WorldWideScience

Sample records for folklore text corpora

  1. Metaphor identification in large texts corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yohai; Last, Mark; Argamon, Shlomo; Howard, Newton; Frieder, Ophir

    2013-01-01

    Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child) is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are variations of the same core algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms on two corpora of Reuters and the New York Times articles. The paper presents the most comprehensive study of metaphor identification in terms of scope of metaphorical phrases and annotated corpora size. Algorithms' performance in identifying linguistic phrases as metaphorical or literal has been compared to human judgment. Overall, the algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm with 71% precision and 27% averaged improvement in prediction over the base-rate of metaphors in the corpus.

  2. Two approaches to gathering text corpora from the WorldWideWeb

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of pattern recognition to natural language processing require large text corpora in a specified language. For many of the languages of the world, such corpora are not readily available, but significant quantities of text...

  3. FacetAtlas: multifaceted visualization for rich text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Sun, Jimeng; Lin, Yu-Ru; Gotz, David; Liu, Shixia; Qu, Huamin

    2010-01-01

    Documents in rich text corpora usually contain multiple facets of information. For example, an article about a specific disease often consists of different facets such as symptom, treatment, cause, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention. Thus, documents may have different relations based on different facets. Powerful search tools have been developed to help users locate lists of individual documents that are most related to specific keywords. However, there is a lack of effective analysis tools that reveal the multifaceted relations of documents within or cross the document clusters. In this paper, we present FacetAtlas, a multifaceted visualization technique for visually analyzing rich text corpora. FacetAtlas combines search technology with advanced visual analytical tools to convey both global and local patterns simultaneously. We describe several unique aspects of FacetAtlas, including (1) node cliques and multifaceted edges, (2) an optimized density map, and (3) automated opacity pattern enhancement for highlighting visual patterns, (4) interactive context switch between facets. In addition, we demonstrate the power of FacetAtlas through a case study that targets patient education in the health care domain. Our evaluation shows the benefits of this work, especially in support of complex multifaceted data analysis.

  4. How Hierarchical Topics Evolve in Large Text Corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Wu, Zhuofeng; Wei, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Using a sequence of topic trees to organize documents is a popular way to represent hierarchical and evolving topics in text corpora. However, following evolving topics in the context of topic trees remains difficult for users. To address this issue, we present an interactive visual text analysis approach to allow users to progressively explore and analyze the complex evolutionary patterns of hierarchical topics. The key idea behind our approach is to exploit a tree cut to approximate each tree and allow users to interactively modify the tree cuts based on their interests. In particular, we propose an incremental evolutionary tree cut algorithm with the goal of balancing 1) the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts; 2) the historical and new information related to user interests. A time-based visualization is designed to illustrate the evolving topics over time. To preserve the mental map, we develop a stable layout algorithm. As a result, our approach can quickly guide users to progressively gain profound insights into evolving hierarchical topics. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and real-world news data. The results show that users are able to successfully analyze evolving topics in text data.

  5. On-Line Access to Linguistically Annotated Text Corpora of Dutch via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, J. G.; Raaijmakers, S. A.; van der Kamp, P. H. J.; van Strien, R. J.

    Corpora of present-day Dutch developed by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology include two linguistically annotated corpora that can be accessed via Internet: a 5-million word corpus covering a variety of topics and text types, and a 27-million word newspaper corpus. The texts of both were acquired in machine-readable form and have been lemmatized…

  6. Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...

  7. Representativeness in corpora of literary texts: introducing the C18P project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemeinböck, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are very few specialised corpora of literary texts that are tailored to the needs of literary critics who are interested in corpus stylistic analyses of prose fiction. Many existing corpora including literary texts were compiled for linguistic research interests and are often unsuitable for corpus stylistic purposes. The paper addresses three of the main problems: the absence of labelling of the texts for literary genre, the use of extracts, and the prevalence of linguistic periodisation schemes. C18P is a corpus of prose fiction designed specifically to address these issues. It traces the early development of the novel from 1700 up until the Victorian era. It can, for instance, be used for an analysis of the characteristic linguistic features of individual literary genres and forms. The following paper introduces the design of the corpus as well as some of its potential uses.

  8. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  9. A linear-RBF multikernel SVM to classify big text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R; Iglesias, E L; Borrajo, L

    2015-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a powerful technique for classification. However, SVM is not suitable for classification of large datasets or text corpora, because the training complexity of SVMs is highly dependent on the input size. Recent developments in the literature on the SVM and other kernel methods emphasize the need to consider multiple kernels or parameterizations of kernels because they provide greater flexibility. This paper shows a multikernel SVM to manage highly dimensional data, providing an automatic parameterization with low computational cost and improving results against SVMs parameterized under a brute-force search. The model consists in spreading the dataset into cohesive term slices (clusters) to construct a defined structure (multikernel). The new approach is tested on different text corpora. Experimental results show that the new classifier has good accuracy compared with the classic SVM, while the training is significantly faster than several other SVM classifiers.

  10. Fault-tolerant Fulltext Search for Large Multilingual Scientific Text Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Wolfram M.

    2006-01-01

    In the work reported here, we present a new way of performing fault-tolerant fulltext retrieval on large text corpora, such as scientific encyclopedias. The weighted pattern morphing (WPM) technique introduced in this paper overcomes disadvantages of both the popular edit distance measure and the Soundex code approaches, yet keeping their flexibility. This algorithm handles phonetic similarities; common typing errors such as omission or transposition of letters, and inconsistent usage of abbr...

  11. Ontology-based retrieval of bio-medical information based on microarray text corpora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Allan; Zambach, Sine; Have, Christian Theil

    Microarray technology is often used in gene expression exper- iments. Information retrieval in the context of microarrays has mainly been concerned with the analysis of the numeric data produced; how- ever, the experiments are often annotated with textual metadata. Al- though biomedical resources...... are exponentially growing, the text corpora are sparse and inconsistent in spite of attempts to standardize the format. Ordinary keyword search may in some cases be insucient to nd rele- vant information and the potential benet of using a semantic approach in this context has only been investigated to a limited...

  12. Corpora of Vietnamese texts: lexical effects of intended audience and publication place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn; Carney, Edward

    2008-02-01

    This article has two primary aims. The first is to introduce a new Vietnamese text-based corpus. The Corpora of Vietnamese Texts (CVT; Tang, 2006a) consists of approximately 1 million words drawn from newspapers and children's literature, and is available online at www.vnspeechtherapy.com/vi/CVT. The second aim is to investigate potential differences in lexical frequency and distributional characteristics in the CVT on the basis of place of publication (Vietnam or Western countries) and intended audience: adult-directed texts (newspapers) or child-directed texts (children's literature). We found clear differences between adult- and child-directed texts, particularly in the distributional frequencies of pronouns or kinship terms, which were more frequent in children's literature. Within child- and adult-directed texts, lexical characteristics did not differ on the basis of place of publication. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  13. Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties.

  14. Extraction of V-N-Collocations from Text Corpora A Feasibility Study for German

    CERN Document Server

    Breidt, E

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of a statistical approach suggested by Church et al. (1991) is evaluated for the extraction of verb-noun (V-N) collocations from German text corpora. Some problematic issues of that method arising from properties of the German language are discussed and various modifications of the method are considered that might improve extraction results for German. The precision and recall of all variant methods is evaluated for V-N collocations containing support verbs, and the consequences for further work on the extraction of collocations from German corpora are discussed. With a sufficiently large corpus (>= 6 mio. word-tokens), the average error rate of wrong extractions can be reduced to 2.2% (97.8% precision) with the most restrictive method, however with a loss in data of almost 50% compared to a less restrictive method with still 87.6% precision. Depending on the goal to be achieved, emphasis can be put on a high recall for lexicographic purposes or on high precision for automatic lexical acquisiti...

  15. Automatic Entity Recognition and Typing from Massive Text Corpora: A Phrase and Network Mining Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    In today's computerized and information-based society, we are soaked with vast amounts of text data, ranging from news articles, scientific publications, product reviews, to a wide range of textual information from social media. To unlock the value of these unstructured text data from various domains, it is of great importance to gain an understanding of entities and their relationships. In this tutorial, we introduce data-driven methods to recognize typed entities of interest in massive, domain-specific text corpora. These methods can automatically identify token spans as entity mentions in documents and label their types (e.g., people, product, food) in a scalable way. We demonstrate on real datasets including news articles and tweets how these typed entities aid in knowledge discovery and management.

  16. Taming Big Data: An Information Extraction Strategy for Large Clinical Text Corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew H; Gupta, Kalpana; Trautner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Concepts of interest for clinical and research purposes are not uniformly distributed in clinical text available in electronic medical records. The purpose of our study was to identify filtering techniques to select 'high yield' documents for increased efficacy and throughput. Using two large corpora of clinical text, we demonstrate the identification of 'high yield' document sets in two unrelated domains: homelessness and indwelling urinary catheters. For homelessness, the high yield set includes homeless program and social work notes. For urinary catheters, concepts were more prevalent in notes from hospitalized patients; nursing notes accounted for a majority of the high yield set. This filtering will enable customization and refining of information extraction pipelines to facilitate extraction of relevant concepts for clinical decision support and other uses.

  17. A concept-driven biomedical knowledge extraction and visualization framework for conceptualization of text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiruddin; Abulaish, Muhammad; Dey, Lipika

    2010-12-01

    A number of techniques such as information extraction, document classification, document clustering and information visualization have been developed to ease extraction and understanding of information embedded within text documents. However, knowledge that is embedded in natural language texts is difficult to extract using simple pattern matching techniques and most of these methods do not help users directly understand key concepts and their semantic relationships in document corpora, which are critical for capturing their conceptual structures. The problem arises due to the fact that most of the information is embedded within unstructured or semi-structured texts that computers can not interpret very easily. In this paper, we have presented a novel Biomedical Knowledge Extraction and Visualization framework, BioKEVis to identify key information components from biomedical text documents. The information components are centered on key concepts. BioKEVis applies linguistic analysis and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to identify key concepts. The information component extraction principle is based on natural language processing techniques and semantic-based analysis. The system is also integrated with a biomedical named entity recognizer, ABNER, to tag genes, proteins and other entity names in the text. We have also presented a method for collating information extracted from multiple sources to generate semantic network. The network provides distinct user perspectives and allows navigation over documents with similar information components and is also used to provide a comprehensive view of the collection. The system stores the extracted information components in a structured repository which is integrated with a query-processing module to handle biomedical queries over text documents. We have also proposed a document ranking mechanism to present retrieved documents in order of their relevance to the user query.

  18. Reuse of termino-ontological resources and text corpora for building a multilingual domain ontology: an application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramé, Khadim; Diallo, Gayo; Delva, Fleur; Dartigues, Jean François; Mouillet, Evelyne; Salamon, Roger; Mougin, Fleur

    2014-04-01

    Ontologies are useful tools for sharing and exchanging knowledge. However ontology construction is complex and often time consuming. In this paper, we present a method for building a bilingual domain ontology from textual and termino-ontological resources intended for semantic annotation and information retrieval of textual documents. This method combines two approaches: ontology learning from texts and the reuse of existing terminological resources. It consists of four steps: (i) term extraction from domain specific corpora (in French and English) using textual analysis tools, (ii) clustering of terms into concepts organized according to the UMLS Metathesaurus, (iii) ontology enrichment through the alignment of French and English terms using parallel corpora and the integration of new concepts, (iv) refinement and validation of results by domain experts. These validated results are formalized into a domain ontology dedicated to Alzheimer's disease and related syndromes which is available online (http://lesim.isped.u-bordeaux2.fr/SemBiP/ressources/ontoAD.owl). The latter currently includes 5765 concepts linked by 7499 taxonomic relationships and 10,889 non-taxonomic relationships. Among these results, 439 concepts absent from the UMLS were created and 608 new synonymous French terms were added. The proposed method is sufficiently flexible to be applied to other domains.

  19. Categorization of Unorganized Text Corpora for better Domain-Specific Language Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of categorization of unorganized text data gathered from the Internet to the in-domain and out-of-domain data for better domain-specific language modeling and speech recognition. An algorithm for text categorization and topic detection based on the most frequent key phrases is presented. In this scheme, each document entered into the process of text categorization is represented by a vector space model with term weighting based on computing the term frequency and inverse document frequency. Text documents are then classified to the in-domain and out-of-domain data automatically with predefined threshold using one of the selected distance/similarity measures comparing to the list of key phrases. The experimental results of the language modeling and adaptation to the judicial domain show significant improvement in the model perplexity about 19 % and decreasing of the word error rate of the Slovak transcription and dictation system about 5,54 %, relatively.

  20. Nederlab: Towards a Single Portal and Research Environment for Diachronic Dutch Text Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Hennie; Reynaert, Martin; van der Sijs, N.; van Stripriaan, René; Tjong Kim Sang, E.; van den Bosch, Antal

    2016-01-01

    The Nederlab project aims to bring together all digitized texts relevant to the Dutch national heritage, the history of the Dutch language and culture (circa 800 – present) in one user friendly and tool enriched open access web interface. This paper describes Nederlab halfway through the project

  1. Nederlab : Towards a Single Portal and Research Environment for Diachronic Dutch Text Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Hennie; Reynaert, Martin; van der Sijs, Nicoline; van Stipriaan, Rene; Tjong Kim Sang, Erik; van den Bosch, Antal; Calzolari,

    The Nederlab project aims to bring together all digitized texts relevant to the Dutch national heritage, the history of the Dutch language and culture (circa 800 – present) in one user friendly and tool enriched open access web interface. This paper describes Nederlab halfway through the project

  2. Teaching Anthropology through Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Rachel A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three uses of folklore in teaching college-level anthropology courses: (1) collecting folklore through interviewing; (2) analyzing folklore themes; and (3) using folklore in puppetry and plays. (KH)

  3. Estonian Folklore Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Järv

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the history and development of the The Estonian Folklore Archives, the central folklore archives of Estonia established in 1927, and examines its function in relation to the development of online databases. The Archives’ primary purpose has been to make the manuscript materials easily available for researchers working with the collection. The collections consist of manuscripts, sound recordings, photographs, and film and video materials, with an experimental multimedia collection as of 2008. The most extensive project related to the collections was the digitization in 2011-12 of Jakob Hurt’s folklore collection, stored in Kivike, a new file repository and archival infosystem of the Estonian Literary Museum.

  4. Learner corpora, corpora of professional translations and creative writing in a course on translation of general texts: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Sánchez Nieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.

  5. Focus on Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Indiana English Journal" is devoted to various facets of folklore. Topics of articles are folklore museums as resource sites for teaching; American folklore and the English classroom; writing about folklore in the freshman English class; some folklore and related materials for composition classes; developing teaching materials…

  6. Folklore for Foxfire Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barbara Reimensnyder

    1993-01-01

    Discusses using folklore as a means of connecting classroom work to surrounding communities and the real world (a Foxfire "core practice"). Includes an overview of Foxfire history, folklore concepts, and activities for learning about folklore. Stresses the value of folklore for both teachers and students. Lists information resources and…

  7. “Grid′ba in the Ship” and “Quail in the Forest”: A Reading of the Old Russian Folklore Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ya. Petrukhin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In her discussion of the Novgorod Sophia Chronicle, Tatiana V. Rozhdestvenskaya supposed that the folklore text in this source referring to “grid′ba in the ship” and “quail in the forest” is related to burial rites. The text, however, could also be connected with another “rite of passage”—a wedding ceremony, with the wedding retinue in the ship (as matchmakers and a pie in the stove (as a wedding dish; the quail in the forest seems to be a charm, sending the soul of the deceased female/bride in the guise of a quail to the forest, the world of the dead. Old Russian and Scandinavian parallels—for example, burial in a boat, Olga’s massacre of the Drevlian matchmakers (in the Russian Primary Chronicle, and the attempt described in an Icelandic saga involving the scalding of the bridegroom in the bath—seem to be essential for an interpretation of the text from the Sophia Chronicle. The charm could be intended to prevent the return of a ghost to the world of the living. The charm was perceived as blasphemous in the church, which is why it was crossed out by a pious “censor” and inscribed with the command to “let those hands wither.”

  8. Los pasos del folklore colombiano. El folklore andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Zapata Olivella

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available El Bambuco y la Güabina representan el folklore de los Andes colombianos. Tres elementos muy definidos les caracterizan: la acentuada influencia española, la melodía y la copla inspirada. La raíz española la denuncian la guitarra y el tiple, entre los instrumentos; la danza, que no solo les asemeja a muchos bailes peninsulares, sino que los emparenta con la cueca chilena; el punto guanacasteco costarricense; el joropo venezolano; el huapango de México y en general, con el folklore mestizo de toda Hispanoamérica y por último, el acento hispano de la copla picaresca.

  9. Integrating corpora and dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    of written and spoken languages. Corpora are equally useful to sign language lexicographers, but sign language corpora have not become accessible until recent years. Nowadays corpora exist, or are being developed, for several sign languages, and we have the possibility of editing new, truly corpus-based sign...

  10. Text mining, a race against time? An attempt to quantify possible variations in text corpora of medical publications throughout the years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mathias; Vicinus, Benjamin; Muthra, Sherieda T; Richards, Tereza A; Linder, Roland; Frick, Vilma Oliveira; Groh, Andreas; Rubie, Claudia; Weichert, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The continuous growth of medical sciences literature indicates the need for automated text analysis. Scientific writing which is neither unitary, transcending social situation nor defined by a timeless idea is subject to constant change as it develops in response to evolving knowledge, aims at different goals, and embodies different assumptions about nature and communication. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether publication dates should be considered when performing text mining. A search of PUBMED for combined references to chemokine identifiers and particular cancer related terms was conducted to detect changes over the past 36 years. Text analyses were performed using freeware available from the World Wide Web. TOEFL Scores of territories hosting institutional affiliations as well as various readability indices were investigated. Further assessment was conducted using Principal Component Analysis. Laboratory examination was performed to evaluate the quality of attempts to extract content from the examined linguistic features. The PUBMED search yielded a total of 14,420 abstracts (3,190,219 words). The range of findings in laboratory experimentation were coherent with the variability of the results described in the analyzed body of literature. Increased concurrence of chemokine identifiers together with cancer related terms was found at the abstract and sentence level, whereas complexity of sentences remained fairly stable. The findings of the present study indicate that concurrent references to chemokines and cancer increased over time whereas text complexity remained stable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Building and using comparable corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoff, Serge; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Fung, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The 1990s saw a paradigm change in the use of corpus-driven methods in NLP. In the field of multilingual NLP (such as machine translation and terminology mining) this implied the use of parallel corpora. However, parallel resources are relatively scarce: many more texts are produced daily by native speakers of any given language than translated. This situation resulted in a natural drive towards the use of comparable corpora, i.e. non-parallel texts in the same domain or genre. Nevertheless, this research direction has not produced a single authoritative source suitable for researchers and stu

  12. Corpora for computational linguistics Corpora for computational linguistics

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    Constantin Orasan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 90s corpora has become very important for computational linguistics. This paper offers a survey of how they are currently used in different fields of the discipline, with particular emphasis on anaphora and coreference resolution, automatic summarisation and term extraction. Their influence on other fields is also briefly discussed. Since the mid 90s corpora has become very important for computational linguistics. This paper offers a survey of how they are currently used in different fields of the discipline, with particular emphasis on anaphora and coreference resolution, automatic summarisation and term extraction. Their influence on other fields is also briefly discussed.

  13. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  14. Building Collections: Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Folklore, the oldest form of storytelling, reflects the culture of a country, hence its nonfiction classification. Through these tales, one senses the values, the humor, and the lifestyles of its peoples. A powerful genre, folklore is the foundation on which high fantasy is created, epic films are produced, and a single story is passed from one…

  15. The future of multimodal corpora O futuro dos corpora modais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Knight

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes stock of the current state-of-the-art in multimodal corpus linguistics, and proposes some projections of future developments in this field. It provides a critical overview of key multimodal corpora that have been constructed over the past decade and presents a wish-list of future technological and methodological advancements that may help to increase the availability, utility and functionality of such corpora for linguistic research.Este artigo apresenta um balanço do estado da arte da linguística de corpus multimodal e propõe a projeção de desenvolvimentos futuros nessa área. Um resumo crítico dos corpora multimodais-chave que foram construídos na última década é apresentado, assim como uma lista de desenvolvimentos tecnológicos e metodológicos futuros que podem auxiliar na disponibilização e utilização, bem como na funcionalidade, de tais corpora para a pesquisa linguística.

  16. TRANSFER OF NATIONAL CULTURE AND FOLKLORE THROUGH TURKISH TEXTBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan OKUR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Folklore has a broad functional area. This function is also one of the first literary folklore products is encountered in language teaching. Folklore products, due to having too many functions, language teaching can be used as both vehicle and purpose. While folklore products, until children have learned the language, used as tool, they can be used as both vehicle and purpose to people have learned the language. Because language learning occurs in different ways, such as individuals with language learning languages learn other things. Only language teaching can be done with a normal text; but many of folklore products that belong to people who speak the language is transferred with with folk-arts text. There are products of folk culture, transfer of functions, regale, etc to give the values and moral education etc. Learning the language, the individual can obtain them. This transfer takes place in foreign language teaching as well as the teaching mother tongue. Folklore products can survive till now, and used in language teaching but they have become used more effectively in language teaching with transferring writing. Because these functions, as well as text to ensure the survival of folklore products must be present in textbooks. Folklore and culture can perform these functions with the Turkish textbook as a tool. In this study, students' textbooks in different provinces across the different folklore and cultural content of the texts in Turkish textbooks, teaching a language as a tool in terms of functions are investigated.

  17. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  18. Corpora and concordancers on the nl.ijs.si server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monolingual and parallel corpora which can be accessed through two concordancers on the server nl.ijs.si. Twelve monolingual corpora contain Slovene language texts, one contains Japanese and one English texts, and comprise reference corpora, such as Gigafida for written contemporary Slovene, IMP for historical Slovene, and GOS for spoken Slovene and specialised corpora, such as the corpus of texts from the informatics domain and the corpus of Slovene tweets. The five parallel corpora contain Slovene texts sentence aligned with, variously, English, Japanese, French, German, and Italian from domains such as EU law, literature and journalism. Although most of the corpora have been produced in the past, they have now been newly annotated, some have been extended with additional texts, and a few are completely new. The texts in the corpora are supplied with meta-data, while their word tokens are either manually or automatically annotated with at least lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions. Most of the corpora are freely available through two web concordancers, the noSketch Engine and CUWI. These two corpus analysis tools support searching large annotated corpora, various types of search result display, the possibility to filter the searches according to meta-data, and saving the search results locally. In addition to the corpora and concordancers the paper also discusses some issues pertaining to such a corpus-linguistic infrastructure, and concludes with directions for further work.

  19. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional...... translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business. Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use. Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool....... This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  20. Africana: Folklore Collections for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gertrude B.

    1972-01-01

    Some general citeria for the evaluation of folklore for children are defined; some of the particular characteristics of African folklore are identified and a selected bibliography of recommended books is presented in this article. (49 references) (Author/NH)

  1. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of…

  2. Corpora and cognitive linguistics Corpora e linguística cognitiva

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    John Newman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpora are a natural source of data for cognitive linguists, since corpora, more than any other source of data, reflect "usage" - a notion which is often claimed to be of critical importance to the field of cognitive linguistics. Corpora are relevant to all the main topics of interest in cognitive linguistics: metaphor, polysemy, synonymy, prototypes, and constructional analysis. I consider each of these topics in turn and offer suggestions about which methods of analysis can be profitably used with available corpora to explore these topics further. In addition, I consider how the design and content of currently used corpora need to be rethought if corpora are to provide all the types of usage data that cognitive linguists require.Corpora são uma fonte natural de dados para a linguística cognitiva, uma vez que, estes, mais que qualquer outra fonte de dados, refletem "o uso" - a noção que é frequentemente apontada como tendo importância crítica para o campo da linguística cognitiva. Corpora são relevantes para todos os principais tópicos de interesse da linguística cognitiva: metáfora, polissemia, sinonímia, protótipos e análise construcional. Neste artigo, considerarei cada um desses tópicos e oferecerei sugestões sobre quais os métodos de análise podem ser utilizados com os corpora disponíveis para melhor se explorarem esses tópicos. Adicionalmente, discuto como a arquitetura e o conteúdo dos corpora atualmente disponíveis necessitam ser repensados se pretenderem oferecer todos os tipos de dados de uso necessários às análises da linguística cognitiva.

  3. "Holes": Folklore Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Elizabeth G.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates that a careful reading of the book for young adults, "Holes" by Louis Sachar, reveals how this contemporary story is grounded in folklore, and that it is this debt to folk literature that allows readers to accept an improbable plot. Shows how the story weaves together elements from traditional folk literature and stretches them across…

  4. Electronic folklore among teenagers: SMS messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.

  5. Revista de Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, Joaquín

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The author, founder and chief underwriter of Revista de Folklore, voices his view of the world of research of traditional culture, as well as the aims he pursued in founding one of the journals of folklore of longest standing in Spain.

    El fundador y principal sostenedor de la Revista de Folklore plantea en este escrito su visión personal sobre el mundo de la investigación acerca de la cultura tradicional y los objetivos que se fijó al emprender la publicación de una de las revistas especializadas más largas y continuas con que contamos en España.

  6. Folklore: A Bridge over Troubled Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Carol

    1971-01-01

    The use of a folklore unit in a high school English class is described. The major activity of the unit was the student's individual folklore project. For two weeks prior to the unit and throughout a week of introduction on aspects of folklore, each student worked at home on an individual folklore project. Among the aspects of folklore discussed…

  7. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  8. An Interpretation of Two Oromo Folklore Genres Integrated to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... to Enhance Skills, Knowledge, Attitude and Values in the. Student Text ... for new generation and also the Oromia cultural and ... important for further studies of Oromo folklore as ...... agriculture, social norms, moral, ethics and.

  9. Overcoming Legal Limitations in Disseminating Slovene Web Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Web texts are becoming increasingly relevant sources of information, with web corpora useful for corpus linguistic studies and development of language technologies. Even though web texts are directly accessable, which substantially simplifies the collection procedure compilation of web corpora is still complex, time consuming and expensive. It is crucial that similar endeavours are not repeated, which is why it is necessary to make the created corpora easily and widely accessible both to researchers and a wider audience. While this is logistically and technically a straightforward procedure, legal constraints, such as copyright, privacy and terms of use severely hinder the dissemination of web corpora. This paper discusses legal conditions and actual practice in this area, gives an overview of current practices and proposes a range of mitigation measures on the example of the Janes corpus of Slovene user-generated content in order to ensure free and open dissemination of Slovene web corpora.

  10. Folklore in the Classroom. Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Barbara; And Others

    Written by experts in the field of folklore for laymen, this three-part volume is intended to help teachers of English, social studies, mathematics and science, home economics, the arts, and other subject areas to become more knowledgeable about folklore and to inject this knowledge into their existing curricula. The first part, on introducing…

  11. Folklore: A Tapestry of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of introducing folklore into the curriculum to help students learn about their sense of place in the community. Describes various pertinent Web sites, including the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress, the American Folklore Society, and the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. (LRW)

  12. Avoid violence, rioting, and outrage; approach celebration, delight, and strength: Using large text corpora to compute valence, arousal, and the basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Chris; Keith, Jeff; Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Aristotle discussed the issue in Book II of his Rhetoric, humans have attempted to identify a set of "basic emotion labels". In this paper we propose an algorithmic method for evaluating sets of basic emotion labels that relies upon computed co-occurrence distances between words in a 12.7-billion-word corpus of unselected text from USENET discussion groups. Our method uses the relationship between human arousal and valence ratings collected for a large list of words, and the co-occurrence similarity between each word and emotion labels. We assess how well the words in each of 12 emotion label sets-proposed by various researchers over the past 118 years-predict the arousal and valence ratings on a test and validation dataset, each consisting of over 5970 items. We also assess how well these emotion labels predict lexical decision residuals (LDRTs), after co-varying out the effects attributable to basic lexical predictors. We then demonstrate a generalization of our method to determine the most predictive "basic" emotion labels from among all of the putative models of basic emotion that we considered. As well as contributing empirical data towards the development of a more rigorous definition of basic emotions, our method makes it possible to derive principled computational estimates of emotionality-specifically, of arousal and valence-for all words in the language.

  13. TURKISH SHEPHERD DOG KANGAL IN SIVAS FOLKLORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın YAŞAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of animals to which are approached with great sympathy by Turkishpeople, Kangal dogs are among the animals accepted sacred in Turkish folklore.Kangals as shepherd dogs were brought into Anatolia along with herds owned byOghuz clans the traditional livelihood of which depends on sheep herds. Being theoldest and most common race of natural shepherd dog, Turkish shepherd dog,Kangal, has survived with all characteristics of it mostly thanks to the matchlessprotection of local people of the town Kangal.Throughout the study, the main objective is to determine the folkloricknowledge related with Kangal raising within folklore of Sivas and to make somecontribution to Turkish world of culture.The research material has consisted of folkloric knowledge obtained between9th April-10th July, 2012 with “information review forms” applied to peopleassociated with folkloric veterinary medicine and animal husbandry in Sivas (e.g.medicine practitioners, animal owners, other resource persons, etc.In the study, it has been determined that raisers in Sivas folklore classify theKangals according to general racial characteristics, color of their pelt and tails ofthem. They are grouped as “kurtçul”, “saf”, “kırma”; and “alası-boz”, “karayaka”,“sarı yaka”, “boz yaka”, “kıllı”, “kırçıl”; and “kılıç kuyruk”, “kuyruğu eğri”, “kıvrakkuyruk”, based on racial characteristics, color of pelt and tails respectively. Also, ithas been gathered significant data on diseases and treatments on Kangals, generalracial standards (structure of the body, head and skull, etc., care and nutrition,estrus, delivery information, wolf choking incident, ear cut, stories, beliefs andidioms.Consequently, it can be suggested that one of reasons why Kangals havemanaged to keep its generation must be original stories and beliefs in Sivas, whichcover the Kangal`s wolf choke, intelligence, courage and loyalty; that lack ofknowledge

  14. Folklore: A Foundation for Literary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galda, S. L.; Pellegrini, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses folklore as the basis for literary study. Discusses two major theoretical positions on folklore universals--behaviorism and structuralism--and applies the two theories to literary analysis. (FL)

  15. Importancia del folklore musical como práctica educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo, Azahara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational society of today should reflect on the importance of musical folklore as an educative practice. This paper contents a reflection about folklore and different educative practices taking as examples some musical pieces from Jaen’ Song Book. These kinds of practices are essential since they develop the quality of the learning process in general and the learning of music in particular. Nowadays, the school is the unifier mean for the reappraisal, communication and transmission of the folklore of our culture. Recovering our folklore is a task that depends on every member of the community and it can be possible through the updating of these musical pieces to the new social changes and its possible spreading through the media. Jaen’ Song Book may constitute a mean for promoting its folklore among students of this province. The learning of this repertoire may also serve as an open door to the World to know the labor that is done in our schools. This paper tries to make teachers conscious that the use of folk materials may improve the learning of music as well as it may unfold a new way for future didactic, cultural and anthropological researches.

  16. Traditional Asian folklore medicines in sexual health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lim Huat Chye

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is one of the important health problems affecting man and his partner. Recently, many treatments have evolved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or sexual health. Of the available treatments several are pharmacologically proven and tested medications. However, in Asia, there are significant users of unproven medications for sexual health. These medications are traditionally used by the folklore living in the countryside. These untested medications may have a profound effect on the body system and their interactions with other medications may be harmful. However, comprehensive accounts of such medications are unavailable. This paper descriptively highlights the common medications used for sexual health in Asia.

  17. Learner Corpora without Error Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastelli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of adopting a form-to-function perspective when annotating learner corpora in order to get deeper insights about systematic features of interlanguage. A split between forms and functions (or categories is desirable in order to avoid the "comparative fallacy" and because – especially in basic varieties – forms may precede functions (e.g., what resembles to a "noun" might have a different function or a function may show up in unexpected forms. In the computer-aided error analysis tradition, all items produced by learners are traced to a grid of error tags which is based on the categories of the target language. Differently, we believe it is possible to record and make retrievable both words and sequence of characters independently from their functional-grammatical label in the target language. For this purpose at the University of Pavia we adapted a probabilistic POS tagger designed for L1 on L2 data. Despite the criticism that this operation can raise, we found that it is better to work with "virtual categories" rather than with errors. The article outlines the theoretical background of the project and shows some examples in which some potential of SLA-oriented (non error-based tagging will be possibly made clearer.

  18. Corpora and historical linguistics Corpora e linguística histórica

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    Merja Kytö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to survey and assess the current state of electronic historical corpora and corpus methodology, and attempts to look into possible future developments. It highlights the fact that within the wide spectrum of corpus linguistic methodology, historical corpus linguistics has emerged as a vibrant field that has significantly added to the appeal felt for the study of language history and change. In fact, according to a historical linguist with more than fifty years of experience, "[w]e could even go as far as to say that without the support and new impetus provided by corpora, evidence-based historical linguistics would have been close to the end of its life-span in these days of rapid-changing life and research, increasing competition on the academic career track and the methodological attractions offered to young scholars" (RISSANEN, forthcoming. Historical corpora and other electronic resources have also made the study of language history attractive: working on them engages students in an individual and interactive way that they find appealing (CURZAN 2000, p. 81.Este artigo objetiva fazer um levantamento e avaliar o estado da arte dos corpora históricos eletrônicos e da metodologia de estudos de corpora, assim como sugerir possíveis desenvolvimentos futuros na área. Destaca-se que dentro do espectro metodológico da linguística de corpus, a linguística de corpus histórica emergiu como um campo de investigação vibrante que tem adicionado interesse ao estudo da história e da mudança linguística. De acordo com um pesquisador da área com mais de cinqüenta anos de experiência, "pode-se dizer que sem o apoio e o novo ímpeto trazidos pelos corpora, a linguística histórica baseada em evidências teria estado próxima ao fim de sua vida nesses tempos de rápidas mudanças de vida e de pesquisa, aumentando a competição na carreira acadêmica e nas atrações metodológicas oferecidas aos jovens pesquisadores

  19. Spoken corpora and pragmatics Corpora orais e pragmática

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    Massimo Moneglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present arguments in favour of two points related to the study of oral corpora and pragmatics: a at the level of annotation, corpora must ensure the parsing of the speech flow into utterances on the basis of prosodic cues and provide an easy access to the acoustic source; b at the level of sampling, corpora must ensure the maximum representation of context variation, rather than speaker variation. We will present the reasons which support the very basic prosodic annotation of speech (prosodic boundaries as a means to obtain relevant data from the speech flow. Starting from our present knowledge about the distribution of speech acts types in spoken corpora, we will present the reasons why building corpora in accordance to a context variation strategy should expand our knowledge of pragmatics. Additionally, we will claim that prosody is the necessary interface between locutive and illocutive acts and we will show that a deeper prosodic analysis is necessary to grasp unknown speech act types from language usage. Finally, we will briefly sketch the main assumptions of the Language into Act Theory (CRESTI, 2000 which is dedicated to the link between prosody and pragmatics and helps make explicit core aspects of pragmatic knowledge.O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar argumentos favoráveis a dois pontos relacionados ao estudo de corpora orais e pragmática: a no nível da anotação, os corpora devem garantir o processamento do fluxo discursivo em enunciados, baseando-se em chaves prosódicas, e oferecer fácil acesso aos arquivos de som; b no nível da amostragem, os corpora devem garantir a representatividade máxima de variação contextual, ao invés de variação de falantes. Apresentaremos os motivos que sustentam a escolha das fronteiras prosódicas como o referencial básico para a anotação prosódica da fala, como uma forma relevante de se obterem dados importantes do fluxo discursivo. Partindo do nosso

  20. Folklore-ethnographic festivals of Arkaim reserve-museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Mal’tseva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ARKAIM Reserve-Museum is unique: deep and profound research has laid the grounds for sophisticated study of Chelyabinsk region. Today, the popularity of Folklore-Ethnographic Festivals is explained trough its authentic, quality of materials given to participants and diversified programs.

  1. A Window of Chinese Folklore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    PRESENI-DAY Chinese folk-lore is a window throughwhich one can see Chineseculture;one can see contemporarylife,but mostly one views traditional folk culture.China’s 5,000 years ofhistory,civilization,vast lands and national background have brought afascinating variety of local customsto China’s 56 nationalities.The fol-lowing is a brief introduction to their religious beliefs,sacrificial ritesand festive gatherings.

  2. Uso de corpora na formação de tradutores Using corpora in translator training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio P. Berber Sardinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda a questão do uso de corpora na formação de tradutores, enfocando mais especificamente a questão da conscientização. O trabalho apresenta uma discussão sobre o papel de corpora na tradução, sua aplicabilidade na formação profissional, e sua importância para o melhor conhecimento da constituição da linguagem. São oferecidos dois exemplos de análises, detalhadas a fim de serem aplicáveis em contextos em que haja poucos recursos de infraestrutura. As análises centram-se em pesquisas sobre as escolhas lingüísticas de um texto jornalístico traduzido para o português, e da versão brasileira de um slogan de uma campanha publicitária americana. É sugerido que essas atividades possam ser desenvolvidas com alunos de tradução, de tal modo que elas forneçam condições para que os alunos, ao explorarem corpora eletrônicos, possam se conscientizar da complexidade e da especificidade das escolhas lingüísticas envolvidas no processo tradutório.This paper tackles the issue of using corpora in translator training, focussing more specifically on the question of awareness raising. The paper presents a discussion on the role of corpora in translation, their applicability in professional development, and their importance in leading to a better understanding of how language is constituted. Two example analyses are offered and detailed, so that they are applicable to contexts in which computational resources are scarce. The analyses center around the linguistic choices in a translated newspaper text and in the Brazilian version of a slogan from an American advertising campaign. It is suggested that these activities may be carried out with translation students, in such a way that they enable students, while they explore electronic corpora, to become aware of both the complexity and the specificity of the linguistic choices involved in the process of translation.

  3. Astronomical Context of Georgian Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijelava1, Badri; Holbrook, Jarita; Simonia, Irakli

    2016-10-01

    Objectives: The religious Ancient megalithic monuments are accordingly o/riente to the ancient Gods - The Sun, Moon, luminaries. The aim of this work to research the ethnographic data, current folklore and based on the results, harmonize the ancient Gods and the orientations of the religious megalithic complexes. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We harmonized the ethnographical, folklore and historical information and restoration of ancient celestial sphere (using special astronomy application) and identified the correlations between the some acronychal or helical rising/set of luminaries and orientations of megalithic objects. Such connections are stored in a folklore. Findings: This technique of investigations gives us more clear understanding of ancient universe. Using this method, we can receive additional information about the ancient Gods - Luminaries, clarify current mythology, date the megalithic complex. Application/Improvements: This method of investigation - Harmonization cultural astronomy and archae or astronomy with the archeological investigations will be more fruitful, because it gives us reliable information concerning the ancient culture, ancient religion and ancient people.

  4. Introducing Online Corpora into ELT Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJiezhi; LiaoJianhua

    2004-01-01

    There has been much talk about how corpora can facilita telanguage learning, especially foreign language learning and how they can narrow the gap between the English acquired in the classroom and authentic English. Some even declare that corpora will revolutionize language teaching. With the concordancer and corpora of natural English, " language

  5. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    . This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  6. Use of English Corpora as a Primary Resource to Teach English to the Bengali Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Niladri Sekhar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue in favour of teaching English as a second language to the Bengali learners with direct utilisation of English corpora. The proposed strategy is meant to be assisted with computer and is based on data, information, and examples retrieved from the present-day English corpora developed with various text samples composed by…

  7. "Haunting experiences: Ghosts in contemporary folklore," by Diane E. Goldstein et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Levitt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diane E. Goldstein, Sylvia Ann Grider, and Jeannie Banks Thomas. Haunting experiences: Ghosts in contemporary folklore. Logan: Utah State University Press, 2007, paperback, $24.95 (272p ISBN 978-0-87421-636-3.

