, H. C.; Barbaree, J. M.; Chin, B. A.

    2017-05-01

    Phage based magneto-elastic (ME) biosensors have been shown to be able to rapidly detect Salmonella in various food systems to serve food pathogen monitoring purposes. In this ME biosensor platform, the free-standing strip-shaped magneto-elastic sensor is the transducer and the phage probe that recognizes Salmonella in food serves as the bio-recognition element. According to Sorokulova et al. at 2005, a developed oligonucleotide probe E2 was reported to have high specificity to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. In the report, the specificity tests were focused in most of Enterobacterace groups outside of Salmonella family. Here, to understand the specificity of phage E2 to different Salmonella enterica serotypes within Salmonella Family, we further tested the specificity of the phage probe to thirty-two Salmonella serotypes that were present in the major foodborne outbreaks during the past ten years (according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The tests were conducted through an Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) format. This assay can mimic probe immobilized conditions on the magnetoelastic biosensor platform and also enable to study the binding specificity of oligonucleotide probes toward different Salmonella while avoiding phage/ sensor lot variations. Test results confirmed that this oligonucleotide probe E2 was high specific to Salmonella Typhimurium cells but showed cross reactivity to Salmonella Tennessee and four other serotypes among the thirty-two tested Salmonella serotypes.

  11. New considerations on hydrogen peroxide and related substances as food additives in view of carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, R

    1982-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide as a labile and safe food preservative in fish cake and boiled noodles has recently been restricted by the Japanese government, since hyperplasia has been found in the duodenum of mice after long-term peroral study. The action of compounds with resembling mode of action, potassium bromate as an improving agent in bread, and sodium chlorate as a weed killer are discussed in this paper in view of developmental and environmental pharmacology.

  12. Directions on the use of stevia leaves (Stevia Rebauidana) as an additive in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus-Moryson, Małgorzata; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high intake of sugars, especially sucrose, global trends in food processing have encouraged producers to use sweeteners, particularly synthetic ones, to a wide extent. For several years, increasing attention has been paid in the literature to the stevia (Stevia rebauidana), containing glycosidic diterpenes, for which sweetening properties have been identified. Chemical composition, nutritional value and application of stevia leaves are briefl y summarized and presented.

  13. Essential Oil of Common Thyme as a Natural Antimicrobial Food Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Dolenc Koce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of thyme essential oil against selected microorganisms, including Fusarium sp., Armillaria mellea, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Buttiauxella sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli K-12, AmpC-producing E. coli Z, ESBL-producing E. coli strain of KM clonal group ST131, and E. coli 1138 were evaluated. The antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oil was determined using agar well diffusion assays. The growth of all tested bacteria was inhibited at thyme essential oil fractions higher than 1 %, while a fraction of 10 % was needed to inhibit the growth of fungi. We demonstrate that thyme essential oil has a promising activity against food spoilage bacteria, and also against multiresistant AmpC-producing and ESBL-producing bacterial strains isolated from food, which have recently been recognised as public health concerns. On the basis of our data, the thyme essential oil has a potential for use as a growth inhibitor of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and fungi, to replace commonly used semi-synthetic antimicrobial products.

  14. Sweeteners as food additives in the XXI century: A review of what is known, and what is to come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-09-01

    Sweet has always been a very important basic taste for mankind, although sweetness is always related to either weight gain or teeth decay. Sweeteners entered the food industry back in the 1800's and are now staple in foodstuffs. Despite their long relationship with food, sweeteners have been in the spotlights for many reasons. Since being the perfect choice for diabetics, to the dangers concerning toxicity, cancer and other health issues associated with their consumption, sweeteners have come a long way. The conflicting results for the same sweeteners and the divergent regulations are fuel for a wide debate on the impact of sweeteners in the industry, health and lifestyle of mankind. In this review, the history, main concerns, benefits, disadvantages, classification and future trends are revisited for nutritive, intense and natural food additives, while future perspectives are hypothesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A current approach to using additional foods for the early prevention of deficiency states in infants during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Levchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers how to organize properly balanced feeding in infants during the first year of life, by using additional foods. It highlights current approaches to using the latter in the babies and provides a rationale for the tune of giving additional foods, by taking into account the readiness of an infant to eat new foods and the need to incorporate micronutrients for the prevention of anemia, rickets, and food allergy. The benefits of using commercial products are discussed.

  16. Application of Food-specific IgG Antibody Detection in Allergy Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yine Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of food-specific IgG antibody detection in allergy dermatoses was explored. 181 patients with allergy dermatoses were diagnosed from January to September 2014 and 20 healthy subjects were selected. Fourteen kinds of food-specific IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA method among all the subjects. The positive rates of IgG antibody of the patient group and the healthy group were respectively 65.2% and 5.0%. The positive rates of IgG antibody of egg, milk, shrimp and crab took a large proportion in three groups of patients with three kinds of allergy dermatoses of urticaria, eczema and allergic dermatitis, the proportion of which was respectively 70.2%, 77.8% and 71.7%. Among urticaria and allergic dermatitis patients with positive antibody, the positive rate of children was significantly higher than that of adults (p0.05. Allergy dermatoses are closely related to food-specific IgG antibodies, and the allergy dermatoses patients have a high incidence rate of food intolerance; detecting IgG antibody in the serum of patients is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy dermatoses.

  17. Specificity of Mechanisms of Memory Reconsolidation in Snails Trained for Rejection of Two Types of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Kozyrev, S A; Solntseva, S V

    2017-01-01

    Specificity of behavioral and neuronal mechanisms of impairment of long-term memory reconsolidation was studied in edible snails trained for associative skill of rejection of two types of food: raw carrots (conditioned stimulus 1) and apple (conditioned stimulus 2). In 2 days after training, the snails received protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and a reminder (conditioned stimulus 1 or 2). In 3 and 14 days after cycloheximide/reminder, we observed the absence of aversive responses to the conditioned stimulus used as the reminder and preserved responses to the conditioned stimulus not used as the reminder. Moreover, we observed specific suppression of synaptic responses of command neurons of snail defensive behavior induced by the conditioned stimulus used as the reminder after cycloheximide injection and preserved synaptic responses of neurons to the other conditioned stimulus. It was hypothesized that protein synthesis-dependent synapse-specific plasticity of command neurons can be a mechanism of selective preservation of conditioned food aversion memory in snails.

  18. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Certain laws governing the influence of high molecular polymer additives on specific electrical conductivity and viscosity of zincate alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrenko, V.Ye.; Toropetsera, T.N.; Zubov, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of polymer additives of different nature: polyelectrolyte, copolymer of ethylene with maleic anhydride, polymethacrylic acid and nonpolyectrolyte copolymer of vinyl alcohol with vinyleneglycol and polyvinyleneglycol on specific electrical conductance and viscosity of the zincate alkaline solution. It is indicated that with an increase in the content of additives, the specific conductance of the solution diminishes according to a linear law, while the viscosity rises. The additives of polyelectrolyte nature reduce more strongly the specific conductance and increase the viscosity than the nonpolyelectrolyte additives. From a comparison of the data on specific conductance and viscosity the following conclusion is drawn: the more the polymer ''structures'' the zincate alkaline solution, the more strongly it reduces its specific electrical conductance.

  20. Simultaneous determination of color additives tartrazine and allura red in food products by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Maider; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Bordagaray, Ane; Ostra, Miren; Albizu, Gorka

    2018-07-01

    A method based on digital image is described to quantify tartrazine (E102), yellow, and allura red (E129) colorants in food samples. HPLC is the habitual method of reference used for colorant separation and quantification, but it is expensive, time-consuming and it uses solvents, sometimes toxic. By a flatbed scanner, which can be found in most laboratories, images of mixtures of colorants can be taken in microtitration plates. Only 400 µL of sample are necessary and up to 92 samples can be measured together in the same image acquisition. A simple-to-obtain color fingerprint is obtained by converting the original RGB image into other color spaces and individual PLS models are built for each colorant. In this study, root mean square errors of 3.3 and 3.0 for tartrazine and 1.1 and 1.2 for allura red have been obtained for cross-validation and external validation respectively. Results for repeatability and reproducibility are under 12%. These results are slightly worse but comparable to the ones obtained by HPLC. The applicability of both methodologies to real food samples has proven to give the same result, even in the presence of a high concentration of an interfering species, provided that this interference is included in the image analysis calibration model. Considering the colorant content found in most samples this should not be a problem though and, in consequence, the method could be extended to different food products. Values of LODs of 1.8 mg L -1 and 0.6 mg L -1 for tartrazine and allura red have been obtained by image analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE E 920 ADDITIVE (L - CYSTEINE IN RELATION TO SOME PROBLEMS OF MODERN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiana Maria TAMBA BEREHOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the current state of knowledge about the use of L - cysteine in food industry, regarding certain cultural, legal, technological, toxicological, and other aspects that influence the attitude of the consumerstowards food. Use of L - cysteine and its derivatives in bakery allows the optimizing of the technological characteristics of flours and their higher recovery, by using products with high added value. Use the E 920 additivein human food is subject to the cultural and religious controversy, due to the generalized process of obtaining this additive from animal products (keratin. Our study shows that these controversies will be overcome when industrialfermentative technologies of L - cysteine production will be generalized in the market. There exist no data on thepotential toxicity of L - cysteine in the usual doses which are used in the baking industry. The only threat to the status of E 920 as a safe additive is the excitotoxic potential, suggested in several recent studies. Also, there exists a potential for extending the use of L - cysteine in the food industry in order to reduce the contamination degree withcertain chemicals having carcinogen potential, such as acrylamide and mycotoxins.

  2. Evaluation of Food Allergy in Children by Skin Prick Tests with Commercial Extracts and Fresh Foods, Specific IgE and, Open Oral Food Challenge-Our Five Years Experience in Food Allergy Work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Mirjana; Atanasković-Marković, Marina; Medjo, Biljana; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija; Smiljanić, Katarina; Tmušić, Vladimir; Djurić, Vojislav

    2017-04-01

    IgE- mediated food allergy affects 6-8% of children. Our study aimed to define the correlations between the results obtained with skin prick tests (SPTs) using commercial extracts and fresh foods, and the correlations between these result and those obtained with specific IgE (sIgE) and/ or challenge. Children aged from 2 months to 6 years were recruited prospectively. Overall 571 children were positive to one food. In all children we performed  SPT using commercial extracts of suspected food and fresh foods and sIgE. If SPT and sIgE test results did not correspond to the history, we performed open oral food challenge. Sensitivity of SPT with commercial extracts for all tested food was poor (3-35%), while  sensitivity of fresh food skin prick tests (FFSPT) was excellent (50-100%), and showed correlation with open oral food challenge (pfood extracts are more effective in detecting sensitization and with levels of sIgE greater than class 3 could predict clinical reactivity, without the need for potentially hazardous food challenges.

  3. Inhibitory effects of food additives derived from polyphenols on staphylococcal enterotoxin A production and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yuko; Hirai, Chikako; Sugiyama, Yuka; Shibata, Masaharu; Ozaki, Junya; Murata, Masatsune; Ohashi, Norio; Masuda, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of 14 food additives derived from polyphenol samples on staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) production and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. Tannic acid AL (TA), Purephenon 50 W (PP) and Polyphenon 70A (POP) at 0.25 mg/mL and Gravinol®-N (GN), Blackcurrant polyphenol AC10 (BP), and Resveratrol-P5 (RT) at 1.0 mg/mL significantly decreased SEA production by S. aureus C-29 (p Food additives derived from polyphenols have viability to be used as a means to inhibit the enterotoxin production and control the biofilm formation of foodborne pathogens.

  4. An Isomer-Specific Approach to Endocrine-Disrupting Nonylphenol in Infant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Klaus; Räcker, Torsten; Böhme, Roswitha

    2017-02-15

    Nonylphenols (NPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors that are priority hazardous substances of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Their presence in the environment has caused growing concern regarding their impact on human health. Recent studies have shown that nonylphenol is ubiquitous in commercially available foodstuffs and is also present in human blood. The isomer distribution of 4-nonylphenol was analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in 44 samples of infant food. Our study shows that the distribution of nonylphenol isomers is dependent on the foodstuff analyzed. Although some isomer groups prevail, different distributions are frequent. Variations are even found in the same food group. Nonylphenol is a complex mixture of isomers, and the estrogenic potentials of each of these isomers are very different. Consequently, to determine the potential toxicological impact of NP in food, an isomer-specific approach is necessary.

