WorldWideScience

Sample records for foliar symptom response

  1. Symptoms of ozone-induced foliar injury on horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R. [Biologisch Ueberwachen und Bewerten, Echterdingen (Germany); Bender, J.; Bergmann, E.; Weigel, H.J. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre Braunschweig (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Agroecology

    2002-07-01

    An ozone fumigation study has been conducted which aims to identify characteristic visible ozone symptoms on horticultural plant species and cultivars of economic significance that might help farmers as a diagnostic reference as well as increase people's awareness of the deleterious effects of ozone on vegetation. In most of the species and cultivars studied, specific ozone-induced foliar injury was observed. (orig.)

  2. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

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    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  3. Impact of foliar symptoms of "Esca proper" on proteins related to defense and oxidative stress of grape skins during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Grégory; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Vilain, Sébastien; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Claverol, Stéphane; Gény, Laurence; Bonneu, Marc; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Donèche, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Esca is one of the major diseases affecting vineyards with direct impact on product yield; nevertheless, scientific studies concerning its impact on grape quality are scarce. As an attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind "Esca proper" development in grapes, this work focused on the identification of proteins whose expression is altered by the disease. 2-DEs were performed on protein extracts from grape skins at different stages of maturity for two consecutive vintages. Grapes were collected in 2009 and in 2010 from plants that did not present signs of infection by Esca proper since the 2004 vintage and from plants that presented cast leaf symptoms at least once since 2004. For the first time, 13 proteins were shown to be influenced by Esca proper during the ripening process. Extensive bioinformatics analysis allowed the grouping of proteins involved in (i) stress tolerance and defense response, (ii) oxidative phosphorylation, (iii) oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, and (iv) oxidation-reduction processes in chloroplasts. Of these 13 proteins, cysteine synthase is the only one implicated in a metabolic pathway of oenological interest. This study shows how foliar symptoms of Esca proper may impact stress-related pathways in grapes, which are characterized by modifications in the chain of oxidative phosphorylation and redox scavenging.

  4. Temporal variability of foliar nutrients: responses to nitrogen deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe

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    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha C.; Hou, Shuang-Li; Hu, Yan-Yu; Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Fu-Mei; Cui, Qiang; Han, Xing Guo

    2017-01-01

    Plant nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry drive fundamental ecosystem processes, with important implications for primary production, diversity, and ecosystem sustainability. While a range of evidence exists regarding how plant nutrients vary across spatial scales, our understanding of their temporal variation remains less well understood. Nevertheless, we know nutrients regulate plant function across time, and that important temporal controls could strongly interact with environmental change. Here, we report results from a 3-year assessment of inter-annual changes of foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and stoichiometry in three dominant grasses in response to N deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe of northern China. Foliar N and P concentrations and their ratios varied greatly among years, with this temporal variation strongly related to inter-annual variation in precipitation. Nitrogen deposition significantly increased foliar N concentrations and N:P ratios in all species, while fire significantly altered foliar N and P concentrations but had no significant impacts on N:P ratios. Generally, N addition enhanced the temporal stability of foliar N and decreased that of foliar P and of N:P ratios. Our results indicate that plant nutrient status and response to environmental change are temporally dynamic and that there are differential effects on the interactions between environmental change drivers and timing for different nutrients. These responses have important implications for consideration of global change effects on plant community structure and function, management strategies, and the modeling of biogeochemical cycles under global change scenarios.

  5. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Somers, G L; Renfro, J R

    2007-10-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM.

  6. Response of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. on soil mulching and foliar nutrition with manganese

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    Mirosław Konopiński

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is one of the most important species of fruit plants in Poland. The consumer usefulness and processing of fruits determined the taste and chemical composition. The raspberry fruits contain many valuable and important for human health ingredients. Furthermore the raspberries have a very high value of beekeeping. The main determinants of achieving a high yield and high biological value are a good supply of plant in the macro- and micronutrients and properly prepared soil.The aim of the study was to determine the response of raspberry on the soil mulching and foliar nutrition with manganese. In the study were included the following factors: I type of bedding: black foil, black agri-woven, pine bark, wheat straw, soil without bedding – control; II foliar nutrition with manganese and without foliar nutrition. Yield of fruits, weight of 100 fruits, length of shoots, fruiting terms and the number of harvests were specified. It was found that the soil bedding in the raspberries rows had no significant effect on the plant yielding, weight of fruits, length of shoots and the number of harvests. Foliar nutrition with manganese had a significant negative impact on the yield of raspberry fruits and their mass. While the foliar nutrition of plants had a significantly positive impact on the growth of raspberry shoots.

  7. Foliar symptoms recovery: developing scoring technique for assessment of soybean resistance to CPMMV (Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus

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    Siti Zubaidah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a commodity that has an important role as the source of protein, but its production is affected by various factors including disease. CpMMV (Cowpea mild mottle virus is one of the most damaging viruses that cause soybean disease. CpMMVs belong to the group of Carlavirus that are transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci. The use of CpMMV resistant plants as biological control can prevent viral diseases. Indonesia has many soybean germplasm from many regions and introduction from other countries that need to be evaluated for CpMMV. The assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV is not available yet, but it is still based on other virus diseases. The specific assessment of plant resistance is important because some diseases can cause certain symptoms, depends on the resistance and the kinds of plants that are infected. This paper presents the assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV infection, which can be used for various purposes and studies. One of the benefits is to find out soybean resistance to CpMMV or other objectives. This resistance assessment is not only based on leaves symptoms, but also based on the phenomenon of foliar symptoms recovery. Keywords: CpMMV, foliar symptoms recovery, scoring technique, soybean resistance.

  8. Response of tomato to NPK fertilizer and foliar application of algifol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of tomato to NPK fertilizer and foliar application of algifol nutrient solution in ... 1, 1½ and 2) were applied at the rates of 5:10:15:20ml per 100ml of water. ... the treatments effect was significant (P<0.05) at 8WAT and highly significant ...

  9. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappelka, A.H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Somers, G.L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Renfro, J.R. [USDI National Park Service, Resource Management and Science Division, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN 37738 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  10. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Haley F; Ollinger, Scott V; Martin, Mary E; Hollinger, David Y; Lepine, Lucie C; Day, Michelle C; Bartlett, Megan K; Richardson, Andrew D; Norby, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance.

  11. Foliar symptoms triggered by ozone stress in irrigated holm oaks from the city of Madrid, Spain.

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    Carlos Calderón Guerrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite abatement programs of precursors implemented in many industrialized countries, ozone remains the principal air pollutant throughout the northern hemisphere with background concentrations increasing as a consequence of economic development in former or still emerging countries and present climate change. Some of the highest ozone concentrations are measured in regions with a Mediterranean climate but the effect on the natural vegetation is alleviated by low stomatal uptake and frequent leaf xeromorphy in response to summer drought episodes characteristic of this climate. However, there is a lack of understanding of the respective role of the foliage physiology and leaf xeromorphy on the mechanistic effects of ozone in Mediterranean species. Particularly, evidence about morphological and structural changes in evergreens in response to ozone stress is missing. RESULTS: Our study was started after observing ozone -like injury in foliage of holm oak during the assessment of air pollution mitigation by urban trees throughout the Madrid conurbation. Our objectives were to confirm the diagnosis, investigate the extent of symptoms and analyze the ecological factors contributing to ozone injury, particularly, the site water supply. Symptoms consisted of adaxial and intercostal stippling increasing with leaf age. Underlying stippling, cells in the upper mesophyll showed HR-like reactions typical of ozone stress. The surrounding cells showed further oxidative stress markers. These morphological and micromorphological markers of ozone stress were similar to those recorded in deciduous broadleaved species. However, stippling became obvious already at an AOT40 of 21 ppm•h and was primarily found at irrigated sites. Subsequent analyses showed that irrigated trees had their stomatal conductance increased and leaf life -span reduced whereas the leaf xeromorphy remained unchanged. These findings suggest a central role of water availability

  12. Acidic mist reduces foliar membrane-associated calcium and impairs stomatal responsiveness in red spruce

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    Borer, C. H.; DeHayes, D. H. [University of Vermont, Rubinstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, Burlington, VT (United States); Schaberg, P. G. [USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, South Burlington, VT (United States)