  8. On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora In the article, the authors present a proposal for semantic annotation in Clarin-PL parallel corpora: Polish-Bulgarian-Russian and Polish-Lithuanian ones. Semantic annotation of quantification is a novum in developing sentence level semantics in multilingual parallel corpora. This is why our semantic annotation is manual. The authors hope it will be interesting to IT specialists working on automatic processing of the given natural languages. Semantic annotation defined the way it is defined here will make contrastive studies of natural languages more efficient, which in turn will help verify the results of those studies, and will certainly improve human and machine translations.

  9. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  10. Folklore in the Junior College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, David; McHone-Chase, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Many community colleges are located near rural areas where significant folkloric research could be done. Community college librarians may be pleasantly surprised to find many of the standard folkloric resources on their reference shelves. In addition, folklorists may be professors of English, anthropology, history, sociology, art, or music, who…

  11. Polynesian Folklore: An Alternative to Plastic Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sharon; Wright, Thomas; Erickson, Lynnette

    2001-01-01

    Argues that folklore goes beyond plastic toys and popular media symbols to share the humanness of a people. Suggest ways to use Polynesian folklore (nature fables, tales, and legends) to deepen children's understanding of Polynesian culture. Reviews specific stories, references juvenile collections, and offers classroom activities. (SR)

  12. Integrating corpora and dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss different possibilities for integration of corpus data with dictionary data, mainly seen from a lexicographic point of view and in a sign language context. For about 25 years a text corpus has been considered a useful, if not necessary tool for editing dictionaries ...... interface, and, finally, we briefly outline the future perspectives of integrated sign language corpus-dictionary interfaces....

  13. Automated extraction of lexical meanings from Polish corpora: potentialities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Piasecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Automated extraction of lexical meanings from Polish corpora: potentialities and limitations Large corpora are often consulted by linguists as a knowledge source with respect to lexicon, morphology or syntax. However, there are also several methods of automated extraction of semantic properties of language units from corpora. In the paper we focus on emerging potentialities of these methods, as well as on their identified limitations. Evidence that can be collected from corpora is confronted with the existing models of formalised description of lexical meanings. Two basic paradigms of lexical semantics extraction are briefly described. Their properties are analysed on the basis of several experiments performed on Polish corpora. Several potential applications of the methods, including a system supporting expansion of a Polish wordnet, are discussed. Finally, perspectives on the potential further development are discussed.

  14. Nenets Folklore in Russian: The Movement of Culture in Forms and Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lukin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this methodological article the question of authenticity of folklore material is discussed. The article deals mainly with the research history of Nenets folklore studies and examines critically two of its paradigms, namely the so-called Finno-Ugric paradigm and the Soviet studies. It is argued that in these paradigms there existed biases that prevented the students to study certain kind of folklore material. The biases were related to the language and the form of the material: due to these biases folklore performed not in Nenets and not in forms defined traditional were left outside collections and research. Furthermore, it is shown that Russian speech and narratives embedded in speech are part of Nenets everyday communication and thus also material worth studying and collecting. Instead of the criticised paradigms the Nenets discourse is examined within the notions of communication centered studies that have gained attention since the 1980s.

  15. Folklore anecdote between memorata and fabulata: Field research of Serbs in Medina (Hungary

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    Ilić Marija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on folklore material, which was gathered during ethno linguistic field research of Serbian traditional lexicon and spiritual culture in Medina village in Hungary in 2002. Folklore material is composed of the sayings by the informer Sava Sokic and primarily can be defined as a series of comical narrations. If we look upon these narrations as a genre of oral speech and within context of ethno linguistic interview, we can notice a complex structure of this oral genre. That is, this genre functions as a memorat with typical beginnings and met textual comments. On the other hand, it respects almost all genre norms, which are characteristic for folklore anecdote. Therefore, comic narrations of Save Sokic, and that are valid also for folklore anecdote in general, can be classified as borderline genre - between memorata and fabulata.

  16. WHY STUDY FOLKLORISM ARTS BY S.A. ESENIN? PROHIBITIVELY METAPHORICALLY DAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna GALIEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the question, on the theoretical side, on the functioning of the folk tradition in the poetics by S.A. Esenin. On the one hand, this problem is sufficiently studied, on the other hand, the researchers identified mainly secondary facts folklorism in the poet. For a different view on this issue is needed to develop a different methodology and theoretical apparatus. Please refer to the inner shape of folklorism, folklore and myth, standing behind a metaphor. Esenin's early work is associated not only with folklorism and ethnographism open type, but also implicitly with the poetics of Russian fairy tales, with its installation on the ideal of "a kingdom."

  17. Folklore, creativity, and cultural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This paper addresses the question of how folk art can be, simultaneously, a vehicle for cultural memory and cultural creativity. It takes the case of Romanian Easter egg decoration as a practice situated at the intersection between art, folklore, religion and a growing market, it order to unpack...... from an early age. At the core of this practice stands the depiction of patterned ornaments known as motifs. These ornaments are constitutive of identity and memory and their decorative features facilitate and encourage the creative expression of folk artists. Tradition in this sense is not by any...... means the opposite of creativity but the actual vehicle of creative activity and its understanding as a stable cultural system ‘engraved’ in collective memory needs to be challenged. The tradition of egg decoration in Romania is a living and evolving social practice that engages the self and community...

  18. Folklore, creativity, and cultural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This paper addresses the question of how folk art can be, simultaneously, a vehicle for cultural memory and cultural creativity. It takes the case of Romanian Easter egg decoration as a practice situated at the intersection between art, folklore, religion and a growing market, it order to unpack...... from an early age. At the core of this practice stands the depiction of patterned ornaments known as motifs. These ornaments are constitutive of identity and memory and their decorative features facilitate and encourage the creative expression of folk artists. Tradition in this sense is not by any...... means the opposite of creativity but the actual vehicle of creative activity and its understanding as a stable cultural system ‘engraved’ in collective memory needs to be challenged. The tradition of egg decoration in Romania is a living and evolving social practice that engages the self and community...

  19. Forty years of working with corpora: from Ibsen to Twitter, and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Hofland

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of forty years of work with language corpora by the research group that started in 1972 as the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities. A brief history highlights major corpora and tools that have been developed in numerous collaborations, including corpora of literature, dialect recordings, learner language, parallel texts, newspaper articles, blog posts and tweets. Current activities are also described, with a focus on corpus analysis tools, treebanks and social media analysis. Keywords: corpus building; corpus analysis tools; treebanks; social media analysis

  20. The hand in Irish legend and folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, E E; Prendiville, J B

    1991-06-01

    A brief review of the significance of the hand in the mythology, folklore, and religion of Ireland from ancient times is presented. Many of these accounts are also found in the history and legends of other Celtic countries.

  1. Using Monolingual and Bilingual Corpora in Lexicography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miangah, Tayebeh Mosavi

    2009-01-01

    Constructing and exploiting different types of corpora are among computer applications exposed to the researchers in different branches of science including lexicography. In lexicography, different types of corpora may be of great help in finding the most appropriate uses of words and expressions by referring to numerous examples and citations.…

  2. Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish

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    Radovan Garabík

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish In this paper we focus on the web-presentation of bilingual corpora in three Slavic languages and their possible applications. Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish corpora are collected and developed as results of the collaboration in the frameworks of two joint research projects between Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, from one side, and from the other side: Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinate by authors of this paper.

  3. About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora

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    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora The semantic notation analyzed in this works is contained in the second stream of semantic theories presented here – in the direct approach semantics. We used this stream in our work on the Bulgarian-Polish Contrastive Grammar. Our semantic notation distinguishes quantificational meanings of names and predicates, and indicates aspectual and temporal meanings of verbs. It relies on logical scope-based quantification and on the contemporary theory of processes, known as “Petri nets”. Thanks to it, we can distinguish precisely between a language form and its contents, e.g. a perfective verb form has two meanings: an event or a sequence of events and states, finally ended with an event. An imperfective verb form also has two meanings: a state or a sequence of states and events, finally ended with a state. In turn, names are quantified universally or existentially when they are “undefined”, and uniquely (using the iota operator when they are “defined”. A fact worth emphasizing is the possibility of quantifying not only names, but also the predicate, and then quantification concerns time and aspect.  This is a novum in elaborating sentence-level semantics in parallel corpora. For this reason, our semantic notation is manual. We are hoping that it will raise the interest of computer scientists working on automatic methods for processing the given natural languages. Semantic annotation defined like in this work will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages, and this in turn will verify the results of those studies, and will certainly facilitate human and machine translations.

  4. Folklore and Folk Songs of Chittagong: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folk Songs stems from Folklore are very rich in the southern region of Chittagong. In this part of the world Folk Songs play pivotal role in the lifestyle of people as a heart-touching and heavenly connection exists between human, nature and Folk Songs. Folk Songs in this area are special because we found the theme of Nature Conservation in them. We took the southern part of Chittagong (Lohagara, Satkania, Chandanaish and Patiya as our research area, selected a village namely Chunati in the systematic sampling and more than 100 people were interviewed through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The sufficient literature review is also done. People in this area love nature a lot. Here music personnel were born from time to time who not only worked for the musical development but also created consciousness among people to love nature and save it. We discussed about the origin of Folk Songs, pattern of Folk Songs to clarify the importance of Folk Songs of Chittagong for its connection to Folklore and at the same time for promoting the idea of Nature Conservation. Of course, this part of studies deserves more attention in the field of research. Our ultimate goal should be to conserve and promote Folk Songs of Chittagong with yearlong heritage that automatically will later enrich Folklore and Nature Conservation.

  5. LANGUAGE, FOLKLORE AND WORLDVIEW AS A CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF ETHNOPHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of the conceptual foundations of ethnophilosophy having the purpose of definitions of "ethnophilosophy" and mechanisms of its formation to support objectivity ethnophilosophy. It stresses the importance of linguistic-cultural aspect of history of formation of science. In today's study, the author also analyzes ethnophilosophy ideological beginning, the relationship of folklore and outlook. In conclusion, it is concluded significant problems of language and structure determination ethnophilosophy it as a science. The study of linguistic-cultural aspect goes with structural differentiation of ethnophilosophy knowledge. Communicative function inherent in folklore as a linguistic sign, leads to a dialectical antinomy with respect to autonomous linguistic sign. The duality of communicative and autonomous functions in folklore manifests itself in the process of formation of the philosophy of the people associated respectively with different age levels worldview. In conclusion, the author concludes that ethnophilosophy is a mutually balanced concept of material and ideal, or a dual relationship to reality, dualism, however ethnophilosophy adheres to the materialist line in its conceptual views and content. Modifications relation to reality play an important role in the oral-poetic creativity and structure ethnophilosophy (metaphysics, mythology, materialism, philosophy, science: in the whole structure of the existing tradition. Theoretical study of ethnophilosophy structure holds as a philosophical discourse is to represent the unity of the whole semantic structure and the scientific definition of the object of his research.

  6. Peptidomic Analysis of the Brain and Corpora Cardiaca-Corpora Allata Complex in the Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect for silk production. However, many of the mature peptides relevant to its various life stages remain unknown. Using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, and previously identified peptides from B. mori and other insects in the transcriptome database, we created peptide profiles showing a total of 6 ion masses that could be assigned to peptides in eggs, including one previously unidentified peptide. A further 49 peptides were assigned to larval brains. 17 new mature peptides were identified in isolated masses. 39 peptides were found in pupal brains with 8 unidentified peptides. 48 were found in adult brains with 12 unidentified peptides. These new unidentified peptides showed highly significant matches in all MS analysis. These matches were then searched against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database to provide new annotations for these mature peptides. In total, 59 mature peptides in 19 categories were found in the brains of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult stages. These results demonstrate that peptidomic variation across different developmental stages can be dramatic. Moreover, the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (CC-CA complex was examined during the fifth larval instar. A total of 41 ion masses were assigned to peptides.

  7. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  8. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  9. MYTHS AND FOLKLORE IN THE PICTURE OF THE WORLD IN THE EPOCH OF AVANT-GARDE: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Andreevna GALIEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the complex relationship of myth, folklore and literature in the context of consciousness and culture of avant-garde epoch. Much attention is paid to the theories of musicologists of those years that are compati-ble with the theory of synthesis of arts and the avant-garde painting. The author raises the question of myths and folk-lore penetration into the poetics of early XX century, high-lights the connections of the aesthetic views of Esenin, Tsvetaeva, Malevich and folklore, its metaphysics and pre-genre formations.Comparative analysis of the principle of "synthesis of arts" and the interaction of myths and rituals within the folklore allows to look differently at the problem of folklorism in literature. The theory of Uspenskiy on the "fourth" dimension is in harmony with the poetic views of Tsvetaeva and such folklore phenomenon as obmiranie. In this regard, we can speak of the dialectical nature of the forms of myth and folklore in the poetics of the Avant-garde.

  10. The Third Force in Folklore Studies: Gary Alan Fine's Sociological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to offer a critical overview of the theoretical and methodological contribution of micro-sociologist and social psychologist Gary Alan Fine to folklore studies. It begins with a discussion of both the major and most questioned points of his methodology, continues with a consideration of the wider folkloristical framework of his interpretation, and ends with a suggestion for innovation and improvement of Fine's analytical framework for the interpretation of folk narratives. Gary Alan Fine's most significant contribution to folklore studies was research of rumours and urban legends, including their meaning, function, and influence on individual behavior. In a series of papers, apart from offering an interpretation of various urban and corporate legends, he also demonstrated methods and means of connecting social and cultural factors with narrative content, in the context of social and economic structures and relations in post-industrial and late-capitalist global societies. Of special interest are papers in which he analyzes folklore as expressive culture and a form of symbolic communication between small groups, as an important form of selfidentification and behavior strategies both from within and without of the group. Fine makes a point when he diagnoses a lack of analyses of this sort in American folklore studies, wishing there were enough to make a significant turn in contemporary folkloristics. This is why Fine named his new research strategy the "third force". Another dimension of his contribution is the further elaboration of the analytical framework that relies on socio-structural, socio-psychological, symbolical and economical parameters of explanation. For that purpose, he constructed a theoretical and methodogical model called the folklore diamond. With his suggestions and critique of the existing state of folklore studies, Gary Alan Fine provided a very significant contribution to the science of folklore in general.

  11. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  12. New approaches for development, analyzing and security of multimedia archive of folklore objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Bogdanova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present new approaches used in development of the demo version of a WEB based client/server system that contains an archival fund with folklore materials of the Folklore Institute at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS. Some new methods for image and text securing to embed watermarks in system data are presented. A digital watermark is a visible or perfectly invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in the data and remains present within the data after any decryption process. We have also developed improved tools and algorithms for analyzing of the database too.

  13. The effect of ovary implants on juvenile hormone production by corpora allata of male Diploptera punctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Hass

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cockroach Diploptera punctata, vitellogenic basal oocytes stimulate juvenile hormone production by the corpora allata. Experiments with males were designed to determine whether oocytes must grow vitellogenically in order to stimulate juvenile hormone production. Two ovarioles with vitellogenic basal oocytes were implanted into unoperated and sham-operated males that do not produce vitellogenin, and males with denervated corpora allata, that produce more juvenile hormone, and sometimes more vitellogenin. Males with corpora allata in similar conditions were injected with saline as controls. In males with denervated corpora allata compared to sham-operated and unoperated males, the implanted basal oocytes showed a greater increase in length, protein, and vitellin content. Juvenile hormone synthesis by denervated corpora allata in males with ovariole implants was greater than in controls. In 10 of 50 males with denervated corpora allata in which one or no ovarioles grew, juvenile hormone production was not higher than in controls. This suggests that if sufficient juvenile hormone is not present to produce vitellogenin, or oocytes do not take vitellogenin up, juvenile hormone production is not stimulated. In sham-operated males implanted with ovarioles, no difference was detected in juvenile hormone synthesis compared to controls. However, when unoperated males were used, a significant increase was detected. This suggests that intact nerves from the brain to the corpora allata restrained juvenile hormone production so that ovarioles could elicit only slight stimulation of the corpora allata, and oocytes continued vitellogenesis but more slowly than in denervated males. Thus the extent of vitellogenesis appears to determine the ability of ovaries to stimulate juvenile hormone production.

  14. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  15. Folklore of the Tibetans In Chawalung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Chawalung is a small town lying on a transport hub linking Zayu of Tibet with Gongshan of Yunnan Province. It is home to theTibetan, Dulong, Nu, Lili, Naxi and some other ethnic minorities. They maintain a varied folklore that finds concentrated expression in their diet, living habits, clothing, wedding ceremonies and religious beliefs.

  16. The Galileo Legend as Scientific Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the various ways in which the legend of Galileo's persecution by the Roman Catholic Church diverges from scholarly readings of the Galileo affair. Finds five distinct themes of scientific ideology in the 40 accounts examined. Assesses the part that folklore plays in building and sustaining a professional ideology for the modern scientific…

  17. Empowering the Older Adult through Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Dorothy Anne

    2006-01-01

    An opportunity exists for those working with older adults in nursing homes to significantly encourage independence in the older adult using a creative approach. The use of folklore is suggested as a means for assisting the older adult toward a reconnection with the individuation process.

  18. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  19. Folklore and the College Selection Process Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Clinton F. Conrad's article, "Beyond the Folklore." Conrad's strategy for assessing undergraduate quality echoes the sentiments espoused by many admission and college counseling professionals over the years at various workshops for students and families that focus on navigating the process. As transcendent as the…

  20. ROMANIAN FOLKLORE MOTIFS IN FASHION DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCENCO Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Romanian costume such as the entire popular art (architecture, woodcarvins, pottery etc. was born and lasted in our country since ancient times. Closely related to human existence, the traditional costume reflected over the years as reflected nowadays, the mentality and artistic conception of the people. Today the traditional Romanian costume became an inspiration source to the wholesale fashion production industry designers, both Romanian and international. Although the contemporary designers are working in accordance with a vision, using a wide area of styles, methods and current technology, they usually return to traditional techniques and ethnic folklore motifs, which converts and resize them, integrating them in their contemporary space. Adrian Oianu is a very appreciated Romanian designer who launched two collections inspired by his native’s country traditional costumes: “Suflecata pan’ la brau” (“Turned up ‘til the belt” and “Bucurie” (“Joy”. Dorin Negrau had as inspiration for his “Lost” collection the traditional costume from the Bihor region. Yves Saint Laurent had a collection inspired by the Romanian traditional flax blouses called “La blouse roumaine”. The paper presents the traditional Romanian values throw fashion collections. The research activity will create innovative concepts to support the garment industry in order to develop their own brand and to bring the design activities in Romania at an international level. The research was conducted during the initial stage of a project, financed through national founds, consisting in a documentary study on ethnographic characteristics of the popular costume from different regions of the country.

  1. SPOKEN CORPORA AND ANALYSIS OF NATURAL SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Tseng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces spoken corpora of Taiwan Mandarin created at Academia Sinica and gives an overview of some recent studies carried out utilizing the spoken data. Spoken language resources of Taiwan Mandarin have been collected and processed at Academia Sinica since 2001. As a result, spoken data, which are useful not only for language archives purpose, but also for linguistic studies, has been made available. In addition to creation of the corpus, two lines of research are discussed in which theoretical and empirical studies are connected by using the aforementioned language resources: 1 language variation and change and 2 spoken discourse analysis. Phonetic reduction is one of the main reasons for changes within a language and it is important to take into account different levels of variations in spontaneous speech. For this purpose, we studied syllable contraction/merger, vowel reduction, and phonetic reduction in directional complements. Discourse items also play an essential part, because they add specific implications to sentences and their use is mainly marked by prosodic means. We segmented a spoken discourse into smaller prosodic units to allow for a more precise study of discourse items, prosodic features, and disfluency. These issues are correlated with each other, especially through prosodic markings.

  2. Multilingual Topic Models for Unaligned Text

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We develop the multilingual topic model for unaligned text (MuTo), a probabilistic model of text that is designed to analyze corpora composed of documents in two languages. From these documents, MuTo uses stochastic EM to simultaneously discover both a matching between the languages and multilingual latent topics. We demonstrate that MuTo is able to find shared topics on real-world multilingual corpora, successfully pairing related documents across languages. MuTo provides a new framework for creating multilingual topic models without needing carefully curated parallel corpora and allows applications built using the topic model formalism to be applied to a much wider class of corpora.

  3. Sobre el folklore en la actualidad y la pluralidad en la lectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Díaz G. Viana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la problemática relacionada con el estudio del folklore y la cultura popular en el mundo contemporáneo, transnacional e híbrido, aparentemente distinto de lo que se suponía era el objeto/sujeto de estudio tradicional. El autor argumenta que los diferentes modos de transmisión de la literatura, hoy, están determinando una pluralidad de la lectura que obliga, desde las aportaciones del estudio del folklore contemporáneo -como el de las llamadas "leyendas urbanas"-, a reconsiderar el propio concepto de lectura.

  4. Using corpora in scientific and technical translation training: resources to identify conventionality and promote creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés López-Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the first Corpus Use and Learning to Translate (CULT Conference in Bertinoro (Italy in 1997, the usefulness of corpora for translators and trainee translators has been highlighted. From an initial approach where translators compiled ad hoc corpora in their hard drive for a subsequent study with lexical analysis software, there emerged a new trend towards the use of the Internet as corpus. In this second approach, the Web is perceived as a huge corpus which is accessed by means of online tools which produce monolingual wordlists and concordances from texts available from the Internet or pre-existing corpora, or by means of bilingual or multilingual concordancers displaying aligned texts from international institutions' parallel corpora. Bilingual concordancers and translation memories are widely used by translators and trainee translators because of the immediate translation solutions they offer, but these tools can restrain creativity by offering conventional solutions and eliminating layout and multimodal elements in texts. The aim of this article is to describe the exploitation of quality corpora in a scientific and technical translation course, focusing on texts on health translated from English into Spanish, and on terminological variation as a reflection of creativity in language.

  5. The Concept of Love in Lithuanian Folklore and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc dr. Daiva Šeškauskaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Love is a reserved feeling, meaning amiability and complete internecine understanding. The concept of love has always been important for human world outlook and attitude. Love can have different meaning and expression – for some people it is a nice, warm feeling, a way of action and behaviour, for others it is nothing more than a sexual attraction. As there are different perceptions of love, there also exist few common love manifestations: love can be maternal, childish, juvenile, sexual. Love can also be felt for a home land, own nation, home. Naturally love can be expressed through the particular rituals, symbols and signs. Folk songs introduce four main lover characteristics: beauty, sweetness, kindness and boon. The later feature means that a girl/ boy is supposed to be well-set, to be pleasant and comfortable to touch which is very important when choosing a wife or a husband. Love in folklore is expressed through the common metaphorical and allegorical symbols, it doesn‘t sound as explicit word – more like a metaphor or epithet. Love in folklore can be perceived and felt very differently. Love like an action – love like... special person, essential possession. Prime personal characteristics, such as kindness, tenderness, humility, are the ones to light the love fire as well as beauty, artfulness, eloquence also help. Love is supposed to lead to the sacred sacrament of marriage. Love, if real, is a serious subject. Love is worth dying for. Strong love leads to self-sacrifice. Fairy tales satirize infidelity stressing that love is right only between a wife and a husband while other options are considered as inglorious and wrong. Love, as an incest, is also common in our folklore.

  6. Sparse Machine Learning Methods for Understanding Large Text Corpora

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sparse machine learning has recently emerged as powerful tool to obtain models of high-dimensional data with high degree of interpretability, at low computational...

  7. Critical Survey of the Freely Available Arabic Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghouani, Wajdi

    2017-01-01

    The availability of corpora is a major factor in building natural language processing applications. However, the costs of acquiring corpora can prevent some researchers from going further in their endeavours. The ease of access to freely available corpora is urgent needed in the NLP research community especially for language such as Arabic. Currently, there is not easy was to access to a comprehensive and updated list of freely available Arabic corpora. We present in this paper, the results o...

  8. ‘Have You Come to Take the King Away?’: A Survey of Archaeology and Folklore in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Paphitis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have seen a significant increase in archaeological investigations implicitly, or explicitly, encompassing folkloric material. Many such publications begin with a brief mention of the early historical connection between the two disciplines via antiquarianism, and the problems and possibilities of engaging with folklore in archaeological research. However, it is apparent that many archaeological researchers have little or no understanding of the historical, theoretical and methodological development of folklore or its close relation to archaeology - thus limiting potential engagement and generating (sometimes invalid assumptions about folkloric materials and folklore as a discipline. Through a case study of an archaeological site with a long and rich folkloric history, this paper will explore the almost identical development of the two disciplines, and their shifting interaction in relation to disciplinary changes and the socio-political contexts. It will also provide some key references for researchers wishing to study the subject further with the hope that better-informed critiques will demonstrate the potential for collaboration between the two disciplines.

  9. "Early baby teeth": Folklore and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, N Uma; Kumar, B P; Karunakaran; Kumaran, S Thanga

    2012-08-01

    Variations in the newborns' oral cavity have been an enduring interest to the pediatric dentist. The occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth is a rare anomaly, which for centuries has been associated with diverse superstitions among many different ethnic groups. Natal teeth are more frequent than neonatal teeth, the ratio being approximately 3:1. The purpose of this case report is to review the literature related to the natal teeth folklore and misconceptions and discuss their possible etiology and treatment.

  10. Tula song folklore: genre-stylistic and dialectic peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovskaya Nelli Alexandrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the works of Tula folklore recorded in the western part of the Tula region, in terms of genre, stylistic and linguistic features. The relevance of the study is related to the fact that Tula folk songs has not been studied, linguistic features of the works are not subjected to serious analysis. The article describes the features of the genre of songs recorded in Belevsky district of Tula region, including the ancient fortunetelling chants, wedding ceremony songs, romantic ballads etc., it is cited numerous examples in the lyrics that reflect the dialectal features of the phonetic, grammatical, lexical levels. According to the authors, a modern folk song genre retains its diversity and is a kind of storeroom containing priceless linguistic wealth. The analysis allows to draw conclusions about the presence and well-preserved in the recorded music of South Russian dialect phonetic and grammatical features. So far, there is no established typology of Tula dialects, therefore, according to the authors, the fixation of folklore in the territories bordering on Tula dialects, is very important and interesting for further descriptive and comparative work on identifying the eastern and south-south-west differences in Tula dialects.

  11. Subdomain sensitive statistical parsing using raw corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, B.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    Modern statistical parsers are trained on large annotated corpora (treebanks). These treebanks usually consist of sentences addressing different subdomains (e.g. sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by current statistical parsers are mixtures of subdomains of language

  12. Corpora and corpus technology for translation purposes in professional and academic environments. Major achievements and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Frérot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “use” of corpora and concordancers in translation teaching has grown increasingly attractive since the mid1990s’ with an abundant literature advocating their use and promoting their benefits in the translation classroom. In translator training, efforts are being made to incorporate the use of corpora and concordancers in masters’ programmes and to offer specific modules on corpora for translation as the use of translation memory (TM systems within Computer-Aided Translation (CAT courses still dominates. In the translation profession, while TM systems are part of the everyday working environment, the same cannot be said of corpora and concordancers even though the most recent surveys show that professional translators would like to learn more about the potential of corpora for translation. Overall, the “usefulness” of corpora and corpus technology at the different stages of the translation process remains poorly documented in translation but a growing number of empirical studies has started to show concern as it has now become of paramount importance to assess the extent to which corpora are of added value for translation quality in both professional and academic environments.

  13. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Neves

    2014-01-01

    Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, suc...

  14. Contrasting Specific English Corpora: Language Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Carrió Pastor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community has traditionally considered technical English as neutral and objective, able to transmit ideas and research in simple sentences and specialized vocabulary. Nevertheless, global communication and intense information delivery have produced a range of different ways of knowledge transmission. Although technical English is considered an objective way to transmit science, writers of academic papers use some words or structures with different frequency in the same genre. As a consequence of this, contrastive studies about the use of second languages have been increasingly attracting scholarly attention. In this research, we evidence that variation in language production is a reality and can be proved contrasting corpora written by native writers of English and by non-native writers of English. The objectives of this paper are first to detect language variation in a technical English corpus; second, to demonstrate that this finding evidences the parts of the sentence that are more sensitive to variation; finally, it also evidences the non-standardisation of technical English. In order to fulfil these objectives, we analysed a corpus of fifty scientific articles written by native speakers of English and fifty scientific articles written by non-native speakers of English. The occurrences were classified and counted in order to detect the most common variations. Further analysis indicated that the variations were caused by mother tongue interference in virtually all cases, although meaning was only very rarely obscured. These findings suggest that the use of certain patterns and expressions originating from L1 interference should be considered as correct as standard English.La comunidad científica considera al inglés técnico como un tipo de lenguaje neutral y objetivo, capaz de transmitir ideas y hallazgos en frases simples y vocabulario reconocido por los especialistas de ese campo. Sin embargo, la comunicación global y el

  15. Automatically building large-scale named entity recognition corpora from Chinese Wikipedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Bi-cheng LI; Gang CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Named entity recognition (NER) is a core component in many natural language processing applications. Most NER systems rely on supervised machine learning methods, which depend on time-consuming and expensive annotations in different languages and domains. This paper presents a method for automatically building silver-standard NER corpora from Chinese Wikipedia. We refine novel and language-dependent features by exploiting the text and structure of Chinese Wikipedia. To reduce tagging errors caused by entity classification, we design four types of heuristic rules based on the characteristics of Chinese Wikipedia and train a supervised NE classifier, and a combined method is used to improve the precision and coverage. Then, we realize type identification of implicit mention by using boundary information of outgoing links. By selecting the sentences related with the domains of test data, we can train better NER models. In the experiments, large-scale NER corpora containing 2.3 million sentences are built from Chinese Wikipedia. The results show the effectiveness of automatically annotated corpora, and the trained NER models achieve the best performance when combining our silver-standard corpora with gold-standard corpora.

  16. Discovery learning in the language-for-translation classroom: corpora as learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bernardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the idea of discovery learning with corpora, proposed in the 1990s, evaluating its potential and its implications with reference to the education of translators today. The rationale behind this approach to data-driven learning, combining project-based and form-focused instruction within a socio-constructivistically inspired environment, is discussed. Examples are also provided of authentic, open-ended learning experiences, thanks to which students of translation share responsibility over the development of corpora and their consultation, and teachers can abandon the challenging role of omniscient knowledge providers and wear the more honest hat of "learning experts". Adding to the more straightforward uses of corpora in courses that aim to develop thematic, technological and information mining competences – i.e., in which training is offered in the use of corpora as professional aids –, attention is focused on foreign language teaching for translators and on corpora as learning aids, highlighting their potential for the development of the three other European Master's in Translation (EMT competences (translation service provision, language and intercultural ones.

  17. Ande-Ande Lumut: Adaptasi Folklor ke Teater Epik Brecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipus Nugroho Hari Wibowo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Karya ini mengadaptasi folklor “Ande-Ande Lumut” sebagai ide dasar penciptaannya. Folklor ini dituangkan dalam pementasan teater berjudul “Kemuning”. Folklor “Ande-Ande Lumut” merupakan turunan dari cerita Panji yang menceritakan pengembaraan Raden Panji mencari Putri Candrakirana. Cerita Panji tidak hanya dikenal di Indonesia, tetapi dikenal hingga Asia Tenggara dan Jepang. Perkembangan teori adaptasi begitu pesat, apapun kini bisa dijadikan obyek adaptasi, puisi, novel, drama panggung, lukisan, tarian, dan video games. “Kemuning” ini dikemas dengan konsep pemanggungan teater epik Brecht. Hal ini merupakan suatu upaya mencari bentuk baru (pembacaan dalam cerita “Ande-Ande Lumut”. Teater Epik menolak salah satu unsur utama dari drama Aristotelesyang telah dikembangkan dengan metode Stanislavsky, yaitu harus adanya empati (rasa ikut mengalami dalam sebuah pementasan. Menurut Brecht proses ini telah menyebabkan suatu akibat yang mestinya dihindari, karena mengakibatkan sikap pasif dalam diri penonton. Maka ia membuat teori tentang menghancurkan ilusi, cara interupsi, dan tetap mengontrol emosi. Brecht identik dengan tema-tema sosial dalam karyanya. khususnya tema yang mengangkat nasib orang kecil yang harus menderita karena kebijakan penguasa. Biasanya kisahnya seputar persoalan buruh dan majikan. Pementasan “Kemuning” ini mengangkat kehidupan para pelacur yang masih identik dengan hal-hal negatif. Padahal mereka dibutuhkan dalam masyarakat. Tapi kadang kala mereka menjadi kambing hitam yang harus selalu disalahkan. Secara tersirat pementasan ini bertujuan memperjuangkan kehidupan para pelacur. Penonton diajak melihat sudut pandang yang lain tentang kehidupan pelacur yang selama ini dianggap buruk oleh masyarakat. Menurut Brecht teater yang baik dan yang dituntut dalam jaman moderen adalah teateryang dapat menggugah aktifi tas berfi kir yang kritis pada diri penonton. Maka pentas ini diharapkan mendorong para penikmat seni

  18. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools: A Solution in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigdis Jensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business.  Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use.  Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool.  This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond to being able to perform an advanced Google search. We show the different steps in setting up and working with an ad-hoc corpus, illustrated by means of the software AntConc applied on the SEO area.

  19. POLTERGEIST PHENOMENA IN CONTEMPORARY FOLKLORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana VOICHICI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with instances of the supernatural in Romanian urban legends, namely what we call the strigoi , or poltergeist. Usually, folklorists tend to exclude the supernatural f rom the category of urban legends, however we have decided to take these accounts into consideration based on the fact that the transmitter, the narrators do not distinguish between these elements and the rest of contemporary legends and today’s popular cu lture abounds in such accounts.

  20. Studies of some correlations of ovaries with corpora lutea and fetal development in female Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbieri Trevisan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the right and left ovaries of 30 pregnant Nelore cows. The reproductive tracts were collected at slaughterhouses in the western region of the state of São Paulo, and the study was conducted at the Laboratório de Anatomia Animal at UNESP (in Araçatuba. The size (occipitosacral length, height and weight of the fetuses were analyzed. The length, width and thickness (using calipers of the ovaries and corpora lutea, and weight and volume of the gonads were also measured. The data related to the ovaries and corpora lutea were correlated with fetal development, using a SAS program to analyze the Pearson correlation coefficient, and adjusted using a simple linear regression model. There was a significant correlation between the right ovary variables and fetal development; positive for width and negative for thickness. For the corpora lutea and fetal development, there was a significant negative correlation with the volume.

  1. Influencia India en el Folklor Mexicano (The Indian Influence on Mexican Folklore).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Soto, Eron de

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of Indian culture on the creation of Mexican folklore to the end that the inclusion of such knowledge in classes where students are studying Spanish as a second language will make those classes less formal, more interesting, and more meaningful. The author provides many examples of Indian cultural traditions…

  2. Los pasos del folklore colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Zapata Olivella

    1960-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuenta Fray Pedro Simón, el gran cronista de la Conquista, que cuando los feroces indios y urbacos (de Cartagena entraban en guazabaras o combates, lo hacían al son de potentes chirimías que exaltaban su valor y coraje en la lucha. Se puede afirmar con testimonios fidedignos, que las llamadas gaitas son las mismas flautas de los antiguos yurbacos. Las actuales tribus motilonas, que como aquellas son de origen caribe, confeccionan en igual forma estos instrumentos musicales.

  3. Pedagogical Application of Specialized Corpora in ESP Teaching: the case of the UVaSTECorpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to defining the concept of specialized corpora, reviews the rationale for using them instead of general corpora in teaching activities, and offers the state of art in both corpus-based and corpus-driven approaches to ESP teaching. It also explains some decisions taken regarding the compilation of the University of Valladolid Corpus of Written Scientific and Technical English and illustrates some uses of the corpus. In particular, it presents some tasks with concordances and defends that ESP students should be taught the niceties of lexical gender as it is a grammatical category with social and/or ideological implications.

  4. American Folk Music and Folklore Recordings 1986: A Selected List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Jeffrey; And Others

    Much of the heritage of the United States has been preserved in folk music and folklore. The recordings presented in this list have been instrumental in preserving this heritage and serve as valuable resources for students, teachers, and libraries. These recordings were selected by a panel of experts in the fields of folklore and ethnomusicology.…

  5. Paper, Piles, and Computer Files: Folklore of Information Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Laura J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews literature to form a folklore of information workspace and emphasizes the importance of studying folklore of information work environments in the context of the current shift toward removing work from any particular place via information systems, e-mail, and the Web. Discusses trends in workplace design and corporate culture. Contains 84…

  6. Beyond Mulan: Rediscovering the Heroines of Chinese Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzanne D.

    2000-01-01

    Notes how sadly the Disney treatment of the story of Mulan reduced both the character Mulan and the story's broad appeal. Presents and critiques four picture book versions of the Mulan legend. Discusses 16 picture books of original folklore based on authentic Chinese sources. Concludes with criteria for evaluating Chinese folklore in picture…

  7. CULTURAL – FOLKLORE EVENTS – PROMOTERS OF THE CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maria IORDACHE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era of overcalling output and of removing state borders, it is very important to know and to be able to identify ourselves. Cultural folklore holidays/festivals represent one of the most extensive and complex elements of the immaterial popular culture, acting as an icon because they integrate social, ethic, aesthetic, cultural values specific to a nation. Most tourists have looked for and will continue to look for this icon and to discover it during their holidays and journeys, wishing to know, to explore and to experiment other peoples’ culture and way of living.

  8. A Hearer's Insight into Deaf Sign Language Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Estonian deaf lore, which comprises all folklore genres including specific language creation or sign lore characteristic of the deaf. Estonian sign language lore contains material of local as well as of international origin. The latter group includes several humorous tales that have spread mostly through the cultural contacts of the younger generation of the deaf. Hearers’ lore has also exerted its influence on deaf lore. Local deaf lore includes memories of school years and family lore of members of the Estonian deaf community, sign lore based on Estonian sign language, etc. The main features of Estonian deaf lore are (i the specific communicative form, i.e. sign language performance; (ii the minority group of lore transmitters, i.e. the Estonian deaf community; (iii group-centred interpretation of hearing loss.

  9. From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora The article describes the work on a number of dictionaries being developed by the Corpus Linguistics and Semantics Group of the Institute of Slavic PAS. They include “Contemporary Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”, “Bulgarian-Polish Online Dictionary” and “Russian-Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”. The dictionaries differ in the numbers of entries, as well as in the different degrees of their connection with parallel corpora being elaborated under the “Clarin” project. All the discussed dictionaries are similar with respect to their use of traditional, syntactic classifiers and of semantic classifiers, introduced for the first time in the existing lexicographical practice. Thanks to the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian Corpus”, the Group has managed to verify the results of contrasting Polish and Bulgarian in the light of scope-based logical quantification. Thanks to the Russian material added to the trilingual corpus, the researchers have managed to confirm the fact that from the viewpoint of “incomplete quantification” Russian and Polish (synthetic languages behave similarly, and are opposed to the analytic Bulgarian.

  10. Information System on Russian Folklore Songs of Karelia as a Tool of Formalization and Classification of Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeyev, Aleksey G.; Moskin, Nikolay D.; Kravtsov, Ignat V.

    The authors elaborate the project of information system dedicated to folklore songs of North Russia. For increase of research potential of information system it is necessary to decide a task of formalization of the song content. In our opinion the most adequate mathematical structure describing a folklore song is the set of oriented graphs connected among themselves. In each graph the vertexes are the objects of the text, the edges are relations between objects. Our information system will contain both complete texts of songs and their formal representations by graphs that will allow to carry out comparisons of songs, to find invariants, to decide tasks of classification.

  11. Text analysis and computers

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Content: Erhard Mergenthaler: Computer-assisted content analysis (3-32); Udo Kelle: Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: an overview (33-63); Christian Mair: Machine-readable text corpora and the linguistic description of danguages (64-75); Jürgen Krause: Principles of content analysis for information retrieval systems (76-99); Conference Abstracts (100-131).

  12. On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa; Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora In the article, the authors present a proposal for semantic annotation in Clarin-PL parallel corpora: Polish-Bulgarian-Russian and Polish-Lithuanian ones. Semantic annotation of quantification is a novum in developing sentence level semantics in multilingual parallel corpora. This is why our semantic annotation is manual. The authors hope it will be interesting to IT specialists working on automatic processing of the given natural langu...