  5. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D M

    1989-01-01

    Gum tragacanth (GT), affirmed as GRAS within the USA since 1961, was evaluated as 'ADI not specified' by JECFA in 1985. Within the EEC, GT has been permitted temporarily as a food additive (E413), without an ADI, since 1974; a decision regarding its permanent status must be reached before the end of 1988. This review collates the dietary, toxicological, immunological and chemical data available and presents the pre-requisite data concerning the 'Need' and low levels of utilization of GT.

  6. Meal-specific food patterns and the incidence of hyperglycemia in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Riley, Malcolm; Taylor, Anne; Noakes, Manny

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up. The associated between food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia was assessed by logistic regression. During the follow-up, 125 new cases of hyperglycaemia were identified. Traditional (wheat) breakfast was inversely associated with incident hyperglycaemia, whereas traditional (rice, vegetable and pork) lunch and dinner were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperglycaemia, even after adjustment for a number of covariates including glycaemic load, carbohydrate intake and BMI. Incident hyperglycaemia occurred in 15·9, 13·6, 11·7, 6·1 % across quartiles of traditional breakfast; and 5·3, 9·1, 15·9, 17·1 % of the quartiles of traditional lunch pattern. The adjusted OR for hyperglycaemia was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), 1·83 (95 % CI 1·32, 2·53) and 1·39 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·86) for 1 sd increase of traditional breakfast, lunch and dinner pattern factor score, respectively. A traditional wheat-based breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of hyperglycaemia. A rice-based traditional lunch and dinner is associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia in Chinese adults.

  7. Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or food-specific impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 12937 - Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations of Food and Drug Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... applied to, for example, antimicrobial studies for the treatment of acute bacterial otitis media in the... applies to research in children. In addition, we have made changes on our own initiative for the purposes... 12941

  9. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  10. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  11. The Specifics of the Internationalization Process of Czech SMEs in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Tuzová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define the specifics of the internationalization process of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the food industry. The food industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the EU which consists mainly of SMEs. However, in the Czech Republic it has to face increasing imports of foreign food products because of growing globalization, while exports lag behind. Thus, enterprises should be encouraged to internationalize in a greater extent to maintain their competitiveness. The paper explores the main motives, barriers and risks involved in internationalization as perceived by these enterprises. The results are based on primary data obtained by questionnaire surveys performed among Czech food industry SMEs, thus it is based on data about SME’s real experiences and perception of interntaionalization process. According to our results, Czech SMEs from food industry are driven to internationalize mainly by their efforts to grow or by unsolicited foreign demand for their product. However, as the biggest barriers are perceived those connected with the lack of knowledge about foreign market and administrative requirements. The identified motives and barriers are compared with results of similar researches from Slovakia and Poland. Moreover, the results of Czech SMEs risk perception in internationalization are depicted in risk matrix which assess not only the effect of risk but also the possibility of its occurrence.

  12. l-Theanine as a Functional Food Additive: Its Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is an integral part of people’s daily routine, as an everyday drink and a therapeutic aid for health promotion. Consumption of tea has been linked to a sense of relaxation commonly associated with the content of the non-proteinogenic amino acid theanine, which is found within the tea leaves. The aim of this review article is to outline the current methods for synthesis, extraction and purification of theanine, as well as to examine its potential benefits related to human health. These include improvements in cognitive and immune function, cancer prevention, reduced cardiovascular risk and its potential usefulness as a functional food product.

  13. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune response to eating specific foods or food additives. Eight types of food account for over 90% ... and vegetables, tree nuts and seeds, fish, food additives, milk products, eggs, other specified food), and 995. ...

  15. A bioengineered nisin derivative, M21A, in combination with food grade additives eradicates biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Anne Draper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The burden of foodborne disease has large economic and social consequences worldwide. Despite strict regulations, a number of pathogens persist within the food environment, which is greatly contributed to by a build-up of resistance mechanisms and also through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to be highly resistant to a number of antimicrobials and can be extremely difficult to remove once they are established. In parallel, the growing concern of consumers regarding the use of chemically derived antimicrobials within food has led to a drive towards more natural products. As a consequence, the use of naturally derived antimicrobials has become of particular interest. In this study we investigated the efficacy of nisin A and its bioengineered derivative M21A in combination with food grade additives to treat biofilms of a representative strain of Listeria monocytogenes. Investigations revealed the enhanced antimicrobial effects, in liquid culture, of M21A in combination with citric acid or cinnamaldehyde over its wild type nisin A counterpart. Subsequently, an investigation was conducted into the effects of these combinations on an established biofilm of the same strain. Nisin M21A (0.1 µg/ml alone or in combination with cinnamaldehyde (35 µg/ml or citric acid (175 µg/ml performed significantly better than combinations involving nisin A. All combinations of M21A with either citric acid or cinnamaldehyde eradicated the L. monocytogenes biofilm (in relation to a non-biofilm control. We conclude that M21A in combination with available food additives could further enhance the antimicrobial treatment of biofilms within the food industry, simply by substituting nisin A with M21A in current commercial products such as Nisaplin (Danisco, DuPont.

  16. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  17. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs : a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Elisa; Pelst, Michael; Hesta, Myriam; Cox, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healt...

  18. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Teresa; Pacjuk, Olga; Hernández-Huguet, Silvia; Körner, Johanna; Scherer, Katharina; Richling, Elke

    2017-11-04

    Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts ( Arbutus unedo , Camellia sinensis , Cynara scolymus , Zingiber officinale ) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit ( Arbutus unedo ) and tea ( Camellia sinensis ) extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke ( Cynara scolymus ) extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC 50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC 50 = 41 ± 10 μM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC 50 > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC 50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC 50 > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC 50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL). Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

  19. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Röhrig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo and tea (Camellia sinensis extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke (Cynara scolymus extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL as well as its flavone luteolin (IC50 = 41 ± 10 μM and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC50 > 1.0 mM. Additionally, the ginger (Zingiber officinale extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC50 > 1.7 mM, respectively. Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL. Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

  20. Patient specific root-analogue dental implants – additive manufacturing and finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattinger Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to prove the possibility of manufacturing patient specific root analogue two-part (implant and abutment implants by direct metal laser sintering. The two-part implant design enables covered healing of the implant. Therefore, CT-scans of three patients are used for reverse engineering of the implants, abutments and crowns. Patient specific implants are manufactured and measured concerning dimensional accuracy and surface roughness. Impacts of occlusal forces are simulated via FEA and compared to those of standard implants.

  1. Worst case prediction of additives migration from polystyrene for food safety purposes: a model update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Lopez, Brais; Gontard, Nathalie; Peyron, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    . These parameters were determined for the polymers most used by packaging industry (LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, HIPS) from the diffusivity data available at that time. In the specific case of general purpose polystyrene, the diffusivity data published since then shows that the use of the equation with the original...

  2. Chlorogenic Acid: Recent Advances on Its Dual Role as a Food Additive and a Nutraceutical against Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Santana-Gálvez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid is a phenolic compound from thehydroxycinnamic acid family. This polyphenol possesses many health-promoting properties, mostof them related to the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activities. The first part of this review will discussthe role of chlorogenic acid as a nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of metabolicsyndrome and associated disorders, including in vivo studies, clinical trials, and mechanisms ofaction. The second part of the review will be dealing with the role of chlorogenic acid as a foodadditive. Chlorogenic acid has shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of organisms,including bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and amoebas. These antimicrobial properties can beuseful for the food industry in its constant search for new and natural molecules for thepreservation of food products. In addition, chlorogenic acid has antioxidant activity, particularlyagainst lipid oxidation; protective properties against degradation of other bioactive compoundspresent in food, and prebiotic activity. The combination of these properties makes chlorogenic acidan excellent candidate for the formulation of dietary supplements and functional foods.

  3. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  4. Rapid planar chromatographic analysis of 25 water-soluble dyes used as food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Oellig, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    A rapid planar chromatographic method for identification and quantification of 25 water-soluble dyes in food was developed. In a horizontal developing chamber, the chromatographic separation on silica gel 60F254 high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates took 12 min for 40 runs in parallel, using 8 mL ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (65 + 23 + 11 + 1, v/v/v/v) mobile phase up to a migration distance of 50 mm. However, the total analysis time, inclusive of application and evaluation, took 60 min for 40 runs. Thus, the overall time/run can be calculated as 1.5 min with a solvent consumption of 200 microL. A sample throughput of 1000 runs/8 h day can be reached by switching between the working stations (application, development, and evaluation) in a 20 min interval, which triples the analysis throughput. Densitometry was performed by absorption measurement using the multiwavelength scan mode in the UV and visible ranges. Repeatabilities [relative standard deviation (RSD), 4 determinations] at the first or second calibration level showed precisions of mostly or = 0.9987) and RSD values ( or = 0.9996). If necessary for confirmation, online mass spectra were recorded within a minute.

  5. Thermodynamics of the interaction of the food additive tartrazine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2015-05-15

    The thermodynamics of the interaction of the food colourant tartrazine with two homologous serum proteins, HSA and BSA, were investigated, employing microcalorimetric techniques. At T=298.15K the equilibrium constants for the tartrazine-BSA and HSA complexation process were evaluated to be (1.92 ± 0.05) × 10(5)M(-1) and (1.04 ± 0.05) × 10(5)M(-1), respectively. The binding was driven by a large negative standard molar enthalpic contribution. The binding was dominated essentially by non-polyelectrolytic forces which remained largely invariant at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic contribution was weak at all salt concentrations and accounted for only 6-18% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change in the salt concentration range 10-50mM. The negative standard molar heat capacity values, in conjunction with the enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon observed, established the involvement of dominant hydrophobic forces in the complexation process. Tartrazine enhanced the stability of both serum albumins against thermal denaturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A shorter and more specific oral sensitization-based experimental model of food allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Elvira; Cueto-Sola, Margarita; Utrilla, Pilar; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Judith; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; Comalada, Mònica

    2012-07-31

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in children. Experimental animal models have become critical tools with which to perform research on new therapeutic approaches and on the molecular mechanisms involved. However, oral food allergen sensitization in mice requires several weeks and is usually associated with unspecific immune responses. To overcome these inconveniences, we have developed a new food allergy model that takes only two weeks while retaining the main characters of allergic response to food antigens. The new model is characterized by oral sensitization of weaned Balb/c mice with 5 doses of purified cow's milk protein (CMP) plus cholera toxin (CT) for only two weeks and posterior challenge with an intraperitoneal administration of the allergen at the end of the sensitization period. In parallel, we studied a conventional protocol that lasts for seven weeks, and also the non-specific effects exerted by CT in both protocols. The shorter protocol achieves a similar clinical score as the original food allergy model without macroscopically affecting gut morphology or physiology. Moreover, the shorter protocol caused an increased IL-4 production and a more selective antigen-specific IgG1 response. Finally, the extended CT administration during the sensitization period of the conventional protocol is responsible for the exacerbated immune response observed in that model. Therefore, the new model presented here allows a reduction not only in experimental time but also in the number of animals required per experiment while maintaining the features of conventional allergy models. We propose that the new protocol reported will contribute to advancing allergy research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking as affected by the presence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2018-03-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients. A range of common food additives and ingredients were added to assess possible interference: ascorbic acid (E300), citric acid (E330), sorbic acid (E200), calcium propionate (E282), lecithin (E322), diacetyltartaric acid esters of fatty acid mono- and diglycerides (E472a), calcium phosphate (E341), disodium diphosphate (E450i), xanthan gum (E415), polydextrose (E1200), sorbitol (E420i), sodium bicarbonate (E500i), wheat gluten and malt flour. The DON content was reduced by 40%, and the DON-3-glucoside concentration increased by >100%, after baking for 20 min at 180°C. This confirmed that DON and DON-3-glucoside concentrations can vary during heating, and DON-3-glucoside could even increase after baking. However, DON and DON-3-glucoside are not affected significantly by the presence of the food additives tested.