    2005-06-01

    The possibility of impairment of stomatal responsiveness due to acidic mist-induced depletion of foliar membrane calcium (mCa) was investigated by exposing red spruce seedlings to either pH 3.0 or pH 5.0 mist treatments for one growing season. Foliar nutrition was assessed following each treatment, and declines in stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were measured on current year shoots following stem excision. Seedlings subjected to pH 3.0 acidic mist treatment had reduced mCa, and exhibited impaired stomatal function, including a smaller maximum aperture, slower closure, increased lag time between stomatal closure and photosynthetic decline following experimental water stress, relative to seedling treated with pH 5.0 acidic mist. The evidence supports the hypothesis that anthropogenetically caused depletion of mCa may disrupt physiological processes that depend on foliar Ca, in the process reducing the plants ability to respond adaptively to environmental stresses. 69 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. RESPONSE OF SOILD FOLIAR APLICATION OF SILICON AND MICRO NUTRIENTS ON LEAF NUTRIENT STATUS OF SAPOTA

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    K. A. LATHIYA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted to know the response of soil and foliar application of silicon and micronutrients on nutrient status of sapota at College of Horticulture Mudigere, Chikamagalur district during the year 2010- 2012. Silicon sources like potassium silicate and calcium silicate and micronutrient contents like solubor and kiecite –G were used. Macro nutrients like nitrogen (1.583 %, phosphorous (0.175 % and the potassium (1.20 % and silicon content (1.20 % in leaf were recorded highest with potassium silicate spray with 8 ml per litre. Whereas micronutrient content has not increased considerably with respect to application of silicon sources. The maximum content of iron (179.89 ppm, copper (7.61 ppm, zinc (35.13 ppm and manganese (91.16 ppm was recorded in the leaf due to foliar spray of micronutrients at 4 ml per litre. As macro nutrient and silicon content was more in the treatment with foliar application of potassium silicate at 8 ml per litre resulted in more yield and quality of fruits.

  14. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

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    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  15. Plant Foliar Response to Soil Nutrient Availability Across Contrasting Geologic Settings

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    Castle, S. C.; Neff, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    Rock derived mineral nutrients such as P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and K play a significant, but poorly understood role in the structure and function of temperate forest ecosystems. Though these nutrients are not necessarily limiting to plant growth, they are essential to plant physiological functioning. In this study, we test the hypothesis that foliar nutrients are a proxy for soil nutrient availability across sites of different underlying geologies. Specifically, we focus on the plant nutrient-use strategies of rock derived nutrients (P and K) and how they relate to soil nutrient status. In order to assess the responses of plant species to nutrient availability, we monitored above ground net primary productivity (current annual increment + litterfall), plant chemistry, and soil nutrients for a period of 24 months. This research was completed in the San Juan Mountain region of southern Colorado, where there is a high local diversity of bedrock geochemistry. Within this region, two small sub-alpine basins were chosen; a sedimentary basin composed of Mesozoic cyclic limestone, sandstone & shale and a volcanic basin composed of Tertiary rhyolite. Across these basins, geology played a significant role in explaining the variability of rock derived nutrient availability. Initial results suggest that differences in bedrock geochemistry have little influence on the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of plants or on the chemistry of foliar materials. This inflexibility of foliar chemistry to variations in nutrient availability suggests that genetic and physiologic controls play a strong role in determining the chemical content of plant materials. An alternative hypothesis is that deposition of eolian mineral dust into subalpine systems could play a role in offsetting the reliance of vegetation on deeper bedrock derived nutrient sources. An investigation is currently underway to assess the contribution of eolian dust derived nutrients to plant nutrition using Sr as a geochemical

  16. Variation in Foliar Nitrogen and Albedo in Response to Elevated Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide

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    Wicklein, H. F.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. M.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bartlett, M. K.; Richardson, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that foliar nitrogen (N) is positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo over a broad range of plant functional types. However, the mechanism(s) driving the N- albedo relationship remain elusive, and it is unknown whether factors affecting N availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we investigated leaf spectral properties from three deciduous broadleaf species subjected to either N (Harvard Forest, MA and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO2 fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN), and compared results to measured chemical and structural properties. We measured reflectance and transmittance along with foliar N, leaf mass per unit area, and water content for stacks of 1, 2, 4, and 8 leaves. For the Oak Ridge, TN site, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible / infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no significant differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO2 or N treatments, despite changes in N concentration caused by N fertilization. Although foliar N was significantly correlated with leaf shortwave and near infrared reflectance across species, the slope of both relationships was negative, which ran counter to our expectations. These results do not support the hypothesis that the canopy-level pattern is driven by leaf-level relationships. In contrast to leaf-level observations, remote sensing data from Oak Ridge did indicate an increase in NIR reflectance with N fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered N availability may have an effect on canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve stem or canopy level processes rather than changes in leaf structure.

  17. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

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    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  18. Acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis in response to experimental warming in a temperate steppe in northern China.

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    Yonggang Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis is critical for projection of changes in carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems under global warming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate foliar temperature (Tleaf by 2.07°C in a temperate steppe in northern China. Rd/Tleaf curves (responses of dark respiration to Tleaf, An/Tleaf curves (responses of light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates to Tleaf, responses of biochemical limitations and diffusion limitations in gross CO2 assimilation rates (Ag to Tleaf, and foliar nitrogen (N concentration in Stipa krylovii Roshev. were measured in 2010 (a dry year and 2011 (a wet year. Significant thermal acclimation of Rd to 6-year experimental warming was found. However, An had a limited ability to acclimate to a warmer climate regime. Thermal acclimation of Rd was associated with not only the direct effects of warming, but also the changes in foliar N concentration induced by warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warming decreased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the response of Rd/Ag ratio to Tleaf. Our findings may have important implications for improving ecosystem models in simulating carbon cycles and advancing understanding on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem functions.

  19. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Kelly A.; Peter P. Motavalli; Stevens, William E.; Kendig, John A.; David Dunn; Manjula Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S), 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13) and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1) on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ...

  20. Examining Trends in Foliar N and Albedo in Response to Disturbance in Canadian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, L. C.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    Disturbance in forest ecosystems bears relevance to the climate system through changes in CO2, water and energy exchange. Recent work revealed a strong link among canopy albedo, nitrogen concentrations and carbon assimilation, suggesting a potential feedback in the climate system involving foliar N as it relates to vegetation reflectance and shortwave surface energy exchange. Nevertheless, how disturbance affects canopy chemistry and albedo over space and time has not been widely studied, and general patterns have yet to emerge. Many questions remain, including: What is the effect of disturbance on albedo over time—how does albedo change over time after fire? Do canopy N and albedo decline over time from harvesting to stand recovery? What effect do altered N inputs have on albedo? Examining the N-albedo relationship in the context of gradients in disturbance and recovery may provide a better understanding of how disturbance impacts the climate system. Here, we examine the degree to which canopy albedo and N concentrations are affected by fire and harvest events, as well as elevated inputs of nitrogen. Our investigation makes use of data from remote sensing, field measurements and eddy flux towers at sites that are part of the Canadian Carbon Program. Specifically, we explore variability in canopy N and albedo along disturbance-recovery chronosequences in Quebec and Saskatchewan, as well as in response to N fertilization at a forested site in British Columbia. Results are discussed with respect to local variation at these sites as a means of understanding disturbance-linked changes in albedo and foliar N.

  1. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition

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    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-01

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha‑1yr‑1) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P bamboo and P concentrations of mature bamboo but decreased mature bamboo foliar N:P ratios (P bamboo plantations, but the positive effects were diminished when the addition rate exceeded 60 kg N ha‑1yr‑1. Nitrogen increased foliar N concentrations but aggravated P deficiency in CM bamboo plantations. The positive effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  2. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-07

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1)) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  3. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: m.ferretti@linnaea.it; Calderisi, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: calderisi@chemiometria.it; Bussotti, Filippo [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.bussotti@unifi.it

    2007-02-15

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O{sub 3} (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R {sup 2} = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R {sup 2} = 0.55; p < 0.0001) was used to calculate expected defoliation on the basis of the previous year's defoliation, and model predictions were used as an estimate of expected defoliation under constant site and environmental condition. Residuals (predicted-measured) plotted against current AOT40 shows that a possible effect of ozone occurs only at very high AOT40 (>35,000 ppbh). O{sub 3}-like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O{sub 3} exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R {sup 2} = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation.