  13. Bird Names and Folklore from the Emberá (Chocó in Darién, Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Kane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on names and folklore of birds collected among native speakers of Emberá in the moist tropical forests of Darién, Panamá.  The naming data was collected by systematic elicitation of names from pictorial representations of birds.  It is organized here to facilitate analysis of various aspects of folk taxonomy in relation to scientific taxonomy.  Folklore about birds collected in natural contexts is also included to indicate the role of birds and their names in symbolic processes that exceed the limits of literal reference.

  14. Folklore y lingüística

    OpenAIRE

    Montoro del Arco, Esteban Tomás

    2010-01-01

    El Folklore es un movimiento erudito europeo que surge en el último tercio del siglo XIX con el objetivo de estudiar desde un punto de vista científico los conocimientos y manifestaciones más genuinas del pueblo. Coincide con los comienzos de la Antropología y de la Etnografía, y aunque se basó en las ideas románticas de nación y pueblo, asumió al mismo tiempo las ideas más avanzadas de la época, como el Positivismo y el Evolucionismo social. Dado su interés por las formas de expresión popula...

  15. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  16. Improvisation and Variation: Post-Communist Bulgaria Challenges National Folklore Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Agoston-Nikolova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the tension in post-totalitarian Bulgaria betweenthe national folklore tradition of Communist times with government sanctioned state ensembles and festivals and age-old Balkan multiculturalism now represented in a westernized free-market consumer society, where spontaneity and improvisation bridge the urban and the rural, the local and the global. Folk pop, folk jazz or other mixed genres reverberate with humor , parody and, above all, freedom and love of improvisation.

  17. The Role of Folklore Study in the Rise of Russian Formalist and Czech Structuralist Literary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Jessica Evans

    2012-01-01

    Russian formalism and Czech structuralism are understood to have initiated the study of literature as a self-sufficient discipline by applying linguistic concepts to the analysis of literary texts. This dissertation seeks to enrich our understanding of this development by examining the transition from linguistics to literary theory from an intellectual-historical perspective. My thesis is that folklore study played a crucial role in the rise of formalist and structuralist literary theory by s...

  18. Remediating Internet trivia : Net Art’s lessons in Web folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille PALOQUE-BERGES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet still debates over the value of its contents. Redefining traditional media within popular culture, it shatters the proper definition of mediation – based on so-called « legitimate” intermediaries. Web folklore is considered as perhaps one of the lowest forms of Internet culture ; yet, it is everywhere. Observed and remediated by Net Art as trivial culture, it nonetheless shows a crucial potential in interrogating new mediations on the Internet.

  19. POLÍTICAS DE LA REPRESENTACIÓN DEL FOLKLORE EN LOS MUSEOS FOLKLÓRICOS/Folklore representation policies in folk museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dupey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Este trabajo trata sobre la invención y la reinvención de los museos de folklore. Se analizan cuáles han sido los propósitos políticos y las razones que se han esgrimido para su establecimiento y quiénes han sido los agentes de estas invenciones / reinvenciones. Si han sido producto de instituciones estatales o surgen de movimientos de elites o grupos minoritarios pertenecientes a la sociedad civil. Simultáneamente, se dilucida cómo las representaciones del folklore son semantizadas para la representación de identidades de colectivos locales, regionales, nacionales y transnacionales. Se analizan a las actuales re-orientaciones de dichas instituciones operadas a partir de los procesos de descolonización (exteriores e interiores con sus consecuencias económicas, políticas, sociales y cognitivas, b las críticas a los análisis coloniales y clasistas desarrollados en el pasado por la Etnología y el Folklore. Disciplinas que abonaron los respectivos discursos museográficos y c la revisión de la definición de la institución museo. AbstractThis work deals with the invention and the reinvention about folk museums. It analyzes what were the political purposes and the reasons that have been put forward for the establishment of folk museums and who were the agents of these inventions/reinventions. If they have been the product of state institutions or movements which arise from elite or minority groups that belongs to the civil society. Simultaneously, it is explained how the folklore representations are semanticized in the representation of the local, regional, national and transnational collective identities. It analyzes a the current guidelines for museums that are based upon the decolonization processes (internal and external and their economic, political, social and cognitive consequences, b the critiques of colonialism and classists analyses developed in the past by Ethnologhy and Folklore. Disciplines that had influenced

  20. Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora In the field of Slavonic linguistics contrastive studies of neologisms occupy little place, the newest words are insufficiently described and classified. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the need for contrastive description of the newest lexis and checking exclusively one of many possibilities of obtaining Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Language corpora, as this possibility is in question, are not the only source from which the author obtains her research material, yet a growing interest in corpora has inspired her to also use this method. The author wants to show the reader to what degree language corpora can help in building the thesaurus of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Making an attempt to confront a collection of neologisms of contemporary Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language, the author points out the need to standardize the description (identical for each of the analysed languages, which she intends to propose in another publications on neologisms in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language. The application of contrastive method to three different but related languages from the Slavonic group will help, in her opinion, to discover more mechanisms of new words coming into existence and examine the newest derivative processes and their productivity.

  1. The Kiel Corpora of "Speech & Emotion" - A Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Peters, Benno; Landgraf, Rabea

    2015-01-01

    technology applications that sneak in every corner of our life. Apart from the fact that speech corpora seem to become constantly larger (for example, in order to properly train self-learning speech synthesis/recognition algorithms), the content of speech corpora also changes. In particular, recordings...

  2. Corpora and Language Teaching: Just a Fling or Wedding Bells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    2005-01-01

    Electronic language corpora, and their attendant computer software, are proving increasingly influential in language teaching as sources of language descriptions and pedagogical materials. However, few teachers are clear about their nature or their relevance to language teaching. This paper defines corpora and their types, discusses their…

  3. The Folklore of Naming: Using Oral Tradition to Teach Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Elizabeth Radin

    1984-01-01

    Students like to use their own names as the basis of writing projects because of their strong feelings and firsthand experiences with names, the folklore of names, and because they appreciate having their lives brought into the classroom. (CRH)

  4. Protecting expressions of Folklore within the Right to Culture in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Nwauche

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the protection of expressions of folklore within the right to culture in Africa by considering three issues, which are the increased understanding of the right to culture in national constitutions and the recognition that customary law is a manifestation of the right to culture; an expanded understanding of the substantive content of the article 15(1 of the International Covenant for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as part of the right to culture; and the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples marked significantly by the 2007 United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People. The paper demonstrates how a human rights regime may assist in overcoming some of the deficiencies in the national protection of expressions of folklore in Africa.

  5. Childbirth in ancient Rome: from traditional folklore to obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, Donald

    2007-04-01

    In ancient Rome, childbirth was a hazardous event for both mother and child with high rates of infant and maternal mortality. Traditional Roman medicine centred on folklore and religious practices, but with the development of Hippocratic medicine came significant advances in the care of women during pregnancy and confinement. Midwives or obstetrices played an important role and applied rational scientific practices to improve outcomes. This evolution from folklore to obstetrics was a pivotal point in the history of childbirth.

  6. Substituting internet for a traditional fieldwork: Collecting folklore data on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet as a substitute for traditional fieldwork is being used increasingly, hence there is a need to asses the notion of 'doing fieldwork'. One of the funda­mental questions related to the usage of Internet to collect data arises as a doubt whether this kind of data collection is an adequate means to its end: are the data collected this way sufficient or even appropriate for an academic analysis and scientific theories? In an attempt to at least partially answer this question, this paper discusses ways in which Internet could be used and seen as a fieldwork providing valid data. To illustrate this, the paper presents, as an example, an analysis of a certain folklore material gathered via Internet. The aim is to show which kind of data could be collected this way, and how the analysis performed demonstrate such data are nevertheless a valid source containing quality information on a given subject, in this case, folklore. The discussion is limited to anthropology of folklore in order to demonstrate the possibility of data collection which excludes more traditional fieldwork methods.

  7. Humour Theories and the Archetype of the Trickster in Folklore: An Analytical Psychology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stefanova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humour theories describe different parts of humour as a phenomenon, obtained on the personal and community level, so difficult to be explained. The analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung may help in the explanation of why the search for the “Holy Grail of Humour” is as if trying to catch a shadow. The archetype of the trickster in folklore may help us describe some common and different parts of the universal phenomenon of humour and the specific ethno-psychological traits.The paper presents an overview of basic humour theories, supported by analytical psychology comments, the archetype of the trickster in Bulgarian and Russian folklore, in the folklore of Native American tribes, Kalevala and Edda (Snorri Sturluson with an attempt to explain how the traits of this “hero” provide a list of the components making something humorous for different people and what are the common traits that can be described as universal.This overview could help trace the humour phenomenon from the universal, through the community, to the individual level trying to find how important this is in searching for its characteristics.

  8. Differences in motor abilities between dancers in professional and amateur folklore ansambles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in motor abilities between dancers in Serbinan professional folklore ansamble for dance and sing 'Kolo' in Belgrade and amateur folklore ansambles from coulture-arts society 'Vila' and 'Sonja Marinković' from Novi Sad had been tested on sample of 47 members. Motor area was examined by Provincial Governement Institute tests for Sport in Novi sad, and it was received 9 variables: single movement speed, explosivity below extremities (legs, endurance in jumping, absolutely strength backs' flexor muscule, relatively strength backs' flexor muscule, absolutely strength backs' extensor muscule, relatively strength backs' extensor muscule, absolutely strength backs' flexor muscule, relatively strength backs' flexor muscule. Relatively values obtained from absolutely values results using mathemathics. To determine differences between folklore dancers in whole variable system, it was used multivariante analysis variance (MANOVA. It was determined differences between sexes in motor abilities. Data was obtained by statistic packet SPSS 10.0. The aim was to find significant differences in nine mentioned variables between professional and amateur dancers and between sexes. Received results showed that there was not significant differences between professional and amateur dancers. Between sexes it was significant differences in man benefit, except one variable single movement speed. The conclusion is that for better, statisticaly significant results, professional dancers should enlarge contents and expend training intensity.

  9. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  10. Urban Legends – American and/or Global Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of modern technology, foremostly that of the Internet, has made feasible and, up to now, unimaginable reciprocity in the field of anthropological research. If only the wealthy scientific communities were be privy to a global research, while the rest of the world was deprived, the fast flow of information has made possible that each of its users be in the possession of relevant information for the study of, until now, unapproachable turfs, such as the US. Urban legends epitomize a paramount illustration of the possibility of examining American folklore from any world viewpoint, not least Serbia. That is possible for urban legends generated in America, are disseminated through the classic channels of globalization, and through the aforementioned World Wide Web. The study of urban legends activates reflexivity of traditional anthropological subject – diffusion, in the shape of dissecting reception and evolution of pursuit of generating native urban legends. Such a stance is taken by the study of urban legends in Serbia.

  11. Web-Application for the Presentation of Bilingual Corpora (Focusing on Bulgarian as One of the Two Paired Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-Application for the Presentation of Bilingual Corpora (Focusing on Bulgarian as One of the Two Paired Languages This paper briefly presents a web-application for the presentation of bilingual aligned corpora focusing on Bulgarian as one the two paired languages. The focus is given to the description of the software tools and user interface. The software is developed in IMI-BAS and will be hosted on a server there. Some examples of the usage of the web-application for the presentation of a Bulgarian-Polish aligned corpus are included.

  12. Terra: a Collection of Translation Error-Annotated Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Maja; Fishel, Mark; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Recently the first methods of automatic diagnostics of machine translation have emerged; since this area of research is relatively young, the efforts are not coordinated. We present a collection of translation error-annotated corpora, consisting of automatically produced trans- lations and their detailed manual translation error analysis. Using the collected corpora we evaluate the available state-of-the-art methods of MT diagnostics and assess, how well the methods perform, how they...

  13. Corpora and language teaching: Just a fling, or wedding bells?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    2005-01-01

    Electronic language corpora, and their attendant computer software, are proving increasingly influential in language teaching as sources of language descriptions and pedagogical materials. However, few teachers are clear about their nature or their relevance to language teaching. This paper defines corpora and their types, discusses their contribution to language learning and teaching, and provides examples of their use in class. It also outlines the changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes...

  14. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal......This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...

  15. A Simple Proof of a Folklore Theorem about Delimited Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    We formalize and prove the folklore theorem that the static delimited-control operators shift and reset can be simulated in terms of the dynamic delimited-control operators control and prompt. The proof is based on small-step operational semantics.......We formalize and prove the folklore theorem that the static delimited-control operators shift and reset can be simulated in terms of the dynamic delimited-control operators control and prompt. The proof is based on small-step operational semantics....

  16. Citation Matching in Sanskrit Corpora Using Local Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhinandan S.; Rao, Shrisha

    Citation matching is the problem of finding which citation occurs in a given textual corpus. Most existing citation matching work is done on scientific literature. The goal of this paper is to present methods for performing citation matching on Sanskrit texts. Exact matching and approximate matching are the two methods for performing citation matching. The exact matching method checks for exact occurrence of the citation with respect to the textual corpus. Approximate matching is a fuzzy string-matching method which computes a similarity score between an individual line of the textual corpus and the citation. The Smith-Waterman-Gotoh algorithm for local alignment, which is generally used in bioinformatics, is used here for calculating the similarity score. This similarity score is a measure of the closeness between the text and the citation. The exact- and approximate-matching methods are evaluated and compared. The methods presented can be easily applied to corpora in other Indic languages like Kannada, Tamil, etc. The approximate-matching method can in particular be used in the compilation of critical editions and plagiarism detection in a literary work.

  17. Peptidomic Analysis of the Brain and Corpora Cardiaca-Corpora Allata Complex in the Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Ning, Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Wenfeng; Zhao, Zhangwu; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect for silk production. However, many of the mature peptides relevant to its various life stages remain unknown. Using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, and previously identified peptides from B. mori and other insects in the transcriptome database, we created peptide profiles showing a total of 6 ion masses that could be assigned to peptides in eggs, including one previously unidentified peptide. A further 49 peptides were assigned to larval brains. 17 new mature peptides were identified in isolated masses. 39 peptides were found in pupal brains with 8 unidentified peptides. 48 were found in adult brains with 12 unidentified peptides. These new unidentified peptides showed highly significant matches in all MS analysis. These matches were then searched against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database to provide new annotations for these mature peptides. In total, 59 mature peptides in 19 categories were found in the brains of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult stages. These results demonstrate that peptidomic variation across different developmental stages can be dramatic. Moreover, the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (CC-CA) complex was examined during the fifth larval instar. A total of 41 ion masses were assigned to peptides.

  18. Sobre el folklore en la actualidad y la pluralidad en la lectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz G. Viana, L.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un análisis de laproblemática relacionada con el estudio del folklorey la cultura popular en el mundo contemporáneo,transnacional e híbrido, aparentemente distinto de loque se suponía era el objeto/sujeto de estudio tradicional.El autor argumenta que los diferentes modosde transmisión de la literatura, hoy, están determinandouna pluralidad de la lectura que obliga, desdelas aportaciones del estudio del folklore contemporáneo–como el de las llamadas “leyendas urbanas”–,a reconsiderar el propio concepto de lectura.

  19. ′′Early baby teeth′′: Folklore and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Uma Maheswari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the newborns′ oral cavity have been an enduring interest to the pediatric dentist. The occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth is a rare anomaly, which for centuries has been associated with diverse superstitions among many different ethnic groups. Natal teeth are more frequent than neonatal teeth, the ratio being approximately 3:1. The purpose of this case report is to review the literature related to the natal teeth folklore and misconceptions and discuss their possible etiology and treatment.

  20. A descriptive approach to computerised English historical corpora in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Vázquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical corpora offer many potentialities for linguistic research. Thus, the present article provides an overview of the major English historical corpora compiled or being compiled both in Spain and abroad. They include different types such as tagged and parsed corpora, and their main features will be outlined. As for the organisation of the article, after the introductory section, the historical corpora created abroad will be presented. Then, those being constructed in Spain (Coruña, Las Palmas, Málaga, Salamanca, Santiago and Sevilla will be discussed. Some final remarks and the references close the article.Los corpus históricos ofrecen múltiples posibilidades para la investigación lingüística. En el presente artículo se proporciona una visión general de los corpus históricos ingleses más importantes, compilados o que están en proceso de compilación, a nivel nacional e internacional. Los corpus considerados incluyen distintos tipos, entre los que se encuentran los analizados morfológica y sintácticamente, de los que se esbozan las principales características. En cuanto a la estructura del trabajo, tras la introducción, se presentan los corpus creados en el extranjero y seguidamente se tratan aquellos que se están recopilando en España (La Coruña, Las Palmas, Málaga, Salamanca, Santiago y Sevilla. Cierran el estudio algunas consideraciones finales y las referencias bibliográficas.

  1. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  2. Folklore and Culture as Literacy Resources for National Emancipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Stephen Billy

    2010-01-01

    Literacy counts a lot for development and progress. Efficient literacy induces and sustains good governance. Hence, all nations strive to attain balanced literacy. However any literacy programme that ignores the context of operation is not likely to be very successful. This paper canvasses that folklore and culture are essential ingredients for…

  3. Dissemination of Values and Culture through the E-Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Normaliza Abd; Affendi, Nik Rafidah Nik Muhammad; Pawi, Awang Azman Awang

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the values and culture in the e-folklore. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the values in the song lyric "The Stork and the Mouse Deer." The song was taken from phone application in the compilation of the "Kingfisher stories" copyrighted by Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka. The e-folklore…

  4. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  5. Corpora amylacea in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Marlise de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the commonest pathology in epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Beside, there are an increased density of corpora amylacea (CA founded in 6 to 63% of those cases. OBJECTIVE: verify the presence of CA and the clinical correlates of their occurrence in a consective series of patients undergoing temporal surgery with diagnosis of HS. METHOD: We reviewed 72 hippocampus specimens from January 1997 to July 2000. Student's t test for independent, samples, ANOVA and Tukey test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: CA were found in 35 patients (49%, whose mean epilepsy duration (28.7 years was significantly longer than that group of patients without CA (19.5 years, p= 0.001. Besides, when CA were found, duration was also significantly correlated with distribution within hippocampus: 28.7 years with diffuse distribution of CA, 15.4 with exclusively subpial and 17.4 years with distribution subpial plus perivascular (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the presence of CA in patients with HS and suggest that a longer duration of epilepsy correlate with a more distribution of CA in hippocampus.

  6. TOWARDS A FACETED TAXONOMY TO STRUCTURE WEBGENRE CORPORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Ezeiza Ramos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of cyberjournalistic documents by proposing a taxonomy to structure web-genre corpora. It takes into account the peculiarities of this field, the new genres, their hybridization and complexness. In this sense, the taxonomy presented in this paper does not match a single theoretical framework, but it tries to gather the guidelines of various works intended to study online journalism and its genres. This theoretical flexibility is needed to set up a proposal good enough to suit the current needs of the area. The paper also describes the main axes of the taxonomy, defines its communication unit and remarks the values and limitations of such a work. Its result is a highly structured and document-oriented database, a tool that will enable users to understand the current trends, to create new hybrids, and to detect the changes that happen within this field that is widening the horizons of the usage of language.

  7. The Impact of Corpus Quality and Type on Topic based Text Segmentation Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Labadié, Alexandre; Prince, Violaine

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we try to fathom the real impact of corpus quality on methods performances and their evaluations. The considered task is topic-based text segmentation, and two highly different unsupervised algorithms are compared: C99, a word-based system, augmented with LSA, and Transeg, a sentence-based system. Two main characteristics of corpora have been investigated: Data quality (clean vs raw corpora), corpora manipulation (natural vs artificial data sets). The cor...

  8. FOLKLORE STUDIES AND NATIONALISM IN TURKEY ABSTRACT TÜRKİYE’DE FOLKLOR ÇALIŞMALARI VE MİLLİYETÇİLİK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan BAŞGÖZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in folklore began in Turkey in the second half of the nineteenth century when the need was felt to forge a national language which could be understood by the majority. The Tanzimat reforms, which were introduced in 1839, inaugurated a functional change in Ottoman literature. A new generation of writers who were in contact with the West, especially France, and admired the economic, social, and educational institutions of Europe, soon realized that literature played an important role in the development of these institutions. To create a literature using the language of "common people," which was pure Turkish and unspoiled by foreign influences, made the Tanzimat writers interested in folklore and folk literature. Many other poets, novelists, play- wrights, and the intellectuals joined the movement between 1860 and 1900. The emergence of Turkish nationalism marked a new era in the attitude of intellectuals toward folklore and it was Boratav who introduced folklore to Turkey as an independent, scientific discipline. He enlarged the scope of folklore teaching and research to include verbal and nonverbal tradition. Türkiye’de folklora olan ilk ilgi, on dokuzuncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısında halkın çoğunluğu tarafından anlaşılabilecek bir milli dilin oluşturulması ihtiyacı hissedildiğinde başladı. 1839’da ilan edilen Tanzimat reformları Osmanlı edebiyatında fonksiyonel bir değişimi başlattı. Özellikle Fransa başta olmak üzere, Batı ile sıkı ilişkiler içerisinde olan ve Avrupa’nın ekonomik, sosyal ve eğitim kurumlarını arzu eden, örnek alan yeni nesil Osmanlı yazarları, çok geçmeden bu kurumların gelişmesinde edebiyatın önemli bir rol oynadığını fark ettiler. Yabancı etkilerle kirletilmemiş, saf Türkçe olan halkın dilini kullanarak bir edebiyat yaratmak için Tanzimat yazarları, halk bilimi ve halk edebiyatı ile ilgilendiler. Pek çok şair, romancı, oyun yazarı ve entellekt

  9. The transformation of contemporary analyses of oral folklore: Fairy tale versus fantasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otčenášek Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on contemporary forms of folklore and their relationship to literary forms like Fantasy, Sci-fi, Horror and Fantasy Game. The first problem is the specification of the terms and the classification of the internal structure of these terms. A typical structure of contemporary oral folklore, such as urban legends, is a combination of classical forms of folklore (subject matter from fairy tales, anecdotes etc. and the influence of films, television and books. This contamination is really typical for postmodern culture. Fantasy stories can de divided into five categories - 1. alternative history (variants of past history or future evolution; 2. classical fantasy (variants of mythology or classical fairy tales or legends; 3. parody of fantasy or humour fantasy (the fantasy world is mostly only background; 4. urban fantasy (more or less a part of urban legend; 5. comics (the importance of graphic form - Superman, Batman etc.. Sci-fi and horror stories are mostly literary products influenced by classical legends or urban legends. Party games, especially “Dungeons & Dragons”, and their enactments by fans are a special part of the fantasy world. Ethnologists are faced with the questions of which method to use to carry out field research and what is actually relevant. Based on the first experiences we can see that for the research into this “new” field we can use the standard methods without problems. But for a better understanding we need to read fantasy, sci-fi and horror books, watch fantasy, sci-fi and horror movies, and get acquainted with the websites related to fantasy or sci-fi content. For a good analysis of fantasy party games one needs to become a member of a gamers’ group. The use of modern recording equipment like digital video cameras and cameras etc. is also very important.

  10. New perspectives on corpora amylacea in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Elisabet; Cabezón, Itsaso; Pelegrí, Carme; Vilaplana, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Corpora amylacea are structures of unknown origin and function that appear with age in human brains and are profuse in selected brain areas in several neurodegenerative conditions. They are constituted of glucose polymers and may contain waste elements derived from different cell types. As we previously found on particular polyglucosan bodies in mouse brain, we report here that corpora amylacea present some neo-epitopes that can be recognized by natural antibodies, a certain kind of antibodies that are involved in tissue homeostasis. We hypothesize that corpora amylacea, and probably some other polyglucosan bodies, are waste containers in which deleterious or residual products are isolated to be later eliminated through the action of the innate immune system. In any case, the presence of neo-epitopes on these structures and the existence of natural antibodies directed against them could become a new focal point for the study of both age-related and degenerative brain processes. PMID:28155917

  11. Automatic Extraction of Tagset Mappings from Parallel-Annotated Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, J; Atwell, E; Hughes, John; Souter, Clive; Atwell, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent work of project AMALGAM (automatic mapping among lexico-grammatical annotation models). We are investigating ways to map between the leading corpus annotation schemes in order to improve their resuability. Collation of all the included corpora into a single large annotated corpus will provide a more detailed language model to be developed for tasks such as speech and handwriting recognition. In particular, we focus here on a method of extracting mappings from corpora that have been annotated according to more than one annotation scheme.

  12. Die aard en funksie van Zoeloe-folklore in Die ding in die vuur van Riana Scheepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Taljaard

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature and function of Zulu folklore in Die ding in die vuur by Riano ScheepersThis article is concerned with how and why Zulu folklore and oral narrative traditions are absorbed in the literature of the writer Riana Scheepers. Scheepers does not use Zulu culture in her work to make it part of the struggle genre. The question therefore arises: Why does Scheepers, a modern, even postmodern writer, make use of the prehistoric, ancient Zulu oral narrative tradition?As starting points for this article the following issues are explored: What is the nature of Zulu folklore and how has it been applied in the texts concerned? What is the function of Zulu folklore in Scheepers’ work?In the oral narrative tradition, the ugogo (grandmother is the narrator of the story and she tells her stories to the listeners (mostly children to educate them in a very entertaining way, but also to adjure many social evils, symbolized by a variety of characters, such as animals, monsters and tricksters. Riana Scheepers uses the ugogo to create a story within a story in front of the reader's eyes, in other words, she uses the ugogo to create metatextuality. By writing stories, Scheepers also edifies her readers in an entertaining manner and like the ugogo, she adjures many social evils like violence, poverty, chauvinism and racism. By transforming truth into fiction (fictionalization, she makes the harsh realities of life tolerable and in this way protects herself and her readers against the horrific realities of modern life.

  13. Mapping Folklore Concepts in Bilingual Processing:Cognitive Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌冰

    2012-01-01

      The present study applies Dr. He Yuanjian’s CMT (Conceptual Mapping Theory) to focus on the strategy use of translating Chinese folklore concepts in Hong Lou Meng (i.e. indigenous concepts related to etiquettes and customs) by Yang Xianyi and his wife Gladys Yang on the observations of the translators’strategies and the distributional tendencies of translation strategies so as to testify CMT on empirical grounds. Whether it holds true that the preservation of the alien source concepts through translation depends on how successfully they are mapped into the target conceptual system leads to the attempts to study on the distributional tendency of translation strategies of translation tasks, especially, of translating folkloric concepts in this paper. As a result, the tentative outcome of the data observed supports that the concept-mediation theoretic approach to translation pro⁃cess seems able to account for how cognitive constraints affect the production of mapping the unshared concepts.

  14. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...... in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal....../‘Christmas in Valhalla’ (2005), Absalons hemmelighed/‘The Secret of Absalon’ (2006), Mikkel og guldkortet/‘Mikkel and the Golden Card’ (2008) and Pagten/‘The Covenant’ (2009). Some of these added cultural criticism to the repertoire of the genre....

  15. Comparability of Lexical Corpora: Word Frequency in Phonological Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierut, Judith A.; Dale, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical regularities in language have been examined for new insight to the language acquisition process. This line of study has aided theory advancement, but it also has raised methodological concerns about the applicability of corpora data to child populations. One issue is whether it is appropriate to extend the regularities observed in the…

  16. Comparing non-verbal vocalisations in conversational speech corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouvain, Jürgen; Truong, Khiet P.; Devillers, L.; Schuller, B.; Batliner, A.; Rosso, P.; Douglas-Cowie, E.; Cowie, R.; Pelachaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conversations do not only consist of spoken words but they also consist of non-verbal vocalisations. Since there is no standard to define and to classify (possible) non-speech sounds the annotations for these vocalisations differ very much for various corpora of conversational speech. There seems to

  17. Promoting free dialog video corpora: the IFADV corpus example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, R.J.J.H.; Wesseling, W.; Sanders, E.; van den Heuvel, H.; Kipp, M.; Martin, J.C.; Paggio, P.; Heylen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Research into spoken language has become more visual over the years. Both fundamental and applied research have progressively included gestures, gaze, and facial expression. Corpora of multi-modal conversational speech are rare and frequently difficult to use due to privacy and copyright restriction

  18. Using Online Corpora to Develop Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Large corpora such as the British National Corpus and the COBUILD Corpus and Collocations Sampler are now accessible, free of charge, online and can be usefully incorporated into a process writing approach to help develop students' writing skills. This article aims to familiarize readers with these resources and to show how they can be usefully…

  19. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila-Viçosa Carlos M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.

  20. Die ontwikkeling van 'n rekenaarondersteunde taalonderrigprogram op grond van Afrikaanse folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Kruger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor die ontwikkeling en gebruik van 'n rekenaarondersteunde taalonderrigprogram vir addisioneletaalonderrig. In navolging van verskeie teoretici voer die navorser aan dat die pikturale humor soos vervat in T.O. Honiball se strokiesprente as toegepaste Afrikaanse folklore beskou kan word - 'n soort kernliteratuur wat op mondelinge volksverhale berus. Die artikel bespreek die fases en faktore wat die ontwikkeling van die program vir gebruik in 'n virtuele taalklaskamer beïnvloed het, asook die uitkomste en inhoud daarvan. Uiteindelik is die program in 'n kwalitatiewe navorsingsprogram gebruik waar onderwysstudente dit aan die hand van addisioneletaalonderrigbeginsels moes beoordeel. This article reports on the development and use of a computer assisted language teaching programme for additional language teaching. With the necessary theoretical support, the researcher argues that the pictorial humour contained in the comic strips of T.O. Honiball could be considered as applied Afrikaans folklore based on this language’s oral story tradition. The article discusses the phases and factors influencing the development of the programme for use in a virtual language classroom, as well as its outcomes and content. Eventually the programme was used in a qualitative research programme where teaching students evaluated it on the basis of principles for additional language teaching.

  1. Disturbance of Native Americans as Reflected in Selected Folkloric Poems of Luci Tapahonso, Joy Harjo and Simon Ortiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Allawi Saddam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of colonialization  and assimilation, the natives were disturbed between past and present. Adopting the colonizer culture, style of life, language and changing home place come together in the mind of Native American people and lead them to be confused; they intermingle between past and present. They want to be themselves but the colonizer wants them to be the others. This feeling of disturbance affected Native American people, especially the chosen poets for this study. This paper shows how Native American people reflect their disturbance toward the colonization in their folkloric poetry. It explains how each element of folklore represents their disturbance towards the colonizer’s dominant culture. This paper will be done under postcolonial framework utilizing Frantz Fanon’s second views about the natives. Disturbance follows assimilation and they together forced Native Americans to present fighting literature which shows the third phase of Fanon.  Keywords: assimilation, disturbance, Native Americans, Frantz Fanon, folklore

  2. I.P. Chekhov’s story "Van’ka": the other side of the world. Issue on folklore tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galieva Marianna Andreevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the chrestomathy work of Russian literature - the story by A.P. Chekhov «Van’ka». On the one hand the story preserves the definition of «Christmas». Attention was drawn to the festival motive itself for the events that occurred in the sacred ritual hour. On the other hand, the archetypal patterns that are organically included in the poetics of narrative, require a certain folklore comment. So, archetype window hides transitional ritual, switching the reader’s eye to the domestic space into existential, Otherworldly. Also the fact of writing the letter «to nowhere», the problem lies drawn by the Russian people, «limit», an unknown land that genetically traced back to folk aesthetics, poetics of the fairy tale. The question of Chekhov’s folklorism is debatable, but it is worth noting that the folk tradition in poetics can manifest itself both overtly and latently. The most important are the forms of «hidden» folklorism, since they are organically integrated into the artistic fabric of the work.

  3. Folklore motives in the early compositions of Nikola Borota - Radovan

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    Jovanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative work of Nikola Borota - Radovan (musician, composer, lyricist, arranger and record producer, based in New Zealand - formerly from Yugoslavia held a specific place in development of world music (polygenre in his native homeland in the early 1970s. This study focuses on his creative principles, applied to works published between the years 1970 and 1975 (while the role of these works in social, cultural and political context of the time and place will be elaborated in another study, see Jovanović 2014. The platform established to present this unique musical approach authenticaly was called kamen na kamen (a studio and stage outfit that has included number of collaborations over many years. Based on the musical models and aethetics of the folk revival and created under influence of The Beatles’, in adition to many other popular music production directions of the era, Borota’s works reveal significant musical, performance and production qualities, innovative expression and musical solutions, that need to be percieved from the contemporary (ethnomusicological point of view. Despite the fact that many prominent creative Yugoslav musicians of the time also worked within a similar framework I would argue that Mr. Borota’s creative outcome was signifficantly different from other Yugoslav popular music creative efforts. This is particularly noticeable in the author’s unique treatment of South-European and other folklore motives, which is the main topic of this study. Folk (ethnic idioms exploited by Mr. Borota in his compositions originate from the rural traditions of western Dinaric regions. This is especially true for the rhythmic formations of deaf or silent dance; for the semi-urban and urban tradition of the Balkans and the Mediterranean; Middle European traditions; traditions from non-European peoples; elements of Italian Renaissance; and international (mostly Anglo-American musical models. Compositions are analysed partly in

  4. Come studiare e insegnare l'italiano attraverso i corpora (How To Study and Teach Italian through Corpora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviosa, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Examines recent studies of linguistic corpora in Italian, and presents the results of an analysis of "piace" and "piacciono" conducted on a corpus of 3.5 million words of written Italian, accessible at the University of Birmingham in England. Focuses on pedagogical applications of the data and on the inductive methodologies…

  5. Come studiare e insegnare l'italiano attraverso i corpora (How To Study and Teach Italian through Corpora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviosa, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Examines recent studies of linguistic corpora in Italian, and presents the results of an analysis of "piace" and "piacciono" conducted on a corpus of 3.5 million words of written Italian, accessible at the University of Birmingham in England. Focuses on pedagogical applications of the data and on the inductive methodologies…

  6. The Creation of the Indianist Week. Indianness, Folklore and Nation in Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cecilia Wahren

    2014-01-01

    ... concomitant transformation of the conceptions of Bolivian identity, Indianness and folklore, contributing to the formation of ambivalent representations, typical in the particularities of the Bolivian...

  7. Aligning Formal Meaning Representations with Surface Strings for Wide-Coverage Text Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, Valerio; Bos, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Statistical natural language generation from abstract meaning representations presupposes large corpora consisting of text–meaning pairs. Even though such corpora exist nowadays, or could be constructed using robust semantic parsing, the simple alignment between text and meaning representation is to

  8. AHP 10: Folklore: Bear and Rabbit (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.yu lha གཡུ་ལྷ།

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available G.yu Iha writes: I recorded this folktale from Thub bstan (b. 1936, the reincarnate lama in Siyuewu Village (Puxi Township, Rangtang County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province when I visited him in the winter of 2009-2010. Thub bstan learned this folktale from his mother. I heard this tale when I was around six years old from my great grandfather when my family was having dinner near the stove one evening.

  9. Entre indios e inmigrantes: el pensamiento nacionalista y los precursores del folklore en la antropología argentina del cambio del siglo (XIX-XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jong, Ingrid

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the influence of ideas of culturalist nationalism in the configuration of studies of folklore in Argentine anthropology at the turn of the 20th Century. Following the production of leading researchers of folklore during this period allows us to detect the focus of the essentialist conception of the underlying nationality, as well as the the importance given to the indigenous and Spanish contributions to the «creole essence» as conceived by society´s elite sectors as the ethnic foundations of nationality.

    El artículo tiene como objetivo el análisis de la influencia de las ideas del nacionalismo culturalista en la configuración de los estudios de folklore en la antropología argentina durante las décadas que rodean la transición del siglo XIX al XX. El seguimiento de la producción de los principales investigadores en folklore en este período permite detectar la concepción esencialista de la nacionalidad subyacente a sus enfoques, así como las operaciones de jerarquización de los aportes indios y españoles a la «esencia criolla» concebida por los sectores de elite como fundamento étnico de la nacionalidad.

  10. Folklore as historical and cultural legasy of the lower Volga region in the first third of the XXth century: B.S. Laschilin, A.M. Listopadov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova Olga Igorevna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the question of the folklore phenomenon in the folk art of the Lower Volga Region in the first third of the 20th century is considered. In the course of research high emphasis was placed on the Cossack subject matter. The role of B.S. Laschilin and A.M. Listopadov in collecting and publishing folk art, the folklore of the Don Cossacks, is revealed. Boris Stepanovitch Laschilin’s work left a great impact in the artistic life of our region. In B.S. Laschilin’s books, that were published in Rostov-on-Don, Saratov, Stalingrad-Volgograd, contained tales, fairy tales, bylinas, legends, songs, ditties, proverbs, sayings, ancient dramas of the first Russian folk theatres, exorcisms. Boris Stepanovitch kept selecting songs and ditties, chastooshkas for Voronezh Folk Choir “Voronezh girls”, which are still in the repertoire of the Pyatnitsky Russian Folk Chorus. Folklorist and musician Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov, who collected and studied folk songs from his youth up, and recorded them in the Don Region hamlets and Cossack villages, spent more than 50 years of his life on the research of the Don Cossack’s musical culture. Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov’s heritage made an important contribution to the native musical folklore study. Folklore compositions is a unique source of knowledge of history, way of life, moral and other national concepts, which allows us to reconstitute a linguistic personality of a definite historical epoch.

  11. Himalayan Folklore and the Fairy Tale Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Orton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork by the author conducted in Tibetan cultural areas of the Indian Himalayas, this paper explores Himalayan understandings of what defines a fairy tale, in contrast to the Western understanding. In parts of the Himalayas, a distinction is made between “lakshung” (fairy tales and “kyakshung”, which are shorter stories, the kind one might tell over tea. In light of the proposals to record and disseminate many of these stories using new media, this paper seeks to examine these genre definitions and investigates the various contexts in which these stories are told.

  12. Immunohistochemical study of the corpora cavernosa of the human clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toesca, A; Stolfi, V M; Cocchia, D

    1996-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the corpora cavernosa of the human clitoris was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The distribution pattern of the nerve network was demonstrated by S-100 and neuron specific enolase immunoreactivity. Vascular and nonvascular muscle cells were identified by desmin and/or vimentin expression, and fibroblasts and endothelial cells by vimentin immunoreactivity. The findings show that tissue organisation in the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris is essentially similar to that of the penis except for the absence of the subalbugineal layer interposed between the tunica albuginea and erectile tissue. This has functional implications, suggesting that the clitoral erection cycle differs from that of the penis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8763468

  13. A Statistical Word-Level Translation Model for Comparable Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    readily available resources such as corpora, thesauri, bilingual and multilingual lexicons and dictionaries. The acquisition of such resources has...could aid in Monolingual Information Retrieval (MIR) by methods of query expansion, and thesauri construction. To date, most of the existing...testing the limits of its performance. Future directions include testing the model with a monolingual comparable corpus, e.g. WSJ [42M] and either IACA/B

  14. De la psycholinguistique slave au folklore ukrainien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Larangé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandr A. Potebnja (1835-1891 est redécouvert en Russie comme un important philosophe grâce à de récentes rééditions ; en Ukraine, il est devenu comme un des premiers folkloristes et pères de la nation, aux côtés de Taras Ševčenko (1814-1861 et Ivan Franko (1856-1916. Pourtant, il s’inscrit dans la tradition de la linguistique allemande, de Friedrich Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835, se référant explicitement à Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781 et Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1742-183...

  15. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  16. Folklore, Literature, Ethnography, and Second-Language Acquisition: Teaching Culture in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Rachel; Stumpf, Chris-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing that to learn about culture will aid the new Canadian in attaining cultural awareness, this article argues that it is imperative to develop strategies for teaching about culture. Using folklore as a critical methodology in the ESL classroom is such a strategy. Because folklore is an intrinsic part of everyday life, its use promotes and…

  17. Folklore-Based Learning on the Web--Pedagogy, Case Study, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimmy Ho-Man; Lee, Fong-Lok; Lau, Tai-Shing

    2006-01-01

    Folklore-based learning is a kind of situated learning paradigm in which students learn by solving problems embedded in a near-real situation. The proposed learning approach employs further interesting story plots from folklores as the background situation to motivate students to participate in learning activities. It is believed that such a…

  18. The Nearly Forgotten Malay Folklore: Shall We Start with the Software?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the nearly forgotten Malay folklore in Malaysia. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the types of Malay folklore among primary school learners. The samples of the study were 100 male and female students at schools in Selangor. The samples were picked at random from several schools and they were given…

  19. "Kinda like the folklore of its day": "Supernatural," fairy tales, and ostension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tosenberger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the use of folklore in the television series Supernatural: the show does not simply retell folk narratives, but performs them both diegetically and metatextually in a process known as ostension. In the process of performance, main characters Sam and Dean often research and analyze the stories themselves, and perform portions of the folk narrative in order to bring about a resolution. This essay focuses upon episode 3.05 "Bedtime Stories," which does not simply depict the folk narrative genre of fairy tales, but also directly engages with the discourse surrounding fairy tales in popular culture; in particular, the episode reproduces widespread understandings of fairy tales as a gendered genre. The essay concludes with a discussion of fan fiction that uses fairy tales, seeing it as a transformative response to Supernatural's own transformation of folk narratives.