  8. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The transmission of attitudes towards food: twofold specificity of similarities with parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Conner, Mark; Prestwich, Andrew; Cavazza, Nicoletta

    2012-05-01

    The present study explored whether similarity of students' food attitudes with those of their parents and friends varies as a function of both the food and type of measurement. We expected greater resemblance with parents for attitudes towards fruit and for implicit attitudes and greater resemblance with friends for attitudes towards snacks and for explicit attitudes. We compared the resemblance in implicit and explicit attitudes towards fruit and preference for sweet over savoury snacks between target-parent and target-friend pairings. The parental-peer mutual influence effect was separated from cultural effect by comparing real and random dyads. Target participants were 85 students who recruited one parent and one best friend each. All participants completed online two Implicit Association Tests and rated their liking for fruit and sweet/savoury snacks. Our target participants' attitudes towards fruit were predicted by those of their parents rather than friends, with this relationship being detected through implicit but not explicit measures. Conversely, target participants' preference for sweet over savoury snacks was predicted with those of their friends but not parents, with this relationship being detected through explicit but not implicit measures. Young adults' resemblance to parents and friends, in terms of food attitudes, seems specific both to the food type and to the attitude measure, suggesting that parents' influence concerns healthy food and is exerted at an implicit attitude level; whereas friends' influence concerns junk food and is exerted at an explicit attitude level. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Velde, J. L.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires. Generic

  11. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Velde, J. L.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific

  12. Assessing the microstructural and rheological changes induced by food additives on potato puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankar, Iman; Haddarah, Amira; El Omar, Fawaz; Sepulcre, Francesc; Pujolà, Montserrat

    2018-02-01

    The effects of agar, alginate, lecithin and glycerol on the rheological properties of commercial potato puree were investigated and interpreted in terms of starch microstructural changes, and the applicability of the Cox-Merz rule was evaluated. Each additive was applied separately at two concentrations (0.5 and 1%). Microscopic observations revealed more swollen starch aggregations in lecithin and glycerol compared with those of potato puree and agar, consequently affecting the rheological properties of potato puree. All samples exhibited shear thinning non-Newtonian behaviour. Rheological measurements were strongly concentration dependent. At 0.5% concentration, additives exerted decreases in all the rheological properties of potato puree in the order of glycerol>alginate>lecithin>agar, while at 1% concentration, the order changed to glycerol>lecithin>alginate, whereas 1% agar behaved differently, increasing all rheological values. This study also showed that agar and alginate in addition to potato puree could be valuable and advantageous for further technological processes, such as 3D printing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  14. The effects of gamma-irradiation on additives in food-contact polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine

    A range of antioxidants (BHT, Irganox 1010, 1076, 1330 and Irgafos 168) were incorporated into polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride) and subjected to increasing doses of gamma-irradiation (1,5,10,20,25,35 and 50 kGy) from a cobalt-60 source.The amount of extractable antioxidant from the stabilised polymers was determined chromatographically and a gradual diminution in the total extractable levels of each antioxidant was observed as irradiation progressed, the extent depending on the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer 2,6-Di-t-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone was shown to be an extractable degradation product, arising from the effects of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic antioxidants. The extractable degradation product arising from the phosphite antioxidant, Irgafos 168, was identified as tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenyl)phosphate. It was demonstrated using 14C-labelled Irganox 1076 that degradation products formed during gamma-irradiation are becoming covalently bound to the polymer, as a result of radical coupling processes. There is a pronounced increase in the extent of covalent binding from 0.4% before irradiation to a minimum of 12.4% after an exposure to 50 kGy. Evidence has also been presented of covalent binding of the degradation product of Irgafos 168 to the polypropylene matrix, via polymeric radicals formed during irradiation. Finally, the effects of gamma-irradiation on the extent of migration of antioxidants from polyolefins into food simulants was studied. It was found that irradiation leads to a decrease in the extent to which hindered phenolic antioxidants migrate from polyolefins into fatty media, consistent with the reduction in extractable antioxidant levels and the increase in the extent of antioxidant-polymer binding.

  15. Developmental Toxicity Assay for Food Additive Tartrazine Using Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) Embryo Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vani; Katti, Pancharatna

    Tartrazine (TTZ) is an azo dye used as a colorant in food products, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study evaluates the impacts of TTZ on embryonic development of zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Laboratory-raised D. rerio embryos (n = 20/concentration) were exposed to graded dilutions of TTZ (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, and 100 mM) from gastrulation stage (5.25 hours postfertilization [hpf]) until hatching and developmental trajectory was traced up to day 7. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC), median lethal concentration (LC 50 ), median effective concentration (EC 50 ), and teratogenic index (TI) were calculated. Exposure of embryos to effects; 20 to 30 mM TTZ caused tail bending, cardiac and yolk sac edema in 50% of larvae; in 30 to 50 mM TTZ-exposed embryos the heart rates declined along with the above mentioned deformities, causing mortality within 96 to 144 hpf; development ceased completely at 75 to 100 mM concentration. The NOEC and LC 50 were recorded at 5 and 29.4 mM dose, respectively. The EC 50 values for heart rate, cardiac edema, tail bending, and hatching success were at 59.60, 53.81, 98.28, and 58.97 mM with TI quotient 0.49, 0.54, 0.29, and 0.49, respectively. We conclude that TTZ is not embryo toxic/teratogenic for zebrafish embryos up to a dose level of 10 mM concentration.

  16. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: A microcalorimetric investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Carmoisine binds to both the serum albumins with affinity of the order of 10 6 M −1 . • The binding was favored by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by hydrophobic forces. • Carmoisine enhanced the thermal stability of both the proteins remarkably. - Abstract: The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10 6 M −1 and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5–8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine

  17. Co-construction and evaluation of a prevention program for improving the nutritional quality of food purchases at no additional cost in a socio-economically disadvantaged population

    OpenAIRE

    Perignon, Marlène; Dubois, Christophe; Gazan, Rozenn; Maillot, Matthieu; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food prices influence food choices. Purchasing foods with higher nutritional quality for their price may help improve the diet quality of socio-economically disadvantaged individuals. Objective: To describe the co-construction and evaluation of the 'Opticourses' prevention program promoting healthy eating among participants in deprived socio-economical situations by improving the nutritional quality of their household food purchases with no additional cost. Methods: Individuals we...

  18. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  19. Urinary metabolites of histamine and leukotrienes before and after placebo-controlled challenge with ASA and food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, G; Pacor, M L; Vignola, A M; Profita, M; Esposito-Pellitteri, M; Biasi, D; Corrocher, R; Caruso, C

    2002-12-01

    The recovery of mediator metabolites from urine has the potential to provide a rapid, safe, and easily available index of release of mediators. We aimed to determine urinary metabolites of both histamine and leukotrienes (LTs) in patients affected by chronic urticaria (CU). Twenty patients with CU were studied. They were selected on the basis of double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (DBPC) with acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and food additives. Ten patients (group B) were negative to both challenges. Ten patients (group C) presented urticaria and/or the appearance of angioedema during or 24 h after challenge, with reactions to ASA (five patients) or food additives (five patients). We recruited 15 healthy volunteers as controls (group A). During a second challenge, groups B and C were challenged double-blind with a single dose of ASA, or a specific food additive, or placebo. The healthy group was challenged only with a placebo (talc capsule). Patients in groups B and C were challenged twice: with placebo (as groups B1 and C1) and with ASA (groups B2 and C2) or food additives (C2). Four samples of urine were collected; one during the night before the specific or sham challenge (baseline), and three at 2, 6 and 24 h after the challenge. Urinary methylhistamine (N-MH) and LTE4 were analyzed and normalized for urinary creatinine. For urinary N-MH at baseline, there was a significant difference only between group A and groups B1, B2, C1 and C2 (A vs. B1, P < 0.0001; A vs. B2, P < 0.0001; A vs. C1, P < 0.0001; A vs. C2, P < 0.0001). We detected a significant variation in urinary methylhistamine excretion only in group C2 after 2 h, 6 h and 24 h (P < 0.0001). However, no variations were observed in N-MH excretion rate in the other groups (A, B1, C1) after challenge with placebo, and in B2 after challenge with ASA 20 mg. For urinary LTE4 at baseline no differences were found between the mean values for the different groups. After specific challenge, only C2 patients showed

  20. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  1. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Modulation of GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid and food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, H; Tenpaku, Y

    1997-12-01

    To study the effects of 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid (LOH) and food additives on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, ionotropic GABA receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNAs prepared from rat whole brain. LOH, which was prepared by reduction of 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (LOOH), inhibited the response of GABA receptors in the presence of high concentrations of GABA. LOH also inhibited nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and kainate receptors, while it had little effect on NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, LOH potentiated the response of GABA receptors as well as LOOH in the presence of low concentrations of GABA, possibly increasing the affinity of GABA for the receptors, while linoleic acid did not. Since some modification of the compounds seemed to change their effects on GABA receptors, the responses of GABA receptors elicited by 10 microM GABA were measured in the presence of compounds with various kinds of functional groups or the structural isomers of pentanol. Potentiation of GABA receptors depended strongly on the species of functional groups and also depended on the structure of the isomers. Then effects of various kinds of food additives on GABA receptors were also examined; perfumes such as alcohols or esters potentiated the responses strongly, while hexylamine, nicotinamide, or caffeine inhibited the responses, mainly in a competitive manner, and vanillin inhibited the responses noncompetitively. These results suggest the possibility that production of LOOH and LOH, or intake of much of some food additives, modulates the neural transmission in the brain, especially through ionotropic GABA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does.

  4. Most consumed processed foods by patients on hemodialysis: Alert for phosphate-containing additives and the phosphate-to-protein ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Marcela T; Araujo, Raphael M; Vogt, Barbara P; Barretti, Pasqual; Caramori, Jacqueline C T

    2016-08-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages IV and V because of decreased phosphorus excretion. Phosphatemia is closely related to dietary intake. Thus, a better understanding of sources of dietary phosphate consumption, absorption and restriction, particularly inorganic phosphate found in food additives, is key to prevent consequences of this complication. Our aims were to investigate the most commonly consumed processed foods by patients with CKD on hemodialysis, to analyze phosphate and protein content of these foods using chemical analysis and to compare these processed foods with fresh foods. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study using food frequency questionnaires to rank the most consumed industrialized foods and beverages. Total phosphate content was determined by metavanadate colorimetry, and nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Protein amounts were estimated from nitrogen content. The phosphate-to-protein ratio (mg/g) was then calculated. Processed meat protein and phosphate content were compared with the nutritional composition of fresh foods using the Brazilian Food Composition Table. Phosphate measurement results were compared with data from the Food Composition Table - Support for Nutritional Decisions. An α level of 5% was considered significant. Food frequency questionnaires were performed on 100 patients (mean age, 59 ± 14 years; 57% male). Phosphate additives were mentioned on 70% of the product labels analyzed. Proteins with phosphate-containing additives provided approximately twice as much phosphate per gram of protein compared with that of fresh foods (p processed foods are higher than those of fresh foods, as well as phosphate-to-protein ratio. A better understanding of phosphate content in foods, particularly processed foods, may contribute to better control of phosphatemia in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  5. Two size-selective mechanisms specifically trap bacteria-sized food particles in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang-Yen, Christopher; Avery, Leon; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2009-11-24

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a filter feeder: it draws bacteria suspended in liquid into its pharynx, traps the bacteria, and ejects the liquid. How pharyngeal pumping simultaneously transports and filters food particles has been poorly understood. Here, we use high-speed video microscopy to define the detailed workings of pharyngeal mechanics. The buccal cavity and metastomal flaps regulate the flow of dense bacterial suspensions and exclude excessively large particles from entering the pharynx. A complex sequence of contractions and relaxations transports food particles in two successive trap stages before passage into the terminal bulb and intestine. Filtering occurs at each trap as bacteria are concentrated in the central lumen while fluids are expelled radially through three apical channels. Experiments with microspheres show that the C. elegans pharynx, in combination with the buccal cavity, is tuned to specifically catch and transport particles of a size range corresponding to most soil bacteria.

  6. Specific Oral Tolerance Induction Using IFN-Gamma in 2 Cases of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geunwoong Noh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis induced by exercise after the intake of certain foods is referred to as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA. Only the preventive medication such as oral sodium cromoglycate and oral combined cetirizine-montelukast was tried in FDEIA. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI using IFN-gamma was tried in 2 cases of FDEIA for wheat. Merely, exercise accompanied every treatment just after the intake of allergenic foods during treatment. Patients acquired tolerance for wheat in both cases successfully. After treatment, two patients take wheat in their food living freely. Conclusively, SOTI using IFN-gamma was effective as the causative treatment for allergenic foods in FDEIA.