  4. Habitat Temperature and Precipitation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Determine the Response of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, and Transpiration to Growth Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William W; Stewart, Jared J; Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 and Swedish ecotypes, of phloem per minor vein in plants grown at the low temperature. In contrast, vein density and minor vein tracheary to sieve element ratio increased with increasing growth temperature - most strongly in Col-0 and least strongly in the Italian ecotype - and transpirational water loss correlated with vein density and number of tracheary elements per minor vein. Plotting of these vascular features as functions of climatic conditions in the habitat of origin suggested that temperatures during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined acclimatory responses of the foliar phloem and photosynthesis to temperature in this winter annual that upregulates photosynthesis in response to lower temperature, whereas the precipitation experienced during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined adjustment of foliar vein density, xylem, and transpiration to temperature. In particular, whereas photosynthetic capacity, leaf thickness, and foliar minor vein phloem features increased linearly with increasing latitude and decreasing temperature of the habitats of origin in response to experimental growth at low temperature, transpiration rate, foliar vein density, and minor vein tracheary element numbers and cross

  5. Habitat temperature and precipitation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes determine the response of foliar vasculature, photosynthesis, and transpiration to growth temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Walter Adams III

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 and Swedish ecotypes, of phloem per minor vein in plants grown at the low temperature. In contrast, vein density and minor vein tracheary to sieve element ratio increased with increasing growth temperature – most strongly in Col-0 and least strongly in the Italian ecotype – and transpirational water loss correlated with vein density and number of tracheary elements per minor vein. Plotting of these vascular features as functions of climatic conditions in the habitat of origin suggested that temperatures during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined acclimatory responses of the foliar phloem and photosynthesis to temperature in this winter annual that upregulates photosynthesis in response to lower temperature, whereas the precipitation experienced during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined adjustment of foliar vein density, xylem, and transpiration to temperature. In particular, whereas photosynthetic capacity, leaf thickness, and foliar minor vein phloem features increased linearly with increasing latitude and decreasing temperature of the habitats of origin in response to experimental growth at low temperature, transpiration rate, foliar vein density, and minor vein tracheary element numbers

  6. Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) select vegetation patches in local-scale responses to foliar nitrogen but not phosphorus in native grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviana Loaiza; Jayne L. Jonas; Anthony Joern

    2011-01-01

    Key elements such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are often limiting relative to the nutritional needs of herbivores that feed on them. While N often limits insect herbivores in natural terrestrial ecosystems, the effect of P is poorly studied in the field, even though compelling hypotheses from the ecological stoichiometry literature predict its importance. We evaluated small-scale spatial distributions of, and herbivory by, grasshoppers among neighboring plots that vary in foliar-N and -P in tallgrass prairie.Grasshopper densities were 67% greater in N-fertilized plots but detected no effect to grasshopper densities from P-fertilizer. Leaf damage to the dominant grass Andropogon gerardii was 32% greater in N-fertilized plots, but no response to foliar-P was detected.Herbivore damage to a common forb, goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis), was not strongly linked by fertilizer treatments, although there was increased leaf damage in N-fertilizer treatments when no P was applied (a significant N × P interaction). Under field conditions at local scales, we conclude that spatially heterogeneous distributions of grasshoppers are primarily affected by foliar-N in host plants with little evidence that P-levels contribute to the spatial patterns.

  7. Response of young bearing pecan trees to spring foliar nickel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lower critical leaf concentration for nickel (Ni) has not been fully determined for commercial pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch.] orchards. In a two-year study, foliar Ni was applied to orchard trees in early spring beginning at the parachute stage of leaf development and followed by ...

  8. Evaluating Maize Yield and the Quality of Response to Vermicompost, in Thiobacillus and Foliar Application of Fe and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Davaran Hagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Half of the world's population suffers from micronutrients malnutrition. Use of bio-fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems is important in production and enables plants to absorb more water from soil and improves plant nutrient uptake and photosynthesis. Benefits of vermicompost application in agriculture is due to its content of organic matter, plant nutrients and plant growth promotion. Vermicompost increases the absorption and transition of nutrients from soil to roots and improves plant growth (Simsek-Ersahin, 2011. Zn and Fe application is highly important; foliar application causes faster and higher absorption rate and cures deficiencies symptoms (Ghaffari et al., 2010. Thiobacillus is a chemolithotroph bacterium, receiving energy from sulfur oxidation. This bacterium acidifies microcites in the rhizosphere, increasing the availability of nutrients to plant roots (Kaya et al., 2009. Regarding the benefits of integrated nutrient management, this experiment was conducted with the aim of testing the effects of Fe and Zn foliar spraying, Thiobacillu sthiooxidans inoculation and vermicompost application on growth, yield and bio fortification of popcorn maize. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in 2012 at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, Iran. The experiment was conducted in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and four factors: vermicompost application in soil (0 and 2 t.ha-1, applied in strip form below the seeds before cultivation, inoculation with Thiobacillus thiooxidans, with a population of 108cfu.g-1. Sulfur was inoculated with T. thiooxidans prior to application. Fe chelate foliar application (without spraying and two times spraying of 0.002 concentration of 13% Fe chelate and Zn chelate foliar application (without spraying and two times spraying of 0.002 concentration of 15% Zn chelate. Maize seeds (Zea mays L. var

  9. Interspecific divergence in foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in a temperate forest in response to chronic nitrogen inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.D.; Burdette, S.B.; Gilliam, F.S. [Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Adams, M.B. [USDA Forest Service, Timber and Watershed Laboratory, Parsons, WV (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in deciduous forests can act as a fertilizer initially. However, at chronic elevated deposition levels, the nitrogen levels may exceed the demands of biota. This study examined the ecosystem response to nitrogen saturation. In particular, the effects of excessive nitrogen fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth was examined in 3 tree species in a mixed deciduous forest at Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia. Two watersheds were used. The first acted as a control which did not receive any treatments, and the second received 3 aerial applications of ammonium sulfate annually since 1989. Foliage of red maple, tulip poplar and black cherry were sampled in 1992, 1997 and 2000. Stem diameter growth, foliar nitrogen concentrations, nitrogen-phosphorous ratios and nutrient resorption were studied. In the earliest study, foliar nitrogen concentration of all 3 species was 11 per cent higher in the fertilized watershed compared to the control watershed. By 2000, that was no longer the case. Nitrogen concentration and nitrogen-phosphorous ratios were higher in the control watershed. Nitrogen resorption efficiencies in red maple and black cherry were 30 per cent lower in the treated watershed. Stem diameter growth in the treated watershed was 55 per cent lower in the red maple and 30 per cent lower in the tulip poplar and black cherry compared to that of the control watershed. The results suggest that the fertilized watershed had slower growth in red maple and to a lesser extent, black cherry and tulip poplar. It was concluded that increasing nitrogen saturation can lead to changes in species composition. 32 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Physiological Response of Soybean (Glycine max to Foliar Application of Methanol Under Different Soil Moistures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Paknejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many cultivated area are situated in arid zone, where crop photosynthesis and productivity has limited by drought. Thus any treatment, such as methanol, that improve plant water relation and reduce stress impacts, could be benefit. Approach: In order to investigate effects of methanol application on some physiological properties of soybean under low water stress, a factorial experiment was done at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran, during 2008, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was different levels of methanol equal to 0 (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 volumetric percentage (v/v, which were used as foliar applications at three times during growth season of soybean, with 15 days intervals. The second factor was water stress conditions in two levels, based on depletion of 40 and 70% of available soil moisture. Some traits such as Grain Yield, Relative Water Content (RWC, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll content were measured, one day before and after the third methanol application. Results: Chlorophyll content (Chl, GY, Electrolytes Leakage at second sampling, photochemical capacity of PSII (Fv/Fm, maximum and variable fluorescence (Fm and Fv, respectively were affected by water stress significantly (p0 and Electrolytes Leakage were increased. Methanol foliar application influenced significantly (pConclusion: It seems applying methanol on water stressed soybean plants can reduce harmful effects of drought and improve plant potential to cope with stress.

  11. Foliar responses of five plant species to ozone and a sulphur dioxide/ozone mixture after a sulphur dioxide pre-exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, G.; Beckerson, D. W.

    Plants that were pretreated with 0.15 ppm SO 2 for either 2 or 3 d before an intermittent O 3 or SO 2/O 3 exposure exhibited differences in per cent visible foliar injury that often varied significantly from plants that received no SO 2 pretreatment. Differences that were observed could not be explained on the basis of leaf diffusive resistance alone. The SO 2 pretreatment for 2 d caused a decrease in visible O 3 injury in white bean, an increase in visible O 3 injury in cucumber and radish, and had no effect on soybean and tomato. The same pretreatment caused an increase in visible injury from the SO 2/O 3 mixture in white bean, a decrease in visible injury for cucumber and tomato, and had no effect on soybean and radish. However, these same trends did not occur when the SO 2 pretreatment was increased to 3 d. Pretreatment with sub-acute levels of SO 2 can significantly alter a plant's response to O 3 or a mixture of SO 2/O 3, the change in response being sensitive to the pretreatment SO 2 dosage. The nature of the visible injury symptoms from O 3 or the pollutant mixture were not altered for any of the plant species regardless of the length of time of the SO 2 pretreatment and, generally, the onset of visible injury was not greatly altered.