  20. "Once Upon a Time There Was a Saint…": Re-evaluating Folklore in Anglo-Latin Hagiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Hilary

    2010-07-05

    This article examines methods for identifying folklore in hagiography. Using hagiographical materials from eleventh and twelfth century England, it critiques the current trend of equating folklore motifs with oral transmission and argues in favour of a "performer-centred" understanding of folklore and hagiographical composition.

  1. El narco-folklore: narrativas e historias de la droga en la frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Campbell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lo que el gobierno de los Estados Unidos ha llamado “La guerra contra las drogas” se basa en la idea de que el consumo y tráfi co de estupefacientes son inequívocamente actividades dañinas y peligrosas que la población del país temerá y rechazará. No obstante, los resultados de estudios etnográfi cos en la frontera Estados Unidos- México indican que el tráfi co de drogas se ha convertido en una actividad tan común que ha generado su propio estilo de subcultura, incluyendo música y folklore. Hasta la fecha los estudios antropológicos de la narco-cultura en la frontera se han enfocado en los narcocorridos, un género de música mexicana popular que celebra y narra el comercio de los estupefacientes y las vidas de trafi cantes de alto nivel. Estos estudios proporcionan perspectivas valiosas sobre los funcionamientos internos de las organizaciones de la droga y del contexto cultural de los cuales emergen. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los trabajadores del narcotráfi co no son los superhéroes o los bandidos ricos retratados en los narcocorridos. Es el pueblo, que tiene como principal motivación para involucrarse en el mundo de los estupefacientes la supervivencia económica. La imagen de un rico folklore de tráfi co de drogas se ha convertido en un perfi l común en la región fronteriza de El Paso / Ciudad Juárez. Este estudio etnográfi co muestra cómo este comercio se ha convertido en una parte “normal” de la vida diaria. El folklore cotidiano alrededor del tráfi co de drogas indica el grado en el cual el comercio de éstas afecta a los habitantes de la frontera en múltiples niveles.

  2. A Graphophonic Investigation of Beginning Level Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kevin Clark

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to provide a systematic framework for phonics instruction for beginning readers in literature-based classrooms based on relative frequency of phoneme-grapheme occurrences found in three distinct corpora. The first corpus contained an academic word list. The second corpus contained the running text from 363 books identified as…

  3. Regulation of the corpora allata in male larvae of the cockroach Diploptera punctata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of corpora allata was studied in final instar males of Diploptera punctata. The glands were manipulated in vivo and removed to determine the effect by in vitro radiochemical assay for juvenile hormone synthesis. Corpora allata were also treated with putative regulatory factors in vitro. During the final stadium the corpora allata were inhibited both by nerves and by humoral factors. Neural inhibition was shown by an increase in juvenile hormone synthesis following denervation of the corpora allata. This operation elicited an extra larval instar. Humoral inhibition was shown by the decline in juvenile hormone synthesis of adult female corpora allata following transplantation into final instar larval hosts, and conversely the increase in juvenile hormone synthesis by larval corpora allata following implantation into adult females. Humoral inhibition was prevented by decapitation of larvae prior to the head critical period for molting and restored by implantation of a larval brain, showing that the brain is the source of this inhibition.

  4. ULTRASONIC MONITORING OF FOLLICLES AND CORPORA LUTEA DURING SYNCHRONIZATION IN SUMMER ANOESTROUS NILI RAVI BUFFALOES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT SUPEROVULATORY RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irfan-ur-Rehman Khan, M. A. Rana and N. Ahmad

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, effect of GnRH and PGF2α given intramuscularly, 9 days apart, was observed on induction of ovulation and synchronization of oestrus in anoestrous buffaloes during summer (n=2. Ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were monitored on every other day basis, using B-mode real time, transrectal ultrasonography. Oestrus detection was carried out twice daily. The diameter of the largest follicle on the day of administration of GnRH averaged 9 ± 0 mm. These follicles ovulated within 48 h after injection of GnRH. Interval to oestrus after injection of PGF2α was 63 ± 11 h. In the second experiment, effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-p on follicular development in buffaloes during summer (n=2 was observed. FSH-p (total of 40 mg was administered intramuscularly in divided doses, twice daily on Days 10, 11, 12 and 13. PGF2α (2 ml was injected on Day 13. Ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were monitored on daily basis using real time, transrectal ultrasonography. Oestrus detection was carried out twice daily. Superovulatory response was measured and analyzed by comparing follicular development on Day 10, i. e. beginning of FSH-p treatment, (before and on Day of next oestrus (after. Superovulatory response was confirmed by determining number of corpora lutea on Day 7 after oestrus. Interval to oestrus after injection of PGF2α was 37 ± 10 h. Mean number of small follicles decreased (P<0.05 ‘after’ FSH-p treatment than ‘before’. Mean number of medium and large follicles and corpora lutea increased (P<0.05 ‘after’ FSH-p treatment than ‘before’. It is concluded that protocol of GnRH-PGF2α can induce ovulation and oestrus in buffaloes and reasonable superovulatory response to FSH-p can be achieved during summer when given during mid luteal phase.

  5. KOREAN FOLKLORE READER, TEXTS WITH PRESYNTACTIC ANALYSIS. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLMSTED, D.L.; AND OTHERS

    THE 19 KOREAN FOLK TALES PRESENTED IN KOREAN ORTHOGRAPHY IN THIS READER ARE DESIGNED AS READING MATERIAL FOR ELEMENTARY- AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS OF KOREAN. EACH SELECTION IS PREFACED BY AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND FOLLOWED BY A PHONEMIC TRANSLITERATION WITH INTERLINEAR GLOSSES IN ENGLISH. THE ORTHOGRAPHY USED HERE FOLLOWS SAMUEL MARTIN'S…

  6. Exploiting parallel corpora to scale up multilingual biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrich, Johannes; Hahn, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Creating and maintaining biomedical terminologies for multiple natural languages is a resource-expensive task, typically carried out by human domain experts. We here report on efforts to computationally support this process by treating term acquisition as a machine translation-guided classification problem capitalizing on parallel corpora. We report on experiments for French, German, Spanish and Dutch parts of a UMLS-derived terminology for which we generated 18 k, 23 k, 19 k and 12 k new terms and synonyms, respectively. Based on expert assessments of a novel German terminology segment about 80% of the newly acquired terms were judged as bio-medically reasonable and terminologically valid.

  7. Automatic correction of part-of-speech corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Uwe D.; Bucar Shigemori, Lia Saki

    2008-01-01

    In this study a simple method for automatic correction of part-ofspeech corpora is presented, which works as follows: Initially two or more already available part-of-speech taggers are applied on the data. Then a sample of differing outputs is taken to train a classifier to predict for each difference which of the taggers (if any) delivered the correct output. As classifiers we employed instance-based learning, a C4.5 decision tree and a Bayesian classifier. Their performances ranged fr...

  8. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  9. Folklore medicinal plants of North Andaman Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P Rama Chandra; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Raza, S H; Dutt, C B S

    2008-09-01

    The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinal plant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera and 43 families of Magnoliophyta from tropical rainforests. These plants used to cure 40 ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 76% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies were reported to have been from trees (55.6%) and herb (22.2%) species. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the stem bark (33.8%) and root (23.9%).

  10. Folklore linked to pregnancy and birth in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C B

    2000-03-01

    As a part of a safe motherhood project implemented in eastern Nigeria between 1992 and 1996, in-house interviews were conducted with rural women and traditional birth attendants in the seven states of eastern Nigeria. The overall project was designed to contribute toward the reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity through the involvement of community leaders and women's organizations in women's health activities in rural Nigeria. It also focused on identifying and addressing some of the underlying cultural factors in maternal mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. Findings from the interview show that women in rural eastern Nigeria still hold many folklore beliefs about pregnancy and childbirth, and some of these beliefs lead to delay in the referral of complications to hospitals.

  11. Inducing Multilingual Text Analysis Tools via Robust Projection across Aligned Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ambiguities in one language by the coupled parsing state in the second language. Jones and Havrilla (1998) utilized similar joint parsing techniques... Havrilla . 1998 Twisted pair grammar: Support for rapid development of machine translation for low density languages In Procs. of AMTA’98, pp. 318–332. [8

  12. Spiral me to the core: Getting a visual grasp on text corpora through clusters and keywords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Niemann, Katja; Leon Rojas, Sarah; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The amount of literature within a research domain is ever growing, thus making it difficult to stay on top of everything. Getting a grasp on the important topics of and areas within a domain or even knowing where to start is often tough and tedious. This paper therefore presents a visualization, tha

  13. How Can We Use Corpus Wordlists for Language Learning? Interfaces between Computer Corpora and Expert Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Bruncak, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in technology, wordlists retrieved from computer corpora have become increasingly popular in recent years. The lexical items in those wordlists are usually selected, according to a set of robust frequency and dispersion criteria, from large corpora of authentic and naturally occurring language. Corpus wordlists are of great value…

  14. Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora Using WebMAUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Strunk; F. Schiel; F. Seifart

    2014-01-01

    Language documentation projects supported by recent funding intiatives have created a large number of multimedia corpora of typologically diverse languages. Most of these corpora provide a manual alignment of transcription and audio data at the level of larger units, such as sentences or intonation

  15. Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora Using WebMAUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strunk, J.; Schiel, F.; Seifart, F.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.; Loftsson, H.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Moreno, A.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Language documentation projects supported by recent funding intiatives have created a large number of multimedia corpora of typologically diverse languages. Most of these corpora provide a manual alignment of transcription and audio data at the level of larger units, such as sentences or intonation

  16. Medieval Sources and Present-Day Folklore Materials on Saints in an Electronic Encyclopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Rangochev, Konstantin; Dimitrova, Margaret; Paneva-Marinova, Desislava

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the variety of the digitized content of an electronic encyclopedia on the veneration of saints according to Bulgarian sources. The emphasis is on medieval Slavonic Church manuscripts and on present-day records of Bulgarian folklore narratives and songs. The combination of these sources provokes discussion of the so-called folklore Christianity and adds new dimensions to the understanding of the role of the cults of saints for culture and of the religiosity ...

  17. PISA - A procedure for analyzing the structure of explanatory texts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, T.J.M.; van Wijk, C.

    1996-01-01

    Linguistic analyses of text corpora have contributed to the understanding of natural language processing in both reading and writing. However, the impact of text analysis in psycho-linguistic research has been limited, mainly because the analyses hardly ever concern text structure. Existing models f

  18. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

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    IRAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq. "till eye can see

  19. Visualizing the semantic content of large text databases using text maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for generating text map representations of the semantic content of text databases is presented. Text maps provide a graphical metaphor for conceptualizing and visualizing the contents and data interrelationships of large text databases. Described are a set of experiments conducted against the TIPSTER corpora of Wall Street Journal articles. These experiments provide an introduction to current work in the representation and visualization of documents by way of their semantic content.

  20. “The Birds of Clay”: An Apocryphal Motif in Folklore Legends

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    Olga V. Belova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the adaptation of the apocryphal Gospels motif—the revival of clay birds by Jesus—in the folk traditions of Eastern and Western Slavs. The texts of folk legends demonstrate not only the active inclusion of apocryphal motifs in oral narratives, but they also incorporate the motifs’ biblical contexts and they emphasize themes that are close to everyday life and that reflect local history. The folklore texts analyzed here are from different regions of the Slavic world (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Poland; they allow us to conclude that the oral tradition has retained, with great stability, these fragments from medieval sources up to the present day. Moreover, it is interesting to note the different interpretations of the same motif in monuments of Christian and Jewish literature (apocryphal Gospels and the pamphlet Toledot Yeshu.The fairly large group of folk legends with apocryphal motifs, occurring in different Slavic traditions from the 19th to the 21st centuries, thus testifies not only to the continued relevance of the biblical plots for oral culture, but also to the importance of the Apocrypha for the broadcasting and preservation of biblical stories in the folk tradition.

  1. Metaphor in corpora: a corpus-driven analysis of Applied Linguistics dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a methodology for finding metaphors in corpora. The procedure is based on the wish that, without a prior list of metaphors, the computer would provide a number of possible metaphor candidates. The methodology works by selecting an initial pool of word types in the corpus, finding shared collocates between pairs of those words and then computing a semantic distance measure for those word pairs which have a requisite number of mutual collocates. Cases which satisfy these criteria were then concordanced and interpreted. This methodology was applied to a corpus of MA dissertations in Applied Linguistics, completed in Brazil. The paper highlights the importance of the use of metaphors by novice Applied Linguistic researchers.O presente estudo visa a desenvolver uma metodologia para identificar metáforas em corpora. O procedimento é baseado no desejo de que o computador possa fornecer um repertório de candidatos a metáfora no corpus sem que tivesse tido acesso a uma lista de metáforas possíveis naquele corpus. A metodologia trabalha com uma seleção inicial de palavras, partindo então para a detecção dos colocados em comum entre essas palavras e para o cálculo da distância semântica daqueles pares de palavras que possuam um número mínimo de colocados em comum. Os casos que satisfazem esses critérios são examinados cuidadosamente pelo pesquisador por meio de concordâncias. Essa metodologia foi aplicada a um corpus de dissertações de mestrado de Lingüística Aplicada defendidas no Brasil. O trabalho enfatiza a importância do uso de metáforas nas dissertações de mestrado, como uma maneira de os novos pesquisadores demonstrarem pertencimento à Lingüística Aplicada.

  2. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 national parks in the United States. We aimed to confirm if these extinct animals were traditionally important species for Native Americans. At least one-third of the tribes included the extinct mammals in their folklore (N=45 of 124 and about half of these accounts featured the extinct species with positive and respectful attitudes, especially the carnivores. This research has shown that mammals that might have gone locally extinct have been prevalent and important in Native American traditions. Research is now needed to investigate if there indeed has been or might be any effects on traditions due to these extinctions. Regardless, due to even the possibility that the traditions of local people might be adversely affected by the loss of species, conservationists might need to consider not only all the biological reasons to conserve, but also cultural ones.

  3. La aldea fantasma: Problemas en el estudio del folklore y la cultura popular contemporáneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz G. Viana, Luis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the problems involved in the study of folklore and popular culture in a contemporary world, transnational and hybrid, aparently different from what the object/subject of study was supposed to be. Nevertheless he argues that the type of urban legends we can gather today through Internet does not differe from the traditional materials, such as leyends, games or mores, since they talk (as they used to about people tryng to make sense out of an always changing and mixed world.

    El autor ofrece un análisis de la problemática relacionada con el estudio del folklore y la cultura popular en el mundo contemporáneo, transnacional e híbrido, aparentemente distinto de lo que se suponía que era el objeto/sujeto de estudio tradicional. Sin embargo, argumenta que el tipo de leyendas urbanas que podemos recopilar hoy a través de internet no es diferente de los materiales tradicionales, tales como leyendas, juegos o costumbres; ya que de lo que hablan éstos, al igual que aquéllos, es de las preocupaciones de las personas por dar sentido a un mundo siempre cambiante y siempre en contacto.

  4. Death and the death of the young people in Turkish culture: Mourning and waling (Agit in Turkish folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Like death, birth is not only a natural reality but also a social and cultural fact. As one of the most important events of the life, a great number of beliefs, customs, tradition, ceremonies, rites, pattern behaviors, transactions have been grouped around death. The forms and contents of these beliefs, customs, tradition, ceremonies, rites, pattern behaviors connected with death may differ in terms of time, society and culture. Turkey has very rich folkloric traditions which have been kept alive for centuries. There is a special place of the folkloric traditions connected with death in Turkish culture. Such beliefs, customs, transactions, ceremonies and pattern behaviors which accumulated around the death are categorized under three groups: pre-death, during death and after death.Wailing is one of these traditions. These can be defined as literary works sung with melodies which express the feelings of fright, anxiety, sorrow and mutiny in cases of natural disasters, deaths, illnesses and helplessness. Singing a wailing is called crying a wailing and the one crying a wailing is called “wailer. The main aim of this study is to make a content analysis of the wailing (ağıtlar (especially the wailing cried on the death of the young people in Anatolian Culture.

  5. Corporação Andina de Fomento: o financiamento da infraestrutura integradora sulamericana e a participação do Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Maschion Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    text-indent: 1cm; line-height: 150%; text-align: justify;">A cooperação financeira regional é fundamental para aumentar os laços de integração física da América do Sul. A Corporação Andina de Fomento é uma instituição central para que isso aconteça. Ao mesmo tempo, a cooperação financeira e a Corporação Andina beneficiam a atividade comercial das construtoras brasileiras na América do Sul.

  6. Melatonin-induced neuropeptide release from isolated locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2005-01-01

    A method, based on a combination of mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography, was developed to investigate the release of neuropeptides from isolated locust corpora cardiaca. Melatonin, octopamine, trehalose and forskolin were administered to the perifused glands. The neuropeptides present in the releasates (spontaneous versus induced) were visualized by either conventional or capillary HPLC. Identification was achieved by means of MALDI-TOF MS and/or nanoflow-LC-Q-TOF MS. The observed effects of these chemicals regarding AKH release were in line with previous studies and validate the method. The most important finding of this study was that administration of melatonin stimulated the release of adipokinetic hormone precursor related peptides (APRP 1 and APRP 2), neuroparsins (NP A1, NP A2 and NP B) and diuretic peptide.

  7. Locust corpora cardiaca contain an inactive adipokinetic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, K J

    1999-03-26

    A neuropeptide from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has been identified as a novel member of the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The peptide is probably synthesised in the brain because it is the first AKH found in the storage lobe, whilst the three 'classic' Locusta AKHs are present in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In locusts, the peptide has no biological activity usually associated with AKHs. There is only 36-56% sequence identity with the three Lom-AKHs, but 78% identity with the Drosophila melanogaster AKH, Drm-HrTH. The new peptide is active in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and was provisionally named 'L. migratoria hypertrehalosaemic hormone', Lom-HrTH; its biological role in locusts remains to be established. The high degree of identity with Drm-HrTH suggests that Lom-HrTH is an ancient molecule.

  8. Polifonia nelle antologie di W.B. Yeats: il dialogo complesso tra folklore e letteratura

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    Vito Carrassi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compiling and publishing a folk narrative anthology is anything but a trivial, neutral undertaking, especially if this is set in a period of great literary and cultural fervour as was the late XIX century in Ireland. With his Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry (1888 and Irish Fairy Tales (1892 W.B. Yeats gives rise to a complex narrative system in which, necessarily, heterogeneous, if not contradictory voices and points of view meet, and the editor’s task is precisely to make this polyphony work. In the anthologized stories one observes the overlapping and interweaving of narrative levels that reflect a wide range of ideas, beliefs, knowledge, values from which emerges a picture of cultural and social Irish stratification, as well as of relationships being established between the lower and ruling classes, folklore and literature, orality and literacy. After examining in general the folk narrative anthology as an inherently polyphonic object, I propose a specific reading of the Yeatsian collections, focusing in particular on the paratextual apparatus, namely on the borders, the frames of the text – where interactions take place between several narrative levels, as well as historical, cultural, and social meanings – in order to identify, if possible, elements of unity and coherence in a system constitutively plurivocal and open to a variety of interpretations.

  9. 鲁迅民俗观形成的历史考察%Historical Study of Lu Xun's Folklore Viewpoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵献涛

    2012-01-01

    鲁迅民俗观的形成,主要与国外人类学派民俗观、中国现代民俗学运动的影响有关。与借民俗以研究历史或表达人生情趣不同,鲁迅的民俗观是一种启蒙致用的民俗观,但其部分观念并没有超出同时代的其他人物。人类学派民俗观与中国现代民俗学运动,成就了鲁迅的民俗视野,但同时也弱化了鲁迅的思想。%Formation of Lu Xun's folklore viewpoints closely associated with the foreign anthropology folklore viewpoints and modern folklore movement of China.Being different from studying the history and expressing life interest through the folklore,Lu Xun's folklore viewpoints was a kind of practical enlightenment.But some ideas of Lu Xun's folklore viewpoints do not go beyond other contemporary folklorists.Lu Xun's folklore viewpoints were formed by the foreign anthropology folklore viewpoints and the modern folklore movement of China,and to some extent Lu Xun's thoughts were weakened by them too.

  10. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2o0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Neves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  11. O uso de corpora comparáveis na pesquisa terminológica bilíngue

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    Marina Araújo Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho insere-se na interface entre os Estudos Terminológicos e os Estudos da Tradução baseados em corpora, com foco no uso de corpora comparáveis. Sendo o Espiritismo uma religião bastante desenvolvida no Brasil, é grande o número de traduções produzidas a partir de obras espíritas brasileiras, sendo que essas traduções são exportadas para vários países do mundo. Nesse sentido, este trabalho objetivou analisar termos espíritas, sobretudo referentes à mediunidade, utilizados em obras espíritas brasileiras (Português Original, PO, e seus equivalentes em obras traduzidas para o inglês (English Translated, ET. Para validar o uso desses equivalentes, analisou-se, ainda, sua ocorrência em obras escritas originalmente em inglês (English Original, EO. Com esse intuito, a metodologia empregada foi a Linguística de Corpus, que permitiu o uso de corpora comparáveis e paralelos. A metodologia consistiu na (a seleção dos termos específicos dessa área, (b na elaboração de fichas terminológicas e na seleção de termos multivocabulares, a partir dos colocados, para (c criação de uma amostra de glossário bilíngue. Os resultados apontaram para a existência, em inglês original, de opções que não foram contempladas pelos tradutores nas traduções para o inglês.

  12. Using Small Parallel Corpora to Develop Collocation-Centred Activities in Specialized Translation Classes

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    Postolea Sorina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research devoted to special languages as well as the activities carried out in specialized translation classes tend to focus primarily on one-word or multi-word terminological units. However, a very important part in the making of specialist registers and texts is played by specialised collocations, i.e. relatively stable word combinations that do not designate concepts but are nevertheless of frequent use in a given field of activity. This is why helping students acquire competences relative to the identification and processing of collocations should become an important objective in specialised translation classes. An easily accessible and dependable resource that may be successfully used to this purpose is represented by corpora and corpus analysis tools, whose usefulness in translator training has been highlighted by numerous studies. This article proposes a series of practical, task-based activities-developed with the help of a small-size parallel corpus of specialised texts-that aim to raise the translation trainees′ awareness of the collocations present in specialised texts and to provide suggestions about their processing in translation.

  13. Data Analysis Project: Leveraging Massive Textual Corpora Using n-Gram Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    future work. 1 Introduction Massive textual corpora such as the World Wide Web hold great amounts of information. How- ever, extracting machine...Cryptosporidium rivers tributaries, Helen, water rocks limestone, granite, sandstone, basalt, granites, shale, sandstones, gneiss, gabbro , shales Table

  14. Laughter annotations in conversational speech corpora - possibilities and limitations for phonetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Trouvain, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Existing laughter annotations provided with several publicly available conversational speech corpora (both multiparty and dyadic conversations) were investigated and compared. We discuss the possibilities and limitations of these rather coarse and shallow laughter annotations. There are definition i

  15. Text mining for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future.

  16. Folklore associated with dying in the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, S

    1999-01-01

    The warm welcome for modern advances in the care of the dying should not exclude the past in which there is much to be learned from the skills of our ancestors. A bilingual two-year qualitative research project into traditions associated with dying and death was undertaken. Research began in the archives available in the internationally recognized university folklore departments of Ireland and Scotland. This was augmented by 40 indepth personal interviews with Gaelic- and English-speaking residents in rural communities of both countries, recalling local customs and practices in the care of the dying. This paper reports the Irish experience; the collection of data in Scotland continues. From this study, several main themes emerged. Death was seen and accepted as a natural continuation of life, simply a step into the spirit world. In view of people's oneness with nature and the spiritual world, death was not to be feared. Traditions were unique to each area even down to the precise number of candles used at the sickbed. People understood the signs and symptoms of dying and were skilled in alleviating the distress of both relatives and the dying; and, in this, language was important in capturing and expressing the philosophy of these people. The acceptance of death as the one truism of life was facilitated by the strong faith and prayer of people for whom, in the celebration of death, humour was never far away. In their grief, the community was supported by the loose formality of the wake (torramh), funeral procession, keening (caoineadh) and music. In all these, the men and women of the community and its leaders had distinct and respected roles to play.

  17. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented as a perineal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, González-Satué; Ivanna, Valverde Vilamala; Gustavo, Tapia Melendo; Joan, Areal Calama; Javier, Sanchez Macias; Luis, Ibarz Servio

    2012-01-01

    Primary male genital lymphomas may appear rarely in testis, and exceptionally in the penis and prostate, but there is not previous evidence of a lymphoma arising from the corpora cavernosa. We report the first case in the literature of a primary diffuse cell B lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented with low urinary tract symptoms, perineal pain and palpable mass. Diagnosis was based on trucut biopsy, histopathological studies and computed tomographic images. PMID:22919138

  18. Transcribing Southern Min Speech Corpora with a Web-Based Language Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Feldmar, Jacques; Laprie, Yves; Fohr, Dominique; Haton, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The paper proposes a human-computation-based scheme for transcribing Southern Min speech corpora. The core idea is to implement a Web-based language learning system to collect orthographic and phonetic labels from a large amount of language learners and choose the commonly input labels as the transcriptions of the corpora. It is essentially a technology of distributed knowledge acquisition. Some computeraided mechanisms are also used to verify the collected transcripti...

  19. Nación mestiza: el caso de la Revista de Folklore en Colombia, 1947-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Buitrago Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el folclor colombiano han constituido un lugar propicio para los debates sobre la identidad regional y nacional, la autenticidad de los productos culturales y los proyectos de nación vinculados bien sea al blanqueamiento, al mestizaje o al multiculturalismo. Se propone la indagación de esta dinámica a propósito de la Revista de Folklore (1947-2011, estableciendo las condiciones mediante las que el folclor se inscribe en un sistema de producción cultural, su relación con diferentes modelos de políticas culturales en torno a la nación que posibilitaron su reconocimiento como objeto de estudio, teniendo en cuenta las tensiones entre raza, clase social y cultura que llevaron a una perspectiva patrimonial y no conflictiva de la identidad nacional, así como las proyecciones que puede tener su estudio en el siglo xxi.

  20. Nación mestiza: el caso de la Revista de Folklore en Colombia, 1947-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Buitrago Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el folclor colombiano han constituido un lugar propicio para los debates sobre la identidad regional y nacional, la autenticidad de los productos culturales y los proyectos de nación vinculados bien sea al blanqueamiento, al mestizaje o al multiculturalismo. Se propone la indagación de esta dinámica a propósito de la Revista de Folklore (1947-2011, estableciendo las condiciones mediante las que el folclor se inscribe en un sistema de producción cultural, su relación con diferentes modelos de políticas culturales en torno a la nación que posibilitaron su reconocimiento como objeto de estudio, teniendo en cuenta las tensiones entre raza, clase social y cultura que llevaron a una perspectiva patrimonial y no conflictiva de la identidad nacional, así como las proyecciones que puede tener su estudio en el siglo xxi.

  1. Information Systems for the Museum of Japanese History, Archaeology and Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Takehiko

    General idea and outline of museums of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore are introduced, and the relationship between exhibits and information in them is described. Then the information systems of these museums are explained in some detail. As an example, the author describes the information systems for the museum of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore by comparing the computer system with the traditional manual system. Japanese language processing and image handling derived from the systems are also described. Significance and problems of nationwide information network linking these museums each other, and problems of staffs in the information sections are mentioned.

  2. [An outline medical history of Taiwan (I): the period of folklore medicine and witch doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C

    1997-01-01

    The paper makes a correlated analysis on the origin of health folklore between Chinese in mainland and Taiwan island. After quoting literatures written by authors living in the Qing dynasty in Taiwan, this paper analyses health condition among aboriginals of Taiwan during the witchcraft age. Along with the increasing immigration from China mainland to Taiwan island, health of folklore and gods from China mainland were introduced into Taiwan, hence the period of witch doctor in Taiwan, featuring the correlation of both. Though modern medicine in Taiwan is so advanced, yet there are still witch doctors elsewhere.

  3. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. female castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Durvalina Bomtorin

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s of JH in social evolution.

  4. Vilniaus krašto folkloras kaip tautinės tapatybės dėmuo | Vilnius region folklore as an inherent part of the national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulė Matulevičienė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the movement at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries that manifested itself in the collecting, researching and publishing of Vilnius Region folklore. Saulė Matulevičienė speculates as to what degree this activity can be associated with conscious efforts to define and consolidate the limits of the historical and cultural indentity of the population of this Region. She also questions what, if any, ideological motivations this activity might have had.The discussion of the current affairs of the Vilnius Region is done in the background of more generalised reflections such as what role is attributed to the folklore when the symbols of the identity of a certain community are consciously brought forward or even created anew; which folklore text and how they gain symbolical significance and thus help to bring a community together. At the end of 19th century, linguistically diverse folklore texts of the Vilnius Region were written down and published and neither the ethnic background of their presenters nor the language of the actual texts were considered as important and distinguishing aspects of identity of the population of the Region.As of the establishment of the Lithuanian Society of Science at the beginning of the 20th century, the Lithuanian character of the Region was being promoted as a reaction to a rapid decline and intense extermination of the ethnic Lithuanian population. Thus, collecting and researching of the folklore develops a defensive character. Manuscript collections of the time reflect a diverse living tradition covering different stylistic modes attributed to different points in time. The selection of texts published in the folklore collections of the time becomes not only the symbolic consolidation of the Lithuanian identity of the inhabitants of the Vilnius Region, but also contributes to the construction of this identity.The political and historical circumstances of the 20th

  5. Preceitos e normas internas (kakun de casas comerciais japonesas: um estudo sobre a longevidade e a ética da corporação japonesa

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    Isao Yamamoto

    Full Text Available O estudo de corporações de uma das maiores economias mundiais se justifica em um mundo sem fronteiras no qual hoje vivemos e onde diferenças culturais afetam relações negociais. O objetivo é explicitar como as casas comerciais e outras corporações tradicionais japonesas conseguiram enorme longevidade. Foi privilegiado o papel desempenhado pelo kakun nessas corporações; ou seja, o papel desempenhado por um conjunto de preceitos e normas internas que, tendo surgido nos séculos XVII e XVIII, tem viva a sua força até os dias correntes. O método escolhido para o estudo foi a historiografia, que visa ao resgate dos acontecimentos e das atividades humanas ao longo do tempo. Chegamos à conclusão de que muito do que pregava o kakun está hoje presente em estudos sobre organizações e gestão e que, associado a questões éticas, o kakun é, em grande parte, o responsável pela longevidade das empresas japonesas.

  6. 'DELİ DUMRUL' BY SUAT TAŞER, WITHIN THE SCOPE OF FOLKLORE - IDEOLOGY – LITERATURE FOLKLOR-İDEOLOJİ-EDEBİYAT ÜÇGENİNDE SUAT TAŞER’İN DELİ DUMRUL’U

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    Nezir TEMUR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It's a sociologically inevitable phenomenon that the social andpolitical changes occuring in societies evoke their reflections in culturalproductions prominently. Since the 19th Century, when nationalidentities began to take form along with romantic nationalism, folkloricartifacts which are significant conveyers of cultural recollections such ashistory and language, have confronted us as a field emphasized byideological and literary movements, notably Social Sciences. In the worldof 20th Century, when ideologies began to take form in political sense,folkloric artifacts undertook significant functions in culture policiesenvisaged by dominant ideologies for the new forms of Societies whichthey tried to build. The style of the folkloric artifacts, cultural codes theyconveyed, and their functionality have been active components in thisapproach. In this sense, the intensifying process , which begins to headtowards works of folk narrations, folk poetry, and folk literature inTurkish Literature after 1930s, gradually increases after the 1940s andthis tendency becomes one of the significant sources fostering literature.At this point, substantial works of Turkish folklore such as epics,folktales, tales, legends have been released to the public within newperspectives and techniques.It can be seen that new pursuits in expressions and utteranceshave been embarked, like in 'Deli Dumrul - Ölüm ve Aşk' (Epic and Playby Dede Korkut , which can be considered as the rewriting of one of hisepics with a new understanding. This study aims to make a comparisonbetween 'Deli Dumrul - Ölüm ve Aşk' (Epic - Play by Suat Taşer and theoriginal text of the Epic of Deli Dumrul and to examine how folkloricartifacts and cultural values tried to be transmitted into those artifactshave been modernized, adapted contemporarily and released ;the partswhere the writer digressed from the souce text during the adaptation; towhat extent the traditional context has been changed

  7. TRADITIONAL CRAFTS AND FOLKLORE AS A MEANS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE LAND OF CĂLATA

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    Roxana-Maria BUŞ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how territorial identity, expressed through immaterial and material heritage, especially folklore and traditional crafts, can be a means of economic sustainable development in rural areas. As a case study, we choose the Land of Călata (Hu. Kalotaszeg, a region from North-Western Transylvania, Romania, focusing on two of its best-known villages: Izvoru Crișului (Hu. Körösfő and Sâncraiu (Hu. Kalotaszentkirály. Izvoru Crișului is appreciated for carpentry and handicrafts products, whilst Sâncraiu is well-known for its Hungarian folk music and dance festival. In order to illustrate how these activities can lead to economic development, we interviewed a craftsman family from Izvoru Crișului and a dance instructor, cofounder of the International folk music and dance camp that is held annually in Sâncraiu. We also analysed several handicrafts stalls from Izvoru Crișului to see exactly what kind of products were being sold in there. The results show that even though traditional crafts could generate an income for the local people, most of the products sold in Izvoru Crișului are not authentic, but brought there from other regions of Romania or abroad. On the other hand, the international folk music and dance camp from Sâncraiu is the best example of how a one-week event can help local economy by generating income for various stakeholders involved in the organisation and realisation of the event, and be the igniter of a larger agro-touristic activity. In the end, we concluded with several remarks concerning the need for raising awareness among the locals how to benefit from their cultural heritage and traditional occupations and we acknowledged the potential of traditional crafts and folklore as a means of diversifying income possibilities in rural areas.

  8. Training and evaluation corpora for the extraction of causal relationships encoded in biological expression language (BEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Madan, Sumit; Ansari, Sam; Kodamullil, Alpha T; Karki, Reagon; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Catlett, Natalie L; Hayes, William; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Success in extracting biological relationships is mainly dependent on the complexity of the task as well as the availability of high-quality training data. Here, we describe the new corpora in the systems biology modeling language BEL for training and testing biological relationship extraction systems that we prepared for the BioCreative V BEL track. BEL was designed to capture relationships not only between proteins or chemicals, but also complex events such as biological processes or disease states. A BEL nanopub is the smallest unit of information and represents a biological relationship with its provenance. In BEL relationships (called BEL statements), the entities are normalized to defined namespaces mainly derived from public repositories, such as sequence databases, MeSH or publicly available ontologies. In the BEL nanopubs, the BEL statements are associated with citation information and supportive evidence such as a text excerpt. To enable the training of extraction tools, we prepared BEL resources and made them available to the community. We selected a subset of these resources focusing on a reduced set of namespaces, namely, human and mouse genes, ChEBI chemicals, MeSH diseases and GO biological processes, as well as relationship types 'increases' and 'decreases'. The published training corpus contains 11 000 BEL statements from over 6000 supportive text excerpts. For method evaluation, we selected and re-annotated two smaller subcorpora containing 100 text excerpts. For this re-annotation, the inter-annotator agreement was measured by the BEL track evaluation environment and resulted in a maximal F-score of 91.18% for full statement agreement. In addition, for a set of 100 BEL statements, we do not only provide the gold standard expert annotations, but also text excerpts pre-selected by two automated systems. Those text excerpts were evaluated and manually annotated as true or false supportive in the course of the BioCreative V BEL track task

  9. Negative Feedbacks by Isoprenoids on a Mevalonate Kinase Expressed in the Corpora Allata of Mosquitoes.

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    Pratik Nyati

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JH regulate development and reproductive maturation in insects. JHs are synthesized through the mevalonate pathway (MVAP, an ancient metabolic pathway present in the three domains of life. Mevalonate kinase (MVK is a key enzyme in the MVAP. MVK catalyzes the synthesis of phosphomevalonate (PM by transferring the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to the C5 hydroxyl oxygen of mevalonic acid (MA. Despite the importance of MVKs, these enzymes have been poorly characterized in insects.We functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti MVK (AaMVK expressed in the corpora allata (CA of the mosquito. AaMVK displayed its activity in the presence of metal cofactors. Different nucleotides were used by AaMVK as phosphoryl donors. In the presence of Mg(2+, the enzyme has higher affinity for MA than ATP. The activity of AaMVK was regulated by feedback inhibition from long-chain isoprenoids, such as geranyl diphosphate (GPP and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP.AaMVK exhibited efficient inhibition by GPP and FPP (Ki less than 1 μM, and none by isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP and dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DPPM. These results suggest that GPP and FPP might act as physiological inhibitors in the synthesis of isoprenoids in the CA of mosquitoes. Changing MVK activity can alter the flux of precursors and therefore regulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

  10. Designing and Implementing a Cross-Language Information Retrieval System Using Linguistic Corpora

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    Amin Nezarat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is a crucial area of natural language processing (NLP and can be defined as finding documents whose content is relevant to the query need of a user. Cross-language information retrieval (CLIR refers to a kind of information retrieval in which the language of the query and that of searched document are different. In fact, it is a retrieval process where the user presents queries in one language to retrieve documents in another language. This paper tried to construct a bilingual lexicon of parallel chunks of English and Persian from two very large monolingual corpora an English-Persian parallel corpus which could be directly applied to cross-language information retrieval tasks. For this purpose, a statistical measure known as Association Score (AS was used to compute the association value between every two corresponding chunks in the corpus using a couple of complicated algorithms. Once the CLIR system was developed using this bilingual lexicon, an experiment was performed on a set of one hundred English and Persian phrases and collocations to see to what extend this system was effective in assisting the users find the most relevant and suitable equivalents of their queries in either language.

  11. Investigating the distribution of some (but not all implicatures using corpora and web-based methods

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    Judith Degen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalent, but to date untested, assumption about lexicalized scalar implicatures such as those from some to not all, is that they fall into the class of GCIs and as such, constitute a homogeneous class of highly regularized and context-independent implicatures. This paper reports a test of this assumption in which linguistically untrained participants’ implicature strength judgments were collected for naturally occurring utterances containing the word some in a large-scale corpus-based web study. The results indicate that implicature strength is highly variable and systematically dependent on features of the linguistic context such as the partitive, determiner strength, and discourse accessibility. These results call into question the GCI status of scalar implicatures from some to not all and demonstrate the usefulness of corpora and web-based methods for challenging received wisdom, enriching the empirical landscape, and informing theory in pragmatics. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.11 BibTeX info

  12. Glandectomy with preservation of corpora cavernosa in the treatment of penile carcinoma

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    Fonseca Aluizio G. da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to describe a conservative surgical technique as an alternative to classic penile amputations, aiming the local control of the disease, in addition to trying to preserve the patient's sexual function. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: After a circular incision of the skin around the penis, the subfascial plane is developed until the base of the organ. The dorsal neurovascular bundle and the urethra are isolated in their distal extremities. The neurovascular bundle is sectioned distally. A retrocoronal dissection plane is developed between the glans and the corpora cavernosa. When this stage is complete, the glans is fixed only to the urethra, which is distally sectioned as well. The neurovascular bundle is fixed to the dorsal albuginea. Following the spatulation of the urethra, a neomeatus is created using the overlay skin of the penis. Between January 2001 and July 2002, we employed this technique in 6 patients who had epidermoid carcinoma of the penis, which were limited to the glans, superficial, well or moderately differentiated and measuring up to 3 cm. COMMENTS: Several conservative surgical methods for treatment of carcinoma of the penis aim the organ's preservation, in an attempt of improving the quality of life of patients, however the indexes of local recurrence and failure in disease control are significant. The described technique showed to be safe and effective for disease control, in addition to preserving sexual function in all patients who were treated, representing, thus, a quite appealing conservative surgical alternative in selected cases.