  7. DNA interaction studies of sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol) food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Tahmasian Ghobadi, Ameneh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Shariati, Zohreh

    2013-02-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol) in Tris-HCl buffer at neutral pH 7.4 was monitored by absorption spectrophotometry, viscometry and spectrofluorometry. It is found that sesamol molecules could interact with DNA outside and/or groove binding modes, as are evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV absorption band, very slow decrease in specific viscosity of DNA, and small increase in the fluorescence of methylene blue (MB)-DNA solutions in the presence of increasing amounts of sesamol, which indicates that it is able to partially release the bound MB. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between sesamol and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is enthalpy-favored and entropy-disfavored (ΔH = -174.08 kJ mol(-1); ΔS = -532.92 J mol(-1) K(-1)). The binding constant was determined using absorption measurement and found to be 2.7 × 10(4) M(-1); its magnitude suggests that sesamol interacts to DNA with a high affinity.

  8. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The charge for each gas atomization experiment was provided by Alcoa and consisted of cast blocks cut into 1 inch by 1 inch square rods of the chosen aluminum alloys. The atmosphere in the melting chamber and connected atomization system was evacuated with a mechanical pump prior to backfilling with ultrahigh purity (UHP grade) Ar. The melt was contained in a bottom tapped alumina crucible with an alumina stopper rod to seal the exit while heating to a pouring temperature of 1000 – 1400°C. When the desired superheat was reached, the stopper rod was lifted and melt flowed through pour tube and was atomized with Ar from a 45-22-052-409 gas atomization nozzle (or atomization die), having a jet apex angle of 45 degrees with 22 cylindrical gas jets (each with diameter of 1.32 mm or 0.052 inches) arrayed around the axis of a 10.4 mm central bore. The Ar atomization gas supply regulator pressure was set to produce nozzle manifold pressures for the series of runs at pressures of 250-650 psi. Secondary gas halos of Ar+O2 and He also were added to the interior of the spray chamber at various downstream locations for additional cooling of the atomized droplets, surface passivation, and to prevent coalescence of the resulting powder.

  9. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The initial three atomization attempts resulted in “freeze-outs” within the pour tubes in the pilot-scale system and yielded no powder. Re-evaluation of the alloy liquidus temperatures and melting characteristics, in collaboration with Alcoa, showed further superheat to be necessary to allow the liquid metal to flow through the pour tube to the atomization nozzle. A subsequent smaller run on the experimental atomization system verified these parameters and was successful, as were all successive runs on the larger pilot scale system. One alloy composition froze-out part way through the atomization on both pilot scale runs. SEM images showed needle formation and phase segregations within the microstructure. Analysis of the pour tube freeze-out microstructures showed that large needles formed within the pour tube during the atomization experiment, which eventually blocked the melt stream. Alcoa verified the needle formation in this alloy using theoretical modeling of phase solidification. Sufficient powder of this composition was still generated to allow powder characterization and additive manufacturing trials at Alcoa.

  10. Arginine and proline applied as food additives stimulate high freeze tolerance in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an insect of tropical origin. Its larval stage is evolutionarily adapted for rapid growth and development under warm conditions and shows high sensitivity to cold. In this study, we further developed an optimal acclimation and freezing protocol that significantly improves larval freeze tolerance (an ability to survive at -5°C when most of the freezable fraction of water is converted to ice). Using the optimal protocol, freeze survival to adult stage increased from 0.7% to 12.6% in the larvae fed standard diet (agar, sugar, yeast, cornmeal). Next, we fed the larvae diets augmented with 31 different amino compounds, administered in different concentrations, and observed their effects on larval metabolomic composition, viability, rate of development and freeze tolerance. While some diet additives were toxic, others showed positive effects on freeze tolerance. Statistical correlation revealed tight association between high freeze tolerance and high levels of amino compounds involved in arginine and proline metabolism. Proline- and arginine-augmented diets showed the highest potential, improving freeze survival to 42.1% and 50.6%, respectively. Two plausible mechanisms by which high concentrations of proline and arginine might stimulate high freeze tolerance are discussed: (i) proline, probably in combination with trehalose, could reduce partial unfolding of proteins and prevent membrane fusions in the larvae exposed to thermal stress (prior to freezing) or during freeze dehydration; (ii) both arginine and proline are exceptional among amino compounds in their ability to form supramolecular aggregates which probably bind partially unfolded proteins and inhibit their aggregation under increasing freeze dehydration. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p{<=}0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  12. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices

  13. Drinking water treatment sludge as an effective additive for biogas production from food waste; kinetic evaluation and biomethane potential test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Nik, Mohammadali; Heidari, Ava; Ramezani Azghandi, Shamim; Asadi Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Younesi, Habibollah

    2018-07-01

    The effect of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) as a mixture additive, on biogas and methane production from food waste was studied. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with 5 concentrations of DWTS (0, 2, 6, 12, and 18 ppm) was carried out. It was found that DWTS can significantly enhance biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas (671 Nml/g VS) as well as methane yield (522 Nml/g VS) was observed when 6 mg/kg DWTS was added. This is equal to 65 and 58 percent increase in comparison with the control digester. The calculated lag time for methane was found to be in between 3.3 and 4.7 days. The DWTS also reduced the lag phase and retention time. The biogas experimental data was fitted with the modified Gompertz and the first-order kinetic models with R 2 higher than 0.994 and 0.949, respectively. The ratio of the experimental biogas production to the theoretical biogas production (ɛ) for control sample was 0.53 while for other samples containing additive were higher than 0.78. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Six Food Additives in drinks by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q.

    2013-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the successful separation and determination of 6 synthetic food additives (aspartame, acesulfame potassium, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, tartrazine and sunset yellow) was developed. A EclipseXDB-C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.; 5 micro m) was used and the mobile phase contained methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) (30:70, v/v) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at room temperature. Successful separation conditions were obtained for all the compounds using an optimized gradient elution within 10 min. The diode array detector was used to monitor the food additives at 230 nm. The method was thoroughly validated, detection limits for all substances varied between 0.03 and 1.35 micro g/mg, the intra-day precision (as RSD) ranged from 1.57% to 4.72 %, the inter-day precision (as RSD) was between 2.05 % and 4.18 %. Satisfactory recoveries, ranging from 90.00 % to 109.87 %, were obtained. The proposed system was applied to drink samples. (author)

  15. A content analysis of food references in television programming specifically targeting viewing audiences aged 11 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Poor, Morgan; Stephenson, Tammy J

    2014-01-01

    Examine food in cable television programming specifically targeting 11- to 14-year-olds ("tweens"). Content analysis of food-related scenes (FRS)-in which food was shown, mentioned, and/or consumed-in 880 minutes of programming was conducted. Five days of afternoon/early evening television programs on the Disney Channel. Food references were compared with USDA MyPlate and classified according to modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components. The authors found 331 FRS, averaging 16.6 scenes/h. Preponderance of FRS was physiological needs (40.7%), followed by display (10%), party (8.5%), social event (8%), and retail store (6.6%). Snacks dominated 41% of FRS, and breakfast, lunch, and dinner were much lower in frequency. Half of FRS was visual only, followed by verbal only. Food references were not congruent with MyPlate recommendations; 42% of food items did not fit into MyPlate food groups. Only 24% of food items were fruit or vegetables, which is considerably less than recommended by MyPlate guidelines. Using modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components, 66% of food items scored food, which likely influences tweens' attitudes and behaviors. Television programming may consider past approaches to tobacco smoking and health messages on television. More attention is warranted regarding television programming by nutrition educators, researchers, health professionals, and industry specialists. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and Validation of a Mediterranean Oriented Culture-Specific Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpiniki Athanasiadou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to develop a Mediterranean oriented semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and evaluate its validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes. For FFQ development, the main challenge was to merge food items and practices reflecting cultural Mediterranean preferences with other food choices ensuing from diet transition to more westernized dietary patterns. FFQ validity was evaluated by comparing nutrient intakes against the average of two 24-h dietary recalls for 179 pregnant women. Although the mean intake values for most nutrients and energy tended to be higher when determined by the FFQ, the Cohen’s d was below 0.3. Bland-Altman plots confirmed the agreement between the two methods. Positive significant correlations ranged from 0.35 to 0.77. The proportion of women classified correctly was between 73.2% and 92.2%, whereas gross misclassification was low. Weighted kappa values were between 0.31 and 0.78, while intraclass correlation coefficients were between 0.49 and 0.89. Our methodological approach for the development and validation of this FFQ provides reliable measurements of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes. Overall, our culture-specific FFQ could serve as a useful assessment tool in studies aiming at monitoring dietary intakes, especially in the Mediterranean region, where countries share common cultural dietary habits.

  17. Development and Validation of a Mediterranean Oriented Culture-Specific Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadou, Elpiniki; Kyrkou, Charikleia; Fotiou, Maria; Tsakoumaki, Foteini; Dimitropoulou, Aristea; Polychroniadou, Eleni; Menexes, Georgios; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Biliaderis, Costas G; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria

    2016-08-25

    The objectives were to develop a Mediterranean oriented semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and evaluate its validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes. For FFQ development, the main challenge was to merge food items and practices reflecting cultural Mediterranean preferences with other food choices ensuing from diet transition to more westernized dietary patterns. FFQ validity was evaluated by comparing nutrient intakes against the average of two 24-h dietary recalls for 179 pregnant women. Although the mean intake values for most nutrients and energy tended to be higher when determined by the FFQ, the Cohen's d was below 0.3. Bland-Altman plots confirmed the agreement between the two methods. Positive significant correlations ranged from 0.35 to 0.77. The proportion of women classified correctly was between 73.2% and 92.2%, whereas gross misclassification was low. Weighted kappa values were between 0.31 and 0.78, while intraclass correlation coefficients were between 0.49 and 0.89. Our methodological approach for the development and validation of this FFQ provides reliable measurements of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes. Overall, our culture-specific FFQ could serve as a useful assessment tool in studies aiming at monitoring dietary intakes, especially in the Mediterranean region, where countries share common cultural dietary habits.

  18. What Are We Putting in Our Food That Is Making Us Fat? Food Additives, Contaminants, and Other Putative Contributors to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber L.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    The “chemical obesogen” hypothesis conjectures that synthetic, environmental contaminants are contributing to the global epidemic of obesity. In fact, intentional food additives (e.g., artificial sweeteners and colors, emulsifiers) and unintentional compounds (e.g., bisphenol A, pesticides) are largely unstudied in regard to their effects on overall metabolic homeostasis. With that said, many of these contaminants have been found to dysregulate endocrine function, insulin signaling, and/or adipocyte function. Although momentum for the chemical obesogen hypothesis is growing, supportive, evidence-based research is lacking. In order to identify noxious synthetic compounds in the environment out of the thousands of chemicals that are currently in use, tools and models from toxicology should be adopted (e.g., functional high throughput screening methods, zebrafish-based assays). Finally, mechanistic insight into obesogen-induced effects will be helpful in elucidating their role in the obesity epidemic as well as preventing and reversing their effects. PMID:25045594

  19. Diastereomer-specific bioaccumulation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a coastal food web, Western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukas, Marianne; Hylland, Ketil; Nygard, Torgeir; Berge, John Arthur; Mariussen, Espen

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports diastereomer-specific accumulation of HBCD from a point source in five marine species representing a typical food web in a Norwegian coastal area. Samples of mussels, polychaetes, crabs and seabird eggs were analyzed for the diastereomers α-, β- and γ-HBCD, as well as lipid content and stable isotopes of nitrogen ( 15 N/ 14 N) to estimate trophic level. Accumulated HBCD did not correlate well with lipid content for most of the species, thus wet-weight based concentrations were included in an assessment of biomagnification. In contrast to β- and γ-HBCD, the α-diastereomer increased significantly with trophic level, resulting in magnification factors > 1 in this coastal marine ecosystem. Data for poikilotherms did not show the same positive correlation between the α-diastereomer and trophic position as homeotherms. The apparent biomagnification of the α-HBCD could be due to bioisomerization or diastereomer-specific elimination that differed between poikilotherms and homeotherms.