  12. Response of Winter Wheat Grain Yield and Phosphorus Uptake to Foliar Phosphite Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muaid S. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems that potentially hinders the use of foliar fertilization as a tool to improve nutrient use efficiency is the lack of effective formulations. A phosphite based product, Nutri-phite (3% N, 8.7% P, and 5.8% K was used as model phosphite formulation for foliar application in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Five field trials were established in the fall of 2009 and 2010 at Perkins, Perry, and Morrison, OK. Treatments encompassed the application of nitrogen (N at 100 or 75% of crop need and phosphorus at 100 (P 100% and 80% (P 80% sufficiency with and without Nutri-phite. Nutri-phite was applied at one and/or two stages of wheat; GS 13 to 14 and GS 49 to 53 at the rate of 433 and 148 g ha−1 P and N, respectively. Grain yield was increased by Nutri-phite treatments, especially at Morrison. Grain P concentration of plots treated with two applications of Nutri-phite ranged from 13 to 55% more than the nontreated and standard NP received plots at Perkins in 2009/10 and Perry in 2010/11. Grain P uptake was increased due to application of Nutri-phite at Perkins in 2009/10 and Morrison and Perry in 2010/11. Combined over three year-locations, Nutri-phite increased grain P concentration by 11.6%. The higher grain P concentration of plots treated with Nutri-phite compared to the other treatments clearly demonstrates its potential in improving P status of wheat grain.

  13. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravano, Elisabetta; Giulietti, Valentina; Desotgiu, Rosanna; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Tani, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Ozone sensitivity of Ailanthus altissima leaves is due to low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. - Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the 'low pollution' site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes.

  14. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Elisabetta; Giulietti, Valentina; Desotgiu, Rosanna; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Tani, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the "low pollution" site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes.

  15. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  16. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Plants Under Nitrogen Stress Determined with Active and Passive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; Chappelle, E. W.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation productivity is driven by nitrogen (N) availability in soils. Both excessive and low soil N induce physiological changes in plant foliage. In 2001, we examined the use of spectral fluorescence and reflectance measurements to discriminate among plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of optimal N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight daily). Three types of steady state laser-induced fluorescence measurements were made on adaxial and abaxial surfaces: 1) fluorescence images in four 10 nm bands (blue, green, red, far-red) resulting from broad irradiance excitation; 2) emission spectra (5 nm resolution) produced by excitation at single wavelengths (280,380 or 360, and 532 nm); and 3) excitation spectra (2 nm resolution), with emission wavelengths fixed at wavelengths centered on selected solar Fraunhofer lines (532,607,677 and 745 nm). Two complementary sets of high resolution (less than 2 nm) optical spectra were acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces: 1) optical properties (350-2500 nm) for reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; and 2) reflectance spectra (500-1000 nm) acquired with and without a short pass filter at 665 nm to determine the fluorescence contribution to apparent reflectance in the 650-750 spectrum, especially at the 685 and 740 nm chlorophyll fluorescence (ChIF) peaks. The strongest relationships between foliar chemistry and optical properties were demonstrated for C/N content and two optical parameters associated with the red edge inflection point. Select optical properties and ChIF parameters were highly correlated for both species. A significant contribution of ChIF to apparent reflectance was observed, averaging 10-25% at 685 nm and 2 - 6% at 740 nm over all N treatments. Discrimination of N treatment

  17. Response of Maize to Nutrients Foliar Application Under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sajedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To investigate the effect of nutrient application on agronomical characteristic and water use efficiency under water deficit stress of hybrid maize 704, an experiment was arranged in a split plot factorial based on a complete randomized block design with four replicates in the research station of Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Iran in 2007. Approach: Main factors studied were four irrigation levels including irrigation equal to crop water requirement, water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage (V8, stage of blister (R2 and stage of filling grain in the main plot. Combined levels of selenium treatment (without and with application 20 g ha-1 were applied 2 weeks before execution of water stress treatment and micronutrients (without and with application that was provided by specific fertilizer for maize called "Biomin", which contained Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, B, Mo and Mg in the form of foliar application at six-leaf stage and 1 week before tasseling stage at the rate of 2 L ha-1 were situated in sub plots. Results: Results indicated that effect of water deficit stress on 1000 grain weight, grain yield, harvest index and water use efficiency at different growth stages was significant at 1% level. Water deficit stress decreased grain yield 33% in grain filling stage as compared with control. Using selenium increased mentioned traits but the increase was non significant. Effects of twofold interactions of water deficit stress and selenium showed that using selenium in water deficit stress condition increased measured traits as compared with treatment without selenium. A negative antagonistic interaction was found between selenium and micronutrients on some measured traits. In between treatments of water deficit stress, highest grain yield (8159.33 kg ha-1 was obtained from combined treatment of water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage with selenium application and without micronutrients which compared with treatment of irrigation equal

  18. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook watershed in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvir, J.A. [National School of Forest Science, Comayagua (Honduras); Rustad, L. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Durham, NH (United States). Forest Service Northeastern Research Station; Wiersma, G.B.; White, A.S. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecosystem Science; Fernandez, I. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Plant, Soil and Environmental Studies; White, G.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances have been noted in trees growing in controlled nitrogen-fertilization experiments over areas of different nitrogen deposition rates and along N deposition gradients. Long-term foliar nutrient concentration data is not generally available because of a lack of long-term nitrogen studies and systematic measurements. This study at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) focused on temporal changes in the foliar nutrient concentrations in sugar maple, American beech, and red spruce. The foliar chemistry was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the paired-watershed forest ecosystem of the BBWM study in which 1 watershed was treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate at a rate of about 25 kg of nitrogen per hectare per year. Foliar nitrogen concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in the foliage were found to be lower in the American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. Potassium concentrations did not vary between the 2 watersheds and the differences in phosphorous and manganese concentrations were inconsistent from one year to another. The differences in nitrogen concentrations in the foliage of sugar maple declined over time between the 2 watersheds. Differences in foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, mostly due to the steady decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. There was no noted temporal trend in sugar maple foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the watersheds. It was concluded that the watersheds of the BBWM may be in the later stages of nitrogen saturation, where the supply of nitrogen exceeds the nitrogen demand of plants and microorganisms in the ecosystem. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Accounting for the effect of temperature in clarifying the response of foliar nitrogen isotope ratios to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjuan; Li, Jiazhu; Wang, Guoan; Shi, Minrui

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in plants. However, both negative effect and positive effect have been reported. The effects of climate on plant δ(15)N have not been corrected for in previous studies, this has impeded discovery of a true effect of atmospheric N deposition on plant δ(15)N. To obtain a more reliable result, it is necessary to correct for the effects of climatic factors. Here, we measured δ(15)N and N contents of plants and soils in Baiwangshan and Mount Dongling, north China. Atmospheric N deposition in Baiwangshan was much higher than Mount Dongling. Generally, however, foliar N contents showed no difference between the two regions and foliar δ(15)N was significantly lower in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. The corrected foliar δ(15)N after accounting for a predicted value assumed to vary with temperature was obviously more negative in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. Thus, this suggested the necessity of temperature correction in revealing the effect of N deposition on foliar δ(15)N. Temperature, soil N sources and mycorrhizal fungi could not explain the difference in foliar δ(15)N between the two regions, this indicated that atmospheric N deposition had a negative effect on plant δ(15)N. Additionally, this study also showed that the corrected foliar δ(15)N of bulk data set increased with altitude above 1300m in Mount Dongling, this provided an another evidence for the conclusion that atmospheric N deposition could cause (15)N-depletion in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Foliar temperature-respiration response functions for broad-leaved tree species in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolstad; Mitchell; Vose

    1999-11-01

    We measured leaf respiration in 18 eastern deciduous forest tree species to determine if there were differences in temperature-respiration response functions among species or among canopy positions. Leaf respiration rates were measured in situ and on detached branches for Acer pensylvanicum L., A. rubrum L., Betula spp. (B. alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta L.), Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Cornus florida L., Fraxinus spp. (primarily F. americana L.), Liriodendron tulipifera L., Magnolia fraseri Walt., Nyssa sylvatica Marsh., Oxydendrum arboreum L., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus alba L., Q. coccinea Muenchh., Q. prinus L., Q. rubra L., Rhododendron maximum L., Robinia psuedoacacia L., and Tilia americana L. in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Dark respiration was measured on fully expanded leaves at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C with an infrared gas analyzer equipped with a temperature-controlled cuvette. Temperature-respiration response functions were fit for each leaf. There were significant differences in response functions among species and by canopy position within species. These differences were observed when respiration was expressed on a mass, nitrogen, or area basis. Cumulative nighttime leaf respiration was calculated and averaged over ten randomly selected nights for each leaf. Differences in mean cumulative nighttime respiration were statistically significant among canopy positions and species. We conclude that effects of canopy position and species on temperature-respiration response functions may need to be considered when making estimates of whole-tree or canopy respiration.