  13. Co-occurrence Vectors from Corpora vs. Distance Vectors from Dictionaries

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    Niwa, Y; Niwa, Yoshiki; Nitta, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A comparison was made of vectors derived by using ordinary co-occurrence statistics from large text corpora and of vectors derived by measuring the inter-word distances in dictionary definitions. The precision of word sense disambiguation by using co-occurrence vectors from the 1987 Wall Street Journal (20M total words) was higher than that by using distance vectors from the Collins English Dictionary (60K head words + 1.6M definition words). However, other experimental results suggest that distance vectors contain some different semantic information from co-occurrence vectors. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Fri Nov 12 12:25 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id MAA10923 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:47 +0100 (MET) Received: from uuu.lanl.gov (uuu.lanl.gov [204.121.6.59]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id MAA18850 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:46 +0100 (MET) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by uu...

  14. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

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    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  15. The potential of purpose-built corpora in the analysis of student academic writing in English

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    Julia Hüttner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards using English as an academic lingua franca has undoubtedly increased the awareness of a need for specific EAP writing instruction and inroads into researching student writing have been made. However, systematic improvements for a theory-informed teaching practice still require more detailed knowledge of the current state of student academic writing, which also takes into account local practices and requirements. Extended genre analysis provides such a means of researching student writing in specific settings. This is an innovative methodology which expands on English for Specific Purposes (ESP genre analysis (cf. Bhatia, 1993, 2004; Swales, 1990, 2004 to systematically integrate corpus linguistic tools into the analysis and to take into account the special status of student genres. A special advantage of this methodology is that it can be applied easily and successfully to small-scale purpose-built corpora. This paper presents an application of extended genre analysis to a corpus of 55 student paper conclusions produced by non-native speakers in the initial phase of their studies. Findings suggest systematic differences in structure between student and expert genres, as well as a more complex set of differences in lexico-grammar, and especially the use of formulaic language, between research articles and non-native student papers. The implications of these findings as well as of the proposed methodology of corpus-based genre analysis for teaching practice are also discussed.

  16. CORPORA AMYLACEA OF BRAIN TISSUE FROM NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES ARE STAINED WITH SPECIFIC ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBODIES

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    LUIS eCARRASCO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin and potential function of corpora amylacea (CA remains largely unknown. Low numbers of CA are detected in the aging brain of normal individuals but they are abundant in the central nervous system of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we show that CA from patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD contain fungal proteins as detected by immunohistochemistry analyses. Accordingly, CA were labeled with different anti-fungal antibodies at the external surface, whereas the central portion composed of calcium salts contain less proteins. Detection of fungal proteins was achieved using a number of antibodies raised against different fungal species, which indicated cross-reactivity between the fungal proteins present in CA and the antibodies employed. Importantly, these antibodies do not immunoreact with cellular proteins. Additionally, CNS samples from patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Parkinson’s disease (PD also contained CA that were immunoreactive with a range of antifungal antibodies. However, CA were less abundant in ALS or PD patients as compared to CNS samples from AD. By contrast, CA from brain tissue of control subjects were almost devoid of fungal immunoreactivity. These observations are consistent with the concept that CA associate with fungal infections and may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of CA.

  17. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

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    Sangbin Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  18. Sentence-alignment and application of russian-german multi-target parallel corpora for linguistic analysis and literary studies

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    Zhekova, Desislava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of multi-target parallel corpora consisting of a single source text and multiple target translations of it for linguistic analysis. We discuss the alignment, interactive search and visualization of this type of data within a specific tool called ALuDo (Alignment with Lucene for Dostoyevsky. This is a Java implementation that uses local grammars, ontological information, bilingual dictionaries and statistical approaches for alignment and search. The data set in use is the Russian novel Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky and three German translations of it. With this bilingual corpus quite a number of investigations in the field of linguistics and of literary studies are possible. Additionally, we release part of the resulting parallel corpus.

  19. Levitation, Jokes, and Spin the Bottle; Contemporary Folklore in the Classroom--A Teacher's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juska, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the effect the teaching of a unit on contemporary folklore had on a high school English teacher and her students. Suggests that within each student is a wealth of untapped information that can be used as a basis from which to explore different kinds of writing and which can lead to new ways of looking at literature. (RBW)

  20. The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland and Their Folklore: A Photodocumentary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Howard

    A photojournalism project is described in this paper that integrated the disciplines of photography, archaeology, and ethnology in an examination of prehistoric megalithic monuments in Ireland and their folklore. Following an introduction tracing the history of the monuments and pointing to the maintenance in Ireland of a body of oral tradition…

  1. Folklore as an Instrument of Education among the Chewa People of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Dennis; Morgan, W. John

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the folklore of the Chewa people of Zambia as an instrument of education. It suggests that there is only a fine distinction between Chewa culture ["mwambo wa a Chewa"] and Chewa education ["maphunziro ya Uchewa"]. The former comprises tribal "truths" to be imposed on the minds of the younger…

  2. Unleashing the Power of Teenage Folklore: Research To Investigate the Power of Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Carol A.; Benedetti, Angelina; Carmody, Barbara; Reynolds, Tom; Brantigan, Nanna; Wilson-Lingbloom, Evie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the effect teenage folklore storytelling has on the self-esteem of adolescents; its effect on building oral communication and storytelling skills; adolescent perceptions of the media center and public library; and cooperative ventures between school library media specialists and public librarians. (Contains 95…

  3. Charles Dicken’s Use of Folklore: A Study of Elements in Bleak House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-21

    capitalized , meant a fox (T23/141). All of these strong, adult connotations are engendered in Charley the child who has survived and supported her family...Art: A Book Dealing With the Psycology and the Folklore of the Witches. London, Herbert Jenkins, Ltd., 1925; reprint ed. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Gryphon

  4. The Use of Folklore and Other Materials in the Motivation or Presentation of a Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira

    1951-01-01

    Suggestions on how to improve apperception, motivation, and the presentation of materials in the teaching of Italian tenses, vocabulary, and famous names focus on the use of literary devices largely derived from folklore. For teaching tenses, the author illustrates the use of riddles, "passerotti", "filastrocche", songs, tongue-twisters, rebuses,…

  5. Sleep paralysis in Brazilian folklore and other cultures: a brief review

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    José Felipe Rodriguez de Sá

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep paralysis (SP is a dissociative state that occurs mainly during awakening. SP is characterized by altered motor, perceptual, emotional and cognitive functions, such as inability to perform voluntary movements, visual hallucinations, feelings of chest pressure, delusions about a frightening presence and, in some cases, fear of impending death. Most people experience SP rarely, but typically when sleeping in supine position; however, SP is considered a disease (parasomnia when recurrent and/or associated to emotional burden. Interestingly, throughout human history, different peoples interpreted SP under a supernatural view. For example, Canadian Eskimos attribute SP to spells of shamans, who hinder the ability to move, and provoke hallucinations of a shapeless presence. In the Japanese tradition, SP is due to a vengeful spirit who suffocates his enemies while sleeping. In Nigerian culture, a female demon attacks during dreaming and provokes paralysis. A modern manifestation of SP is the report of alien abductions, experienced as inability to move during awakening associated with visual hallucinations of aliens. Furthermore, SP is a significant example of how a specific biological phenomenon can be interpreted and shaped by different cultural contexts. In order to further explore the ethnopsychology of SP, the Pisadeira, a character of Brazilian folklore originated in the country’s Southeast, but also found in other regions with variant names, has been reviewed. Pisadeira is described as a crone with long fingernails who lurks on roofs at night and tramples on the chest of those who sleep on a full stomach with the belly up. This legend is mentioned in many anthropological accounts; however, we found no comprehensive reference on the Pisadeira from the perspective of sleep science. Here we aim to fill this gap. We first review the neuropsychological aspects of SP, and then present the folk tale of the Pisadeira. Finally, we summarize the

  6. Influence of communal and private folklore on bringing meaning to the experience of persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joyce Marie

    2015-11-01

    To provide an overview of the relevance and strengths of using the literary folkloristic methodology to explore the ways in which people with persistent pain relate to and make sense of their experiences through narrative accounts. Storytelling is a conversation with a purpose. The reciprocal bond between researcher and storyteller enables the examination of the meaning of experiences. Life narratives, in the context of wider traditional and communal folklore, can be analysed to discover how people make sense of their circumstances. This paper draws from the experience of the author, who has previously used this narrative approach. It is a reflection of how the approach may be used to understand those experiencing persistent pain without a consensual diagnosis. Using an integrative method, peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2014 and listed in the CINAHL, Science Direct, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were reviewed. In addition, texts that addressed research methodologies such as literary folkloristic methodology and Marxist literary theory were used. The unique role that nurses play in managing pain is couched in the historical and cultural context of nursing. Literary folkloristic methodology offers an opportunity to gain a better understanding and appreciation of how the experience of pain is constructed and to connect with sufferers. Literary folkloristic methodology reveals that those with persistent pain are often rendered powerless to live their lives. Increasing awareness of how this experience is constructed and maintained also allows an understanding of societal influences on nursing practice. Nurse researchers try to understand experiences in light of specific situations. Literary folkloristic methodology can enable them to understand the inter-relationship between people in persistent pain and how they construct their experiences.

  7. THE CORPUS OF PARALLEL TEXTS AND CONTRASTIVE LEXICOLOGY

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    D. O. Dobrovol’skij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to attempt to determine the extent to which corpora of parallel texts can serve as a useful instrument for solving problems of contrastive linguistics; i.e., for describing peculiarities in the functioning of Russian forms compared with those of another language. The study is based on empirical data taken from the Russian-English/ English-Russian and Russian-German/German-Russian parallel corpora of the RNC. We focus on lexical phenomena of these pairs of languages, particularly cross-linguistic equivalence connected with the languagespecific nature of certain lexemes and the means for representing them in  bilingual  dictionaries.  The  materials  of  the  parallel  corpora  give rise to questions as to how cross-linguistic lexical correlates should be represented lexicographically,  especially if these correspondences  are not equivalent in a strict sense. Our analysis of lexical units that lack standard equivalents in other languages indicates that parallel corpora can help identify both the non-trivial semantic and discursive properties of such words and the peculiarities of their cross-linguistic functional correspondences.

  8. Statistical modeling of biomedical corpora: mining the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center Bibliography for genes related to life span

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    Jordan MI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical modeling of biomedical corpora could yield integrated, coarse-to-fine views of biological phenomena that complement discoveries made from analysis of molecular sequence and profiling data. Here, the potential of such modeling is demonstrated by examining the 5,225 free-text items in the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center (CGC Bibliography using techniques from statistical information retrieval. Items in the CGC biomedical text corpus were modeled using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model. LDA is a hierarchical Bayesian model which represents a document as a random mixture over latent topics; each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Results An LDA model estimated from CGC items had better predictive performance than two standard models (unigram and mixture of unigrams trained using the same data. To illustrate the practical utility of LDA models of biomedical corpora, a trained CGC LDA model was used for a retrospective study of nematode genes known to be associated with life span modification. Corpus-, document-, and word-level LDA parameters were combined with terms from the Gene Ontology to enhance the explanatory value of the CGC LDA model, and to suggest additional candidates for age-related genes. A novel, pairwise document similarity measure based on the posterior distribution on the topic simplex was formulated and used to search the CGC database for "homologs" of a "query" document discussing the life span-modifying clk-2 gene. Inspection of these document homologs enabled and facilitated the production of hypotheses about the function and role of clk-2. Conclusion Like other graphical models for genetic, genomic and other types of biological data, LDA provides a method for extracting unanticipated insights and generating predictions amenable to subsequent experimental validation.

  9. Morphometric Correlates of the Ovary and Ovulatory Corpora in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, Raymond J; Hillmann, Daniel J; George, John C; Zeh, Judith E; Suydam, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Gross morphology and morphometry of the bowhead whale ovary, including ovulatory corpora, were investigated in 50 whales from the Chukchi and Beaufort seas off the coast of Alaska. Using the presence of ovarian corpora to define sexual maturity, 23 sexually immature whales (7.6-14.2 m total body length) and 27 sexually mature whales (14.2-17.7 m total body length) were identified. Ovary pair weights ranged from 0.38 to 2.45 kg and 2.92 to 12.02 kg for sexually immature and sexually mature whales, respectively. In sexually mature whales, corpora lutea (CLs) and/or large corpora albicantia (CAs) projected beyond ovary surfaces. CAs became increasingly less interruptive of the surface contour as they regressed, while remaining identifiable within transverse sections of the ovarian cortex. CLs formed large globular bodies, often with a central lumen, featuring golden parenchymas enfolded within radiating fibrous cords. CAs, sometimes vesicular, featured a dense fibrous core with outward fibrous projections through the former luteal tissue. CLs (never more than one per ovary pair) ranged from 6.7 to 15.0 cm in diameter in 13 whales. Fetuses were confirmed in nine of the 13 whales, with the associated CLs ranging from 8.3 to 15.0 cm in diameter. CLs from four whales where a fetus was not detected ranged from 6.7 to 10.6 cm in diameter. CA totals ranged from 0 to 22 for any single ovary, and from 1 to 41 for an ovary pair. CAs measured from 0.3 to 6.3 cm in diameter, and smaller corpora were more numerous, suggesting an accumulating record of ovulation. Neither the left nor the right ovary dominated in the production of corpora. Anat Rec, 299:769-797, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Application of the Comparable Corpora in Chinese-English Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lin; ZHANG Yibo; SUN Le; SUN Yufang

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Chinese-English Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval (CECLIR) model PME, in which bilingual dictionary and comparable corpora are used to translate the query terms. The proximity and mutual information of the term-pairs in the Chinese and English comparable corpora are employed not only to resolve the translation ambiguities but also to perform the query expansion so as to deal with the out-of-vocabulary issues in the CECLIR. The evaluation results show that the query precision of PME algorithm is about 84.4% of the monolingual information retrieval.

  11. A Novel Visualization Tool for Manual Annotation when Building Large Speech Corpora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel visualized sound description, called sound dendrogram is proposed to make manual annotation easier when building large speech corpora. It is a lattice structure built from a group of "seed regions" and through an iterative procedure of mergence. A simple but reliable extraction method of "seed regions" and advanced distance metric are adopted to construct the sound dendrogram, so that it can present speech's structure character ranging from coarse to fine in a visualized way. Tests show that all phonemic boundaries are contained in the lattice structure of sound dendrogram and very easy to identify. Sound dendrogram can be a powerful assistant tool during the process of speech corpora's manual annotation.

  12. EventRiver: visually exploring text collections with temporal references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dongning; Yang, Jing; Krstajic, Milos; Ribarsky, William; Keim, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Many text collections with temporal references, such as news corpora and weblogs, are generated to report and discuss real life events. Thus, event-related tasks, such as detecting real life events that drive the generation of the text documents, tracking event evolutions, and investigating reports and commentaries about events of interest, are important when exploring such text collections. To incorporate and leverage human efforts in conducting such tasks, we propose a novel visual analytics approach named EventRiver. EventRiver integrates event-based automated text analysis and visualization to reveal the events motivating the text generation and the long term stories they construct. On the visualization, users can interactively conduct tasks such as event browsing, tracking, association, and investigation. A working prototype of EventRiver has been implemented for exploring news corpora. A set of case studies, experiments, and a preliminary user test have been conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and efficiency.

  13. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  14. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  15. Text Classification: A Sequential Reading Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dulac-Arnold, Gabriel; Gallinari, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We propose to model the text classification process as a sequential decision process. In this process, an agent learns to classify documents into topics while reading the document sentences sequentially and learns to stop as soon as enough information was read for deciding. The proposed algorithm is based on a modelisation of Text Classification as a Markov Decision Process and learns by using Reinforcement Learning. Experiments on four different classical mono-label corpora show that the proposed approach performs comparably to classical SVM approaches for large training sets, and better for small training sets. In addition, the model automatically adapts its reading process to the quantity of training information provided.

  16. Talk talk, not just small talk. Exploring English contrastive focus reduplication with the help of corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widlitzki Bianca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive focus reduplication (CR is a type of reduplication in English which picks out a prototypical or intensified reading of the reduplicated element and shows contrastive stress on the reduplicant: for instance, speakers may use talk talk to indicate that a ‘real talk’ - as opposed to e.g. ‘just small talk’- took place. The present paper pursues an empirical, corpus-linguistic approach to CR: Based on three mega-corpora of contemporary English, the following aspects in particular are investigated: the importance of the co-text of CR, the possibility of emerging default interpretations for some frequent CRs, and the function(s CR serves in discourse. In addition, it contains the first analysis of the sociolinguistics of the phenomenon, based on a corpus of blogs. It emerges that contrasts and/or synonyms are commonly employed to clarify the meaning of CR - most frequently in the form of the unreduplicated base (not talk, but talk talk or an explanatory phrase (talk talk, by which I mean a serious conversation. CR is most frequent in blogs maintained by women and by young speakers. Its presence in blogs shows that CR is not limited to (fictional representations of spoken dialogue. Though generally rare, it is also found in other genres (such as fiction, news, and even academic prose. Apart from its disambiguating function, CR is also used for creative purposes (as a kind of wordplay and apparently serves to build rapport between interlocutors (or bloggers and readers via reference to common ground.

  17. A token centric part-of-speech tagger for biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Difficulties with part-of-speech (POS) tagging of biomedical text is accessing and annotating appropriate training corpora. These difficulties may result in POS taggers trained on corpora that differ from the tagger's target biomedical text (cross-domain tagging). In such cases where training and target corpora differ tagging accuracy decreases. This paper presents a POS tagger for cross-domain tagging called TcT. TcT estimates a tag's likelihood for a given token by combining token collocation probabilities and the token's tag probabilities calculated using a Naive Bayes classifier. We compared TcT to three POS taggers used in the biomedical domain (mxpost, Brill and TnT). We trained each tagger on a non-biomedical corpus and evaluated it on biomedical corpora. TcT was more accurate in cross-domain tagging than mxpost, Brill and TnT (respective averages 83.9, 81.0, 79.5 and 78.8). Our analysis of tagger performance suggests that lexical differences between corpora have more effect on tagging accuracy than originally considered by previous research work. Biomedical POS tagging algorithms may be modified to improve their cross-domain tagging accuracy without requiring extra training or large training data sets. Future work should reexamine POS tagging methods for biomedical text. This differs from the work to date that has focused on retraining existing POS taggers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Fuzzy Similarity Based Concept Mining Model for Text Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Shalini

    2012-01-01

    Text Classification is a challenging and a red hot field in the current scenario and has great importance in text categorization applications. A lot of research work has been done in this field but there is a need to categorize a collection of text documents into mutually exclusive categories by extracting the concepts or features using supervised learning paradigm and different classification algorithms. In this paper, a new Fuzzy Similarity Based Concept Mining Model (FSCMM) is proposed to classify a set of text documents into pre - defined Category Groups (CG) by providing them training and preparing on the sentence, document and integrated corpora levels along with feature reduction, ambiguity removal on each level to achieve high system performance. Fuzzy Feature Category Similarity Analyzer (FFCSA) is used to analyze each extracted feature of Integrated Corpora Feature Vector (ICFV) with the corresponding categories or classes. This model uses Support Vector Machine Classifier (SVMC) to classify correct...

  19. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

    2014-01-01

    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students, without…

  20. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  1. Combining Language Corpora with Experimental and Computational Approaches for Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, first language acquisition research was a painstaking process of observation, requiring the laborious hand coding of children's linguistic productions, followed by the generation of abstract theoretical proposals for how the developmental process unfolds. Recently, the ability to collect large-scale corpora of children's language…

  2. Functional characterization of an allatotropin receptor expressed in the corpora allata of mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouzova, Marcela; Brockhoff, Anne; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Goodwin, Marianne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    Allatotropin is an insect neuropeptide with pleiotropic actions on a variety of different tissues. In the present work we describe the identification, cloning and functional and molecular characterization of an Aedes aegypti allatotropin receptor (AeATr) and provide a detailed quantitative study of the expression of the AeATr gene in the adult mosquito. Analysis of the tissue distribution of AeATr mRNA in adult female revealed high transcript levels in the nervous system (brain, abdominal, thoracic and ventral ganglia), corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex and ovary. The receptor is also expressed in heart, hindgut and male testis and accessory glands. Separation of the corpora allata (CA) and corpora cardiaca followed by analysis of gene expression in the isolated glands revealed expression of the AeATr primarily in the CA. In the female CA, the AeATr mRNA levels were low in the early pupae, started increasing 6 hours before adult eclosion and reached a maximum 24 hours after female emergence. Blood feeding resulted in a decrease in transcript levels. The pattern of changes of AeATr mRNA resembles the changes in JH biosynthesis. Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader recordings of calcium transients in HEK293 cells expressing the AeATr showed a selective response to A. aegypti allatotropin stimulation in the low nanomolar concentration range. Our studies suggest that the AeATr play a role in the regulation of JH synthesis in mosquitoes. PMID:21839791

  3. Learning in Parallel: Using Parallel Corpora to Enhance Written Language Acquisition at the Beginning Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Brody

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the pedagogical value of incorporating parallel corpora in foreign language education. It explores the development of a Chinese/English parallel corpus designed specifically for pedagogical application. The corpus tool was created to aid language learners in reading comprehension and writing development by making foreign…

  4. Application of Learner Corpora to Second Language Learning and Teaching: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of learner corpora and their application to second language learning and teaching. It is proposed that there are four core components in learner corpus research, namely, corpus linguistics expertise, a good background in linguistic theory, knowledge of SLA theory, and a good understanding of foreign language teaching…

  5. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  6. Using ParaConc to extract bilingual terminology from parallel corpora: A case of English and Ndebele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketiwe Ndhlovu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of African languages into languages of science and technology is dependent on action being taken to promote the use of these languages in specialised fields such as technology, commerce, administration, media, law, science and education among others. One possible way of developing African languages is the compilation of specialised dictionaries (Chabata 2013. This article explores how parallel corpora can be interrogated using a bilingual concordancer (ParaConc to extract bilingual terminology that can be used to create specialised bilingual dictionaries. An English–Ndebele Parallel Corpus was used as a resource and through ParaConc, an alphabetic list was compiled from which headwords and possible translations were sought. These translations provided possible terms for entry in a bilingual dictionary. The frequency feature and ‘hot words’ tool in ParaConc were used to determine the suitability of terms for inclusion in the dictionary and for identifying possible synonyms, respectively. Since parallel corpora are aligned and data are presented in context (Key Word in Context, it was possible to draw examples showing how headwords are used. Using this approach produced results quickly and accurately, whilst minimising the process of translating terms manually. It was noted that the quality of the dictionary is dependent on the quality of the corpus, hence the need for creating a representative and clean corpus needs to be emphasised. Although technology has multiple benefits in dictionary making, the research underscores the importance of collaboration between lexicographers, translators, subject experts and target communities so that representative dictionaries are created.

  7. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  8. Linguistic scope-based and biological event-based speculation and negation annotations in the BioScope and Genia Event corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincze Veronika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of negation and hedging in natural language processing has received much interest recently, especially in the biomedical domain. However, open access corpora annotated for negation and/or speculation are hardly available for training and testing applications, and even if they are, they sometimes follow different design principles. In this paper, the annotation principles of the two largest corpora containing annotation for negation and speculation – BioScope and Genia Event – are compared. BioScope marks linguistic cues and their scopes for negation and hedging while in Genia biological events are marked for uncertainty and/or negation. Results Differences among the annotations of the two corpora are thematically categorized and the frequency of each category is estimated. We found that the largest amount of differences is due to the issue that scopes – which cover text spans – deal with the key events and each argument (including events within events of these events is under the scope as well. In contrast, Genia deals with the modality of events within events independently. Conclusions The analysis of multiple layers of annotation (linguistic scopes and biological events showed that the detection of negation/hedge keywords and their scopes can contribute to determining the modality of key events (denoted by the main predicate. On the other hand, for the detection of the negation and speculation status of events within events, additional syntax-based rules investigating the dependency path between the modality cue and the event cue have to be employed.

  9. Using parallel corpora in contrastive studies: Cross-linguistic contrast of future referring expressions in English and Norwegian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hilde Hasselgard

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual corpora have well been recognised as a valuable resource in contrastive and translation studies. This article investigates the development and use of multilingual corpora with a focus on work done in Scandinavia with the purpose ofshowing how parallel corpora can be useful within different fields of language descrip- tions: lexis, grammar and discourse. It also presents a case study that demonstrates how a parallel corpus can be used in comparing two seemingly equivalent future-referring expressions cross-linguistically, namely the English ' be going to' and the Norwegian ' kommer til a' (‘come to').

  10. Colored-sketch of Text Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomjin Kim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an information visualization method, which transforms text into abstracted visual representations. The proposed color-coding algorithm converts text into a sequence of colored icons that inform users about the distributional patterns of given queries, as well as the structural overview of a document simultaneously. By presenting the compact, but instructive visual abstraction of texts concurrently, users can compare multiple documents intuitively while alleviating the need to reference the underlying text. The system provides interactive navigation tools to support users' decision-making processes - including multi-level viewing, a tree hierarchy recording previous search activities, and suggestive words for refinement of the search scope. An experimental study evaluating this visual approach for delivering search results has been conducted on text corpora in comparison with a traditional information retrieval system. By informing search results to clientele in a perceptive form, the users' performance in obtaining desired information has been improved, while maintaining the accuracy.

  11. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  12. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  13. PARALLEL TEXTS WITHIN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS: NEW DIRECTIONS AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sitchinava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current states of the parallel corpora within the RNC and the updates of the last six years. The parallel corpora with the RNC include the following  bilingual Russian—X   corpora: Armenian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, English, Estonian, French, German, Italian, Latvian, Polish, Spanish, and Ukrainian. Virtually for all these language we have language pairs in both directions of translation. The RNC now includes a multilingual  corpus that consists of nine texts and involve  more than 20 languages, mostly Slavic.  The Russian-French corpus has been developed, since 2012, as a polyvariant corpus with multiple translations of the same text into the same language. Polyvariant  texts are also included also in the multilingual  corpus. Parallel  corpora now include texts of different genres, not only fiction, but also news, technical, scientific, religious and legal texts, viz. all the main subdivisions represented in the main RNC. The discrepancies between the original  text and the translation are now specially marked (arbitrary omission, adding, or change by the translator. Most languages represented in the corpus also have a morphological  tagset and annotation. Some  examples of corpus-based studies of lexicon and grammar are examined in more detail.

  14. Domain adaptation for semantic role labeling of clinical text

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Tang, Buzhou; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective Semantic role labeling (SRL), which extracts a shallow semantic relation representation from different surface textual forms of free text sentences, is important for understanding natural language. Few studies in SRL have been conducted in the medical domain, primarily due to lack of annotated clinical SRL corpora, which are time-consuming and costly to build. The goal of this study is to investigate domain adaptation techniques for clinical SRL leveraging resources built from newsw...

  15. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Turcu; Ian Foster; Svetlozar Nestorov

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.). Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined applicat...

  16. Biological effects of synthetic AKH in Manduca sexta and estimates of the amount of AKH in corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R

    1990-01-01

    Dose-response curves were measured with synthetic Manduca adipokinetic hormone (AKH) for glycogen phosphorylase activation in larvae and for lipid mobilization in adults. Both responses are known hormonal functions in Manduca sexta. In ligated larvae, full activation of glycogen phosphorylase was achieved with 0.1 pmol and half-maximal activation with 0.03-0.04 pmol. Maximal lipid mobilization in adults required 10 pmol and half-maximal mobilization 0.15 to 0.2 pmol, respectively. An estimate of AKH content of corpora cardiaca from M. sexta was gained by comparing the dose-response curves for synthetic Manduca AKH with curves from gland extracts. Corpora cardiaca extracts were also quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography. According to both estimates corpora cardiaca of adults contain 10-20 pmol AKH per pair, while a pair of larval corpora cardiaca contains 0.7-2 pmol.

  17. Developmental changes in the response of the fat body of Manduca sexta to injections of Corpora cardiaca extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R

    1984-04-01

    The Corpora cardiaca of larval and adult Manduca sexta contain glycogen phosphorylase-activating and adipokinetic activity. Depending on the age of the injected animal, injection of Corpora cardiaca extracts induces different responses. In larvae of the 1st and 2nd day of the Vth instar, phosphorylase is activated strongly by injections of Corpora cardiaca extracts, whereas in older animals it is only slightly activated. Mobilization of lipids in response to Corpora cardiaca extract injections is found only in animals injected after the imaginal molt; in younger animals this response is absent. It is argued that this difference in responsiveness may be due to a change in the properties of the target organ fat body.

  18. Aportes materiales y psicoafectivos del negro en el folklore colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Zapata Olivella

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los países latinoamericanos se han conformado por los aportes básicos de las culturas indígena, hispánica y africana. El grado de este mestizaje varía en unos y otros, según la importancia de los grupos étnicos. En Colombia, el equilibrio cultural no siempre corresponde a la mezcla de las razas.

  19. Co-occurrence frequency evaluated with large language corpora boosts semantic priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunellière, Angèle; Perre, Laetitia; Tran, ThiMai; Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, many computational techniques have been developed to analyse the contextual usage of words in large language corpora. The present study examined whether the co-occurrence frequency obtained from large language corpora might boost purely semantic priming effects. Two experiments were conducted: one with conscious semantic priming, the other with subliminal semantic priming. Both experiments contrasted three semantic priming contexts: an unrelated priming context and two related priming contexts with word pairs that are semantically related and that co-occur either frequently or infrequently. In the conscious priming presentation (166-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony, SOA), a semantic priming effect was recorded in both related priming contexts, which was greater with higher co-occurrence frequency. In the subliminal priming presentation (66-ms SOA), no significant priming effect was shown, regardless of the related priming context. These results show that co-occurrence frequency boosts pure semantic priming effects and are discussed with reference to models of semantic network.

  20. Receptors for gonadotrophin and prostaglandin F2 alpha in bovine corpora lutea of early, mid and late luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Estergreen, V L; Carman, F R; Moss, G E

    1979-07-01

    A total of 15 corpora lutea representing early (day 3), mid (day 13) and late luteal phase (day 20 and 21-24) were obtained by ovariectomy on cycling cows. The luteal weights and peripheral plasma progesterone levels just prior to ovariectomy, were consistent with the above luteal phases. The specific binding of [125I]human chorionic gonadotrophin to membranes prepared from corpora lutea was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) for days 13 and 20 than for days 3 and 21-24. The binding in day 21-24 corpora lutea was higher (P less than 0.01) than day 3. Although there was no different either in number or affinity (apparent dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.04 nM) of gonadotrophin receptors in days 13 and 20 corpora lutea, only in the former did the binding correlate well with plasma progesterone levels. The specific binding of [3H]prostaglanding (PG)F2 alpha to the membranes of the same corpora lutea showed a progressive increase (P less than 0.01) from day 3, reached the highest value at a time when corpora lutea were actively regressing (day 20) and the decline (P less than 0.01) by day 21-24. Although a considerable number of PGF2 alpha receptors existed at day 13, the affinity of these same receptors was 203 times lower (Kd = 3458 nM) than the affinity of receptors in day 20 corpora lutea (Kd = 17 nM). In summary, the above results show that gonadotrophin receptors correlate with luteotrophic, whereas PGF2 alpha receptors correlate with luteolytic phases in bovine corpora lutea.

  1. Correction of disproportion of corpora cavernosa as cause of chordee in hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, P M; Gibbons, M D; Gonzales, E T

    1983-12-01

    Correction of chordee is a basic step in hypospadias surgery. In some children with significant chordee, ventral deflection of the shaft will persist after all "chordee tissue" is excised from the surface of the corpora cavernosa. In the flaccid state, this persistent chordee may not be evident but is easily demonstrated with an artificial erection technique. The use of dorsal plication of the tunica albuginea to correct this deformity is emphasized.

  2. Folklorism as part idiostyle works Dnieper Seagull (lexical level)

    OpenAIRE

    Hrystya, O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Individual style — a manifestation of the aggregate of essential features special talent in a particular author or work throughout his work. However, not every author, even professional, has «his» style that is so, for how accurately vhaduvalosya to its authorship. Research prose Dnieper Seagull shows that it is inherent idiostyle, which is the result of hard work over the word conscious.Urgency. Problem linguistic–stylistic analysis of literary text ranks in recent decades a sp...

  3. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  4. Postembryonic proliferation of neuroendocrine cells expressing adipokinetic hormone peptides in the corpora cardiaca of the locust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, S R; O'Shea, M

    1993-08-01

    Neuroendocrine glands that synthesize and secrete peptide hormones regulate the levels of these peptide messengers during development. In this article we describe a mechanism for regulating neuropeptide levels in the corpora cardiaca of the locust Schistocerca gregaria, a neuroendocrine gland structurally analogous to the vertebrate adenohypophysis. A set of five colocalized peptide hormones of the adipokinetic hormone family is synthesized in intrinsic neurosecretory cells in the corpora cardiaca. During postembryonic development there are progressive changes in the absolute and relative levels of these five peptide hormones. We show that the ability of the gland to increase peptide synthesis is due to a 100-fold increase in the number of cells which make up the gland. The gland grows by the addition of new cells derived from symmetrical division of undifferentiated precursor cells within the corpora cardiaca. We show, using double-label immunocytochemistry, that cells born in the glandular lobe mature into cells that express adipokinetic hormone peptides. The pattern of cell birth and peptide expression can account for the dramatic increase in postembryonic peptide levels.

  5. Evidence that locustatachykinin I is involved in release of adipokinetic hormone from locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D R; Passier, P C; Elekes, K; Dircksen, H; Vullings, H G; Cantera, R

    1995-06-27

    The glandular cells of the corpus cardiacum of the locust Locusta migratoria, known to synthesize and release adipokinetic hormones (AKH), are contacted by axons immunoreactive to an antiserum raised against the locust neuropeptide locustatachykinin I (LomTK I). Electron-microscopical immunocytochemistry reveals LomTK immunoreactive axon terminals, containing granular vesicles, in close contact with the glandular cells cells. Release of AKH I from isolated corpora cardiaca of the locust has been monitored in an in vitro system where the amount of AKH I released into the incubation saline is determined by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. We could show that LomTK I induces release of AKH from corpora cardiaca in a dose-dependent manner when tested in a range of 10-200 microM. This is thus the first clear demonstration of a substance inducing release of AKH, correlated with the presence of the substance in fibers innervating the AKH-synthesizing glandular cells, in the insect corpora cardiaca.

  6. Historia y folklore vivos: la influencia de los medios en la cultura participativa

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Barraza, Clara

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo versa sobre la relación existente entre la exposición a productos audiovisuales de carácter histórico o folklórico y su ingluencia en los hábitos y costumbres de su audiencia [EN] This paper is about the existent relationship between being exposed to audiovisual contents of historical and folklorical kind and their influence on the habits of its audience Trabajo de fin de Grado. Grado en Sociología. Curso académico 2015-2016

  7. Tell Tale Increasing Skill: Increasing Indonesian Student Reading Comprehension through Indonesian Folklore

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    Endang Ernawati

    2016-10-01

    library research was applied by selecting the story suitable for primary school students, translating materials, simplifying the reading, and making reading exercise to develop students reading comprehension skills. Reading materials and exercises were focused to the fifth year primary students who have been learning English for more than three years. It can be concluded that the interesting reading materials can be compiled from the original Indonesian folklore entitled The Old Sly Stork to support students achievement in finding the storys values, and students skills in writing based on the reading materials, value, and their daily life experiences.

  8. Level set segmentation of bovine corpora lutea in ex situ ovarian ultrasound images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Gregg P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the viability of level set image segmentation methods for the detection of corpora lutea (corpus luteum, CL boundaries in ultrasonographic ovarian images. It was hypothesized that bovine CL boundaries could be located within 1–2 mm by a level set image segmentation methodology. Methods Level set methods embed a 2D contour in a 3D surface and evolve that surface over time according to an image-dependent speed function. A speed function suitable for segmentation of CL's in ovarian ultrasound images was developed. An initial contour was manually placed and contour evolution was allowed to proceed until the rate of change of the area was sufficiently small. The method was tested on ovarian ultrasonographic images (n = 8 obtained ex situ. A expert in ovarian ultrasound interpretation delineated CL boundaries manually to serve as a "ground truth". Accuracy of the level set segmentation algorithm was determined by comparing semi-automatically determined contours with ground truth contours using the mean absolute difference (MAD, root mean squared difference (RMSD, Hausdorff distance (HD, sensitivity, and specificity metrics. Results and discussion The mean MAD was 0.87 mm (sigma = 0.36 mm, RMSD was 1.1 mm (sigma = 0.47 mm, and HD was 3.4 mm (sigma = 2.0 mm indicating that, on average, boundaries were accurate within 1–2 mm, however, deviations in excess of 3 mm from the ground truth were observed indicating under- or over-expansion of the contour. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 0.814 (sigma = 0.171 and 0.990 (sigma = 0.00786, respectively, indicating that CLs were consistently undersegmented but rarely did the contour interior include pixels that were judged by the human expert not to be part of the CL. It was observed that in localities where gradient magnitudes within the CL were strong due to high contrast speckle, contour expansion stopped too early. Conclusion The

  9. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

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    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  10. The Study on the Development Mode of Folklore Archives Cultural Resources%民俗档案文化资源开发模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛金玲; 赵继臣

    2012-01-01

    Through the determination of concepts like folklore archives, six modes for developing folklore archives cultural resources are discussed in the following. They include holding the folklore cultural exhibition united with library and museum; creating brand of special folk custom art by means of folklore cultural concept; exploring folklore culture village from folklore archives stored in museum; taking advantage of publishing modes of folklore film and art works; adopting the mode of holiday celebration as well as the mode of historical cultural street blocks. This provides some references for the development of folklore cultural resources.%通过对民俗档案等概念的厘定,论述了开发民俗档案文化资源的六种模式:档案馆与图书馆、博物馆联合举办民俗文化展览;借民俗文化概念打造特色民俗艺术品牌;从馆藏民俗档案中发掘民俗文化村;民俗影音、文艺作品发行模式;节庆活动模式;历史文化街区模式。以此为民俗档案文化资源开发提供借鉴依据。

  11. I La Galigo Folklore Illustration on Textile Media

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    Yosepin Sri Ningsih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was an effort in conserving the I La Galigo epic story while at the same time adding value to silk, the famous textile product from South Sulawesi and the origin of I La Galigo. As a work of literature, I La Galigo is categorized as an epic. It is known locally as Sureq Galigo in Bugis. It is divided in a number of episodes or tereng. The most well-known tereng is the one which describes the relationship between Sawerigading and a princess called I We Cudai. From that relationship I La Galigo, the central character of this epic is born. For this project six of the most well-known episodes were selected because of the amount of available supporting data, both theoretical and visual. The selected episodes were translated from their original narrative form into visual language or images. The illustration technique used in this project was STP (Space Time Plane. With this technique every object is drawn from varying viewpoints in one frame, both in space and time. Hand embroidery was added to the painted images. The silk painting can be used as an interior element with value added by the I La Galigo illustrations.

  12. Cognitive “Boy stories”: urban folklore and urban topographies

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    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The culturally cognitive perception of Belgrade’s topographies is considered through its deployment, symbolic use and narrative foundation. As the explanatory material-one football-media incident, the use of certain areas of the city in a spectacleceremonial manner, knowledge and lore of certain elements of the Belgrade topographies and the organization of «the football Belgrade»-were considered. The attitude is taken that the topography of a city is a multifaceted cultural constituent, whose structure of particular meaning, as a part of cultural communication, is determined by the very fact it is an urban space. Physical aspects of spatial-ness are reduced to relationism, i.e. it has a meaning for the cultural communication only when the elements of urban topographies are brought into correlation. Other characteristics of physical spatial-ness are irrelevant for such communication. Meaning relations in which elements of urban topographies exist are formed on the very fact of them being urban, that is, the afore mentioned denotation that is ascribed to space, stems from those cultural features and artifacts that are associated in a given milieu with certain concrete elements of urban topographies.