  20. Species-specific separation of lake plankton reveals divergent food assimilation patterns in rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Alfred; Kainz, Martin J; Schagerl, Michael; Yasindi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    1. The analysis of functional groups with a resolution to the individual species level is a basic requirement to better understand complex interactions in aquatic food webs. Species-specific stable isotope analyses are currently applied to analyse the trophic role of large zooplankton or fish species, but technical constraints complicate their application to smaller-sized plankton. 2. We investigated rotifer food assimilation during a short-term microzooplankton bloom in the East African soda lake Nakuru by developing a method for species-specific sampling of rotifers. 3. The two dominant rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus dimidiatus , were separated to single-species samples (purity >95%) and significantly differed in their isotopic values (4.1‰ in δ 13 C and 1.5‰ in δ 15 N). Bayesian mixing models indicated that isotopic differences were caused by different assimilation of filamentous cyanobacteria and particles plicatilis (48%), whereas it was hardly ingested by B. dimidiatus . Overall, A . fusiformis was, relative to its biomass, assimilated to small extents, demonstrating a high grazing resistance of this species. 5. In combination with high population densities, these results demonstrate a strong potential of rotifer blooms to shape phytoplankton communities and are the first in situ demonstration of a quantitatively important direct trophic link between rotifers and filamentous cyanobacteria.

  1. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-01-01

    of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy...

  2. Intake assessment of the food additives nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong RC; Niekerk EM; Beukers MH; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are authorised as preservatives in certain food products, such as salami, ham (nitrite) and cheese (nitrate). They prevent food spoilage and protect the consumer against food-borne pathogens. Next to that, nitrate and nitrite play a role in food colour retention and contribute to

  3. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  4. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  5. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  6. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  7. INFLUENCE OF SOME ANTIMICROBIAL FOOD ADDITIVES AND GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE FUNGAL STATUS AND ORGANOLEPTIC QUALITY OF LOCAL STORED CHEESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATTAR, Z.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effectiveness of some antimicrobial food additives on the microbial status and organoleptic quality of local cheese stored at 25 0 C for six weeks. Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger were the predominant genera isolated from cheese samples. Treatment with propionic acid (600 and 1000 ppm), potassium sorbate (2000 and 3000 ppm) and sodium chloride (4 and 8%) decrease significantly the total fungal count of cheese less than 106/g over 4 weeks of storage at 25 0 C. Gamma irradiation with 3 kGy completely inhibited the growth of mycelia and no mycotoxins were detected. Treatment cheese with propionic acid (1000 ppm), potassium sorbate (3000 ppm) and sodium chloride (8%) developed no detectable spoilage odour during 3 weeks of storage at 25 0 C whereas untreated cheese was spoiled between one to two weeks. The results of the present study revealed that the use of the antimicrobial food preservatives play a great role on the inhibition of microorganisms contaminating stored cheese without cussing any organoleptic quality

  8. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  9. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Panesar, S S; Worth, A; Patel, S; Muraro, A; Halken, S; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; Regent, L; de Jong, N W; Roberts, G; Sheikh, A

    2014-07-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are significantly more sensitive than generic ones in measuring the response to interventions or future treatments, as well as estimating the general burden of food allergy. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify which disease-specific, validated instruments can be employed to enable assessment of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy. From the 17 eligible studies, we identified seven disease-specific HRQL instruments, which were then subjected to detailed quality appraisal. This revealed that these instruments have undergone formal development and validation processes, and have robust psychometric properties, and therefore provide a robust means of establishing the impact of food allergy on QOL. Suitable instruments are now available for use in children, adolescents, parents/caregivers, and adults. Further work must continue to develop a clinical minimal important difference for food allergy and for making these instruments available in a wider range of European languages. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development and application of a new method for specific and sensitive enumeration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in foods and food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael W; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Wyatt, Gary M; Izurieta, Walter Penaloza; Stringer, Sandra C; Barker, Gary C

    2010-10-01

    The highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum form neurotoxins of types B, E, and F and are the main hazard associated with minimally heated refrigerated foods. Recent developments in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) and food safety objectives (FSO) have made food safety more quantitative and include, as inputs, probability distributions for the contamination of food materials and foods. A new method that combines a selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR has been developed and validated to enumerate specifically the spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum. Key features of this new method include the following: (i) it is specific for nonproteolytic C. botulinum (and does not detect proteolytic C. botulinum), (ii) the detection limit has been determined for each food tested (using carefully structured control samples), and (iii) a low detection limit has been achieved by the use of selective enrichment and large test samples. The method has been used to enumerate spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum in 637 samples of 19 food materials included in pasta-based minimally heated refrigerated foods and in 7 complete foods. A total of 32 samples (5 egg pastas and 27 scallops) contained spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B or F. The majority of samples contained <100 spores/kg, but one sample of scallops contained 444 spores/kg. Nonproteolytic C. botulinum type E was not detected. Importantly, for QMRA and FSO, the construction of probability distributions will enable the frequency of packs containing particular levels of contamination to be determined.

  11. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF ADDITIONAL FOOD INTRODUCTION, STATED IN THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF THE INFANTS FEEDING OPTIMIZATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Skvortsova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the study of clinical and biochemical blood markers of iron metabolism in infants. This study represents a part of the research, aimed to scientific confirmation of the statements associated with additional food introduction and stated in the «National program of the infants feeding optimization in the Russian Federation». In controlled conditions the children were divided into 2 main groups: feeding with breast milk and with artificial milk formulas. Each group was divided into sub-groups according to the age of the additional food introduction: 4, 5 or 6 months. The received data suggest that the iron content was appropriate in both groups at the age of 4 months before the additional food introduction; there was a gradual decrease of several values after that, especially marked in children feeding with breast milk and later introduction of additional food. The comparative analysis showed that at the age of 9 months the lowest values were in breast-fed children with additional food introduction at the age of 6 months. This can be associated not only with late additional food introduction, but also with difficulties occurring when beginning it at this age and leading to insufficient supply with certain nutrients, including iron. The detailed analysis of diets for children of different sub-groups will be discussed in the next article.

  12. Associations between food consumption patterns and saliva composition: Specificities of eating difficulties children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzel, Martine; Truntzer, Caroline; Neyraud, Eric; Brignot, Hélène; Ducoroy, Patrick; Lucchi, Géraldine; Canlet, Cécile; Gaillard, Ségolène; Nicod, Florian; Nicklaus, Sophie; Peretti, Noël; Feron, Gilles

    2017-05-01

    Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, 1 H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories. Complete datasets were obtained for 16 ED and 16 C subjects (median age 4.7y and 5.0y, respectively) and the statistical link between salivary and dietary characteristics was studied by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Overall, ED children showed as expected lower consumption frequency scores and higher food selectivity. The two groups of children differed in "diet/saliva" associations. Some distinctive salivary variables were common to both groups of children. For example, carbonic anhydrase 6 and the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets and drinks were positively associated with the MFA axis 1 in C children, but oppositely associated in ED children. Specifically for ED children, abundant salivary proteins (cystatins, amylase, amylase fragments) and some metabolites (amino acids, galactose, lactate) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of sauces & seasonings, bread & cereal products, ready-to-eat meals, fish, biscuits & sweets, drinks and potatoes. Specifically for C children, several proteins (serum albumin, haptoglobin, Igκ, apolipoprotein A-1, α-1 antitrypsin) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets, milk & dairy products, drinks, fruit, meat and vegetables. This study demonstrates that the

  13. Portion size tells who I am, food type tells who you are: Specific functions of amount and type of food in same- and opposite-sex dyadic eating contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2017-05-01

    Previous research has shown that women eating small portions of food (vs. eating big portions) are perceived as more feminine, whereas men eating large portions are perceived as more masculine. The specific type of food items have also been shown to carry connotations for gender stereotyping. In addition, matching the co-eater's food quantity is also a means to ingratiate him or her. Thus, a potential motivational conflict between gender identity expression and ingratiation arises when people eat in opposite-sex dyads. Scholars have, thus far, focused their attention on one of these two dimensions at a time, and rarely in relation to the co-eaters' sex. The present study investigated, through a restaurant scenario, the way in which women and men, when asked to imagine having lunch in dyads, combine food choice and quantity regulation as a function of the co-eater's sex. Results showed that participants use the quantity dimension to communicate gender identity, and the food type dimension to ingratiate the co-eater's preferences by matching her/his presumed choice, following gender-based stereotypes about food. In opposite-sex dyads, dishes that incorporate the two dimensions were chosen above the expected frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  15. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  16. Systematic assessment of core assurance activities in a company specific food safety management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Rovira, J.; Spiegel, van der M.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic environment wherein agri-food companies operate and the high requirements on food safety force companies to critically judge and improve their food safety management system (FSMS) and its performance. The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic instrument enabling a

  17. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  18. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2015-11-21

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world’s oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ13C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ13C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  19. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  20. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie; Angulo, Frederick; Gibb, Herman; Kirk, Martyn; Lake, Robin; Speybroeck, Niko; Torgerson, Paul; Hald, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates. We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world, providing guidance

  1. Pre- and postprandial variation in implicit attention to food images reflects appetite and sensory-specific satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Graeme R; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna M; Kirkham, Tim C

    2018-06-01

    Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety. Participants were required to detect targets within a rapid visual stream, presented after task-irrelevant food (preferred or non-preferred sandwiches, or desserts) or non-food distractor images. All categories of food distractor preferentially captured attention even when appetite levels were low, but became more distracting as appetite increased preprandially, reducing task accuracy maximally as hunger peaked before lunch. Postprandially, attentional capture was markedly reduced for images of the specific sandwich type consumed and, to a lesser extent, for images of other sandwich types that had not been eaten. Attentional capture by images of desserts was unaffected by satiation. These findings support an important role of selective visual attention in the guidance of motivated behaviour. Naturalistic, meal-related changes in appetite are accompanied by changes in implicit attention to visual food stimuli that are easily detected using the EBA paradigm. Preprandial enhancement of attention capture by food cues likely reflects increases in the incentive motivational value of all food stimuli, perhaps providing an implicit index of wanting. Postprandial EBA responses confirm that satiation on a particular food results in relative inattention to that food, supporting an important attentional component in the operation of sensory-specific satiety. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published

  2. Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltomaa, Riikka; Vaghini, Silvia; Patiño, Belén; Benito-Peña, Elena; Moreno-Bondi, María C.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. - Highlights: • Optical genosensors detect fumonisin producing Fusarium species in maize samples. • Oligonucleotide probes designed on the intergenic spacer region of rDNA can distinguish between closely related species. • Sandwich hybridization assay with magnetic microbeads allows species-specific detection of Fusarium spp. directly from PCR.

  3. Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltomaa, Riikka; Vaghini, Silvia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Patiño, Belén [Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Benito-Peña, Elena, E-mail: elenabp@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, María C., E-mail: mcmbondi@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-09-07

    Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. - Highlights: • Optical genosensors detect fumonisin producing Fusarium species in maize samples. • Oligonucleotide probes designed on the intergenic spacer region of rDNA can distinguish between closely related species. • Sandwich hybridization assay with magnetic microbeads allows species-specific detection of Fusarium spp. directly from PCR.