  2. Variation in biochemical and antioxidant attributes of Raphanus sativus in response to foliar application of plant leaf extracts as plant growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ashraf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to appraise the variations in biochemical, antioxidant and nutritional attributes of radish (Raphanus sativus L. under foliar application of plant leaf aqueous extracts i.e., mulberry leaf extract (MLE, brassica leaf extract (BLE, sorghum leaf extract (SLE and moringa leaf extract (MoLE as natural growth regulators. Samples were collected after three sprays of extracts and analyzed. Total phenolic constituents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, whereas antioxidant potential was evaluated by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Results revealed that application of MLE, BLE, SLE, and MoLE not only improved growth, but also enhanced biochemical and antioxidant activities. Foliar spray of MoLE furnished relatively three folds higher amounts of extractable bioactive compounds (37.65 ± 0.94%, phenolic constituents (54.51–182.71 mg GAE/g f.w. The radical scavenging capacity (RSC and reducing potential were also enhanced considerably. Furthermore, the moisture, dietary fiber, crude protein, and carotenoids were also enhanced in response of foliar spray of plant extracts. From results, it is concluded that plant extracts are effective sources of natural growth regulars and might be useful for the production of vegetables with improved nutritional value and antioxidant activity.

  3. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  4. De novo foliar transcriptome of Chenopodium amaranticolor and analysis of its gene expression during virus-induced hypersensitive response.

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    Yongqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypersensitive response (HR system of Chenopodium spp. confers broad-spectrum virus resistance. However, little knowledge exists at the genomic level for Chenopodium, thus impeding the advanced molecular research of this attractive feature. Hence, we took advantage of RNA-seq to survey the foliar transcriptome of C. amaranticolor, a Chenopodium species widely used as laboratory indicator for pathogenic viruses, in order to facilitate the characterization of the HR-type of virus resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, we obtained 39,868,984 reads with 3,588,208,560 bp, which were assembled into 112,452 unigenes (3,847 clusters and 108,605 singletons. BlastX search against the NCBI NR database identified 61,698 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, GO, COG and KEGG terms, respectively. A total number of 738 resistance gene analogs (RGAs and homology sequences of 6 key signaling proteins within the R proteins-directed signaling pathway were identified. Based on this transcriptome data, we investigated the gene expression profiles over the stage of HR induced by Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus by using digital gene expression analysis. Numerous candidate genes specifically or commonly regulated by these two distinct viruses at early and late stages of the HR were identified, and the dynamic changes of the differently expressed genes enriched in the pathway of plant-pathogen interaction were particularly emphasized. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first description of the genetic makeup of C. amaranticolor, providing deep insight into the comprehensive gene expression information at transcriptional level in this species. The 738 RGAs as well as the differentially regulated genes, particularly the common genes regulated by both TMV and CMV, are suitable candidates which merit further

  5. Long-term trends of changes in pine and oak foliar nitrogen metabolism in response to chronic nitrogen amendments at Harvard Forest, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Long, Stephanie; McDowell, William H; Minocha, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term (1995-2008) trends in foliar and sapwood metabolism, soil solution chemistry and tree mortality rates in response to chronic nitrogen (N) additions to pine and hardwood stands at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Common stress-related metabolites like polyamines (PAs), free amino acids (AAs) and inorganic elements were analyzed for control, low N (LN, 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N (HN, 150 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) treatments. In the pine stands, partitioning of excess N into foliar PAs and AAs increased with both N treatments until 2002. By 2005, several of these effects on N metabolites disappeared for HN, and by 2008 they were mostly observed for LN plot. A significant decline in foliar Ca and P was observed mostly with HN for a few years until 2005. However, sapwood data actually showed an increase in Ca, Mg and Mn and no change in PAs in the HN plot for 2008, while AAs data revealed trends that were generally similar to foliage for 2008. Concomitant with these changes, mortality data revealed a large number of dead trees in HN pine plots by 2002; the mortality rate started to decline by 2005. Oak trees in the hardwood plot did not exhibit any major changes in PAs, AAs, nutrients and mortality rate with LN treatment, indicating that oak trees were able to tolerate the yearly doses of 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1). However, HN trees suffered from physiological and nutritional stress along with increased mortality in 2008. In this case also, foliar data were supported by the sapwood data. Overall, both low and high N applications resulted in greater physiological stress to the pine trees than the oaks. In general, the time course of changes in metabolic data are in agreement with the published reports on changes in soil chemistry and microbial community structure, rates of soil carbon sequestration and production of woody biomass for this chronic N study. This correspondence of selected metabolites

  6. Foliar injury and leaf diffusive resistance of rice and white bean in response to SO2 and O3, singly and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B D; Tripathi, A

    1992-01-01

    Plants of rice (Oryza sativa) and white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 524 microg m(-3) SO2, 392 microg m(-3) O3 and a mixture of both gases, i.e. 524 microg m(-3) SO2 and 392 microg m(-3) O3 to determine the visible foliar injury and leaf diffusive resistance. Response of leaf diffusive resistance was measured on upper and lower surfaces of leaves, i.e. the two unifoliate leaves of bean and the first, second and third primary leaves of rice. The difference in the response may be due to sensitive guard cells causing stomatal closure in the presence of O3, whilst a low concentration of SO2 caused the stomata to open. Thus, SO2 alone is known to decrease, and O3 tends to increase leaf diffusive resistance. However, exposure to both gases increases or decreases the resistance, depending on the species response.

  7. Foliar injury response of petunia and kidney bean to simultaneous and alternate exposures to ozone and pan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Isamu; Mayumi, Hirokazu; Yamazoe, Fumio

    Petunia at about 6 weeks old and kidney bean at two growing stages (6-7 days old and 16-18 days old) were exposed separately to O 3, (0-0.40 ppm) and PAN (0-0.25 ppm) for 4 h and to the mixture for the same time. In addition, petunia was exposed to O, (0.10-0.40 ppm) and then PAN (0.010-0.040 ppm) for 4 h, respectively. Foliar injury of petunia and kidney bean in exposures to the mixtures of O 3 and PAN was significantly smaller than that induced by each oxidant, with the exception of PAN injury on young leaves of 16-18 day-old kidney bean. The percentage of foliar injury caused by either of the mixed pollutants decreased with an increase of the concentration of the other oxidant, and was found to approximate a logarithmic function of the combined pollutant concentrations expressed as O 3, minum PAN or vice versa. Alternate exposures caused no additive or synergistic injuries.

  8. Response of maize to foliar application of zinc and azotobacter inoculation under different levels of urea fertilizer

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    Esmaeili Mohammadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of zinc and Azotobacter on maize production properties under different regime of urea as mineral fertilizer, an experiment was conducted at research field of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during the cropping season of 2014. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer in 100, 200 and 300 amounts of kg urea ha-1, Azotobacter (inoculation and non-inoculation and foliar application of zinc (Zn1 = 1000 mg l-1 zinc sulfate, Zn2 = 500 mg l-1 zinc sulfate and Zn3 = 0 mg l-1 were considered as the applied treatments. Grain yield, biological yield (dry matter, and total protein content of each treatment were assessed. Results indicated that foliar applications of Zn had a significant effect on all studied traits. The highest grain yield was related to Zn1 treatment in each urea application and also between biological fertilizer treatments the highest yield was observed in inoculation treatment. Between all studied treatments the maximum grain yield (with 10.23 ton ha-1 was obtained through non-inoculation treatment × Zn1 for 300 kg urea ha-1. The highest biological yield was observed in Zn1 + inoculation treatment. There were no significant differences between Azotobacter inoculation and non-inoculation for each level of zinc applications in 300 kg urea ha-1 treatment. Finally, it might be concluded that using of mineral fertilizer could be reduced by combining some management strategies in maize production.