  13. Folklore in bureaucracy code: Running a music event

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    Krstanović-Lukić Miroslava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A music folk-created piece of work is a construction expressed as a paradigm part of a set in the bureaucracy system and the public arena. Such a work is a mechanical concept, which defines inheritance as a construction of authenticity saturated with elements of folk, national culture. It is also a subject of certain conventions in the system of regulations; namely, it is a part of the administrative code. The usage of the folk created work as a paradigm and legislations is realized through an organizational apparatus that is, it becomes entertainment, a spectacle. This paper analyzes the functioning of the organizational machinery of a folk spectacle, starting with the government authorities, local self-management and the spectacle's administrative committees. To illustrate this phenomenon, the paper presents the development of a trumpet playing festival in Dragačevo. This particular festival establishes a cultural, economic and political order with a clear and defined division of power. The analysis shows that the folk event in question, through its programs and activities, represents a scene and arena of individual and group interests. Organizational interactions are recognized in binary oppositions: sovereignty/dependency official/unofficial, dominancy/ subordination, innovative/inherited common/different, needed/useful, original/copy, one's own/belonging to someone else.

  14. The friends that game together: A folkloric expansion of textual poaching to genre farming for socialization in tabletop role-playing games

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    Michael Robert Underwood

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabletop role-playing games (RPGs are a folkloric form for creating and reaffirming community bonds and performing identity. Gaming is used to communicate and perform cultural capital and identity through fictional narratives, functioning as a form of community building and/or personal expression. With quotations from ethnographic research over the course of 2 years, including interviews with several groups of gamers and participant observation, I examine the ways that players create and affirm social bonds. I return to Michel De Certeau's idea of textual poaching, as adapted by Henry Jenkins, to contrast with it a new concept of genre farming. As both platform for and object of genre farming, RPGs allow players to display cultural competence, create and reaffirm social ties, and seek entertainment in a collaborative fashion.

  15. From Genre Poetics to Structure: Nada Milošević-Đorđević's Contribution to Serbian Structural Folklore Studies

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    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the structural analyses of the composition of several oral literary genres in Serbian literature performed by Prof. Nada Milošević- Đorđević. By analyzing romantic tales, religious tales, tales of fate and sagas, Milošević-Đorđević, a renowned Serbian folklore scholar, has made original contributions to narrative semiotics and syntagmatic analysis. Taking as her starting point the morphology of Vladimir Propp but also of some other semioticians, she revised his narrative scheme, adapting it to the specific characteristics of these literary genres and also proposing an entirely original scheme for religious tales and tales of fate, thus becoming one of the first literary folklorists in Serbia to apply structural analysis.

  16. O Papel das Subsidiárias de Corporações Multinacionais: Um Estudo de Caso na Indústria Brasileira de Refrigerantes

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    Pedro Rocha Lima Massa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Um importante desafio para as empresas que hoje internacionalizam seus negócios é desenvolver um nível de globalização que gere concentrações adequadas das operações locais e globalizadas para a empresa. Em um cenário muito mais incerto e dinâmico que os seguros mercados regionais, o gerenciamento eficaz das subsidiárias e unidades de negócios por parte das matrizes das multinacionais pode criar vantagens competitivas aplicáveis em toda corporação. A partir do estudo de caso de uma subsidiária atuando no mercado brasileiro de refrigerantes, o presente trabalho busca reconhecer a importância estratégica das subsidiárias das corporações multinacionais, conscientizando as empresas brasileiras que internacionalizam seus negócios e as multinacionais que atuam no Brasil, do papel das subsidiárias não apenas como instrumentos para implementação ou adaptação das diretrizes globais da empresa, mas com destaque na formulação de estratégias, na identificação de oportunidades de mercado e na criação de vantagens competitivas.

  17. (Text) Mining the LANDscape: Themes and Trends over 40 years of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2014-01-01

    In commemoration of the journal's 40th anniversary, the co-editor explores themes and trends covered by Landscape and Urban Planning and its parent journals through a qualitative comparison of co-occurrence term maps generated from the text corpora of its abstracts across the four decadal periods of publication.Cluster maps generated from the...

  18. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...

  19. Training text chunkers on a silver standard corpus: Can silver replace gold?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kang (Ning); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To train chunkers in recognizing noun phrases and verb phrases in biomedical text, an annotated corpus is required. The creation of gold standard corpora (GSCs), however, is expensive and time-consuming. GSCs therefore tend to be small and to focus on specific subdomains,

  20. La serie de fotografías de “l’Arxiu d’etnografia i Folklore de Catalunya”

    OpenAIRE

    Losada Fernández, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    El Arxiu d’Etnografia i Folklore de Catalunya (AEFC), como ya se comentaba en el núm. 23 de Enredadera, se creó en noviembre de 1915 por el Dr. Tomàs Carreras i Artau. Una parte muy importante de este archivo es su sección gráfica, compuesta por fotografías, postales, recortes de prensa, literatura de cordel, gozos, etc. Imagen digitalizada en SIMURG del Arxiu d’Etnografia i Folklore de Catalunya: Fiesta profana Hay que señalar que el AEFC fue pionero en el empleo de la fotografía como ...

  1. Learner corpora: the case of the NOSE corpus

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    Ana Díaz-Negrillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the scope of learner corpus research and describes a learner corpus by Spanish university students of English, the NOn-native Spanish corpus of English (NOSE. It presents the corpus data, its annotation and how it can be retrieved and exploited for research purposes in the areas of interlanguage studies and automatic recognition of learner-specific features. It also reviews the various research topics that have been investigated in the corpus.

  2. Text Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  3. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Madeira, Natália C; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos M; Mendes, Paula

    2011-09-05

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.

  4. Folklore as a map of the world: rejecting "home" as a failure of the imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Elaine J

    2011-01-01

    For years, I felt that my negative feelings about "home" were completely justified and that I saw no redemption in the area or the people whom I associated with "home." That is not to say that I do not love my family, but there was never any effort on my part to salvage or imagine whatever could have been viewed as—at the very least—constructive and positive about my "home" or how my home and childhood created the blueprint for my own personal "map of the world." I now believe that my rejection of home is actually a failure of my own imagination. In this article, I explore the ways in which I see folklore as constituting a map of our individual and collective world(s)—a comprehensive, if not always a comprehensible, map of our world, one that is often difficult to discern. I have taken the approach that I need to recover the various aspects of the maps my home offered to me, noting first their existence, then their utility, and finally, by extension, exploring how my personal project has become a way for me to rethink folklore as a kind of reconstituting enterprise.

  5. Eugenic and sexual folklores and the castration of sex offenders in the Netherlands (1938-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Theo

    2008-06-01

    This contribution questions the positive/negative eugenics dichotomy that typifies the historiography on the eugenic movement in the Netherlands and the claim that this movement was mostly marginal because only positive eugenics was pursued. From 1938 to 1968 in the Netherlands, after a decade of debates, 400 sex offenders who had been committed to asylums for the criminally insane were 'voluntarily' and 'therapeutically' castrated. For political reasons debates on castration, meant to create consensus, eliminated any reference to or connotation with eugenics, yet these policies were unthinkable without them. This article shows that thinking about social and sexual problems and their solutions in the 1930s were permeated by eugenic folklore which in turn was informed by sexual folklore. Both eugenic and sexual lore, as common sense, or as ways of knowing, were about individual and collective loss of self control which was referred to with a catch-all phrase: 'hypersexuality'. Although sexual classifications used in diagnosing sex offenders suggested the existence of discrete sexual categories, homosexuality for instance was not seen as a sexual alternative or as an identity but as the extent to which an offender suffered from a form of hypersexuality that threatened the fabric of society.

  6. Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Kuruoz, Ilker

    1994-01-01

    Automatic text tagging is an important component in higher level analysis of text corpora, and its output can be used in many natural language processing applications. In languages like Turkish or Finnish, with agglutinative morphology, morphological disambiguation is a very crucial process in tagging, as the structures of many lexical forms are morphologically ambiguous. This paper describes a POS tagger for Turkish text based on a full-scale two-level specification of Turkish morphology that is based on a lexicon of about 24,000 root words. This is augmented with a multi-word and idiomatic construct recognizer, and most importantly morphological disambiguator based on local neighborhood constraints, heuristics and limited amount of statistical information. The tagger also has functionality for statistics compilation and fine tuning of the morphological analyzer, such as logging erroneous morphological parses, commonly used roots, etc. Preliminary results indicate that the tagger can tag about 98-99\\% of the...

  7. Vantagem competitiva nacional: a perspectiva das subsidiárias de corporações estrangeiras no Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a perspectiva das subsidiárias de corporações multinacionais instaladas no país acerca do ambiente competitivo brasileiro. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa junto a uma amostra de 114 subsidiárias do universo das 1.000 maiores empresas de capital estrangeiro no Brasil. Segundo as empresas estrangeiras que atuam no Brasil, quando o ambiente competitivo brasileiro é comparado com outros locais de atuação das multinacionais, percebe-se que este não favorece a criação e o desenvolvimento de inovações e vantagens competitivas, embora apresente um enorme potencial a ser desenvolvido. Adicionalmente, o ambiente competitivo favorece de forma muito tímida a inserção das subsidiárias na formação e participação em redes de negócios no Brasil. Por fim, segundo as empresas pesquisadas, o governo brasileiro não é pró-ativo no apoio aos investimentos e crescimento industrial estrangeiro e credita pouco respeito e reconhecimento ao papel das subsidiárias na economia nacional. Há desafios relevantes que dependem de iniciativas governamentais e das empresas de capital estrangeiro instaladas no país para serem superados. Palavras-chave: corporações multinacionais; papel das subsidiárias; contexto competitivo. Abstract This article analyzes the perspective of the subsidiaries of multinationals corporations concerning the Brazilian competitive environment. For this, a research was carried on in a sample of 114 subsidiaries of the 1.000 largest foreign companies in Brazil. According to the foreign companies in Brazil, when compared to other countries, the Brazilian competitive environment do not favors the creation and development of innovations and competitive advantages, although expresses an important potential for that. In the same way, the competitive environment favors in a very shy way the insertion of the foreign firms in extern networks in Brazil. Finally, according to theses firms, the Brazilian

  8. Using Bilingual Parallel Corpora in Translation Memory Systems

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    Hossein Keshtkar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic word alignment techniques commonly used in Translation Memory systems tend basically to work at single word level where there is a one to one correspondence between words in subsequences of the two languages. This, results in not being able to fully use subsentential repetitions like clauses, phrases and expressions. In this paper, using spaces between words, a search method named "space-based reduction search" is introduced. The main goal is to maximize the use of parallel corpus resources. We want to show that this search method can significantly enhance the chance of finding matches for subsequences of input sentences; hence applicable in a Sub-Sentential Translation Memory (SSTM system without running automatic alignment tools. Keywords: Sub-Sentential Translation Memory, Parallel corpus, Alignment

  9. Antidiuretic effects of a factor in brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata extract on fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Audsley, N; Schooley, D A

    2000-02-01

    Extracts of the brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata (Br/CC/CA) complex of Manduca sexta larvae elicit an antidiuretic effect, measured by an increase in fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of larval M. sexta. Separation of the extract by reversed-phase liquid chromatography gave two fractions with antidiuretic effects. The more potent of these two factors was further characterized for its effects on the cryptonephric complex. Its antidiuretic effect is not inhibited by bumetanide, a drug that inhibits M. sexta diuretic hormone (Mas-DH)-stimulated fluid reabsorption. These data indicate that the mechanism of the antidiuretic effect of the factor is different from that of Mas-DH on the cryptonephric complex. The basal reabsorption of the cryptonephric complex is blocked when treated on the lumen side with bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of the H(+)-ATPase, or with amiloride, an inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) antiporter. However, the antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption is not affected by either bafilomycin A(1) or amiloride. The increase in reabsorption triggered by the semi-purified factor can be inhibited by Cl(-) channel blockers or by removing Cl(-) from the lumen side of the cryptonephric complex. It appears that this factor activates a Cl(-) pump associated with the cryptonephric complex. Forskolin mimics the effect of this factor on fluid reabsorption, and the effect of forskolin is not inhibited by bumetanide. A selective and potent inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, also inhibits antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption. Addition of the factor to cryptonephric complexes maintained in vitro caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels extracted from these tissues compared with values for controls. These data suggest that the antidiuretic effect of the factor in Br/CC/CA extract is mediated by cyclic AMP.

  10. Analysis of peptides in the brain and corpora cardiaca-corpora allata of the honey bee, Apis mellifera using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    The neuropeptide profiles and diversity of the brain and retrocerebral organs (corpora cardiaca-corpora allata; CC-CA) of adult workers of the honey bee Apis mellifera carnica (dark European strain) were investigated using a combination of HPLC and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with post-source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation. Using evidence from genomic sources, including BLAST searches of the honey bee genome, comparisons with other species and de novo sequencing by PSD and CID fragmentation, a total of 13 mass ions could be assigned to peptides predicted from the A. mellifera genomic database. Peptides positively identified were A. mellifera tachykinin-related peptides 3 and 4 (APMGFQGMRa; APMGFYGTRa) and leucomyosuppressin (pEDVDHVFLRFa). Peptides tentatively identified were A. mellifera tachykinin-related peptides 2 and 5 (ALMGFQGVRa; ARMGFHGMRa), A. mellifera allatostatins 2, 3 and 4 (GRDYSFGLa; RQYSFGLa; GRQPYSFGLa), A1-SIFamide (AYRKPPFNGSIFa), Q1-leucomyosuppressin (QDVDHVFLRFa) and A. mellifera pyrokinins PK 1, PK 2 and Q1-PK 2 (TSQDITSGMWFGPRLa; pEITQFTPRLa; QITQFTPRLa). Allatostatins, tachykinin-related peptides and A1-SIFamide were not detected in CC-CA extract, which appears to contain predominantly leucomyosuppressin, Q1-leucomyosuppressin, PK 1, PK 2, Q1-PK 2 and some unidentified masses. No ion signal was detected that would correspond to the hypertrehalosaemic peptide (=Manse-AKH), which has been isolated from the Italian race of the honey bee (A. mellifera ligustica), but not from A. mellifera carnica.

  11. A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Selected Ethnic and Racial Terminology Present in Assorted Public English Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pietraszewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of the article is to analyse large collections of linguistic data in order to unveil language patterns pointing to the pervasive racist sentiments. Lexical choices made by speakers are assumed to reflect their attitudes to certain minority groups. Since languages reflect ideas present in a society, it is possible to find examples of racial and ethnic prejudices expressed either overtly with ethnophaulisms or more inconspicuously in certain lexical choices. This study is concerned with discriminatory practices in the form of racist and ethnic slurs as well as the most frequent collocates pointing to negative stereotypes of selected ethnic minorities. The search for biased language was conducted in large British and American English corpora, including Internet treated as corpus. The author attempts to present how the visual and cultural differences as well as the portrayal of particular minorities in media may influence language pertaining to ethnic groups. The results indicate that ethnic stereotypes are still reproduced in both British and American English. Prejudiced language appears to be associated with both visibility and socio-economic status of a particular group in a certain country.

  12. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Painer

    Full Text Available Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  13. Using language corpora in initial teacher education: pedagogic issues and practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Anne; Farr, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    peer-reviewed Recent years have seen a vast increase in the amount of materials such as dictionaries and grammars which are ‘corpus-based’ and it is difficult to dispute the contribution of corpus linguistics to English language description. There have also been many developments in the use of corpora in the classroom in data-driven learning (Johns 1991). However, this rapid development in new technology has not been matched in teacher education provision. This paper aims to make a case fo...

  14. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching computer corpora for language learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Alex

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper outlines how corpora (in printed, electronic or multi-modal form) can be used in language learning, an area often referred to as "data-driven learning" or DDL (Johns 1991). The alleged advantages are numerous, but are in need of empirical support which is frequently claimed to be lacking in the field. However, over 80 studies have so far attempted to evaluate some aspect of corpus use by non-native speakers (Boulton 2010): these are briefly reviewed as a who...

  15. Opinion Mining in Latvian Text Using Semantic Polarity Analysis and Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatis Špats

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate approaches for opinion mining in Latvian text. Authors have applied, combined and extended results of several previous studies and public resources to perform opinion mining in Latvian text using two approaches, namely, semantic polarity analysis and machine learning. One of the most significant constraints that make application of opinion mining for written content classification in Latvian text challenging is the limited publicly available text corpora for classifier training. We have joined several sources and created a publically available extended lexicon. Our results are comparable to or outperform current achievements in opinion mining in Latvian. Experiments show that lexicon-based methods provide more accurate opinion mining than the application of Naive Bayes machine learning classifier on Latvian tweets. Methods used during this study could be further extended using human annotators, unsupervised machine learning and bootstrapping to create larger corpora of classified text.

  16. Structure elucidation and biological activity of an unusual adipokinetic hormone from corpora cardiaca of the butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllisch, G V; Lorenz, M W; Kellner, R; Verhaert, P D; Hoffmann, K H

    2000-09-01

    A structurally unusual member of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone peptide family was isolated from corpora cardiaca of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui. Its primary structure was assigned by Edman degradation and nano-electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as pQLTFTSSWGGK (Vac-AKH). Vac-AKH represents the first 11mer and the first nonamidated peptide in this family. The peptide shows significant adipokinetic activity in adult specimens of V. cardui. Injection of 10 pmol of synthetic Vac-AKH into 4-day-old decapitated males resulted in an approximately 150% increase of hemolymph lipids after 90 min. Half maximal adipokinetic activity was achieved with about 0. 1 pmol of Vac-AKH. During a 2-h incubation of corpora cardiaca/corpora allata complexes in medium containing 50 mM KCl, significant amounts of Vac-AKH were released from the glands.

  17. Suicide among animals: clues from folklore that may prevent suicidal behaviour in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Knowing the most likely reasons for suicide might increase the chances to identify the early signs of suicide. Folkloric tales on suicide among animals are a possible source of such information, since people probably explain animal suicide using the same reasons they would apply to their kin. Modern naturalistic studies ave found little evidence of self-harming conduct among nonhuman species. Nevertheless, mythological accounts often report suicidal behaviour among animals. Claudius Aelian's De natura animalium, a classic in its genre, written in the 2nd century AD, reports 21 cases of suicide among animals. In Aelian's tales, the severing of social ties emerges as an important motive for suicide, together with incest and rage caused by adultery. Paying attention to the mechanisms leading to suicide described in ancient mythology may help us understand unusual and uncommon motives for suicide and the reasons people feel suicidal.

  18. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin P; Priston, Nancy E C

    2010-09-01

    The island of Sulawesi is an ecologically diverse and anthropogenically complex region in the Indonesian archipelago; it is home to multiple macaque species and a key locus of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Here, we review the ethnoprimatology of Sulawesi by exploring two primary domains of the human-macaque interface: overlapping resource use and cultural perceptions of macaques. Crop raiding is the primary form of overlapping resource use. While the raiding of cacao plantations predominates in Central and South Sulawesi, subsistence crops (e.g., sweet potato and maize) are most vulnerable on Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. Despite this overlap levels of conflict are generally low, with farmers showing considerable tolerance. This tolerance can be explained by positive perceptions of the macaques despite their crop raiding behavior, and the finding that in some areas macaques figure prominently in local folklore, hence affording them protection. These findings provide some hope for the future management and conservation of these endemic macaques.

  19. Confessions of a Wannabe (American Folklore Society Presidential Invited Plenary Address, October 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a written rendering of a plenary address delivered at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Folklore Society. Drawing on materials from his forthcoming book Confessions of a Wannabe, the author provides a personal account of the deeply emotional sense of responsibility, obligation, and reciprocity involved in long-term ethnographic research among Native American communities, particularly the Omaha and Pawnee tribes of Nebraska. The author details the ways in which personal relations with the people and communities he has observed have shaped his personal and professional life, and he calls into question the ideal of purportedly neutral or distanced ethnography. Details are provided of the author's experiences in converting his farm into an appropriate reburial site for repatriated Pawnee remains recovered under the aegis of the Native American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act (NAGPRA).

  20. Breathe New Life into English Teaching:A Book Review of Using Corpo-ra in the Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐磊; 江晓敏

    2013-01-01

    The present article provides a critical review of Randi Reppen’s impressing book Using Corpora in the Language Class⁃room. It’s argued that Randi Reppen’s book, despite a few slight flaws, has a strong practical orientation and is a laudable effort to make English language teachers to realize the importance and practicality of bringing corpora into classroom in digital age. The book is particularly worthy of reading for those language teachers (especially beginner teachers) who want to breathe new life into their English teaching.

  1. Cultura do silêncio e razão cínica das corporações na primavera brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Giovanni David Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ensaio que aborda a ausência das corporações empresariais no debate público sobre as manifestações e movimentos de protestos que têm ocorrido no Brasil nos últimos meses. O pressuposto analítico assumido no artigo é que a não participação empresarial no debate reproduz a cultura do silêncio e representa a adoção de uma razão cínica por parte de agentes de mercado diante de fenômenos sociais adversos, em relação aos quais possuem responsabilidade parcial ou integral.

  2. Adapting computational text analysis to social science (and vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul DiMaggio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists and computer scientist are divided by small differences in perspective and not by any significant disciplinary divide. In the field of text analysis, several such differences are noted: social scientists often use unsupervised models to explore corpora, whereas many computer scientists employ supervised models to train data; social scientists hold to more conventional causal notions than do most computer scientists, and often favor intense exploitation of existing algorithms, whereas computer scientists focus more on developing new models; and computer scientists tend to trust human judgment more than social scientists do. These differences have implications that potentially can improve the practice of social science.

  3. ONTOGRABBING: Extracting Information from Texts Using Generative Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer; Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni; Jensen, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    for producing recursively shaped terms representing the ontological content (ontological semantics) of NL noun phrases and other phrases. We focus here on achieving a robust, often only partial, ontology-driven parsing of and ascription of semantics to a sentence in the text corpus. The aim of the ontological...... analysis is primarily to identify paraphrases, thereby achieving a search functionality beyond mere keyword search with synsets. We further envisage use of the generative ontology as a phrase-based rather than word-based browser into text corpora....

  4. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  5. Computational methods to extract meaning from text and advance theories of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have made great advances in the area of computational methods for extracting meaning from text. This research has to a large extent been spurred by the development of latent semantic analysis (LSA), a method for extracting and representing the meaning of words using statistical computations applied to large corpora of text. Since the advent of LSA, researchers have developed and tested alternative statistical methods designed to detect and analyze meaning in text corpora. This research exemplifies how statistical models of semantics play an important role in our understanding of cognition and contribute to the field of cognitive science. Importantly, these models afford large-scale representations of human knowledge and allow researchers to explore various questions regarding knowledge, discourse processing, text comprehension, and language. This topic includes the latest progress by the leading researchers in the endeavor to go beyond LSA.

  6. The IMPACT project Polish Ground-Truth texts as a Djvu corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz S. Bień

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The IMPACT project Polish Ground-Truth texts as a Djvu corpus The purpose of the paper is twofold. First, to describe the already implemented idea of DjVu corpora, i.e. corpora which consist of both scanned images and a transcription of the texts with the words associated with their occurrences in the scans. Secondly, to present a case study of a corpus consisting of almost 5 000 pages of Polish historical texts dating from 1570 to 1756 (it is practically the very first corpus of historical Polish. The tools described have universal character and are freely available under the GNU GPL license, hence they can be used also for other purposes.

  7. Análisis de la importancia de la inclusión del folklore y la tradición en la escuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martín, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    El folklore es el acervo cultural de un pueblo, es la mejor forma de acercarnos a nosotros mismos, a nuestra cultura, nuestras costumbres, nuestra manera de pensar y en definitiva a nuestras raíces. Cuando hablamos de folklore, en nuestra mente aparecen infinidad de recuerdos de canciones, juegos, bailes, refranes, leyendas que nos hacen contactar con los perfiles de nuestros ancestros y con nuestra manera inconsciente y primaria de comprender las cosas. Con esta propuesta didáctica se pr...

  8. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    نداسادات IRAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq

  9. A Formal Framework on the Semantics of Regulatory Relations and Their Presence as Verbs in Biomedical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine

    2009-01-01

    on the logical properties of positive and negative regulations, both as formal relations and the frequency of their usage as verbs in texts. The paper discusses whether there exists a weak transitivity-like property for the relations. Our corpora consist of biomedical patents, Medline abstracts and the British...

  10. Stretched Verb Collocations with "Give": Their Use and Translation into Spanish Using the BNC and CREA Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Plaza, Silvia; de Gregorio-Godeo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of on-going research, this paper explores the pedagogical implications of contrastive analyses of multiword units in English and Spanish based on electronic corpora as a CALL resource. The main tenets of collocations from a contrastive perspective--and the points of contact and departure between both languages--are discussed…

  11. The Effect of the Integration of Corpora in Reading Comprehension Classrooms on English as a Foreign Language Learners' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    This study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effect of the integration of corpora in general English courses on the students' vocabulary development. To enhance the learners' lexical repertoire and thereby improve their reading comprehension, an online corpus-based approach was integrated into 42 hours of…

  12. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  13. Corpora amylacea deposition in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A new role for an old gene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is the most common medically refractory epilepsy syndrome in adults, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the most frequently encountered lesion in patients with MTLE. Premature accumulation of corpora amylacea (CoA, which plays an important role in the sequestration of toxic cellular metabolites, is found in the hippocampus of 50-60% of the patients who undergo surgery for medically refractory MTLE-HS. However, the etiopathogenesis and clinical importance of this phenomenon are still uncertain. The ABCB1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp plays a prominent role as an antiapoptotic factor in addition to its efflux transporter function. ABCB1 polymorphism has been found to be associated with downregulation of P-gp expression. We hypothesized that a similar polymorphism will be found in patients with CoA deposition, as the polymorphism predisposes the hippocampal neuronal and glial cells to seizure-induced excitotoxic damage and CoA formation ensues as a buffer response. Materials and Methods: We compared five single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene Ex06+139C/T (rs1202168, Ex 12 C1236T (rs1128503, Ex 17-76T/A (rs1922242, Ex 21 G2677T/A (rs2032582, Ex26 C3435T (rs1045642 among 46 MTLE-HS patients of south Indian ancestry with and without CoA accumulation. Results: We found that subjects carrying the Ex-76T/A polymorphism (TA genotype had a five-times higher risk of developing CoA accumulation than subjects without this genotype (Odds ratio 5.0, 95% confidence intervals 1.34-18.55; P = 0.016. Conclusion: We speculate that rs1922242 polymorphism results in the downregulation of P-gp function, which predisposes the hippocampal cells to seizure-induced apoptosis, and CoA gets accumulated as a buffer response.

  14. Specific disruption of Tsc1 in ovarian granulosa cells promotes ovulation and causes progressive accumulation of corpora lutea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1 is a tumor suppressor negatively regulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. It is reported that mice lacking Tsc1 gene in oocytes show depletion of primordial follicles, resulting in premature ovarian failure and subsequent infertility. A recent study indicated that deletion of Tsc1 in somatic cells of the reproductive tract caused infertility of female mice. However, it is not known whether specific disruption of Tsc1 in granulosa cells influences the reproductive activity of female mice. To clarify this problem, we mated Tsc1(flox/flox mice with transgenic mice strain expressing cyp19-cre which exclusively expresses in granulosa cells of the ovary. Our results demonstrated that Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant mice were fertile, ovulating more oocytes and giving birth to more pups than control Tsc1(flox/flox mice. Progressive accumulation of corpora lutea occurred in the Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant mice with advanced age. These phenotypes could be explained by the elevated activity of mTORC1, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of rpS6, a substrate of S6 in the Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant granulosa cells. In addition, rapamycin, a specific mTORC1 inhibitor, effectively rescued the phenotype caused by increased mTORC1 activity in the Tsc1(cko ovaries. Our data suggest that conditional knockout of Tsc1 in granulosa cells promotes reproductive activity in mice.

  15. A Fuzzy Similarity Based Concept Mining Model for Text Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Puri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Text Classification is a challenging and a red hot field in the current scenario and has great importance in text categorization applications. A lot of research work has been done in this field but there is a need to categorize a collection of text documents into mutually exclusive categories by extracting the concepts or features using supervised learning paradigm and different classification algorithms. In this paper, a new Fuzzy Similarity Based Concept Mining Model (FSCMM is proposed to classify a set of text documents into pre - defined Category Groups (CG by providing them training and preparing on the sentence, document and integrated corpora levels along with feature reduction, ambiguity removal on each level to achieve high system performance. Fuzzy Feature Category Similarity Analyzer (FFCSA is used to analyze each extracted feature of Integrated Corpora Feature Vector (ICFV with the corresponding categories or classes. This model uses Support Vector Machine Classifier (SVMC to classify correctly the training data patterns into two groups; i. e., + 1 and – 1, thereby producing accurate and correct results. The proposed model works efficiently and effectively with great performance and high - accuracy results.

  16. The Heritage of Soviet Paternalism in the Belarusian Countryside: The Moralization and Folklorization of the Social World

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan Hervouet; Alexander Kurilo

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve results in the agricultural sector, the Belarusian authorities have adopted different types of policies—which can be qualified as “paternalistic”—aiming to reform the behaviours of individuals. This article documents the way paternalist practices targeting Belarusian rural areas are not only a heritage from the Soviet past but also introduce forms of innovation, folklorization and nationalization of this Soviet legacy. The article is based on ethnographic evidence (observa...

  17. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bretonnel Cohen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  18. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S

    2009-01-01

    gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin...... alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan were present in the follicular basal lamina of all developmental stages. Collagen type XVIII was only found in basal lamina of primordial, primary and some preantral follicles, whereas laminin alpha2 was only detected in some preantral...... and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal...

  19. Identification of a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide from the corpora cardiaca of locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynen, Elke; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Baggerman, Geert; Van Doorn, Jan; Van Der Horst, Dick; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2003-08-01

    A mass spectrometric study of the peptidome of the neurohemal part of the corpora cardiaca of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria shows that it contains several unknown peptides. We were able to identify the sequence of one of these peptides as pQSDLFLLSPK. This sequence is identical to the part of the Locusta insulin-related peptide (IRP) precursor that is situated between the signal peptide and the B-chain. We designated this peptide as IRP copeptide. This IRP copeptide is also present in the pars intercerebralis, which is likely to be the site of synthesis. It is identical in both L. migratoria and S. gregaria. It shows no effect on the hemolymph lipid concentration in vivo or muscle contraction in vitro. The IRP copeptide is able to cause a decreased phosphorylase activity in locust fat body in vitro, opposite to the effect of the adipokinetic hormones and therefore possibly represents a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide.

  20. Word Sense Disambiguation Using English-Spanish Aligned Phrases over Comparable Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Amoros, David

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a WSD experiment based on bilingual English-Spanish comparable corpora in which individual noun phrases have been identified and aligned with their respective counterparts in the other language. The evaluation of the experiment has been carried out against SemCor. We show that, with the alignment algorithm employed, potential precision is high (74.3%), however the coverage of the method is low (2.7%), due to alignments being far less frequent than we expected. Contrary to our intuition, precision does not rise consistently with the number of alignments. The coverage is low due to several factors; there are important domain differences, and English and Spanish are too close languages for this approach to be able to discriminate efficiently between senses, rendering it unsuitable for WSD, although the method may prove more productive in machine translation.

  1. Inhibin mRNA in Human Corpora Lutea during the Menstrual Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志达; 沈卫雄; 王寒正; 任佩锋; 张永莲; 龚岳亭

    1994-01-01

    The steady state of mRNAs for the α-and βA-subunits of inhibin was investigated in human corpora lutea(CL) during the menstrual cycle by Northern blot analysis with more sensitive cRNA probes. It revealed α 1.6kb mRNA for a subunit and 6.0,4.0, 2.8 and 1.8kb transcripts for βA subunit, Both of α-and βA inhibin mRNAs were detectable in CLs during early, mid and late luteal phases, but not in retrogressive CL after day-27 of the cycle or in tissues of ovarian stroma. An overall profile of the

  2. The European Circulation of Nordic Texts in the Romantic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2017-01-01

    , there was also a remarkable sense of common aim and purpose in the reception history as it developed during the Romantic period. This was because European scholars and writers had come to see medieval Nordic texts as epitomizing the manners and literature of a common Germanic past. In particular, Old Norse texts......From the 1750s until the 1840s, the interest in Icelandic manuscripts of mythology and heroic sagas, as well as various forms of Nordic folklore, entered a new phase. One of the central reasons for this was an emergent attention to vernacular, national, and even primitive literature associated...... fitted into a new Romantic emphasis on the primitive and imaginative resources of literature. There are three interrelated areas in which Nordic texts made an impact. The first of these was in the field of antiquarian studies. Scholars had taken an interest in the texts and culture of the Nordic past...

  3. A Survey of Unstructured Text Summarization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Elfayoumy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the explosive amounts of text data being created and organizations increased desire to leverage their data corpora, especially with the availability of Big Data platforms, there is not usually enough time to read and understand each document and make decisions based on document contents. Hence, there is a great demand for summarizing text documents to provide a representative substitute for the original documents. By improving summarizing techniques, precision of document retrieval through search queries against summarized documents is expected to improve in comparison to querying against the full spectrum of original documents. Several generic text summarization algorithms have been developed, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, some algorithms are particularly good for summarizing short documents but not for long ones. Others perform well in identifying and summarizing single-topic documents but their precision degrades sharply with multi-topic documents. In this article we present a survey of the literature in text summarization. We also surveyed some of the most common evaluation methods for the quality of automated text summarization techniques. Last, we identified some of the challenging problems that are still open, in particular the need for a universal approach that yields good results for mixed types of documents.

  4. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  5. Overview of ethno-folkloric burns in the Republic of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritar, A; Brčić, A; Drnovšek, F; Malvasio, V

    2016-03-31

    The article describes typical folkloric- and ethnographic-related burns/scalds in Slovenia. All of the mentioned burns/scalds derive from the life of a nation, and are primarily a result of specific customs, traditions and activities carried out in a rural environment. Prolonged periods of lying on a hot tiled wood burner results in deep contact burns. The preparation work for pig slaughtering ('koline') is dangerous due to the large quantities of boiling water required for the slaughter process and meat production technology. Distilling spirits in an improvised domestic setting is another cause of burns/scalds, as the production of spirits is carried out in several stages with a high risk of burn trauma in the event of negligence. These types of burns/scalds occur in rural farming areas. Such injuries are most often ignored and patients, children excepted, do not seek medical help until later, after they have completed their activity. Due to aggressive thermal agents, these are deep burns that often require specialist surgical care with long-term treatment. Results are evaluated on the basis of a tenyear statistical and clinical experience. Incidence of the aforementioned burns is considerably lower today than it was in the past due to national prevention measures and new European legislation on energy and agriculture. In the future, we expect these distinctive burns/scalds to become a rarity.

  6. Anticancer activity of five forest crops used in African folklore: antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Engel-Lutz, Nadja; Ahomafor, Joy; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Nebe, Babara; Langer, Peter

    2014-02-26

    Acalypha wilkesiana, Caesalpinia bonduc, Jatropha multifida, Momordica charantia and Picralima nitida used in African folklore for treating cancer were investigated. All extracts except J. multifida resulted in no significant alteration in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in MCF-7 and BT-20. The J. multifilda (JMR-Ch) caused cell cycle arrest at G1 checkpoint and apoptosis in MCF-7. Slight changes in the integrin expression of MCF-7 after treatment with 1 and 10 μg/mL of JMR-Ch were observed. Fluorescence-activated confocal microscopy shows changes in cell morphology and β1 integrin localisation within MCF-7 cells after exposure to 10 and 25 μg/mL of JMR-Ch. JMR-Ch (1 μg/mL) treatment resulted in time-dependent decrease in cell acidification and respiration in MCF-7 cells and a time-dependent decrease in BT-20 cell respiration, while in MCF-10A, there was an enhancement of acidification. These results revealed the probable application of JMR-Ch in cancer therapy.

  7. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  8. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials.

  9. Coh-metrix: analysis of text on cohesion and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S; Louwerse, Max M; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2004-05-01

    Advances in computational linguistics and discourse processing have made it possible to automate many language- and text-processing mechanisms. We have developed a computer tool called Coh-Metrix, which analyzes texts on over 200 measures of cohesion, language, and readability. Its modules use lexicons, part-of-speech classifiers, syntactic parsers, templates, corpora, latent semantic analysis, and other components that are widely used in computational linguistics. After the user enters an English text, CohMetrix returns measures requested by the user. In addition, a facility allows the user to store the results of these analyses in data files (such as Text, Excel, and SPSS). Standard text readability formulas scale texts on difficulty by relying on word length and sentence length, whereas Coh-Metrix is sensitive to cohesion relations, world knowledge, and language and discourse characteristics.

  10. If only Derrida missed that flight... About the assessment of the "academic achievements" of the so-called "American Anthropology" by Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account recent critiques of "underdevelopment", "positivism", "methodological backwardness" and other failings attributed to socalled "American Anthropology" by some of the authors from the Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore, I analyse the context in which colleagues and students may be tempted to explain common sense political connection between polyphone ethnography, neo-romanticism and nationalism as counter-intuitive history of the discipline. I already pointed that the important transformative differences in the attitudes towards structuralism between European anthropologists, especially Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore and so called "American Anthropology", are the consequence of a pure coincidence – the fact that French structuralism and French poststructuralism were launched simultaneously at the American interdisciplinary intellectual scene ("Theory" at the same conference. This ironic concurrence would not be much more than one entertaining episode for students, historians of anthropology and historians of ideas, if there were no attempts (more and more frequent and increasingly fluently articulated to compare different intellectual traditions as they were elements of the same unilineal evolution of the discipline. Belgrade Structural-semiotic School (further called only SS and especially its spiritus movens and most prominent representative Prof. Kovačević started in recent years to criticise some "American Anthropology" measuring its academic "achievement" (the author’s term in comparative perspective and taking as an analytical unit uncritically generalized traditions marked with a single term of "postmodern anthropology" on the one hand, and "anthropology" on the other. Belgrade SS School did develop globally original, although badly promoted and never fully used, battery for the synchronic analysis of the folklore phenomena, but this was done only after

  11. Text mixing shapes the anatomy of rank-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-05-01

    Natural languages are full of rules and exceptions. One of the most famous quantitative rules is Zipf's law, which states that the frequency of occurrence of a word is approximately inversely proportional to its rank. Though this "law" of ranks has been found to hold across disparate texts and forms of data, analyses of increasingly large corpora since the late 1990s have revealed the existence of two scaling regimes. These regimes have thus far been explained by a hypothesis suggesting a separability of languages into core and noncore lexica. Here we present and defend an alternative hypothesis that the two scaling regimes result from the act of aggregating texts. We observe that text mixing leads to an effective decay of word introduction, which we show provides accurate predictions of the location and severity of breaks in scaling. Upon examining large corpora from 10 languages in the Project Gutenberg eBooks collection, we find emphatic empirical support for the universality of our claim.

  12. Lexical bundles in an advanced INTOCSU writing class and engineering texts: A functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquraishi, Mohammed Abdulrahman

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the functions of lexical bundles in two corpora: a corpus of engineering academic texts and a corpus of IEP advanced writing class texts. This study is concerned with the nature of formulaic language in Pathway IEPs and engineering texts, and whether those types of texts show similar or distinctive formulaic functions. Moreover, the study looked into lexical bundles found in an engineering 1.26 million-word corpus and an ESL 65000-word corpus using a concordancing program. The study then analyzed the functions of those lexical bundles and compared them statistically using chi-square tests. Additionally, the results of this investigation showed 236 unique frequent lexical bundles in the engineering corpus and 37 bundles in the pathway corpus. Also, the study identified several differences between the density and functions of lexical bundles in the two corpora. These differences were evident in the distribution of functions of lexical bundles and the minimal overlap of lexical bundles found in the two corpora. The results of this study call for more attention to formulaic language at ESP and EAP programs.

  13. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-08-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and (D-Ala6,Des-Gly10)GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or (3H)inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism.