  4. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürge Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0, flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min, and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer. Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS- 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2>0.9962, accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%, precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%, limits of detection (LODs, and limits of quantification (LOQs parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  5. Sterilization of proteinaceous food additives by irradiation. Temperature dependent changes in intensity of ESR signals generated by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazushi; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Higashimura, Yutaka; Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Tada, Mikiro

    1999-01-01

    Thaumatin, egg white and soybean protein were selected as samples of proteinous food additives, and changes in the intensity of signals appearing in them after they had been irradiated with electron beams were measured by ESR. It was found by such measurement that the positions of signals of thaumatin and soy proteins are nearly the same. Changes in the intensity of radicals in thaumatin calculated on the basis of the coefficients of the respective approximations obtained by using thaumatin which had been irradiated and then stored at 4degC, 25degC, 37degC and 60degC showed that there is a temperature range to determine the remaining of such radicals (inner: 19.7degC, outer: 15.23degC) and that such radicals tend to decrease straight line-wise. It was confirmed that the intensity of signals in the protein powder such thaumatin and soy protein would not be affected at the storage condition below 15degC. (author)

  6. A food additive with prebiotic properties of an α-d-glucan from lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

    2014-08-01

    An α-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by α-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sterilization of proteinaceous food additives by irradiation. Temperature dependent changes in intensity of ESR signals generated by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaue, Kazushi; Murata, Yoshiyuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Higashimura, Yutaka [San-Ei Gen F.F.I., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tada, Mikiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1999-09-01

    Thaumatin, egg white and soybean protein were selected as samples of proteinous food additives, and changes in the intensity of signals appearing in them after they had been irradiated with electron beams were measured by ESR. It was found by such measurement that the positions of signals of thaumatin and soy proteins are nearly the same. Changes in the intensity of radicals in thaumatin calculated on the basis of the coefficients of the respective approximations obtained by using thaumatin which had been irradiated and then stored at 4degC, 25degC, 37degC and 60degC showed that there is a temperature range to determine the remaining of such radicals (inner: 19.7degC, outer: 15.23degC) and that such radicals tend to decrease straight line-wise. It was confirmed that the intensity of signals in the protein powder such thaumatin and soy protein would not be affected at the storage condition below 15degC. (author)

  9. Effect of diet composition and mixture of selected food additives on the erythrocytic system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Joanna; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic processes of food additives which are "exogenous xenobiotics" are catalysed, primarily, by enzymes located in microsomes of hepatocytes affiliated to P-450 cytochrome superfamily, containing iron. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of diet composition and selected food additives on the erythrocyte system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats sorted into three equinumerous groups. For drinking animals received pure, settled tap water, animals from group III were receiving additionally an aqueous solution of sodium (nitrate), potassium nitrite, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and monosodium glutamate. Ascertained a significant effect of changes in diet composition on the increase in hematocrit marker value and the count of red blood cells in blood of animals examined. Used food additives diminished hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and red blood cell count, diminishing also iron concentration in serum, the total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation with iron. Analysis of the results allowed ascertain adverse changes in values of the erythrocytic system markers, occurring under the influence of the applied mixture of food additives. Used food additives change the iron metabolism, most likely from the necessity of applied xenobiotics biotransformation by heme-containing monoxygenases of P-450 cytochrome.

  10. Self-assembled two-dimensional gold nanoparticle film for sensitive nontargeted analysis of food additives with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Yu, Wenfang; Yang, Benhong; Li, Pan

    2018-05-15

    The use of different food additives and their active metabolites has been found to cause serious problems to human health. Thus, considering the potential effects on human health, developing a sensitive and credible analytical method for different foods is important. Herein, the application of solvent-driven self-assembled Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) for the rapid and sensitive detection of food additives in different commercial products is reported. The assembled substrates are highly sensitive and exhibit excellent uniformity and reproducibility because of uniformly distributed and high-density hot spots. The sensitive analyses of ciprofloxacin (CF), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), tartrazine and azodicarbonamide at the 0.1 ppm level using this surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate are given, and the results show that Au NP arrays can serve as efficient SERS substrates for the detection of food additives. More importantly, SERS spectra of several commercial liquors and sweet drinks are obtained to evaluate the addition of illegal additives. This SERS active platform can be used as an effective strategy in the detection of prohibited additives in food.

  11. Analysis of the relations between allergen specific LgG antibody and allergic dermatosis of 14 kinds foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin’e Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To use food-specific IgG antibody detection to explore its application in the allergy dermatoses. 181 patients were included from January 2014 to September 2014. Fourteen food-specific IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA. The positive rates of IgG antibody of the patient group and the healthy group were significantly different. The positive rates of IgG antibody of egg, milk, shrimp and crab took a large proportion in three groups of patients with three kinds of allergy dermatoses of urticaria, eczema and allergic dermatitis, the proportion of which was respectively 70.2%, 77.8% and 71.7%. There was mild and moderate intolerance of food in the allergic dermatitis group while there was no distribution difference of food intolerance in urticaria group and eczema group. Among urticaria and allergic dermatitis patients with positive antibody, the positive rate of children was significantly higher than that of adults while there was no significant difference between children and adults among eczema patients with positive antibody. Allergy dermatoses are closely related to food-specific IgG antibody and the allergy dermatoses patients have a high incidence rate of food intolerance; detecting IgG antibody in patients is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy dermatoses.

  12. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  13. Comparative differences in the behavior of TiO2 and SiO2 food additives in food ingredient solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Ridhwan; Nguyen, Luong T. H.; Chiew, Paul; Wang, Zheng Ming; Ng, Kee Woei

    2018-03-01

    Nanotechnology is widely used in the food industry to improve the color, taste, and texture of food products. However, concerns regarding potential undesirable health effects remain. It is expected that interaction of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with food ingredients will influence their behavior and the resulting corona. Nonetheless, there are limited systematic studies conducted to clarify this understanding to date. Herein, we investigated the behavior and corona formation of food grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) in solutions of model food ingredients including bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sucrose. Measurements using dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that both TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles displayed a decrease in agglomerate sizes in the presence of both food ingredients. Both particles were negatively charged in all the conditions tested. Corona adsorption studies were carried out using multiple complementary methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Comparative investigation showed that sucrose could disperse both particles more effectively than BSA and that SiO2 displayed greater adsorption capacity for both BSA and sucrose, compared to TiO2. Taken collectively, this study demonstrated the importance of considering food ingredient effects when mapping the behavior of ENMs in food products. Such understanding could be significant in the evaluation of biological effects, such as toxicity, of ENMs used in food products.

  14. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  15. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  16. The role of food irradiation in terms of value addition and extension of shelf life of agri. materials (from FARM to Consumer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today, with the advent of modern processing techniques in the area of value addition to agri resources, food irradiation has made a big dent in terms of extension of shelf life and confidence of making the food free from microbial and other contaminants and need to be really harnessed more than what we are doing. However, there is still certain amount of stigma attached to this technology not because the technology is un-ripe but it is because of lack of awareness with the masses as regards to the safety of the foods that are processed by irradiation

  17. Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants for food application - The specific case of coffee antioxidants - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Aguiar; Berta Nogueiro Estevinho; Lúcia Silveira Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Functional foods fortified with antioxidants are gaining more popularity since consumption alone of foods naturally rich in antioxidants is insufficient to reduce oxidative stress associated with various diseases. Despite their beneficial effects, natural antioxidants present in coffee are sensitive to heat, light and oxygen, limiting their application in the food industry. Although microencapsulation is able to protect the antioxidant from degradation, mask its taste and control ...

  18. Specific food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite. A forced-choice test conducted in various care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-07-01

    A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.

  20. Toxicological and biochemical investigations in rats administered “kaun” (trona a natural food additive used in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Imafidon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trona, a geological mineral, is often used as a natural food additive in many parts of Nigeria. This work was done to evaluate trona for metal content, acute toxicity and biochemical effects on vital organs such as the liver and the kidney. Consequently, graded doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1500 and 5000 mg trona per kg body weight were administered to determine their effects on body weight changes, relative organ weight, acute toxicity, liver and renal function indices and oxidative status of rats. Elemental analyses revealed the presence of high levels of sodium and iron, the presence of heavy metals such as cadmium, zinc and lead were also detected. There were losses in weights only at the 5000 mg/kg dose levels; relative liver and kidney weights were not affected. Acute toxicity tests recorded no mortality and no visible sign of toxicity. There were significant increases in ALT, AST and ALP activities at all dose levels except at the 10 mg/kg dose level. Liver MDA levels were significantly increased while catalase and SOD activities were significantly reduced in all the test rats compared with control. Kidney MDA levels were only affected at dose levels 5000 mg/kg; kidney SOD and catalase activities were not significantly affected. Creatinine, sodium and potassium levels were also not affected. These results show that trona may elicit toxic effects on the liver on prolonged administration, however no toxic effect was observed on the kidney within the duration of this study.

  1. Additive-manufactured patient-specific titanium templates for thoracic pedicle screw placement: novel design with reduced contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Ota, Eigo; Otsuki, Bungo; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Futami, Tohru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuich

    2016-06-01

    Image-based navigational patient-specific templates (PSTs) for pedicle screw (PS) placement have been described. With recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided designs and additive manufacturing technology, various PST designs have been reported, although the template designs were not optimized. We have developed a novel PST design that reduces the contact area without sacrificing stability. It avoids susceptibility to intervening soft tissue, template geometric inaccuracy, and difficulty during template fitting. Fourteen candidate locations on the posterior aspect of the vertebra were evaluated. Among them, locations that had high reproducibility on computed tomography (CT) images and facilitated accurate PS placement were selected for the final PST design. An additive manufacturing machine (EOSINT M270) fabricated the PSTs using commercially pure titanium powder. For the clinical study, 36 scoliosis patients and 4 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) were treated with thoracic PSs using our newly developed PSTs. We intraoperatively and postoperatively evaluated the accuracy of the PS hole created by the PST. Based on the segmentation reproducibility and stability analyses, we selected seven small, round contact points for our PST: bilateral superior and inferior points on the transverse process base, bilateral inferior points on the laminar, and a superior point on the spinous process. Clinically, the success rates of PS placement using this PST design were 98.6 % (414/420) for scoliosis patients and 100 % (46/46) for OPLL patients. This study provides a useful design concept for the development and introduction of patient-specific navigational templates for placing PSs.

  2. The Accuracy of 3D Optical Reconstruction and Additive Manufacturing Processes in Reproducing Detailed Subject-Specific Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferraiuoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction and 3D printing of subject-specific anatomy is a promising technology for supporting clinicians in the visualisation of disease progression and planning for surgical intervention. In this context, the 3D model is typically obtained from segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT or echocardiography images. Although these modalities allow imaging of the tissues in vivo, assessment of quality of the reconstruction is limited by the lack of a reference geometry as the subject-specific anatomy is unknown prior to image acquisition. In this work, an optical method based on 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC techniques is used to reconstruct the shape of the surface of an ex vivo porcine heart. This technique requires two digital charge-coupled device (CCD cameras to provide full-field shape measurements and to generate a standard tessellation language (STL file of the sample surface. The aim of this work was to quantify the error of 3D-DIC shape measurements using the additive manufacturing process. The limitations of 3D printed object resolution, the discrepancy in reconstruction of the surface of cardiac soft tissue and a 3D printed model of the same surface were evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated the ability of the 3D-DIC technique to reconstruct localised and detailed features on the cardiac surface with sub-millimeter accuracy.

  3. Design for Additive Bio-Manufacturing: From Patient-Specific Medical Devices to Rationally Designed Meta-Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-07-25

    Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in terms of accuracy, reliability, the range of processable materials, and commercial availability have made them promising candidates for production of functional parts including those used in the biomedical industry. The complexity-for-free feature offered by AM means that very complex designs become feasible to manufacture, while batch-size-indifference enables fabrication of fully patient-specific medical devices. Design for AM (DfAM) approaches aim to fully utilize those features for development of medical devices with substantially enhanced performance and biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of favorable properties that originate from complex geometrical designs at the micro-scale. This paper reviews the most important approaches in DfAM particularly those applicable to additive bio-manufacturing including image-based design pipelines, parametric and non-parametric designs, metamaterials, rational and computationally enabled design, topology optimization, and bio-inspired design. Areas with limited research have been identified and suggestions have been made for future research. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the practical aspects of DfAM and the potential of combining AM with subtractive and formative manufacturing processes in so-called hybrid manufacturing processes.

  4. Design for Additive Bio-Manufacturing: From Patient-Specific Medical Devices to Rationally Designed Meta-Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM techniques in terms of accuracy, reliability, the range of processable materials, and commercial availability have made them promising candidates for production of functional parts including those used in the biomedical industry. The complexity-for-free feature offered by AM means that very complex designs become feasible to manufacture, while batch-size-indifference enables fabrication of fully patient-specific medical devices. Design for AM (DfAM approaches aim to fully utilize those features for development of medical devices with substantially enhanced performance and biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of favorable properties that originate from complex geometrical designs at the micro-scale. This paper reviews the most important approaches in DfAM particularly those applicable to additive bio-manufacturing including image-based design pipelines, parametric and non-parametric designs, metamaterials, rational and computationally enabled design, topology optimization, and bio-inspired design. Areas with limited research have been identified and suggestions have been made for future research. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the practical aspects of DfAM and the potential of combining AM with subtractive and formative manufacturing processes in so-called hybrid manufacturing processes.