  9. The response of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. italica) varieties on foliar application of selenium: uptake, translocation, and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindelářová, Kristýna; Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Praus, Lukáš; Kaňa, Antonín; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A model small-scale field experiment was set up to investigate selenium (Se) uptake by four different varieties of broccoli plants, as well as the effect of Se foliar application on the uptake of essential elements for plants calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Foliar application of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) was carried out at two rates (25 and 50 g Se/ha), and an untreated control variant was included. Analyses of individual parts of broccoli were performed, whereby it was found that Se in the plant accumulates mainly in the flower heads and slightly less in the leaves, stems, and roots, regardless of the Se rate and broccoli variety. In most cases, there was a statistically significant increase of Se content in all parts of the plant, while there was no confirmed systematic influence of the addition of Se on the changing intake of other monitored elements. Selenization of broccoli leads to an effective increase in the Se content at a rate of 25 g/ha, whereas the higher rate did not result in a substantial increase of Se content compared to the lower rate in all varieties. Therefore, the rate of 25 g/ha can be recommended as effective to produce broccoli with an increased Se content suitable for consumption. Moreover, Se application resulted in an adequate increase of the main organic compounds of Se, such as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys).

  10. 不同早稻品种对喷硒的响应%Response of various early rice cultivars to foliar application Na2SeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建梅; 秦俊豪; 张小亮; 梁权辉; 唐树梅

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the response of 12 early rice cultivars of Hainan province to foliar application NazSeO3. The result showed that compared with control, average selenium (Se) content in brown rice and polished rice was improved through foliar application Na2SeO3 by 43% and 34% , respectively. And the differences was significant ( p <0. 01). Various rice cultivars had different response to Se spraying. Compared with control, Se contents of brown rice of Congyou 629 and Teyou 5735 were significantly improved by Se spraying. Therefore the two rice cultivars could be choose to produce enriched-Se rice in the soil with low Se content of Hainan province.%通过田间试验研究了海南省主栽的12个早稻品种对叶面喷施亚硒酸钠的响应,结果表明,与对照相比,喷硒分别提高糙米和精米平均硒含量43%和34%,差异达极显著水平.不同品种对喷硒的响应不同,与对照相比,喷硒显著提高丛优629和特优5735的糙米硒含量,因此,在海南低硒地区可选择种植这两个水稻品种生产富硒大米.

  11. Cortisol Awakening Response and Internalizing Symptoms across Childhood: Exploring the Role of Age and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Ellen W.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Abelson, James L.; Muzik, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to identify biological correlates of internalizing symptoms in childhood have involved examinations of HPA-axis functioning, namely Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). However, research has not assessed the relationship between CAR and internalizing problems among children younger than 8 years. Findings with older samples have been somewhat…

  12. Physiological Responses of Two Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Foliar Application of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal

    2016-02-01

    The foliar application of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 signifi‐ cantly increased plant height, root length, number of leaves/plant, the leaves’ area, total fresh and dry weights/ plant and yield (i.e., number, fresh and dry weights of pods/ plant and 100-seed weight. It also altered protein patterns in the two varieties and changed the phytohormone balance in the Nebraska variety by increasing the levels of growth-regulating substances, which explains the increase in both growth parameters and yield in GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 treated plants. An Atomic Absorption Spectrosco‐ py (AAS study unveiled the movement and residual accumulation of both forms of silver in different parts of the two bean varieties. The results indicate the successful use of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 in enhancing the growth and yield of the Bronco and Nebraska varieties under pot experiment conditions, and present a viable alternative to genetically modified (GM crops for ensuring food security.

  13. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  14. An integrated RNAseq-(1)H NMR metabolomics approach to understand soybean primary metabolism regulation in response to Rhizoctonia foliar blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Tanya R; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Jabaji, Suha H

    2017-04-27

    Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA is a devastating phytopathogen causing Rhizoctonia foliar blight (RFB) of soybean worldwide with yield losses reaching 60%. Plant defense mechanisms are complex and information from different metabolic pathways is required to thoroughly understand plant defense regulation and function. Combining information from different "omics" levels such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics is required to gain insights into plant metabolism and its regulation. As such, we studied fluctuations in soybean metabolism in response to R. solani infection at early and late disease stages using an integrated transcriptomics-metabolomics approach, focusing on the regulation of soybean primary metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance. Transcriptomics (RNAseq) and metabolomics ((1)H NMR) data were analyzed individually and by integration using bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) to reveal possible links between the metabolome and transcriptome during early and late infection stages. O2PLS analysis detected 516 significant transcripts, double that reported in the univariate analysis, and more significant metabolites than detected in partial least squares discriminant analysis. Strong separation of treatments based on integration of the metabolomes and transcriptomes of the analyzed soybean leaves was revealed, similar trends as those seen in analyses done on individual datasets, validating the integration method being applied. Strong fluctuations of soybean primary metabolism occurred in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, photosynthesis and photosynthates in response to R. solani infection. Data were validated using quantitative real-time PCR on a set of specific markers as well as randomly selected genes. Significant increases in transcript and metabolite levels involved in redox reactions and ROS signaling, such as peroxidases, thiamine, tocopherol, proline, L-alanine and GABA were also recorded. Levels of ethanol increased 24

  15. Performance of Late Sown Wheat in Response to Foliar Application of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extract Rendimiento de Trigo Sembrado Tarde en Respuesta a la Aplicación Foliar de Extracto de Hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Yasmeen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A rise in temperature during early spring inducing early maturity is a key yield-reducing factor in late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves are rich in zeatin, a cytokinin that plays a role in delaying leaf senescence, in addition to other growth-enhancing compounds such as ascorbates, phenolics, and minerals. The objective of this study was to optimize dose and optimum growth stage for foliar-applied moringa leaf extract (MLE and its role in delaying leaf senescence in late sown wheat. The wheat crop was shown on 16 December 2008; MLE (diluted 30 times was applied at different growth stages from tillering to heading and heading alone and distilled water was sprayed as a control. All the MLE treatment results were better than the control. However, an increase of 10.73%, 6.00%, 10.70%, and 4.00% was evident in 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively, with MLE spray at tillering + jointing + booting + heading. The MLE spray used only at heading gave 6.84%, 3.17%, 6.80%, and 3.51% more than the control 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively. The MLE extended seasonal leaf area duration (Seasonal LAD by 9.22 and 6.45 d over the control when applied at all growth stages and a single spray at heading, respectively. We conclude that it is possible that the presence of growth-promoting substances in MLE foliar spray can delay crop maturity and extend seasonal LAD and the grain-filling period, thereby leading to greater seed and biological yields in late sown wheat.Aumento en temperatura durante inicios de primavera induciendo madurez temprana es un factor clave en la reducción de rendimiento en siembra tardía de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Las hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam. son ricas en zeatina, una citoquinina que tiene rol en retraso de senescencia foliar, además de otros compuestos que mejoran crecimiento como ascorbatos, fenoles, y

  16. Relation of Airway Responsiveness to Methacholine to Parent and Child Reporting of Symptoms Suggecting Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM FitzGerald

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lack of a relationship between airway responsiveness and respiratory symptoms in epidemiological studies of children may, in part, reflect inaccuracies in symptom reporting or inadequate knowledge by the parent of the child's symptoms.

  17. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Brown, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    The application of agrochemical sprays to the aerial parts of crop plants is an important agricultural practice world-wide. While variable effectiveness is often seen in response to foliar treatments, there is abundant evidence showing the beneficial effect of foliar fertilizers in terms of improving the metabolism, quality, and yields of crops. This mini-review is focused on the major bottlenecks associated with the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied nutrient solutions. A better understanding of the complex scenario surrounding the ultimate delivery of foliar-applied nutrients to sink cells and organs is essential for improving the effectiveness and performance of foliar fertilizers.

  18. Gastric Bypass Reduces Symptoms and Hormonal Responses in Hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Niclas; Börjesson, Joey Lau; Sundbom, Magnus; Wiklund, Urban; Karlsson, F Anders; Eriksson, Jan W

    2016-09-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) surgery, one of the most common bariatric procedures, induces weight loss and metabolic effects. The mechanisms are not fully understood, but reduced food intake and effects on gastrointestinal hormones are thought to contribute. We recently observed that GBP patients have lowered glucose levels and frequent asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes. Here, we subjected patients before and after undergoing GBP surgery to hypoglycemia and examined symptoms and hormonal and autonomic nerve responses. Twelve obese patients without diabetes (8 women, mean age 43.1 years [SD 10.8] and BMI 40.6 kg/m(2) [SD 3.1]) were examined before and 23 weeks (range 19-25) after GBP surgery with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (stepwise to plasma glucose 2.7 mmol/L). The mean change in Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Score during clamp was attenuated from 10.7 (6.4) before surgery to 5.2 (4.9) after surgery. There were also marked postsurgery reductions in levels of glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamine and the sympathetic nerve responses to hypoglycemia. In addition, growth hormone displayed a delayed response but to a higher peak level. Levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide rose during hypoglycemia but rose less postsurgery compared with presurgery. Thus, GBP surgery causes a resetting of glucose homeostasis, which reduces symptoms and neurohormonal responses to hypoglycemia. Further studies should address the underlying mechanisms as well as their impact on the overall metabolic effects of GBP surgery.