  14. Ilocuções comissivas em dicionários híbridos italiano>português-brasileiro: proposta de dicionarização a partir do uso de corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Railo Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é expor os resultados de um projeto de mestrado desenvolvido entre 2012-2015 cuja proposta fora a de sugerir um modo de inserção, em dicionários híbridos italiano>português-brasileiro, de informações acerca da dimensão ilocucionária de ambas as línguas, a partir de pesquisa feita em corpora eletrônicos. O texto foi assim estruturado: apresentação dos pressupostos teóricos; dos critérios adotados para investigação de ilocuções em corpora (e resultados obtidos; da sugestão de inserção de ilocuções em dicionários híbridos italiano>português-brasileiro; da análise lógico-conceitual que a justifica. Justifica-se a pesquisa na medida em que são poucos os estudos que se debruçaram sobre a presença e/ ou inclusão de informações ilocucionárias em dicionários híbridos. A proposta final foi a de inserir: no interior dos verbetes, marcas de uso referentes às classes de ilocução e de remissivas que conduzam o leitor a uma seção externa à nomenclatura; como material externo à nomenclatura, uma seção que contenha explicações referentes às classes de ilocuções, lista com suas respectivas espécies dispostas segundo frequência em corpora, e exemplos de uso retirados dos corpora. Concluiu-se que a inserção de tais informações podem ser de utilidade a estudantes brasileiros que pretendam (reconhecer tal aspecto pragmático da língua italiana.

  15. Sleep Paralysis in Brazilian Folklore and Other Cultures: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, José F. R.; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a dissociative state that occurs mainly during awakening. SP is characterized by altered motor, perceptual, emotional and cognitive functions, such as inability to perform voluntary movements, visual hallucinations, feelings of chest pressure, delusions about a frightening presence and, in some cases, fear of impending death. Most people experience SP rarely, but typically when sleeping in supine position; however, SP is considered a disease (parasomnia) when recurrent and/or associated to emotional burden. Interestingly, throughout human history, different peoples interpreted SP under a supernatural view. For example, Canadian Eskimos attribute SP to spells of shamans, who hinder the ability to move, and provoke hallucinations of a shapeless presence. In the Japanese tradition, SP is due to a vengeful spirit who suffocates his enemies while sleeping. In Nigerian culture, a female demon attacks during dreaming and provokes paralysis. A modern manifestation of SP is the report of “alien abductions”, experienced as inability to move during awakening associated with visual hallucinations of aliens. In all, SP is a significant example of how a specific biological phenomenon can be interpreted and shaped by different cultural contexts. In order to further explore the ethnopsychology of SP, in this review we present the “Pisadeira”, a character of Brazilian folklore originated in the country’s Southeast, but also found in other regions with variant names. Pisadeira is described as a crone with long fingernails who lurks on roofs at night and tramples on the chest of those who sleep on a full stomach with the belly up. This legend is mentioned in many anthropological accounts; however, we found no comprehensive reference on the Pisadeira from the perspective of sleep science. Here, we aim to fill this gap. We first review the neuropsychological aspects of SP, and then present the folk tale of the Pisadeira. Finally, we summarize the many

  16. Sleep Paralysis in Brazilian Folklore and Other Cultures: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, José F R; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a dissociative state that occurs mainly during awakening. SP is characterized by altered motor, perceptual, emotional and cognitive functions, such as inability to perform voluntary movements, visual hallucinations, feelings of chest pressure, delusions about a frightening presence and, in some cases, fear of impending death. Most people experience SP rarely, but typically when sleeping in supine position; however, SP is considered a disease (parasomnia) when recurrent and/or associated to emotional burden. Interestingly, throughout human history, different peoples interpreted SP under a supernatural view. For example, Canadian Eskimos attribute SP to spells of shamans, who hinder the ability to move, and provoke hallucinations of a shapeless presence. In the Japanese tradition, SP is due to a vengeful spirit who suffocates his enemies while sleeping. In Nigerian culture, a female demon attacks during dreaming and provokes paralysis. A modern manifestation of SP is the report of "alien abductions", experienced as inability to move during awakening associated with visual hallucinations of aliens. In all, SP is a significant example of how a specific biological phenomenon can be interpreted and shaped by different cultural contexts. In order to further explore the ethnopsychology of SP, in this review we present the "Pisadeira", a character of Brazilian folklore originated in the country's Southeast, but also found in other regions with variant names. Pisadeira is described as a crone with long fingernails who lurks on roofs at night and tramples on the chest of those who sleep on a full stomach with the belly up. This legend is mentioned in many anthropological accounts; however, we found no comprehensive reference on the Pisadeira from the perspective of sleep science. Here, we aim to fill this gap. We first review the neuropsychological aspects of SP, and then present the folk tale of the Pisadeira. Finally, we summarize the many historical

  17. Effects of metabolic neuropeptides from insect corpora cardiaca on proline metabolism of the African fruit beetle, Pachnoda sinuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, L; Gäde, G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of the fruit beetle Pachnoda sinuata on proline metabolism has been investigated in vivo. Conspecific injections of a crude extract from corpora cardiaca cause an increase of the concentration of proline in the haemolymph by nearly 20% and a decrease of the concentration of alanine, the precursor in proline synthesis, by about 64% when compared with a water-injected group. Purification of an extract of corpora cardiaca on reversed-phase liquid chromatography revealed two distinct UV absorbance and fluorescence peaks that cause hyperprolinaemia in the fruit beetle. The major peak is the previously identified octapeptide Mem-CC; the second peak is also a peptide, but its primary sequence remains, as yet, unidentified. Synthetic Mem-CC elicited time- and dose-dependent increases/decreases of the concentrations of proline and alanine in the haemolymph respectively. Furthermore, the receptor for this peptide seems to be specific in P. sinuata: only peptides of the large family of adipokinetic hormones with an Asp, Asn or Gly residue at position 7 could elicit biological activity, whereas those with a Trp, Ser or Val residue at this position did not have any activity.

  18. Restricted occurrence of Locusta migratoria ovary maturing parsin in the brain-corpora cardiaca complex of various insect species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, O; Tamarelle, M; Geoffre, S; Girardie, J

    1994-09-01

    Ovary maturing parsin (OMP) is a gonadotrophic molecule previously isolated from the neurosecretory lobes of the corpora cardiaca of Locusta migratoria (acridian Orthoptera). A polyclonal antiserum directed against the two biologically active domains of the L. migratoria (Lom) OMP was used to investigate the occurrence of Lom OMP-like substances in brain-corpora cardiaca complexes of other insect species. Using immunohistochemistry, specimens of 40 different insect species belonging to 13 insect orders were tested. The Lom OMP-like substance was strictly limited to specimens of insect species belonging to the Acridae. It occurred in non-basophilic cells of the pars intercerebralis that project to the corpora cardiaca, as in Locusta. Although the antiserum only detected Lom OMP-like material in the Acridae, it is possible that related molecules exist in other insects. The antiserum may be very specific for domains of the Lom OMP molecule that have not been highly conserved during evolution or possibly these domains are not accessible to the antiserum in other insects.

  19. Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution Through Text Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randazzese, Lucien [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This proof-of-concept project focused on developing, testing, and validating a range of bibliometric, text analytic, and machine-learning based methods to explore the evolution of three photovoltaic (PV) technologies: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Dye-Sensitized solar cells (DSSC), and Multi-junction solar cells. The analytical approach to the work was inspired by previous work by the same team to measure and predict the scientific prominence of terms and entities within specific research domains. The goal was to create tools that could assist domain-knowledgeable analysts in investigating the history and path of technological developments in general, with a focus on analyzing step-function changes in performance, or “breakthroughs,” in particular. The text-analytics platform developed during this project was dubbed Helios. The project relied on computational methods for analyzing large corpora of technical documents. For this project we ingested technical documents from the following sources into Helios: Thomson Scientific Web of Science (papers), the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (patents), the U.S. Department of Energy (technical documents), the U.S. National Science Foundation (project funding summaries), and a hand curated set of full-text documents from Thomson Scientific and other sources.

  20. 论民俗符号的美学意义%The Aesthetic Meaning of Folklore Symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军义

    2012-01-01

    民俗是一种具有结构性、完整性和自由性的文化符号系统。"民俗"中"民"的主体是社会生活中的人,他们具有共时性和历时性的特征;"俗"是人类社会实践中的一种文化模式,它们具有多样性和自由性。人类在历史实践中创造了民俗符号系统,它承载了一定的文化内容,文化内容使符号形式具有了意义,符号形式又引导和规范了人的生命存在样式。在民俗符号系统中,内蕴了人类生命的自由创造和形式表达,它们具有文化象征的功能和价值。%Folklore is a cultural symbol system with its structure, integrity and freedom. People are the subject of social life in folklore and have the synchronic and diachronic characteristics; Customs is the kind of cultural mode of human social practice in folklore, full of diversity and freedom. In the human practice, man created the symbolic form, carrying culture content, and culture makes symbols have a sense, and symbolic form guide and regulate the people' s life. In folk symbolic system, it is embodied the free creation and the forms of expression of human life, having the function and value of the cultural symbol.

  1. A multidimensional approach to aligned sentences in translated text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gard Buen Jenset

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using unsupervised clustering techniques this study explores sentence alignment patterns in a parallel corpus of Norwegian source texts and Spanish translations, the NSPC (Hareide and Hofland 2012. The results show that three strategies with respect to sentence alignment dominate: one to one correspondence, merging two sentences into one, and removing sentences altogether (omission. The strategies are intricately correlated with the variables translator, author, and genre. However, we show how visualization techniques for cluster analyses offer a possibility for teasing apart these interactions as well as their relative importance. Our results indicate that non-fiction texts allow translators more freedom with respect to the treatment of sentences than do texts that are written by professional authors of fiction. The style of the author appears to play only a secondary role, but is especially important in fiction.   Keywords: corpus based translation, cluster analysis, parallel corpora, corpus alignment, unidirectional bilingual corpus

  2. Mining consumer health vocabulary from community-generated text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A; Zheng, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Community-generated text corpora can be a valuable resource to extract consumer health vocabulary (CHV) and link them to professional terminologies and alternative variants. In this research, we propose a pattern-based text-mining approach to identify pairs of CHV and professional terms from Wikipedia, a large text corpus created and maintained by the community. A novel measure, leveraging the ratio of frequency of occurrence, was used to differentiate consumer terms from professional terms. We empirically evaluated the applicability of this approach using a large data sample consisting of MedLine abstracts and all posts from an online health forum, MedHelp. The results show that the proposed approach is able to identify synonymous pairs and label the terms as either consumer or professional term with high accuracy. We conclude that the proposed approach provides great potential to produce a high quality CHV to improve the performance of computational applications in processing consumer-generated health text.

  3. Differential morphological effects in rat corpora lutea among ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, atrazine, and bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Yamate, Jyoji; Yoshida, Midori

    2013-07-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) or atrazine induces luteal cell hypertrophy in rats. Our previous study suggested that EGME stimulates both new and old corpora lutea (CL), while atrazine stimulates new CL. Bromocriptine (BRC) is known to suppress the luteolysis in rats. This study investigated the light- and electron-microscopic luteal changes induced by EGME, atrazine, or BRC. Female rats were treated with EGME (300 mg/kg/day), BRC (2 mg/kg/day), EGME and BRC (EGME + BRC), or atrazine (300 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Luteal cell hypertrophy induced by EGME, EGME + BRC, and atrazine was subclassified into the following two types: CL hypertrophy, vacuolated type (CL-V) characterized by intracytoplasmic fine vacuoles, and CL hypertrophy, eosinophilic type (CL-E) characterized by eosinophilic and abundant cytoplasm. The proportions of CL-V and CL-E were different among the treatments. BRC-treated old CL showed lower proportion of endothelial cells and fibroblasts than normal old CL. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the luteal cells of CL-V contained abundant lipid droplets, whereas those of CL-E in EGME and EGME + BRC groups showed uniformly well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. No clear ultrastructural difference was observed between the control CL and atrazine-treated CL-E. These results indicate that EGME, atrazine, and BRC have differential luteal morphological effects.

  4. FacetGist: Collective Extraction of Document Facets in Large Technical Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Tarique; Ren, Xiang; Parameswaran, Aditya; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Given the large volume of technical documents available, it is crucial to automatically organize and categorize these documents to be able to understand and extract value from them. Towards this end, we introduce a new research problem called Facet Extraction. Given a collection of technical documents, the goal of Facet Extraction is to automatically label each document with a set of concepts for the key facets (e.g., application, technique, evaluation metrics, and dataset) that people may be interested in. Facet Extraction has numerous applications, including document summarization, literature search, patent search and business intelligence. The major challenge in performing Facet Extraction arises from multiple sources: concept extraction, concept to facet matching, and facet disambiguation. To tackle these challenges, we develop FacetGist, a framework for facet extraction. Facet Extraction involves constructing a graph-based heterogeneous network to capture information available across multiple local sentence-level features, as well as global context features. We then formulate a joint optimization problem, and propose an efficient algorithm for graph-based label propagation to estimate the facet of each concept mention. Experimental results on technical corpora from two domains demonstrate that Facet Extraction can lead to an improvement of over 25% in both precision and recall over competing schemes.

  5. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangbin; Bustamante, Erika L; Antonova, Julie; McLean, Graeme W; Kim, Seung K

    2011-08-01

    Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC) are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  6. Conserved mechanisms of glucose sensing and regulation by Drosophila corpora cardiaca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung K; Rulifson, Eric J

    2004-09-16

    Antagonistic activities of glucagon and insulin control metabolism in mammals, and disruption of this balance underlies diabetes pathogenesis. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the brain of insects such as Drosophila also regulate serum glucose, but it remains unclear whether insulin is the sole hormonal regulator of glucose homeostasis and whether mechanisms of glucose-sensing and response in IPCs resemble those in pancreatic islets. Here we show, by targeted cell ablation, that Drosophila corpora cardiaca (CC) cells of the ring gland are also essential for larval glucose homeostasis. Unlike IPCs, CC cells express Drosophila cognates of sulphonylurea receptor (Sur) and potassium channel (Ir), proteins that comprise ATP-sensitive potassium channels regulating hormone secretion by islets and other mammalian glucose-sensing cells. They also produce adipokinetic hormone, a polypeptide with glucagon-like functions. Glucose regulation by CC cells is impaired by exposure to sulphonylureas, drugs that target the Sur subunit. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of an akh transgene reverses the effect of CC ablation on serum glucose. Thus, Drosophila CC cells are crucial regulators of glucose homeostasis and they use glucose-sensing and response mechanisms similar to islet cells.

  7. Ultrastructural changes of corpora cavernosa in men with erectile dysfunction and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Lo Forti, Bruno; Savica, Vincenzo; Favazzi, Pietro; Magaudda, Ludovico; Cohen, Arthur H

    2004-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and often distressing side effect of renal failure. Uremic men of different ages report a high variety of sexual problems, including sexual hormonal pattern alterations, reduced or loss of libido, infertility, and impotence, thereby influencing their well-being. The pathogenic mechanisms include physiologic, psychologic, and organic causes. To determine the contribution of morphologic factors to impotence we studied the ultrastructure of the corpora cavernosa in 20 patients with end-stage renal disease who were treated with chronic dialysis and compared the findings with 6 individuals with no clinical history of impotence. Our results indicated that in male uremic patients with sexual disturbances there were major changes in smooth muscle cells. This was characterized by reduction of dense bodies in the cytoplasm, thick basement membranes, and increased interstitial collagen fibers with resultant reduction of cell-to-cell contact. In addition, there was thickening and lamination of basement membranes of endothelial cells and increased accumulation of collagen between nerve fibers. These alterations were more evident in patients with longer time on dialysis and were independent of type of primary renal disease. We hypothesize that ED in dialysis patients is not related to the primary disease but to the uremic state.

  8. Die aard en funksie van Zoeloe-folklore in Die ding in die vuur van Riana Scheepers

    OpenAIRE

    G.H. Taljaard

    1999-01-01

    The nature and function of Zulu folklore in Die ding in die vuur by Riano ScheepersThis article is concerned with how and why Zulu folklore and oral narrative traditions are absorbed in the literature of the writer Riana Scheepers. Scheepers does not use Zulu culture in her work to make it part of the struggle genre. The question therefore arises: Why does Scheepers, a modern, even postmodern writer, make use of the prehistoric, ancient Zulu oral narrative tradition?As starting points for thi...

  9. Visual Classifier Training for Text Document Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, F; Koch, S; Bosch, H; Ertl, T

    2012-12-01

    Performing exhaustive searches over a large number of text documents can be tedious, since it is very hard to formulate search queries or define filter criteria that capture an analyst's information need adequately. Classification through machine learning has the potential to improve search and filter tasks encompassing either complex or very specific information needs, individually. Unfortunately, analysts who are knowledgeable in their field are typically not machine learning specialists. Most classification methods, however, require a certain expertise regarding their parametrization to achieve good results. Supervised machine learning algorithms, in contrast, rely on labeled data, which can be provided by analysts. However, the effort for labeling can be very high, which shifts the problem from composing complex queries or defining accurate filters to another laborious task, in addition to the need for judging the trained classifier's quality. We therefore compare three approaches for interactive classifier training in a user study. All of the approaches are potential candidates for the integration into a larger retrieval system. They incorporate active learning to various degrees in order to reduce the labeling effort as well as to increase effectiveness. Two of them encompass interactive visualization for letting users explore the status of the classifier in context of the labeled documents, as well as for judging the quality of the classifier in iterative feedback loops. We see our work as a step towards introducing user controlled classification methods in addition to text search and filtering for increasing recall in analytics scenarios involving large corpora.

  10. ONTOGRABBING: Extracting Information from Texts Using Generative Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer; Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni; Jensen, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe principles for extracting information from texts using a so-called generative ontology in combination with syntactic analysis. Generative ontologies are introduced as semantic domains for natural language phrases. Generative ontologies extend ordinary finite ontologies with rules...... analysis is primarily to identify paraphrases, thereby achieving a search functionality beyond mere keyword search with synsets. We further envisage use of the generative ontology as a phrase-based rather than word-based browser into text corpora....... for producing recursively shaped terms representing the ontological content (ontological semantics) of NL noun phrases and other phrases. We focus here on achieving a robust, often only partial, ontology-driven parsing of and ascription of semantics to a sentence in the text corpus. The aim of the ontological...

  11. Towards Effective Sentence Simplification for Automatic Processing of Biomedical Text

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Hakenberg, Jorg; Baral, Chitta; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of sentences characteristic to biomedical articles poses a challenge to natural language parsers, which are typically trained on large-scale corpora of non-technical text. We propose a text simplification process, bioSimplify, that seeks to reduce the complexity of sentences in biomedical abstracts in order to improve the performance of syntactic parsers on the processed sentences. Syntactic parsing is typically one of the first steps in a text mining pipeline. Thus, any improvement in performance would have a ripple effect over all processing steps. We evaluated our method using a corpus of biomedical sentences annotated with syntactic links. Our empirical results show an improvement of 2.90% for the Charniak-McClosky parser and of 4.23% for the Link Grammar parser when processing simplified sentences rather than the original sentences in the corpus.

  12. Utilité du partage des corpus pour l'analyse des interactions en ligne en situation d'apprentissage : un exemple d'approche méthodologique autour d'une base de corpus d'apprentissage Benefits of Sharing Corpora when Analyzing Online Interactions: an Example of Methodology Related to a Databank of Learning and Teaching Corpora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Ciekanski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur les interactions en ligne en situation d'apprentissage offre encore trop peu souvent la possibilité d'accéder aux données à partir desquelles les chercheurs ont élaboré les analyses présentées dans les publications. Cela restreint, d'une part, la compréhension des phénomènes étudiés et, d'autre part, empêche toute réplication dans le but de comparaisons, d'analyses cumulatives ou contrastives. Dans le projet Mulce, nous défendons le point de vue méthodologique suivant : pour permettre une analyse des interactions situées, il convient de relier les différentes données issues de formations en ligne pour construire un objet d'analyse exploitable par différentes équipes et disciplines. Le constat actuel est que les données sont souvent décontextualisées, parcellaires ou simplement inaccessibles à la communauté des chercheurs. Nous proposons donc de structurer les données en corpus d'apprentissage (Letec de façon à rendre possible leur échange et la capitalisation des analyses. Le protocole de recherche, le scénario pédagogique, les interactions, productions et traces, les licences et les analyses capitalisables en sont les constituants. Cet article présente, dans un premier temps, les questionnements, à la fois théoriques, techniques et méthodologiques soulevés par la conception d'un tel projet. Dans un deuxième temps, nous illustrerons notre démarche à partir d'exemples issus des formations Simuligne et Copéas, en indiquant les processus simples de transformation du format Mulce aux formats requis par deux logiciels d'aide à l'analyse (l'un sur les forums, l'autre sur l'alignement entre vidéo et transcription. Nous insistons plus particulièrement sur l'intérêt de ces outils pour l'analyse des phénomènes de polyfocalisation et d'écriture multimodale dans l'analyse des interactions multimodales, caractéristiques des environnements d'apprentissage en ligne. Nous conclurons notre

  13. Text mixing shapes the anatomy of rank-frequency distributions: A modern Zipfian mechanics for natural language

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2014-01-01

    Natural languages are full of rules and exceptions. One of the most famous quantitative rules is Zipf's law which states that the frequency of occurrence of a word is approximately inversely proportional to its rank. Though this `law' of ranks has been found to hold across disparate texts and forms of data, analyses of increasingly large corpora over the last 15 years have revealed the existence of two scaling regimes. These regimes have thus far been explained by a hypothesis suggesting a separability of languages into core and non-core lexica. Here, we present and defend an alternative hypothesis, that the two scaling regimes result from the act of aggregating texts. We observe that text mixing leads to an effective decay of word introduction, which we show provides accurate predictions of the location and severity of breaks in scaling. Upon examining large corpora from 10 languages, we find emphatic empirical support for the universality of our claim.

  14. Usefulness of electromyography of the cavernous corpora (CC EMG) in the diagnosis of arterial erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virseda-Chamorro, M; Lopez-Garcia-Moreno, A M; Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2012-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the corpora cavernosa (CC-EMG) is able to record the activity of the erectile tissue during erection, and thus has been used as a diagnostic technique in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study examines the usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED. A cross-sectional study was made of 35 males with a mean age of 48.5 years (s.d. 11.34), referred to our center with ED for >1 year. The patients were subjected to CC-EMG and a penile Doppler ultrasound study following the injection of 20 μg of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The patients were divided into three groups according to their response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1: Group 1 (adequate erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity); Group 2 (insufficient erection and persistence of EMG activity); and Group 3 (insufficient erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity). Patient classification according to response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1 was as follows: Group 1: six patients (17%), Group 2: 18 patients (51%), and Group 3: 11 patients (31%). Patients diagnosed with arterial insufficiency according to Doppler ultrasound (systolic arterial peak velocity EMG activity showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (confidence interval between 50 and 84%) and a specificity of 92.9% (confidence interval between 84 and 100%) in the diagnosis of arterial ED. Owing to the high specificity of CC-EMG response to the injection of PGE1, this test is considered useful as a screening technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED.

  15. Operações com derivativos financeiros das corporações de economias emergentes Operations with financial derivatives of corporations from emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Farhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o aprofundamento da crise financeira internacional no segundo semestre de 2008, diversas empresas produtivas de economias emergentes registraram enormes perdas nos mercados de derivativos de câmbio. Esse fato aponta para a dinâmica, muitas vezes, especulativa, das corporações no ambiente das finanças desregulamentadas. O objetivo do artigo reside em articular tais aspectos da lógica de atuação das empresas com a crise e discutir os impactos macroeconômicos dos prejuízos financeiros resultantes de apostas especulativas em derivativos.As a consequence of the deepening of the international financial crisis during the second semester of 2008, several productive companies from emerging economies have registered enormous losses in the foreign exchange derivatives markets. This fact points to the speculative dynamics of corporations in the financial deregulation environment. This paper aims to articulate this logic of enterprises' behavior with the crisis and to discuss some macroeconomic effects resulting from the financial losses caused by speculative bets in the derivative markets.

  16. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  17. 人类学田野工作的方法论意义及其对民俗志写作的启示%Discussion about the Method of Anthropology Fieldwork and its Inspiration on Folklore Ethnography Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    博日吉汗卓娜; 全信子

    2013-01-01

    Fieldwork is a major research method for anthropology .It also reflects subject orientation and deep consensus of anthropology on methodological level .The research of folklore is experiencing the transition from traditional one to modern one at the present time ,which is reflected on its text style .Spe‐cifically ,it is the transition from museum‐classification record style to record and explanation type .The key measure to accomplish this transition is to establish academic norm of folklore ethnography fieldwork research .In this case ,the methodology of anthropology fieldwork would have some reference to this tran‐sition .%  田野工作是人类学最主要的研究方法,同时也体现了人类学在方法论层面的学科定位和深层共识。民俗学研究正在经历着从传统民俗志向现代民俗志的转型,反映在民俗志文本形式上,就是从博物馆式分类记录型民俗志向记录与解释并重的民俗志的转型。实现这一转型的关键之一,就是民俗志田野调查学术规范的确立,而人类学田野工作的方法论和研究方法会对民俗学的这一转型提供一定的借鉴。

  18. Suggestions for Future Corpus-Based Text Painting Analyses: A Response to Strykowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Sapp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary provides multiple suggestions for future research on text painting that have been inspired by Strykowski's (2016 quantitative analysis of height-related musical imagery. For example, musical features such as meter, harmony, and position may be incorporated to expand the scope of the research. The commentary concludes by referencing two additional corpora that may further benefit the quantitative study of text painting, namely, repertories that contain a dearth of word-painting, and an upcoming digital repository of Tasso-based madrigals.

  19. Quantification of Locusta diuretic hormone in the central nervous system and corpora cardiaca: influence of age and feeding status, and mechanism of release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, N; Goldsworthy, G J; Coast, G M

    1997-03-12

    Locusta-DH is known to have a hormonal function in the control of post-feeding diuresis in the migratory locust. This study has quantified Locusta-DH in tissues from V(th) instar nymphs and adults, and investigated the K+-induced release of the peptide from corpora cardiaca. Locusta-DH is present in thoracic and abdominal ganglia, but the amounts are small (25-200 fmol) compared with brain (approximately 1 pmol) and corpora cardiaca ( > 5 pmol) from 14-day old locusts. About 50% of the immunoreactive material in corpora cardiaca coelutes with Locusta-DH on reversed-phase HPLC. An earlier eluting fraction is also biologically active, suggesting locusts have a second, previously undetected, CRF-related peptide. The amount of peptide stored in corpora cardiaca varies with age and physiological status. Reductions on day 1 of the adult instar and immediately after feeding suggest Locusta-DH controls post-eclosion as well as post-feeding diureses. Locusta-DH is released by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism from corpora cardiaca held in salines containing > or =40 mM K+. This is blocked by verapamil, implicating L-type Ca2+ channels. Release is most rapid shortly after transfer to a high K+ saline, and more peptide is released from glands allowed to recover in normal saline between successive K+ depolarisations.

  20. Building a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angus; Gaizauskas, Robert; Hepple, Mark; Demetriou, George; Guo, Yikun; Roberts, Ian; Setzer, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the construction of a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts for use in the development and evaluation of systems for automatically extracting clinically significant information from the textual component of patient records. The paper details the sampling of textual material from a collection of 20,000 cancer patient records, the development of a semantic annotation scheme, the annotation methodology, the distribution of annotations in the final corpus, and the use of the corpus for development of an adaptive information extraction system. The resulting corpus is the most richly semantically annotated resource for clinical text processing built to date, whose value has been demonstrated through its use in developing an effective information extraction system. The detailed presentation of our corpus construction and annotation methodology will be of value to others seeking to build high-quality semantically annotated corpora in biomedical domains.

  1. A possible role of SchistoFLRFamide in inhibition of adipokinetic hormone release from locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullings, H G; Ten Voorde, S E; Passier, P C; Diederen, J H; Van Der Horst, D J; Nässel, D R

    1998-12-01

    The distribution and actions of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in the corpora cardiaca of the locust Locusta migratoria were studied. Antisera to FMRFamide and SchistoFLRFamide (PDVDHVFLRFamide) label neuronal processes that impinge on glandular cells in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca known to produce adipokinetic hormones. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that these FaRP-containing processes form synaptoid contacts with the glandular cells. Approximately 12% of the axon profiles present in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum contained SchistoFLRFamide-immunoreactive material. Retrograde tracing of the axons in the nervus corporis cardiaci II with Lucifer yellow revealed 25-30 labelled neuronal cell bodies in each lateral part of the protocerebrum. About five of these in each hemisphere reacted with the SchistoFLRFamide-antiserum. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry showed that the FaRP-containing processes in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca are distinct from neuronal processes, reacting with an antiserum to the neuropeptide locustatachykinin. The effect of the decapeptide SchistoFLRFamide and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide on the release of adipokinetic hormone I (AKH I) from the cells in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum was studied in vitro. Neither the deca- nor the tetrapeptide had any effect on the spontaneous release of AKH I. Release of AKH I induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, however, was reduced significantly by both peptides. These results point to an involvement of FaRPs as inhibitory modulators in the regulation of the release of adipokinetic hormone from the glandular cells.

  2. The use of medicinal herbs in gynecological and pregnancy-related disorders by Jordanian women: a review of folkloric practice vs. evidence-based pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akour, Amal; Kasabri, Violet; Afifi, Fatma U; Bulatova, Nailya

    2016-09-01

    Context National statistical reports in Jordan indicate a decrease in the total fertility rate along with a parallel increase in contraceptive use. The folkloric use of medicinal herbs in gynecological disorders has been growing in Jordan, despite of deficient reports on the evidence-based safety and efficacy of these practices. Objective The aim of this comprehensive article is to review medicinal plants with claimed ethnonpharmacological usage in various gynecological and pregnancy-related issues in Jordan, and to assess their evidence-based pharmacological studies as well as their phytochemistry. Methods The published literature was surveyed using Google Scholar entering the terms "ethnopharmacology AND Jordan AND infertility AND gynecology OR gestation". We included ethnopharmacological surveys in Jordan with available full-text. Results Twelve articles were reviewed. Plant species which are commonly used for female gynecological issues such as Artemisia monosperma Del. and A. herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae) have been found to exert an antifertility effect. Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) had antifertility effects in male rats, but Nigella sativa oil L. (Ranunculaceae) and Cinnamon zeylanicum J. Presl (Lauraceae) were found to enhance it. Conclusion Using plants for gynecological disorders is a common practice in Jordan. Many of them, whether utilised for gynecological or non-gynecological conditions equally, were found to have detrimental effects on female or male fertility. Thus, couples planning pregnancy should be discouraged from the consumption of these herbs. Further local studies are warranted to confirm the appreciable beneficial pharmacological effects and safety of these plants.

  3. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  4. Allatotropic activity in the suboesophageal ganglia and corpora cardiaca of the adult male loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, R; Chen, S J

    2000-02-01

    Allatotropic activity was found in the methanolic extract of the suboesophageal ganglia (SOG) and the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the Mythimna loreyi virgin males. No allatotropic activity was observed in the extract of brain or corpora allata (CA). Although CA can be activated by the SOG and CC extract, respectively, CC extract inhibited the response to the SOG extract. A significant in vitro allatotropic effect was exerted by the SOG and CC extract within 10 and 15 min, respectively, and this effect can be sustained for several hours even after transferring to fresh medium without extracts. The time course pattern of the CA activation ratio in both the SOG and CC extract-treated group is very similar to, but with significantly higher level than, that in the control group, suggesting the existence of an intrinsic pacemaker or an in vitro effect that controls the fluctuation of the CA biosynthetic activity. Synthetic Manduca sexta allatotropin had no significant effect on the M. loreyi CA. The results of treatment with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, and the cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP did not indicate that cAMP might be involved in the allatotropic control of CA. Arch. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  6. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer;

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...... of complex terms appearing in the text sources. Along with logical propositions, the system applies a semantic graph representation facilitating calculation of bio-pathways. More generally, the system aords means of query answering appealing to general and domain specic inference rules....

  7. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...... of complex terms appearing in the text sources. Along with logical propositions, the system applies a semantic graph representation facilitating calculation of bio-pathways. More generally, the system aords means of query answering appealing to general and domain specic inference rules....

  8. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  9. Domain adaptation for semantic role labeling of clinical text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Tang, Buzhou; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Semantic role labeling (SRL), which extracts a shallow semantic relation representation from different surface textual forms of free text sentences, is important for understanding natural language. Few studies in SRL have been conducted in the medical domain, primarily due to lack of annotated clinical SRL corpora, which are time-consuming and costly to build. The goal of this study is to investigate domain adaptation techniques for clinical SRL leveraging resources built from newswire and biomedical literature to improve performance and save annotation costs. Materials and Methods Multisource Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ), a manually annotated SRL clinical corpus, was used as the target domain dataset. PropBank and NomBank from newswire and BioProp from biomedical literature were used as source domain datasets. Three state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms were employed: instance pruning, transfer self-training, and feature augmentation. The SRL performance using different domain adaptation algorithms was evaluated by using 10-fold cross-validation on the MiPACQ corpus. Learning curves for the different methods were generated to assess the effect of sample size. Results and Conclusion When all three source domain corpora were used, the feature augmentation algorithm achieved statistically significant higher F-measure (83.18%), compared to the baseline with MiPACQ dataset alone (F-measure, 81.53%), indicating that domain adaptation algorithms may improve SRL performance on clinical text. To achieve a comparable performance to the baseline method that used 90% of MiPACQ training samples, the feature augmentation algorithm required <50% of training samples in MiPACQ, demonstrating that annotation costs of clinical SRL can be reduced significantly by leveraging existing SRL resources from other domains. PMID:26063745

  10. Is This Enough? A Qualitative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Teacher-Training Course on the Use of Corpora in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenko-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a teacher-training course on the use of corpora in language education offered to graduate students at the Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw. It also presents the results of two questionnaires distributed to the students prior to and after the second edition of the course. The main aims of the course are: to…

  11. Quantitative determination of the juvenile hormones in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during normal development and after implantation of corpora allata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse-Minderhoud, L.; Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van; Kerk-Van Hoof, A.C. van der; Biessels, H.W.A.; Salemink, C.A.; Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative determination of the three naturally occurring juvenile hormones in insects (JH-I, JH-II and JH-III) was performed on haemolymph samples of both normally developing locusts and locusts implanted with active corpora allata, using capillary gas chromatography with electron ca

  12. A randomized controlled trial of Turkish folklore dance on the physical performance, balance, depression and quality of life in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Sibel; Karapolat, Hale; Durmaz, Berrin; Ibisoglu, Ugur; Cakir, Serap

    2009-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effects of group-based Turkish folkloric dances on physical performance, balance, depression and quality of life (QoL) in 40 healthy adult elderly females over the age of 65 years. Subjects were randomly allocated into Group 1 (folkloric dance-based exercise) and Group 2 (control). A 8-week dance-based exercise program was performed. Outcome measures included a 20-m walk test, a 6-min walk test, stair climbing and chair rise time, Berg balance scale (BBS), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-item short form health survey (SF-36), and geriatric depression scale (GDS) questionnaires. In Group 1 statistically significant improvements were found in most of the physical performance tests, BBS and some SF-36 subscales after the exercise (pdance specific to countries as an exercise program for elderly people may be helpful.

  13. A tm Plug-In for Distributed Text Mining in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Theussl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R has gained explicit text mining support with the tm package enabling statisticians to answer many interesting research questions via statistical analysis or modeling of (text corpora. However, we typically face two challenges when analyzing large corpora: (1 the amount of data to be processed in a single machine is usually limited by the available main memory (i.e., RAM, and (2 the more data to be analyzed the higher the need for efficient procedures for calculating valuable results. Fortunately, adequate programming models like MapReduce facilitate parallelization of text mining tasks and allow for processing data sets beyond what would fit into memory by using a distributed file system possibly spanning over several machines, e.g., in a cluster of workstations. In this paper we present a plug-in package to tm called tm.plugin.dc implementing a distributed corpus class which can take advantage of the Hadoop MapReduce library for large scale text mining tasks. We show on the basis of an application in culturomics that we can efficiently handle data sets of significant size.

  14. Primary structure of two neuropeptide hormones with adipokinetic and hypotrehalosemic activity isolated from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, H; Raina, A K; Riley, C T; Fraser, B A; Nachman, R J; Vogel, V W; Zhang, Y S; Hayes, D K

    1989-01-01

    The primary structures of two neuropeptides, Tabanus atratus adipokinetic hormone (Taa-AKH) and Tabanus atratus hypotrehalosemic hormone (Taa-HoTH), from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) have been determined. Amino acid sequences of Taa-AKH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Taa-HoTH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-Tyr-NH2) (where less than Glu = pyroglutamic acid) were determined by automated gas-phase Edman degradation of the peptides deblocked by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The hormones were synthesized, and the natural and synthetic peptides exhibited identical chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biological properties. When assayed in adult face fly males, Taa-AKH and Taa-HoTH demonstrated hyperlipemic activity, in addition, Taa-HoTH also demonstrated a significant hypotrehalosemic activity. PMID:2813385

  15. Isolation and primary structure of two peptides with cardioacceleratory and hyperglycemic activity from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, R M; Jamieson, G C; Kalish, F; Kramer, S J; McEnroe, G A; Miller, C A; Schooley, D A

    1984-01-01

    Two cardioacceleratory peptides from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana have been purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, Based on analysis of the intact factors and their chymotryptic fragments, we have assigned the primary structure of these octapeptides as pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-1, and pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-2. They represent new members of a family of invertebrate peptides that includes locust adipokinetic hormone and crustacean red-pigment concentrating hormone. Both peptides show adipokinetic activity in grasshoppers and hyperglycemic activity in cockroaches. One of these peptides (CC-2) has provocative sequence homology with the NH2-terminal portion of glucagon. Images PMID:6591205

  16. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, A; Pannell, L; Kochansky, J; Jaffe, H

    1995-09-01

    A new neuropeptide hormone was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada species. Primary structure of the peptide as determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation after enzymatic deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and mass spectrometry is: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2. Synthetic peptide assayed in the green stink bug Nezara viridula caused a 112% increase in hemolymph lipids at a dose of 0.625 pmol, and a 67% increase in hemolymph carbohydrates at a dose of 2.5 pmol. Based on these results we designate this peptide, a first from order Homoptera, as Magicicada species-adipokinetic hormone (Mcsp-AKH).

  17. Le folklore enfantin peut-il contribuer à la sensibilisation précoce aux langues étrangères ?

    OpenAIRE

    Arleo, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Children's folklore (CF) refers to speech, behavior, objects and mental representations that are exchanged by word of mouth among children in their peer groups, linked to a collective play context and marked by variation in time and space. This living oral tradition is particularly rich in terms of language, poetics, music and movement, including for example play rhymes (e.g., for handclapping or jump-rope), counting-out rhymes, tonguetwisters, riddles, secret languages, storytelling, jeers a...

  18. A probabilistic approach for extracting opinion-related word chains from texts Extraction probabiliste de chaînes de mots relatives à une opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bellot

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a probabilistic method aimed at extracting opinion-related strings from corpora labeled according to customer mind. These strings first allow us to improve text categorization systems according to opinions (positive, negative or neutral. Second, we use them to display easily what are the frequent comments made by customers about products or services. We test the method on two critical corpora written by internet users about video games and movies (respectively in French language and in English language and on a customer satisfaction phone survey. For each of them, we present some examples of extracted word chains and the observed improvement obtained for opinion-oriented text categorization task.

  19. Improving Feature Representation Based on a Neural Network for Author Profiling in Social Media Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gómez-Adorno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a lexical resource for preprocessing social media data. We show that a neural network-based feature representation is enhanced by using this resource. We conducted experiments on the PAN 2015 and PAN 2016 author profiling corpora and obtained better results when performing the data preprocessing using the developed lexical resource. The resource includes dictionaries of slang words, contractions, abbreviations, and emoticons commonly used in social media. Each of the dictionaries was built for the English, Spanish, Dutch, and Italian languages. The resource is freely available.