  5. A validated LC-MS/MS determination method for the illegal food additive rhodamine B: Applications of a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-06-05

    Rhodamine B is an illegal and potentially carcinogenic food dye. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Rat plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and separated by UHPLC on a reverse-phase C18e column (100mm×2.1mm, 2μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-5mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode at [M](+) ion m/z 443.39→399.28 for rhodamine B and [M+H](+) ion m/z 253.17→238.02 for 5-methoxyflavone as the internal standard. This method was specific and produced linear results over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.5ng/mL. All validation parameters, including the inter-day, intra-day, matrix effect, recovery, and stability in rat plasma, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines developed by the FDA (2001). This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats; oral administration of 1mg/kg of rhodamine B yielded a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 1.3±0.4h and an elimination half-life of 8.8±1.4h, with a clearance of 229.7±19.4mL/h/kg. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to our understanding of the absorption mechanism of rhodamine B and support additional food safety evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  7. [Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Yao, Shanshan; Jin, Micong

    2011-10-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, i. e. , trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, i. e. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87. 61% and 108. 4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu- rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods.

  8. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  9. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Thorrold, Simon R.; Houghton, Leah A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    . Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton

  10. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for monitoring natural additives in polylactic acid active food packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Jiménez-Morillo, N T; González-Vila, F J; Guillamón, E; Bermúdez, J M; Aucejo, S; Camean, A M; González-Pérez, J A

    2017-11-24

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) usually requires preparative steps (pretreatments, extraction, derivatization) to get amenable chromatographic analytes from bulk geological, biological or synthetic materials. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) can help to overcome such sample manipulation. This communication describe the results obtained by hyphenating analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC) with carbon isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the analysis of a polylactic acid (PLA) a based bio-plastic extruded with variable quantities of a natural plant extract or oregano essential oil. The chemical structural information of pyrolysates was first determined by conventional analytical pyrolysis and the measure of δ 13 C in specific compounds was done by coupling a pyrolysis unit to a gas chromatograph connected to a continuous flow IRMS unit (Py-GC-C-IRMS). Using this Py-CSIA device it was possible to trace natural additives with depleted δ 13 C values produced by C3 photosystem vegetation (cymene: -26.7‰±2.52; terpinene: -27.1‰±0.13 and carvacrol: -27.5‰±1.80 from oregano and two unknown structures: -23.3‰±3.32 and -24.4‰±1.70 and butyl valerate: -24.1‰±3.55 from Allium spp.), within the naturally isotopically enriched bio-plastic backbone derived from corn (C4 vegetation) starch (cyclopentanones: -14.2‰±2.11; lactide enantiomers: -9.2‰±1.56 and larger polymeric units: -17.2‰±1.71). This is the first application of Py-CSIA to characterize a bio-plastic and is shown as a promising tool to study such materials, providing not only a fingerprinting, but also valuable information about the origin of the materials, allowing the traceability of additives and minimizing sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of C/N ratio and substrate addition on natural food communities in freshwater prawn monoculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Rahman, M.M.; Azim, M.E.; Islam, M.A.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three C/N ratios (10/1, 15/1 and 20/1) along with substrate presence or absence on natural food communities in freshwater prawn culture ponds. An experiment was carried out in 40 m2 ponds stocked with a stocking density of 2 prawn

  12. Determinants of diet quality in pregnancy: sociodemographic, pregnancy-specific, and food environment influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Danielle M; Gilliland, Jason A; Evers, Susan E; Wilk, Piotr; Campbell, M Karen

    2013-01-01

    To advance the knowledge of determinants of diet quality in pregnancy by focusing on both personal characteristics and the food environment. Cross-sectional study in which participants from the Prenatal Health Project were linked to a geographic dataset by home address. Access to fast food, convenience stores, and grocery stores was measured using a geographic information system (ArcGIS9.3). Pregnant women (n = 2,282) were recruited between 2002 and 2005 in London, Ontario, Canada. Dietary quality was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were calculated with the predictor variables on the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Pregnant women who were born in Canada, common-law, nulliparous, less physically active, smokers, more anxious, or lacking family support had lower diet quality on average. Presence of fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 500 m of participants' homes was not associated with diet quality after controlling for personal variables. The food environment does not seem to have a large influence on diet quality in pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine other potential reasons for low diet quality among pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  14. Energy supply of food processing plants and breweries from its specific solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmel, U.; Leupold, G.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Disposal of solid wastes in the food processing industry causes problems. Constant utilization as animal food is not guaranteed any longer and costs for disposal will increase. Biogas production is an alternative for disposal of brewery wastes. Recent investigations have reduced retention time for hydrolysis and total retention time. Retention time is directly proportional to fermenter size consequently resulting in drastic cost reductions. Yielded energy can be utilized in the production line so that fossil fuel use can be reduced with reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. However, some problems remain: sumptous technology; highly qualified specialists; need to reduce ammonia to prevent inhibition of biogas production; cost of technology.

  15. A Bioengineered Nisin Derivative, M21A, in Combination with Food Grade Additives Eradicates Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Muireann K.; Draper, Lorraine A.; Hazelhoff, Pieter-Jan; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. P.; Hill, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The burden of foodborne disease has large economic and social consequences worldwide. Despite strict regulations, a number of pathogens persist within the food environment, which is greatly contributed to by a build-up of resistance mechanisms and also through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to be highly resistant to a number of antimicrobials and can be extremely difficult to remove once they are established. In parallel, the growing concern of consumers regarding the use...

  16. Evaluation of ELISA tests specific for Shiga toxin 1 and 2 in food and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting and differentiating between Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) produced by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) inoculated into food and water samples. Each kit incorporated monoclonal antibodies ...

  17. The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, H J; Racki, E M

    2010-07-01

    Breakfast skipping (BS) is closely associated with overeating (in the evening), weight gain and obesity. It is unclear whether the addition of breakfast, with emphasis on dietary protein, leads to better appetite and energy intake regulation in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of addition of a normal-protein (PN) breakfast vs protein-rich (PR) breakfast on appetite and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents. A total of 13 adolescents (age 14.3+/-0.3 years; body mass index percentile 79+/-4 percentile; skipped breakfast 5+/-1 x per week) randomly completed 3 testing days that included a PN (18+/-1 g protein), PR (48+/-2 g protein) or BS. Breakfast was 24% of estimated daily energy needs. Appetite, satiety and hormonal responses were collected over 5 h followed by an ad libitum lunch and 24-h food intake assessments. Perceived appetite was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to greater reductions vs BS (PLunch energy intake was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to fewer kcal consumed vs BS (PDaily food intake was not different among treatments. Breakfast led to increased satiety through increased fullness and PYY concentrations in 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. A breakfast rich in dietary protein provides additional benefits through reductions in appetite and energy intake. These findings suggest that the addition of a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control in young people.

  18. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2006-10-03

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute approximately 95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain (26)Al. The rats received concurrent (27)Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for (26)Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral (26)Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentrationxtime curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic (26)Al-SALP averaged approximately 0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be approximately 0.3%. The time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 4.2 and 6h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% (26)Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2h following (26)Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic (26)Al-SALP in a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%) and results from (26)Al in water (F approximately 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 5-10mg from food and 0.1mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides approximately 25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water.

  19. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute ∼95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain 26 Al. The rats received concurrent 27 Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for 26 Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral 26 Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the 26 Al, compared to 27 Al, serum concentration x time curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic 26 Al-SALP averaged ∼0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be ∼0.3%. The time to maximum serum 26 Al concentration was 4.2 and 6 h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% 26 Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2 h following 26 Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic 26 Al-SALP in a biscuit (F ∼ 0.1%) and results from 26 Al in water (F ∼ 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake (∼5-10 mg from food and 0.1 mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides ∼25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water

  20. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs: a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E

    2017-01-18

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs. Eight experimental healthy beagle dogs, never orally exposed to peanut, were randomized in two groups to receive SLIT with peanut or placebo for 4 months. Subjects were monitored daily for local and systemic adverse effects. Blood samples for complete blood count and serum biochemistry, and urine for urinalysis were collected and the dogs' body weight was recorded at day 0, 35 and 119 of the SLIT treatment. Sera for the determination of peanut-specific IgG and IgE were collected at day 0, 35, 49, 70, 91, 105 and 119. Intradermal tests were performed before (day 0) and after (day 119) the experiment. The content of each dispenser used to administer treatment or placebo was tested for sterility after usage. In order to assess the presence or absence of sensitization, dogs were challenged 6 months after the end of the study with 2000 μg of peanut extract daily for 7 to 14 days. All dogs completed the study. The treatment did not provoke either local or systemic side-effects. Peanut-specific IgG significantly increased in treatment group. Even though a significant increase in peanut-specific IgE was also seen, intradermal tests were negative in all dogs before and after the experiment, and the challenge test did not trigger any adverse reactions in the treated dogs, which shows the protocol did not cause sensitization to peanut, but nevertheless primed the immune system as indicated by the humoral immune response. All dispenser solutions

  1. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

  2. Species-specific modulation of food-search behavior by respiration and chemosensation in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeon; Alvarez, Mar; Lechuga, Laura M; Louis, Matthieu

    2017-09-05

    Animals explore their environment to encounter suitable food resources. Despite its vital importance, this behavior puts individuals at risk by consuming limited internal energy during locomotion. We have developed a novel assay to investigate how food-search behavior is organized in Drosophila melanogaster larvae dwelling in hydrogels mimicking their natural habitat. We define three main behavioral modes: resting at the gel's surface, digging while feeding near the surface, and apneic dives. In unstimulated conditions, larvae spend most of their time digging. By contrast, deep and long exploratory dives are promoted by olfactory stimulations. Hypoxia and chemical repellents impair diving. We report remarkable differences in the dig-and-dive behavior of D. melanogaster and the fruit-pest D. suzukii . The present paradigm offers an opportunity to study how sensory and physiological cues are integrated to balance the limitations of dwelling in imperfect environmental conditions and the risks associated with searching for potentially more favorable conditions.

  3. Two Size-Selective Mechanisms Specifically Trap Bacteria-Sized Food Particles in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Yen, Christopher M.; Avery, Leon; Samuel, Aravinthan DT

    2009-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a filter feeder: it draws bacteria suspended in liquid into its pharynx, traps the bacteria, and ejects the liquid. How pharyngeal pumping simultaneously transports and filters food particles has been poorly understood. Here, we use high-speed video microscopy to define the detailed workings of pharyngeal mechanics. The buccal cavity and metastomal flaps regulate the flow of dense bacterial suspensions and exclude excessively large particles from entering the pharyn...

  4. Soil resource supply influences faunal size?specific distributions in natural food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Christian; Den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-01-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use...

  5. Specific activity of radionuclides in technological processing of nettle (urtica) for food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.N.; Odintsov, Yu.A.; Zakharchenko, G.A.; Chernikov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Possibility of using nettle (urtica) for food in the regions, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident, is studied. Clear dependence of 137 Cs transport from the soil into the nettle is not determined even in the regions with high density of soil contamination. It is established that nettle wetting during one hour in water completely relieves it from 137 Cs. It is recommended to use the nettle as source material of biologically active substances for nutrition purposes. 6 refs

  6. Consumo de aditivos alimentares e efeitos à saúde: desafios para a saúde pública brasileira Food additive intake and health effects: public health challenges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Teixeira Polônio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a contextualizar por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, os riscos acarretados pelo consumo de aditivos alimentares. Em relação aos resultados dos estudos associando o consumo de aditivos ao aparecimento do câncer, os efeitos adversos à saúde foram observados principalmente nos estudos em que a Ingestão Diária Aceitável (IDA foi excedida. Também apontou uma carência de pesquisas sobre o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade. Já em relação à hipersensibilidade não específica, o número de estudos foi significativo e os resultados mais consistentes quanto às manifestações clínicas de rinite, urticária e angioedema provocadas pelos aditivos, em particular pelos os corantes artificiais. As crianças aparecem como grupo vulnerável, em razão do consumo potencial de alimentos com aditivos alimentares, particularmente corantes artificiais. Os resultados indicam que estudos de consumo de aditivos alimentares deveriam servir de base para a elaboração de estratégias de vigilância alimentar e nutricional, com a finalidade de promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis.This study uses a systematic literature review to contextualize the risks associated with food additive intake. Studies comparing food additive intake and cancer showed that adverse health effects appeared when Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI was exceeded. The review also detected a lack of studies on attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. There were more studies on non-specific hypersensitivity, highlighting such clinical manifestations as rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema, all associated with food additives, particularly artificial colorants. Children are a vulnerable group as potential consumers of food additives, particularly artificial colorants. Studies on food additive intake should provide the basis for effective food and nutritional surveillance strategies, aiming to promote healthy eating habits.