  19. Oxidative and Molecular Responses in Capsicum annuum L. after Hydrogen Peroxide, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-González, Ramón G.; Rosalía V. Ocampo-Velázquez; Mario M González-Chavira; Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Irineo Torres-Pacheco; Angela María Chapa-Oliver; Flor de Dalia Durán-Flores; Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 pro...

  20. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant-Downton, R.T.; Terhem, R.B.; Kapralov, M.; Mehdi, S.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, M.J.; Gurr, S.J.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Dewey, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as ‘spring sickness’ were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be memb

  1. Oxidative and molecular responses in Capsicum annuum L. after hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and chitosan foliar applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; de Dalia Duran-Flores, Flor; Chapa-Oliver, Angela María; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; González-Chavira, Mario M; Ocampo-Velázquez, Rosalía V; Guevara-González, Ramón G

    2013-05-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress.

  2. Oxidative and Molecular Responses in Capsicum annuum L. after Hydrogen Peroxide, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón G. Guevara-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA, chitosan (QN, and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1 were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress.

  3. Oxidative and Molecular Responses in Capsicum annuum L. after Hydrogen Peroxide, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; de Dalia Durán-Flores, Flor; Chapa-Oliver, Angela María; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velázquez, Rosalía V.; Guevara-González, Ramón G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress. PMID:23676352

  4. The response of the foliar antioxidant system and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of white willow to low-level air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Tatiana; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Staelens, Jeroen; Asard, Han; Boeckx, Pascal; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2013-06-01

    In this study we aimed to determine and elucidate the effect of ambient air pollution on the foliar antioxidant system and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of white willow (Salix alba L.). We grew white willow in uniform potting soil in the near vicinity of sixteen air quality monitoring stations in Belgium where nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations were continuously measured. The trees were exposed to ambient air during six months (April-September 2011), and, thereafter, the degree of lipid peroxidation and foliar content of antioxidant molecules (ascorbate, glutathione, polyphenols, flavonoids), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase) and foliar stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes were measured. We found that lipid peroxidation was caused by air pollution stress, arising from high ambient NO2 concentrations, as shown by an increased amount of malondialdehyde. The antioxidant system was activated by increasing the amount of polyphenols at monitoring stations with a high atmospheric NO2 and low O3 concentration, while no increase of key enzymes (e.g., ascorbate, glutathione) was observed. The δ(13)C also decreased with increasing NO2 concentrations and decreasing O3 concentrations, probably reflecting a decreased net photosynthesis and/or a concomitant decrease of (13)CO2 in the atmosphere. Shade also influenced foliar δ(13)C and the content of leaf ascorbate and glutathione.

  5. Response Of Strawberry ‘Selva’ Plants On Foliar Application Of Sodium Nitroprusside (Nitric Oxide Donor Under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamali Babak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant response of ‘Selva’ strawberry plants on exogenous nitric oxide under saline conditions with respect to time of application. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, as nitric oxide (NO source, was applied on the leaves by spray before, simultaneously, or after the initiation of saline stress. Results indicated that salinity and/or SNP at concentrations of 50 and 75 μM caused increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidases as well as leaf content of proline, glycine betaine and total phenolics in comparison to control. Time of NO application was important because the highest levels of catalase and ascorbic peroxidase were in plants pre-treated with SNP one week before the initiation of salinity stress. Plants from these combinations had the highest fruit yield among all saline stressed plants. So, it seems that earlier application of SNP is more effective for an optimised protection against deleterious influence of salinity stress, because pre-treated plants had a sufficient time to develop an appropriate antioxidant response. The application of SNP simultaneously or after exposure of plants to stress conditions, was also helpful in increasing plant tolerance but to a lesser extent.

  6. Effects of acidic fog on seedlings of Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor: foliar injury, physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, B K; Bytnerowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Abies concolor (white fir) were exposed to acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0) in open-field plots for six weeks. The two species exhibited dissimilar injury responses; neither current year nor previous year needles of ponderosa pine were injured by pH 2.0 fog, but current year needles exhibited higher membrane permeability responses (i.e. needle extract conductivity, K+ concentration). In comparison, both needle age classes in white fir were significantly injured by pH 2.0 fog, but no significant effects on membrane permeability were observed. For both species, whole-study average rates of net photosynthesis in previous year needles were lower in plants exposed to pH 2.0 fog than in plants treated with pH 4.0 fog. While decreased process rates coincided with leaf necrosis in white fir, stomatal closure appeared to be the mechanism of inhibition in ponderosa pine with pH 2.0 fog (i.e. no visible injury). The findings of the present study provide evidence that frequent applications of highly acidic fog (i.e. pH 2.0-3.0) can cause temporal alterations in membrane permeability and gas exchange rates in western conifer seedlings, in the presence or absence of visible injury. However, because incipient effects on other measures of foliage health were species-specific (i.e. concentrations of starch, photosynthetic pigments, inorganic nutrients), a general mechanism of phytotoxicity could not be identified.

  7. Sensory over responsivity and obsessive compulsive symptoms: A cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Podoly, Tamar Yonit

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have examined the sensory component in Obsesseive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and described an OCD subtype which has a unique profile, and that Sensory Phenomena (SP) is a significant component of this subtype. SP has some commonalities with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and might be in part a characteristic of this subtype. Although there are some studies that have examined SOR and its relation to Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS), literature lacks sufficient data on this interplay. First to further examine the correlations between OCS and SOR, and to explore the correlations between SOR modalities (i.e. smell, touch, etc.) and OCS subscales (i.e. washing, ordering, etc.). Second, to investigate the cluster analysis of SOR and OCS dimensions in adults, that is, to classify the sample using the sensory scores to find whether a sensory OCD subtype can be specified. Our third goal was to explore the psychometric features of a new sensory questionnaire: the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ). A sample of non clinical adults (n=350) was recruited via e-mail, social media and social networks. Participants completed questionnaires for measuring SOR, OCS, and anxiety. SOR and OCI-F scores were moderately significantly correlated (n=274), significant correlations between all SOR modalities and OCS subscales were found with no specific higher correlation between one modality to one OCS subscale. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters: (1) No OC and SOR symptoms (NONE; n=100), (2) High OC and SOR symptoms (BOTH; n=28), (3) Moderate OC symptoms (OCS; n=63), (4) Moderate SOR symptoms (SOR; n=83). The BOTH cluster had significantly higher anxiety levels than the other clusters, and shared OC subscales scores with the OCS cluster. The BOTH cluster also reported higher SOR scores across tactile, vision, taste and olfactory modalities. The SPQ was found reliable and suitable to detect SOR, the sample SPQ scores was normally distributed (n=350). SOR is a

  8. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  9. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  10. Missed Opportunities To Impact Fast Response to AMI Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Jane G.; Oakes, J. Michael; Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Mann, N. Clay; Goldberg, Robert; Sellers, Deborah E.; Estabrook, Barbara; Gilliland, Janice; Linares, Adriana C.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; McGovern, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors that influence the prompt seeking of care for symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Survey of adults in 20 communities in 10 states confirmed the importance of attrition and perceived self-confidence in symptom recognition in care seeking. Concludes that the lack of a significant role of health history and clinician…

  11. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  12. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  13. Symptom-specific associations between low cortisol responses and functional somatic symptoms : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, K.A.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Hunfeld, J.A.; Ormel, J.; Rosmalen, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), like chronic pain and overtiredness, are often assumed to be stress-related. Altered levels of the stress hormone cortisol could explain the association between stress and somatic complaints. We hypothesized that low cortisol levels after awakening and

  14. Stress response symptoms in adolescent and young adult children of parents diagnosed with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, A.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Klip, E.C.; Pras, E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stress response symptoms in children of parents diagnosed with cancer 1-5 year prior to study entry. The impact of event scale was used to measure stress response symptoms in terms of intrusion and avoidance; the youth self-report assessed emotional and behavioura

  15. Stress response symptoms in adolescent and young adult children of parents diagnosed with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Klip, E.C.; Pras, E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    The aim of this study was to assess stress response symptoms in children of parents diagnosed with cancer 1-5 year prior to study entry. The impact of event scale was used to measure stress response symptoms in terms of intrusion and avoidance; the youth self-report assessed emotional and

  16. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment. [Gossypium hirsumtum L. ; Medicago sativa L. ; Cucumis melo L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots.