  20. 《五十二病方》中的巫术与民俗%Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang (Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海燕

    2010-01-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore.A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang (Prescriptions for Fifty -two Diseases ) indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures.The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang( Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases ) could be divided into supplication,Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc.Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of Wushierbingfang ( Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases).%巫医混杂是古代早期医学的一个重要特征.战国时期中的少量巫方的保留,正是医混杂现象在医学文献中残留的痕迹.中记载的巫方可分为祝由、禹步、祓除、傩礼、桃符等.巫同时又演变为民风民俗,术的实施常常表现民风民俗的形式,的记载对此也有一定反映.

  1. Alberta Folklore and Local History Collection--A Digital Library of Local Folklore%地方民俗数字图书馆--阿尔伯塔传统与当地历史典藏中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕权; 刘晓东; 杨晴虹

    2015-01-01

    阿尔伯塔传统与当地历史典藏中心致力于收藏加拿大阿尔伯塔地区历史和风俗知识,为阿尔伯塔文化的传播和共享做出贡献。主要藏品为1941-1946年间收藏的资料,从2000年6月开始实施数字化,收集的各种类型资料多达1000多份,具有较高的文献价值。本案例介绍该项目的历史背景、信息资源组织状况,服务和技术特点。%Alberta Folklore and Local History Col ection aims at providing the local history and culture of Alberta in Canada. The majority of the col ections were completed during 1941-1946 while the digitalization started in June 2000. The col ection boasts nearly 1000 anecdotes, essays, poetry, tal tales, personal reminiscences of Alberta pioneers, school histories and yearbooks, photographs, correspondences, plays and radio scripts, newspaper clippings, and excerpts of stories from published documents. Those materials play an important role in broadcasting and sharing of the Alberta culture. This paper tries to explore the project based on the background, col ection organization, service and technology features, then make objective comments.

  2. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  3. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  4. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  5. Long-range correlations and burstiness in written texts: Universal and language-specific aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Kalimeri, Maria; Diakonos, Fotis; Karamanos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Chatzigeorgiou, Manolis; Papageorgiou, Harris

    2016-08-01

    Recently, methods from the statistical physics of complex systems have been applied successfully to identify universal features in the long-range correlations (LRCs) of written texts. However, in real texts, these universal features are being intermingled with language-specific influences. This paper aims at the characterization and further understanding of the interplay between universal and language-specific effects on the LRCs in texts. To this end, we apply the language-sensitive mapping of written texts to word-length series (wls) and analyse large parallel (of same content) corpora from 10 languages classified to four families (Romanic, Germanic, Greek and Uralic). The autocorrelation functions of the wls reveal tiny but persistent LRCs decaying at large scales following a power-law with a language-independent exponent ˜0.60-0.65. The impact of language is displayed in the amplitude of correlations where a relative standard deviation >40% among the analyzed languages is observed. The classification to language families seems to play a significant role since, the Finnish and Germanic languages exhibit more correlations than the Greek and Roman families. To reveal the origins of the LRCs, we focus on the long words and perform burst and correlation analysis in their positions along the corpora. We find that the universal features are linked more to the correlations of the inter-long word distances while the language-specific aspects are related more to their distributions.

  6. On the unsupervised analysis of domain-specific Chinese texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Bol, Peter K; Li, Kate J; Liu, Jun S

    2016-05-31

    With the growing availability of digitized text data both publicly and privately, there is a great need for effective computational tools to automatically extract information from texts. Because the Chinese language differs most significantly from alphabet-based languages in not specifying word boundaries, most existing Chinese text-mining methods require a prespecified vocabulary and/or a large relevant training corpus, which may not be available in some applications. We introduce an unsupervised method, top-down word discovery and segmentation (TopWORDS), for simultaneously discovering and segmenting words and phrases from large volumes of unstructured Chinese texts, and propose ways to order discovered words and conduct higher-level context analyses. TopWORDS is particularly useful for mining online and domain-specific texts where the underlying vocabulary is unknown or the texts of interest differ significantly from available training corpora. When outputs from TopWORDS are fed into context analysis tools such as topic modeling, word embedding, and association pattern finding, the results are as good as or better than that from using outputs of a supervised segmentation method.

  7. FOLKLORE MOTIF OF A WOMAN’S ABDUCTION BY A SERPENT IN THE LITERARY TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyzlova A. S.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a motif of a woman’s abduction by a Serpent, widely spread in Russian fairy tales, which also appears in the apocryphal "Heroic Deeds of Theodore Tiron". The author tries to compare this Old Russian apocryphal work with folk fairy-tale texts.

  8. Declaraciones patrimoniales, turismo y conocimientos locales: Posibilidades de los estudios del folklore para el caso de las ferias en la quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy-Argentina Patrimony Statements, Tourism and Local Knowledge: Folklore Studies Posibilities in Quebrada de Humahuaca Fairs Case (Jujuy - Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bergesio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Quebrada de Humahuaca se encuentra en la porción central de la provincia de Jujuy (al noroeste de la República Argentina y su poblamiento ronda los 11.000 años de antigüedad. Esta región fue declarada en el año 2003 por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO como "Patrimonio Cultural y Natural de la Humanidad". A partir de esa fecha se incrementó el desarrollo de circuitos turísticos de aventura y culturales. Esta declaración le dio un nuevo impulso a la Quebrada de Humahuaca en el mercado nacional e internacional del turismo. Y el auge de este último en la zona generó que cada pueblo buscara sus propias alternativas para atraer visitantes. Entre las estrategias más comunes está la realización de ferias y fiestas que buscan destacar características locales particulares. En este trabajo proponemos analizar el caso de la localidad de Coctaca (Departamento de Humahuaca y un evento que allí se realiza, en el mes de febrero, el cual incluye la Feria "Los Sabores de la Historia", el "Encuentro de Mujeres Andinas" y la "Serenata a los Andenes de Cultivo". El objetivo del trabajo es plantear las posibilidades que aportan los estudios del folklore para articular en el análisis temas como lo local y global; lo cultural y económico; los productores con sus productos y el turismo con sus demandas y expectativas.Quebrada de Humahuaca is set in the central portion of the Jujuy Province (Northwest of Argentinian Republic and it has been inhabited approximately by 11.000 years. In 2003 this region was declared "Cultural and Natural Patrimony of Mandkind" by The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. From that date the cultural and adventure tourism circuits development increased. This statement gave new impetus to Quebrada de Humahuaca in the national and international tourism market. And the rise of the latter in the area generated each little town to

  9. On Using Goldbach G0 Codes and Even-Rodeh Codes for Text Compression on Using Goldbach G0 Codes and Even-Rodeh Codes for Text Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, M. A.; Rachmawati, D.

    2017-03-01

    This research aims to study the efficiency of two variants of variable-length codes (i.e., Goldbach G0 codes and Even-Rodeh codes) in compressing texts. The parameters being examined are the ratio of compression, the space savings, and the bit rate. As a benchmark, all of the original (uncompressed) texts are assumed to be encoded in American Standard Codes for Information Interchange (ASCII). Several texts, including those derived from some corpora (the Artificial corpus, the Calgary corpus, the Canterbury corpus, the Large corpus, and the Miscellaneous corpus) are tested in the experiment. The overall result shows that the Even-Rodeh codes are consistently more efficient to compress texts than the unoptimzed Goldbach G0 codes.

  10. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Saul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and one yeast (Candida albicans. These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml, clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml. Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml. Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml. Conclusion This in vitro study

  11. Quality text editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyi Bujdosó

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Text editing is more than the knowledge of word processing techniques. Originally typographers, printers, text editors were the ones qualified to edit texts, which were well structured, legible, easily understandable, clear, and were able to emphasize the coreof the text. Time has changed, and nowadays everyone has access to computers as well as to text editing software and most users believe that having these tools is enough to edit texts. However, text editing requires more skills. Texts appearing either in printed or inelectronic form reveal that most of the users do not realize that they are not qualified to edit and publish their works. Analyzing the ‘text-products’ of the last decade a tendency can clearly be drawn. More and more documents appear, which instead of emphasizingthe subject matter, are lost in the maze of unstructured text slices. Without further thoughts different font types, colors, sizes, strange arrangements of objects, etc. are applied. We present examples with the most common typographic and text editing errors. Our aim is to call the attention to these mistakes and persuadeusers to spend time to educate themselves in text editing. They have to realize that a well-structured text is able to strengthen the effect on the reader, thus the original message will reach the target group.

  12. Semantic Text Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.

  13. The search for novel anticancer agents: a differentiation-based assay and analysis of a folklore product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnen, R D; Ebisuzaki, K

    1997-01-01

    One alternative approach to the current use of cytotoxic anticancer drugs involves the use of differentiation-inducing agents. However, a wider application of this strategy would require the development of assays to search for new differentiation-inducing agents. In this report we describe an in vitro assay using the murine erythroleukemia (clone 3-1) cells. Tests for the efficacy of this assay for the analysis of antineoplastic activity in natural products led to studies on pau d'arco, a South American folklore product used in the treatment of cancer. Purification of the activity in aqueous extracts by solvent partition and thin layer chromatography (TLC) indicated the presence of two activities, one of which was identified as lapachol. The activity in the pau d'arco extracts and of lapachol was inhibited by vitamin K1. As a vitamin K antagonist, lapachol might target such vitamin K-dependent reactions as the activation of a ligand for the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase.

  14. Text Mining: (Asynchronous Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheema Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.

  15. El folklore en las Baleares, una aproximación histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Valriu Llinàs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a review of the main contributions to fieldwork, documentation and other related topics on the Baleares’s (Spain oral literature, from the earliest attested examples to the present.

  16. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  17. U-Compare: share and compare text mining tools with UIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yoshinobu; Baumgartner, William A.; McCrohon, Luke; Ananiadou, Sophia; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Due to the increasing number of text mining resources (tools and corpora) available to biologists, interoperability issues between these resources are becoming significant obstacles to using them effectively. UIMA, the Unstructured Information Management Architecture, is an open framework designed to aid in the construction of more interoperable tools. U-Compare is built on top of the UIMA framework, and provides both a concrete framework for out-of-the-box text mining and a sophisticated evaluation platform allowing users to run specific tools on any target text, generating both detailed statistics and instance-based visualizations of outputs. U-Compare is a joint project, providing the world's largest, and still growing, collection of UIMA-compatible resources. These resources, originally developed by different groups for a variety of domains, include many famous tools and corpora. U-Compare can be launched straight from the web, without needing to be manually installed. All U-Compare components are provided ready-to-use and can be combined easily via a drag-and-drop interface without any programming. External UIMA components can also simply be mixed with U-Compare components, without distinguishing between locally and remotely deployed resources. Availability: http://u-compare.org/ Contact: kano@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp PMID:19414535

  18. O papel do folclore na motivação para atividades físicas de idosas The role of folklore in the motivation for physical activity of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Leni Costa Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem muitos relatos sobre os benefícios biológicos da atividade física em idosos. Porém, o número de praticantes ainda não é satisfatório. Esse ponto controverso foi usado no presente artigo. Pesquisou-se sobre o uso do folclore local como um mecanismo educacional e motivacional útil no aumento da prática de atividades físicas para idosas. Foram entrevistadas idosas do Clube da Amizade em Caetité - BA, que foram motivadas e estimuladas pela dança. Este artigo também usou as reflexões de Paulo Freire, que admite o uso da cultura e contexto de vida pessoal como o mais importante meio de motivação e de educação. Os resultados provaram que é positivo o uso deste citado processo motivacional em estimular idosas nas suas aulas de educação física. Elas relataram que se sentem muito motivadas durante as aulas de dança enquanto podem escutar músicas que as fazem lembrar de seu passado, cultura e valores morais.There are many reports about the biological benefits of the physical activity in older individuals. However the number of physically active elderly is still not satisfactory. This controversial point was used in the present article. It searches if the use of the local folklore as an educating and motivating mechanism was useful for increasing physical activity practices in older individuals. Individuals from "Clube da Amizade" in Caetité city, Bahia (Brazil were interviewed to assess how folkloric dance was used to motivate them in physical education classes. This article also uses the Paulo Freire reflections that admit the use of regional cultural aspects and the life context as the most import strategy to teach and motivate the participants. The results indicated that is positive to use this referred motivational process to stimulate old ladies in the physical education classes. The interviewed ladies reported that they feel very stimulate during dance classes while they listen to music that makes them to remember

  19. The use of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussein Ali Yehia Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at comparing the functions of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts. The study is carried out across genres; it includes texts from science, medicine, education, computers, and literary criticism. The texts constitute two corpora: a monolingual comparable corpus and bilingual parallel corpus. The monolingual comparable corpus is used to identify differences between Arabic translated and non-translated language in the uses of parentheses. The findings are then tested against a bilingual parallel corpus consisting of original English texts and their translations into Arabic. The study looks at the qualitative and quantitative differences between the uses of parentheses in translated and non-translated Arabic. Furthermore, the paper does not deal only with translation anomalies, but focuses as well on correct parallels. The paper can be seen then as a guide on the uses of parentheses in Arabic and in translation between Arabic and English.

  20. Overfitting Reduction of Text Classification Based on AdaBELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Overfitting is an important problem in machine learning. Several algorithms, such as the extreme learning machine (ELM, suffer from this issue when facing high-dimensional sparse data, e.g., in text classification. One common issue is that the extent of overfitting is not well quantified. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of overfitting referred to as the rate of overfitting (RO and a novel model, named AdaBELM, to reduce the overfitting. With RO, the overfitting problem can be quantitatively measured and identified. The newly proposed model can achieve high performance on multi-class text classification. To evaluate the generalizability of the new model, we designed experiments based on three datasets, i.e., the 20 Newsgroups, Reuters-21578, and BioMed corpora, which represent balanced, unbalanced, and real application data, respectively. Experiment results demonstrate that AdaBELM can reduce overfitting and outperform classical ELM, decision tree, random forests, and AdaBoost on all three text-classification datasets; for example, it can achieve 62.2% higher accuracy than ELM. Therefore, the proposed model has a good generalizability.

  1. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  2. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  3. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  4. Demonstration of luteotrophic responses of human recombinant gamma interferon in porcine corpora lutea using an in-vivo microdialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B S; Pedina, J; Steiner, A; Wuttke, W

    1997-01-01

    Conceptuses from several mammalian species prior to implantation secrete proteins belonging to the family of interferons. The main species of interferons known to be secreted by the pig blastocyst is interferon gamma (IFNgamma), the precise role of which is unclear. We decided to explore its effects on corpus luteum (CL) function using the novel microdialysis technique in vivo. Six cycling miniature pigs were monitored for estrus by daily plasma progesterone analysis and visual symptoms. On day nine of the cycle (day zero being the day of ovulation) the animals underwent surgery, and microdialysis tubing (vitafiber, Amicon U.S.A, cut off mol. wt. 1 million) were implanted in 17 corpora lutea. The inlets and outlets of all tubings were exteriorized and the entry and exit points of tubings in the CLs sealed with tissue glue. The afferent extension tubings were connected to a fraction collector and the system was continuously flushed with Ringer at a flow rate of 2.4 ml/h. After an initial flushout phase of 8 h, fractions were collected every half hour over 3 days. On days 10, 11 and 12 post estrus 12 CLs were stimulated for 4 h with 10(-7) M, 2 x 10(7) M and 4 x 10(-7) M human recombinant IFNgamma (Pharma Biotechnologie) respectively. Simultaneously, fractions were also collected from the remaining five unstimulated corpora lutea which served as controls. Progesterone concentrations in the dialysates were estimated by a sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA). A significant increase (P < 0.01) in progesterone release was observed in all 3 days following stimulation. The progesterone increase was more marked on the first day of stimulation (1 x 10[-7] M) with the hormone levels rising further even after the end of stimulation. The overall increase in progesterone concentration was 2-fold on day 10 in comparison to 15-30% on subsequent days even though IFN concentrations for stimulation were 2- and 4-fold higher. In the unstimulated CLs, a gradual decline (P < 0.01) in

  5. A comparative immunocytochemical study using an antiserum against a synthetic analogue of the corpora cardiaca peptide Pea-CAH-I (MI, neurohormone D) of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, M; Gabriel, J; Birkenbeil, H; Greiner, G; Rapus, J; Gäde, G

    1996-06-01

    An antiserum against the octapeptide Pea-CAH-I, a member of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family, has been produced for immunocytochemical staining in insects and various other invertebrate species. The anti-Pea-CAH-I serum stains the glandular corpora cardiaca cells of those insect species that synthesize identical or structurally similar peptides. In the corpora cardiaca of species producing peptides with a different C-terminus, these cells remain unstained. Pea-CAH-I-like immunoreactivity has also been found in neurons of the central nervous system of all invertebrate orders studied. The antiserum recognizes the C-terminal sequence Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2 of the Pea-CAH-I molecule as established by enzyme immunoassay. The widespread Pea-CAH-I-like immunoreactivity in all nervous systems of the studied animals probably does not reflect the presence of Pea-CAH-I but the occurrence of peptides carrying similar epitopes.

  6. EFFECTS OF JINLU, AN ANTI-JUVENILE HORMONE ON THE GROWTH, ULTRA-STRUCTURE OF THE CORPORA ALLATA AND PROTHORACIC GLAND OF SILKWORM, BOMBYX MORI L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 4th instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L, when treated with anti-juvenile hormone (Jinlu) had its larval period extended by 2 days and the total larval period shortened by about 4 days. The conversion ratio of tetramolters into trimolters was 100%. But anti-juvenile hormone administration to the 5th instar larvae lengthened the silkworm age by one day. When anti-juvenile hormone was administered, we could find many neurosecretory granules of the brain transferred to the cells of the corpora allata, but there was little endoplasmic reticulum. In the prothoracic gland, the micropile edge was clear and there were large nucleoli, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This study was carried out to show that anti-JH compound inhibits the secretion of Juvenile hormone in silkworm Bombyx mori L. The investigation revealed that the anti-juvenile hormone inhibited the secretion of corpora allata and initiated the activity of the prothoracic gland.

  7. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  8. Making Sense of Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  9. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  10. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  11. [Traditional midwife texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ingela; Stolt, Carl-Magnus

    2007-01-01

    We report an hermeneutic text study in two early midwife text books. In Louise Bourgeois book from early 17th century the individual caring perspective is more present than in Helena Malhiems book from the middle of the 18th century. In both books, however, non-technological aspects of child birth delivery is more prominent than in books written by doctors.

  12. A New English–Arabic Parallel Text Corpus for Lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    no parallel corpora for the English–Arabic language pair have yet been devel- oped. This is ... learning by discovery, enhancement of vocabulary, preparation of ... employs relevancy ranking and ignores common Arabic errors, e.g. hamza,.

  13. 浙地民俗诗对宋诗的领域拓展及手法创新%The Theme Expansion and Technique Creation of the Folklore Poems in the Zhejiang Area to the Poetry in the Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东玲

    2012-01-01

    宋代两浙地区民俗诗创作十分繁荣,专题民俗诗大量涌现。专题民俗诗从纵横两个方面拓展了宋诗题材的表现领域和表现深度,并强调表现手法与民俗主题的契合度,其典型的表现手法有情境特写、全景鸟瞰、流程展示以及群像展览等,皆是对宋诗表现手法的丰富与拓展,增强了诗歌对于民俗文化的表现力度与史料价值。%Folklore poetry creation was prosperous in the Liangzhe Region in the Song Dynasty and a multitude of folklore poems concerning specific subjects emerged. Those folklore poems expanded and deepened the Song Dynasty poems horizontally and vertically, and focused on fit of the theme of the folklore with the techniques of expressions. Some typical expressions such as situational closeup, panoramic view, process demonstration and group- image display enriched and developed the techniques of expressions of the poetry in the Song Dynasty, which strengthened the expressive force of poems on folklore cultures and their historical value.

  14. Collecting and evaluating speech recognition corpora for 11 South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the Lwazi corpus for automatic speech recognition (ASR), a new telephone speech corpus which contains data from the eleven official languages of South Africa. Because of practical constraints, the amount of speech per language...

  15. Collecting and evaluating speech recognition corpora for nine Southern Bantu languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, JAC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors describes the Lwazi corpus for automatic speech recognition (ASR), a new telephone speech corpus which includes data from nine Southern Bantu languages. Because of practical constraints, the amount of speech per language is relatively...

  16. A phytopharmacological review on Justicia picta (Acanthaceae: A well known tropical folklore medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs and the ethno pharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae with approximately 600 species. Aim of the present review is to present literature for the traditional uses & pharmacological review of Justicia picta (Family: Acanthaceae and to discuss further priorities of research yet to be discovered.

  17. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  18. Factors affecting spontaneous reduction of corpora lutea and twin embryos during the late embryonic/early fetal period in multiple-ovulating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Hunter, R H F

    2010-02-01

    Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos has been described in high-producing, Holstein-Fresian (Bos taurus) dairy herds. The first objective of the current study was to determine whether management and cow factors could have an effect on such a reduction in twin pregnancies during the early fetal period. Because loss of a corpus luteum was noted in cows suffering twin reduction, we expanded our study to include multiple-ovulating cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy was diagnosed and confirmed from Days 28 to 34 and 56 to 62 postinsemination. Sixty-nine (23.5%) of 293 pregnant cows with two corpora lutea carrying singletons and 132 (28.4%) of 464 twin pregnancies recorded on first pregnancy diagnosis subsequently lost one of the corpora lutea or one of the embryos, respectively. Thirty-four (25.8%) of the 132 twin pregnancies suffering embryo reduction lost one corpus luteum along with the embryo. Corpus luteum reduction always occurred in the ovary ipsilateral to the gravid horn suffering embryo reduction. Binary logistic regressions were performed considering corpus luteum and embryo reduction as dependent variables in single and twin pregnancies, respectively, and several management- and cow-related factors as independent variables. In cows carrying singletons, the risk of corpus luteum reduction was 14.3 (1/0.07) times lower for a given herd, whereas the interaction season by laterality significantly affected corpus luteum reduction such that in cows with two corpora lutea ipsilateral to the horn of pregnancy, the risk of reduction decreased during the winter period. In cows carrying twins, ipsilateral twin pregnancies were 3.45 (1/0.29) times more likely to undergo the loss of one embryo than bilateral twin pregnancies. As an overall conclusion, both corpora lutea and embryos were vulnerable to the effects of stress factors during the early fetal period in cows maintaining their pregnancies. A strong unilateral relationship between the corpus luteum and

  19. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  20. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  1. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. There are currently over 60,000 full text articles available to access. These documents,made possible by agreement with third

  2. FOLKLORE ELEMENTS IN BEDRİ RAHMİ EYUBOGLU’S POEMS BEDRİ RAHMİ EYÜBOĞLU’NUN ŞİİRLERİNDE HALK BİLİMİ UNSURLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar DOĞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to figure out the folklore elements in Eyuboglu’s poems. Thus, his poem books Dol Karabakır Dol and Karadut were examined. In this study, research model was used. In interpreting the results of the study 25 items which were classified by Ornek in his book “Turk Halk Bilimi”, were used.The examples in Eyuboglu’s poems includes village,town and city life; folk architecture; vecihles and transportation technics; ecomomic type; classic folk-economy; nutrition, cuisine, storeroom; measurement, weighing and calculating methods; folk arts and handmade craft; folklore; folk believes, customs and traditions; transition period; stereotyped behaves and expression; folk literature; folk dance; folk music and folk musical instruments.The poet in his pems give place to folk songs and folk arts enormously. The poets who says “ Whenever I hear a village song , I feel shame of my poesy’’ aslo give places to beauty of his country. Occasionally usuing local accents in his poems makes him a simple one from the public.According to this study giving place Eyuboglu’s poems in the textbooks can be an important step for growing up persons who have versatile personality. Bu araştırma Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu’nun şiirlerindeki halk bilimi unsurlarını belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda Eyüboğlu’nun Dol Karabakır Dol ve Karadut şiir kitapları incelenmiştir. Araştırmada tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulguların yorumlanmasında Örnek’in, Türk Halk Bilimi kitabında halk biliminin çalışma konularını sınıflandırdığı yirmi beş madde kullanılmıştır.Eyüboğlu’nun şiirlerinde köy, kasaba ve kent yaşamı; halk mimarisi; taşıtlar ve taşıma teknikleri; ekonomi türleri; halk ekonomisi; beslenme, mutfak, kiler; ölçme, tartma, hesaplama biçimleri; halk sanatları ve zanaatları; halk bilgisi; halk inançları, töreler, adetler, gelenek ve görenekler; geçiş d

  3. Information Extraction from Unstructured Text for the Biodefense Knowledge Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samatova, N F; Park, B; Krishnamurthy, R; Munavalli, R; Symons, C; Buttler, D J; Cottom, T; Critchlow, T J; Slezak, T

    2005-04-29

    The Bio-Encyclopedia at the Biodefense Knowledge Center (BKC) is being constructed to allow an early detection of emerging biological threats to homeland security. It requires highly structured information extracted from variety of data sources. However, the quantity of new and vital information available from every day sources cannot be assimilated by hand, and therefore reliable high-throughput information extraction techniques are much anticipated. In support of the BKC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, together with the University of Utah, are developing an information extraction system built around the bioterrorism domain. This paper reports two important pieces of our effort integrated in the system: key phrase extraction and semantic tagging. Whereas two key phrase extraction technologies developed during the course of project help identify relevant texts, our state-of-the-art semantic tagging system can pinpoint phrases related to emerging biological threats. Also we are enhancing and tailoring the Bio-Encyclopedia by augmenting semantic dictionaries and extracting details of important events, such as suspected disease outbreaks. Some of these technologies have already been applied to large corpora of free text sources vital to the BKC mission, including ProMED-mail, PubMed abstracts, and the DHS's Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) news clippings. In order to address the challenges involved in incorporating such large amounts of unstructured text, the overall system is focused on precise extraction of the most relevant information for inclusion in the BKC.

  4. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly

  5. Emotion Detection from Text

    CERN Document Server

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  6. "Professional Corpora":Teaching Strategies for Work with Online Documentation,Translation Memories and Content Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Pym

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of electronic memorv capacity is having fundamental long-term effects on the way texts are produced and used,and thus on the way they are translated.Translators are increasingly working on data bases in non-linear ways,separated from awareness of any active communicative context.This enhances productivity and consistency but challenges more humanistic values like understanding,cooperation,and job satisfaction.In order to address these changes,teaching prices should 1)make students aware of the communicative functions of texts,particularly the ways in which particular parts of texts become high-risk in particular situations,2)teach students how to use electronic tech-nologies within such a flame,and how to teach themselves about the technologies,and 3)train students for arange of professional communica-tion jobs,incorporating both the technical sides and the various revision and editing techniques now required by the technologies.

  7. Data from Eye-Tracking Corpora as Evidence for Theories of Syntactic Processing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demberg, Vera; Keller, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the predictions of two theories of syntactic processing complexity, dependency locality theory (DLT) and surprisal, against the Dundee Corpus, which contains the eye-tracking record of 10 participants reading 51,000 words of newspaper text. Our results show that DLT integration cost is not a significant predictor of reading times for…

  8. Developing intonation corpora for isiXhosa and isiZulu

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available as a quadratic spline function i.e a continuous smooth sequence of segments of parabolas defined by a sequence of target points corresponding to points where the first derivative of the curve is nil. The F0 for each recording was extracted at every...

  9. Quirky Quotes and Needles in the Haystack: Tracing Grammatical Change in Untagged Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norde, Muriel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses pivotal theoretical and methodological problems of historical corpus linguistics. In two case studies from Swedish language history, the development of the epistemic adverb kanske and the group genitive respectively, it illustrates how the use of qualitative method in addition to corpus investigation can contribute to understanding grammatical change.

  10. Discovery Learning and Teaching with Electronic Corpora in an Advanced German Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the design and implementation of a usage-based and corpus-based advanced German grammar course. Teaching materials for the course included DWDS, or "Digitales Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache": a large, representative, free and publicly available corpus of contemporary German texts. The article outlines specific…

  11. Discovery Learning and Teaching with Electronic Corpora in an Advanced German Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the design and implementation of a usage-based and corpus-based advanced German grammar course. Teaching materials for the course included DWDS, or "Digitales Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache": a large, representative, free and publicly available corpus of contemporary German texts. The article outlines specific…

  12. Relational Data Modelling of Textual Corpora: The Skaldic Project and its Extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2015-01-01

    Skaldic poetry is a highly complex textual phenomenon both in terms of the intricacy of the poetry and its contextual environment. Extensible Markup Language (XML) applications such as that of the Text Encoding Initiative provide a means of semantic representation of some of these complexities. XML...

  13. Computer Learner Corpora: Analysing Interlanguage Errors in Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Penny; Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Carot, Sierra, Jose Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the computer-aided analysis of interlanguage errors made by the participants in the telematic simulation IDEELS (Intercultural Dynamics in European Education through on-Line Simulation). The synchronous and asynchronous communication analysed was part of the MiLC Corpus, a multilingual learner corpus of texts written by…

  14. Computer Learner Corpora: Analysing Interlanguage Errors in Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Penny; Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Carot, Sierra, Jose Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the computer-aided analysis of interlanguage errors made by the participants in the telematic simulation IDEELS (Intercultural Dynamics in European Education through on-Line Simulation). The synchronous and asynchronous communication analysed was part of the MiLC Corpus, a multilingual learner corpus of texts written by…

  15. LA EDUCACIÓN EN VALORES EN LOS ESTUDIOS OFICIALES DE DANZA Y EN EL FOLKLORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rodríguez Lloréns

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la intención de subsanar la incoherencia que presentan actualmente los estudios reglados de danza, en cuanto a las excelentes posibilidades educativas que ésta puede brindar al ser humano y la carencia en formación en valores que a menudo se observa en las aulas de los centros oficiales, se realizan dos estudios descriptivos en dos ámbitos diferentes de la enseñanza de la danza: el oficial y el tradicional. La información obtenida fundamenta el planteamiento y desarrollo de una intervención educativa, que tiene como objetivo la elaboración de la Propuesta Didáctica de Educación en Valores en la Danza (EVD, que se presenta finalmente como valiosa herramienta educativa, apta para la enseñanza de la danza en los estudios oficiales.

  16. On the analysis of occurrence background for folklore custom tourism resources in Fujian province%试论福建省民俗旅游资源赋存背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽巍

    2009-01-01

    福建省民俗旅游资源丰富,特色突出,但是相关的研究却较为缺乏.从福建省民俗旅游资源赋存背景、区域背景、开发背景看,福建省具备民俗旅游资源的开发条件.%Fujian Province is abundant in folklore custom tourism resources and has prominent trait, hut there is shortage of study in point. This paper is in allusion to the occurrence background, area background and the development background for folklore custom tourism resources in Fujian Province. It is concluded that the requirements for the development of folklore custom tourism can be satisfied in Fujian.

  17. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health

  18. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Jour-

  19. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    and free online dictionaries. The Diccionario español para la producción de textos is an example of a general text production dictionary that makes use of internet technologies, is based on a lexicographic theory, contains all the lexicographic data that users need in a production situation, and aims...

  20. Text as Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

    As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

  1. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  2. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  3. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  4. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  5. E-text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2017-01-01

    modality, which is both an independent modality and a container in which other modalities may be contained. In the first case, the notion of electronic text would be paradigmatically formed around the e-book, conceived as a digital copy a printed book, but now produced as a deliberately closed work. Even...

  6. New mathematical cuneiform texts

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...

  7. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  8. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  9. Summarizing Expository Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  10. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  11. STOLʹNYI GOROD ‘Capital City’ in Old Russian and Folklore Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Vvedenskiy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to determine when one of the most popular epic formulas, stolʹnyi Kiev-grad ‘Kiev the capital city’ and its variants with the attribute stolʹnyi, emerged in the epic lyrics. The fact that the adjective stolʹnyi was rarely used in Old Russian literary monuments of the 11th–17th centuries suggests that the formula might have appeared only in the 17th century, in a literary work—The Legend of the Kievan Knights. It is suggested that this formula appeared in the 17th century due to the addition of Left-Bank Ukraine and Kiev to the Tsardom of Muscovy. The formula contains a reference to the political realities of the 9th–11th centuries, when Kiev was the major city of the Russian state. The attribution of the adjective stolʹnyi to Kiev in the 17th century was intended to emphasize the fact that Moscow inherited its political leadership from Kiev.

  12. MENELUSURI SEJARAH ASAL MULA BALIKPAPAN MELALUI PERAYAAN ERAU BALIK DELAPAN Sebuah Kajian Budaya dan Folklor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulum Janah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on the origin of Balikpapan City through Erau Balik Delapan is factually encouraged by the cultural phenomenon along Melawai Beach. The cultural phenomenon happens there has not yet found before which has been a specific interest of the new-comers. It has been beleived that Balikapan City does not have its own culture, rather than imigrants’ ones. While Erau is originated from East Kalimantan which is celebrated in areas away from East Kalimnatan, but not in Balikpapan. This ceremony is coducted with the presence of the King, the Queen, and the Kingdom’s Advisor of Kutai, which is then beleived that there is a close relationship between Kutai Kingdom and Erau in Balikpapan. This research is attempted to bring about thorough explanation about the history of Balikpapan City under qualitataive research method. The data are drawn through participatory observation, in-depth interview and documentation. The data are validated by the time-triangulation technique. The result of the reserach shows the origin of Balikpapan through Erau Balik Delapan pertaining to the history, culture and legend which are still depply rooted in the community of Kutai.

  13. Pharmacological evaluation and validation for the folkloric use of Oligochaeta ramose in constipation and diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaddique Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of Oligochaeta ramose and its fractions were studied to rationalize its traditional use in GIT disturbance. In spontaneous contracting jejunum preparation, O. ramose (0.01-1.0 mg/mL caused a transient spasmogenic effect followed by the spasmolytic effect at higher doses (3.0-10.0 mg/mL. In atropinized jejunum preparation, O. ramose inhibit the spontaneous and K+ (80 mM-induced contraction at the similar doses (0.01-1.0 mg/mL, suggesting calcium channel blocking effect. The calcium channel blocking effect was confirmed when pretreatment of tissue with O. ramose produced a dose-dependent shift in Ca+2 dose- response curve to the right, similar to that produced by the verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic effect is concentrated in the dichloromethane fraction while, aqueous fraction contains both spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents. This study validate the presence of both spasmogenic and spasmolytic components mediated through muscarinic receptor activation and calcium channel blockade respectively, which may explain its traditional uses in constipation and diarrhea.

  14. Folkloric Modernism – Venice’s Giardini della Biennale and the Geopolitics of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Robinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the national pavilions of the Venice Biennale, the largest and longest running exposition of contemporary art. It begins with an investigation of the post-fascist landscape of Venice’s Giardini della Biennale, as its built environment continued to evolve in the decades after 1945, with the construction of several new pavilions. With a view to exploring the architectural infrastructure of an event that has billed itself as ‘international’ from the first decade of the twentieth century, this paper asks how the mapping of national pavilions here might have changed to reflect the supposedly post-colonial and democratic aspirations of the West after the Second World War. Homing in on the nations that gained representation here in the 1950s and 60s, it looks at three of the more interesting architectural additions to the gardens, namely the pavilions for Israel, Canada and Brazil. These are used to raise questions about how national pavilions are mobilized ideologically, but also to explore broader questions about the geopolitical superstructure of the Biennale as an institution.

  15. It Is Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna Radiata has been traditionally used in China both as nutritional food and herbal medicine against a number of inflammatory conditions since the 1050s. A nucleosomal protein, HMGB1, has recently been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation with a relatively wider therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions. Here we explored the HMGB1-inhibiting capacity and therapeutic potential of mung bean coat (MBC extract in vitro and in vivo. We found that MBC extract dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 and several chemokines in macrophage cultures. Oral administration of MBC extract significantly increased animal survival rates from 29.4% (in saline group, N=17 mice to 70% (in experimental MBC extract group, N=17 mice, P<0.05. In vitro, MBC extract stimulated HMGB1 protein aggregation and facilitated both the formation of microtubule-associatedprotein-1-light-chain-3-(LC3-containing cytoplasmic vesicles, and the production of LC3-II in macrophage cultures. Consequently, MBC extract treatment led to reduction of cellular HMGB1 levels in macrophage cultures, which was impaired by coaddition of two autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenine. Conclusion. MBC extract is protective against lethal sepsis possibly by stimulating autophagic HMGB1 degradation.

  16. A Text-Independent Speaker Authentication System for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Thullier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a text independent speaker authentication method adapted to mobile devices. Special attention was placed on delivering a fully operational application, which admits a sufficient reliability level and an efficient functioning. To this end, we have excluded the need for any network communication. Hence, we opted for the completion of both the training and the identification processes directly on the mobile device through the extraction of linear prediction cepstral coefficients and the naive Bayes algorithm as the classifier. Furthermore, the authentication decision is enhanced to overcome misidentification through access privileges that the user should attribute to each application beforehand. To evaluate the proposed authentication system, eleven participants were involved in the experiment, conducted in quiet and noisy environments. Public speech corpora were also employed to compare this implementation to existing methods. Results were efficient regarding mobile resources’ consumption. The overall classification performance obtained was accurate with a small number of samples. Then, it appeared that our authentication system might be used as a first security layer, but also as part of a multilayer authentication, or as a fall-back mechanism.

  17. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Turcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.. Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined application performance model. A first goal of our performance measurements is to determine an optimal file size for our application to consume. Using the subset-sum first fit heuristic we reshape the input data by merging files in order to match as closely as possible the desired file size. This also speeds up the task of retrieving the results of our application, by having the output be less segmented. Using predictions of the performance of our application based on measurements on small data sets, we devise an execution plan that meets a user specified deadline while minimizing cost.

  18. From university research to innovation Detecting knowledge transfer via text mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woltmann, Sabrina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and indicators such as patents, collaborative publications and license agreements, to assess the contribution to the socioeconomic surrounding of universities. In this study, we present an extension of the current empirical framework by applying new computational methods, namely text mining and pattern...... recognition. Text samples for this purpose can include files containing social media contents, company websites and annual reports. The empirical focus in the present study is on the technical sciences and in particular on the case of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). We generated two independent...... text collections (corpora) to identify correlations of university publications and company webpages. One corpus representing the company sites, serving as sample of the private economy and a second corpus, providing the reference to the university research, containing relevant publications. We...

  19. Crowdfunding: entre as Multidões e as Corporações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Felinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as práticas de crowdfunding e crowdsourcing no contexto da chamada web 2.0.  Por meio de uma exploração filosófica e sociológica das noções de multidão e de indivíduo, investigamos as tensões ideológicas que cercam essas praticas, encaradas por vezes como libertárias, por vezes como conservadoras.  O artigo aborda estudos de caso que ajudam a ilustrar os aspectos contraditórios do crowdfunding.

  20. Évolution du système linguistique d'apprenants d'allemand à l'aide de corpus numériques. L'exemple de l'adjectif. Learning to handle German adjective flexion by means of corpora use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schaeffer-Lacroix

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les corpus sont des environnements textuels susceptibles de soutenir l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère (Johns et King, 1991 : iii ; Bernardini, 2004 : 16. Afin de contribuer à donner un fondement empirique à cette attente, j'ai observé l'évolution de la flexion adjectivale lors d'un projet de production écrite en allemand. Le projet a été basé sur l'exploitation de corpus réfléchis, donc de collections de documents en ligne, représentant tous un même genre textuel. J'ai invité treize adolescents francophones de niveau peu avancé à intermédiaire à puiser dans trois corpus du domaine du tourisme afin de réviser leurs textes pouvant potentiellement faire partie du site Internet d'un musée. J'ai comparé leur production de départ, faite sans aide à la rédaction, à deux des productions qu'ils ont créées en ayant un accès illimité aux corpus, et à leur production finale lors de laquelle ils ont pu s'aider d'un texte du corpus et de lignes de concordances présélectionnées. Cette comparaison fait ressortir que, dans certaines conditions, l'utilisation des corpus peut mener à une complexification de la production écrite : dans les données, le nombre de structures parataxiques chute au profit de structures comportant davantage d'adjectifs fléchis et davantage d'adjectifs ayant la fonction d'adverbe.Johns and King (1991: iii and Bernardini (2004: 16 consider corpora as helpful learning resources which can be explored by foreign language learners. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support this assumption. My paper describes the evolution of German adjective flexion in texts written during a project including corpora as writing aids. I invited thirteen adolescents living in France, with a four-year experience of learning German, to exploit small corpora containing texts taken from tourism websites in order to write three texts which could be published on such websites. I compared these three