  7. Selected properties of biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with by-products of food industry addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work extrusion process were used to create thermoplastic starch and to mix obtained starch with linen, quince and apple pomace at the same time. Obtained starch beads were formed in shapes. In experimental material was determined thermal conductivity, water absorption and the solubility in water. It is possible to get the biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with an addition of fruit pomace. Adding pomace and glycerine to the biodegradable material made from starch change of susceptibility on water action. In the case of materials containing pomace, glycerine addition decreases the susceptibility on water action compared to the material manufactured with pomace addition but without glycerine. In the material containing pomace, glycerine addition caused the increase of the thermal insulation time compared to the material with pomace but no glycerine in it.

  8. Analysis of a variety of inorganic and organic additives in food products by ion-pairing liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Widmer, Mirjam; Maden, Kathryn; Butcher, Patrick; Walker, Stephan

    2018-03-05

    A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions. Yet, unlike quaternary amines, it can be de-charged in the electrospray to prevent the formation of neutral analyte ion-pairing agent adducts. This process is significantly facilitated by the added hexafluoro-2-propanol. This approach permits the sensitive detection and quantification of additives like nitrate and mono-, di-, and triphosphate as well as citric acid, a number of artificial sweeteners like cyclamate and aspartame, flavor enhancers like glutamate, and preservatives like sorbic acid. This is a major advantage, since the currently used analytical methods as utilized in food safety laboratories are only capable in monitoring a few compounds or a particular category of food additives. Graphical abstract Deptotonation of ion pair agent in the electrospray interface.

  9. Optimization of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters for determination of polycarbonate additives, degradation products, and colorants migrating from food contact materials to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Laganà, Carmen; Salvadeo, Paola; Corradini, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The interest towards "substances of emerging concerns" referred to objects intended to come into contact with food is recently growing. Such substances can be found in traces in simulants and in food products put in contact with plastic materials. In this context, it is important to set up analytical systems characterized by high sensitivity and to improve detection parameters to enhance signals. This work was aimed at optimizing a method based on UHPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify the most common plastic additives, and able to detect the presence of polymers degradation products and coloring agents migrating from plastic re-usable containers. The optimization of mass spectrometric parameter settings for quantitative analysis of additives has been achieved by a chemometric approach, using a full factorial and d-optimal experimental designs, allowing to evaluate possible interactions between the investigated parameters. Results showed that the optimized method was characterized by improved features in terms of sensitivity respect to existing methods and was successfully applied to the analysis of a complex model food system such as chocolate put in contact with 14 polycarbonate tableware samples. A new procedure for sample pre-treatment was carried out and validated, showing high reliability. Results reported, for the first time, the presence of several molecules migrating to chocolate, in particular belonging to plastic additives, such Cyasorb UV5411, Tinuvin 234, Uvitex OB, and oligomers, whose amount was found to be correlated to age and degree of damage of the containers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Rapid determination of illicit beta2-agonist additives in health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines with DCBI-MS/MS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Yong; Liao, Peng; Tian, Qing-Qing; Sun, Wen-Jian; Chen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A novel rapid method for detection of the illicit beta2-agonist additives in health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines was developed with the desorption corona beam ionization mass spectrometry (DCBI-MS) technique. The DCBI conditions including temperature and sample volume were optimized according to the resulting mass spectra intensity. Matrix effect on 9 beta2-agonists additives was not significant in the proposed rapid determination procedure. All of the 9 target molecules were detected within 1 min. Quantification was achieved based on the typical fragment ion in MS2 spectra of each analyte. The method showed good linear coefficients in the range of 1-100 mg x L(-1) for all analytes. The relative deviation values were between 14.29% and 25.13%. Ten claimed antitussive and antiasthmatic health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines from local pharmacies were analyzed. All of them were negative with the proposed DCBI-MS method. Without tedious sample pretreatments, the developed DCBI-MS is simple, rapid and sensitive for rapid qualification and semi-quantification of the illicit beta2-agonist additives in health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines.

  11. Design for additive bio-manufacturing : From patient-specific medical devices to rationally designed meta-biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in terms of accuracy, reliability, the range of processable materials, and commercial availability have made them promising candidates for production of functional parts including those used in the biomedical industry. The

  12. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts; Specifications et methodes d'analyse microbiologiques des aliments irradies. Rapport d'un groupe d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-09-01

    panel in that there were no prepared papers. Discussions took place on the value of various methods, and information on such matters as formulations, ingredients and techniques was assembled. The resulting draft report was thorough and reflected the great amount of work that had gone into its preparation. But the feeling of the senior members of the panel was that there was room for further refinement and improvement. This feeling was strengthened by the realization that significant work on microbiological methods, which had not been completed at the time of the panel meeting, was now available from the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Food of IAMS. Thus the panel was brought together again on 6-10 November 1967 in Vienna for the purpose of reviewing the draft report, reducing the number of methods proposed for the evaluation of food for specific micro-organisms, and drawing more fully upon the experience of the International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for food. in addition to the draft report, the unpublished reports of the meetings of the International Committee held in Cambridge (UK). 1965, Moscow, 1966, and London, 1967, were used as working papers. The composition of the second panel varied only slightly from that of the first. This report, then, supplements 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', mentioned above. In formulating legislation or regulations clarity is essential; this is particularly so in microbiology where the values obtained for the microbial content of a food are likely to differ widely. If a regulation specifies that certain micro-organisms must be absent from a food, or that they are permitted only in certain quantities, the methods and techniques to be used in order to comply with the regulation should also be specified. The present report aims to provide the link between the regulatory microbiological requirements and the methods that should be used. The panel experts compared the

  13. Effects of a Variety of Food Extracts and Juices on the Specific Binding Ability of Norovirus GII.4 P Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, DAN; BAERT, LEEN; XIA, MING; ZHONG, WEIMING; JIANG, XI; UYTTENDAELE, MIEKE

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 13 food extracts and juices, including shellfish, fruits, and vegetables, on the binding ability of human norovirus (NoV) were examined, using P particles of human NoV GII.4 as a research surrogate. The enhancements (positive values) or reductions (negative values) of NoV P particle detection (changes in optical density at 450 nm) in the presence of different food extracts and juices as compared with P particles diluted in phosphate-buffered saline were tested by saliva-binding, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in triplicate. In the presence of different food extracts and juices at different concentrations, an increase or decrease of the receptor-binding ability of the NoV P particles was observed. Due to a higher specific binding and thus a higher accumulation of the viral particles, oysters may be contaminated with human NoV more often than other shellfish species (mussel, hard clams, and razor clams). Cranberry and pomegranate juices were shown to reduce the specific binding ability of human NoV P particles. No such binding inhibition effects were observed for the other tested extracts of fresh produce (strawberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry tomato, spinach, romaine lettuce) or, notably, for raspberry, which has been associated with human NoV outbreaks. PMID:22980024

  14. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  15. Movement ecology: size-specific behavioral response of an invasive snail to food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sunny B; Gilliam, James F

    2008-07-01

    Immigration, emigration, migration, and redistribution describe processes that involve movement of individuals. These movements are an essential part of contemporary ecological models, and understanding how movement is affected by biotic and abiotic factors is important for effectively modeling ecological processes that depend on movement. We asked how phenotypic heterogeneity (body size) and environmental heterogeneity (food resource level) affect the movement behavior of an aquatic snail (Tarebia granifera), and whether including these phenotypic and environmental effects improves advection-diffusion models of movement. We postulated various elaborations of the basic advection diffusion model as a priori working hypotheses. To test our hypotheses we measured individual snail movements in experimental streams at high- and low-food resource treatments. Using these experimental movement data, we examined the dependency of model selection on resource level and body size using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). At low resources, large individuals moved faster than small individuals, producing a platykurtic movement distribution; including size dependency in the model improved model performance. In stark contrast, at high resources, individuals moved upstream together as a wave, and body size differences largely disappeared. The model selection exercise indicated that population heterogeneity is best described by the advection component of movement for this species, because the top-ranked model included size dependency in advection, but not diffusion. Also, all probable models included resource dependency. Thus population and environmental heterogeneities both influence individual movement behaviors and the population-level distribution kernels, and their interaction may drive variation in movement behaviors in terms of both advection rates and diffusion rates. A behaviorally informed modeling framework will integrate the sentient response of individuals in terms of

  16. The Influence of Brewer’s Yeast Autolysate and Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Production of a Functional Food Additive Based on Beetroot Juice Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Baras

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of »functional foods« in the world is increasing, and the procedures for their production are under intense development. The goal of this paper is to optimise the production of a functional food additive based on beetroot juice (Beta vulgaris L. using brewer’s yeast autolysate. In order to improve the nutritive properties of the product and to preserve it, the possibility of beetroot juice fermentation using a Lactobacillus species has been investigated. Comparative investigations of three bacteria cultures (L. plantarum A112, L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 and L. acidophilus NCDO1748 during fermentation in two media, beetroot juice and a mixture of beetroot juice with an autolysate of brewer´s yeast, have been performed. The poorest fermentative activity and growth in both substrates was observed using the L. acidophilus NCDO1748 culture. The two cultures demonstrated better fermentative activity in the mixture of tested substrates, while acidifying activity (production of lactic acid and a decrease in pH of the L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 culture was considerably better than that of the L. plantarum A112 culture. L. plantarum A112 culture showed better growth than L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3. From the results obtained, it has been concluded that the L. plantarum A112 and L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 can be successfully used for fermentation of the mixture of beetroot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate in order to obtain a functional food additive.

  17. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antidiabetic effects of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum, a novel food additive in China, on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Mao; Hu, Xin-Zhong; Wu, Rui-Qin; Xu, Chao

    2009-09-25

    Since ancient times, practicians of traditional Chinese medicine have discovered that Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. (Asteraceae) seed powder was useful for the treatment of diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum (ASK gum), which is extracted from seed powder of the plant, is a novel food additive favored by the food industry in China. The objective of this study was to determine the antidiabetic function of ASK gum on type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced with high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The effects of ASK gum on hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated. The results were compared to those of normal rats and diabetic rats treated with metformin. The addition of ASK gum to the rats' food supply significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride in type 2 diabetic rats, and significantly elevated liver glucokinase, liver glycogen, and serum high density protein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. ASK gum significantly reduced insulin resistance and liver fat accumulation of type 2 diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum can alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes.

  19. The Accuracy of 3D Optical Reconstruction and Additive Manufacturing Processes in Reproducing Detailed Subject-Specific Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Ferraiuoli; Jonathan C. Taylor; Emily Martin; John W. Fenner; Andrew J. Narracott

    2017-01-01

    3D reconstruction and 3D printing of subject-specific anatomy is a promising technology for supporting clinicians in the visualisation of disease progression and planning for surgical intervention. In this context, the 3D model is typically obtained from segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or echocardiography images. Although these modalities allow imaging of the tissues in vivo, assessment of quality of the reconstruction is limited by the lack of a ref...

  20. DOF-binding sites additively contribute to guard cell-specificity of AtMYB60 promoter

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    Cominelli Eleonora

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB60 protein is an R2R3MYB transcription factor required for stomatal opening. AtMYB60 is specifically expressed in guard cells and down-regulated at the transcriptional levels by the phytohormone ABA. Results To investigate the molecular mechanisms governing AtMYB60 expression, its promoter was dissected through deletion and mutagenesis analyses. By studying different versions of AtMYB60 promoter::GUS reporter fusions in transgenic plants we were able to demonstrate a modular organization for the AtMYB60 promoter. Particularly we defined: a minimal promoter sufficient to confer guard cell-specific activity to the reporter gene; the distinct roles of different DOF-binding sites organised in a cluster in the minimal promoter in determining guard cell-specific expression; the promoter regions responsible for the enhancement of activity in guard cells; a promoter region responsible for the negative transcriptional regulation by ABA. Moreover from the analysis of single and multiple mutants we could rule out the involvement of a group of DOF proteins, known as CDFs, already characterised for their involvement in flowering time, in the regulation of AtMYB60 expression. Conclusions These findings shed light on the regulation of gene expression in guard cells and provide new promoter modules as useful tools for manipulating gene expression in guard cells, both for physiological studies and future biotechnological applications.