  17. Foliar phloem infrastructure in support of photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Walter Adams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatory adjustments of foliar minor loading veins in response to growth at different temperatures and light intensities are evaluated. These adjustments are related to their role in providing infrastructure for the export of photosynthetic products as a prerequisite for full acclimation of photosynthesis to the respective environmental conditions. Among winter-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with greater numbers of sieve elements per minor vein as well as an increased apparent total membrane area of cells involved in phloem loading (greater numbers of cells and/or greater cell wall invaginations. Among summer-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with increased vein density and, possibly, a greater number of sieve elements and companion cells per minor vein. Among symplastic loaders, minor loading vein architecture (number per vein and arrangement of cells was apparently constrained, but higher photosynthesis rates were associated with higher foliar vein densities and larger intermediary cells (presumably providing a greater volume for enzymes involved in active raffinose sugar synthesis. Winter-active apoplastic loaders thus apparently place emphasis on adjustments of cell membrane area (presumably available for transport proteins active in loading of minor veins, while symplastic loaders apparently place emphasis on increasing the volume of cells in which their active loading step takes place. Presumably to accommodate a greater flux of photosynthate through the foliar veins, winter-active apoplastic loaders also have a higher number of sieve elements per minor loading vein, whereas symplastic loaders and summer-active apoplastic loaders have a higher total number of veins per leaf area. These latter adjustments in the vasculature (during leaf development may also apply to the xylem (via greater numbers of tracheids per vein and/or greater vein density per leaf area

  18. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  19. Poverty and internalizing symptoms: The indirect effect of middle childhood poverty on internalizing symptoms via an emotional response inhibition pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Capistrano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood poverty is a pervasive problem that can alter mental health outcomes. Children from impoverished circumstances are more likely than their middle-income counterparts to develop internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. To date, however, the emotional-cognitive control processes that link childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms remain largely unexplored. Using the Emotion Go/NoGo paradigm, we examined the association between poverty and emotional response inhibition in middle childhood. We further examined the role of emotional response inhibition in the link between middle childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms. Lower income was associated with emotional response inhibition difficulties (indexed by greater false alarm rates in the context of task irrelevant angry and sad faces. Furthermore, emotional response inhibition deficits in the context of angry and sad distracters were further associated with child-report internalizing problems. The results of the current study demonstrate the significance of understanding the emotional-cognitive control vulnerabilities of children raised in poverty and their association with mental health outcomes.

  20. Poverty and Internalizing Symptoms: The Indirect Effect of Middle Childhood Poverty on Internalizing Symptoms via an Emotional Response Inhibition Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrano, Christian G; Bianco, Hannah; Kim, Pilyoung

    2016-01-01

    Childhood poverty is a pervasive problem that can alter mental health outcomes. Children from impoverished circumstances are more likely than their middle-income counterparts to develop internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. To date, however, the emotional-cognitive control processes that link childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms remain largely unexplored. Using the Emotion Go/NoGo paradigm, we examined the association between poverty and emotional response inhibition in middle childhood. We further examined the role of emotional response inhibition in the link between middle childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms. Lower income was associated with emotional response inhibition difficulties (indexed by greater false alarm rates in the context of task irrelevant angry and sad faces). Furthermore, emotional response inhibition deficits in the context of angry and sad distracters were further associated with child-report internalizing problems. The results of the current study demonstrate the significance of understanding the emotional-cognitive control vulnerabilities of children raised in poverty and their association with mental health outcomes.

  1. Respiratory symptoms, sensitization, and exposure-response relationships in spray painters exposed to isocyanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Preller, L.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Jonkers, I.C.L.; Lammers, J.-W.; Wouters, I.M.; Doekes, G.; Wisnewski, A.V.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure-response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large po

  2. Recent depressive and anxious symptoms predict cortisol responses to stress in men

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Kathryn P.; Robles, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder show blunted cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors, but the extent to which this pattern of dampened responding characterizes individuals experiencing sub-clinical levels of depressive symptoms is unknown. This study investigated whether self-reports of depressive and anxious symptoms over the previous two weeks were associated with cortisol responses to a laboratory social stress task. In addition, we tested whether these associations were me...

  3. Crestamento foliar, nova sintomatologia em algodoeiro causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum Cotton leaf blight, a new symptomatology caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemar Atílio Malavolta Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi observada recentemente no Estado de São Paulo uma nova sintomatologia em algodoeiro cv. Makina, IAC 24 e Detaopal, causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam, denominada "crestamento foliar". Caracteriza-se por crestamento foliar, geralmente acompanhado por halo clorótico, podendo também causar sintomas de "V" invertido, a partir dos bordos foliares. Linhagens de Xam foram comparadas, por meio de testes de patogenicidade, bioquímicos, sorológicos, culturais e PCR-RFLP da região espaçadora 16S-23S DNAr. Independentemente do tipo de sintoma, as linhagens apresentaram características e perfis idênticos aos apresentados pela linhagem tipo, confirmando a identidade dos isolados como Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum.Recently a new symptomatology on cotton plants (cv. Makina, IAC 24 and Deltaopal caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam was observed in São Paulo state, Brazil, and named "bacterial leaf blight". The symptom was characterized by leaf blight, generally exhibiting chlorotic haloes and sometimes showing V-shaped lesions beginning at the leaves' border. Strains of Xam responsible for typical angular leaf spots and bacterial leaf blight were compared through pathological, biochemical, serological, cultural and RFLP-PCR tests of the 16S-23S spacer region. Independently of the symptom type, the strains exhibited characteristics and profiles that were identical to those exhibited by the type strain, which confirms the isolates identity Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

  4. Airways responsiveness and development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, XP; Rijcken, B; Schouten, JP; Weiss, ST

    1997-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. Methods We used data from 24-year follow-up

  5. Individual Variations in Nucleus Accumbens Responses Associated with Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Masaya; Suzuki, Hideo; Savitz, Jonathan; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2016-02-16

    Abnormal reward-related responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been reported for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. However, variability exists in the reported results, which could be due to heterogeneity in neuropathology of depression. To parse the heterogeneity of MDD we investigated variation of NAcc responses to gain and loss anticipations using fMRI. We found NAcc responses to monetary gain and loss were significantly variable across subjects in both MDD and healthy control (HC) groups. The variations were seen as a hyperactive response subtype that showed elevated activation to the anticipation of both gain and loss, an intermediate response with greater activation to gain than loss, and a suppressed-activity with reduced activation to both gain and loss compared to a non-monetary condition. While these response variability were seen in both MDD and HC subjects, specific symptoms were significantly associated with the right NAcc variation in MDD. Both the hyper- and suppressed-activity subtypes of MDD patients had severe suicidal ideation and anhedonia symptoms. The intermediate subjects had less severity in these symptoms. These results suggest that differing propensities in reward responsiveness in the NAcc may affect the development of specific symptoms in MDD.

  6. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  7. Subtyping Schizophrenia by Treatment Response: Antipsychotic Development and the Central Role of Positive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimmy; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Sin, Gwen Li; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Farooq, Saeed; Remington, Gary

    2015-11-01

    We have recently proposed a model for subtyping schizophrenia based on antipsychotic (AP) treatment response. Evidence suggests that APs, both old and new, are comparable in terms of efficacy; however, one AP, clozapine, is uniquely effective in one subgroup of patients (that is, those with treatment-resistant schizophrenia [TRS]). This permits us to subdivide schizophrenia into 3 specific groups: AP responsive, clozapine responsive, and clozapine resistant. Here, we integrate this model with current criteria related to TRS and ultraresistant schizophrenia, the latter referred to in our model as clozapine resistant. We suggest several modifications to existing criteria, in line with current evidence and practice patterns, particularly emphasizing the need to focus on positive symptoms. While APs can favourably impact numerous dimensions related to schizophrenia, it is their effect on positive symptoms that distinguishes them from other psychotropics. Further, it is positive symptoms that are central to AP and clozapine resistance, and it is these people that place the greatest demands on acute and long-term inpatient resources. In moving AP development forward, we advocate specifically focusing on positive symptoms and capitalizing on the evidence we have of 3 subtypes of psychosis (that is, positive symptoms) based on treatment response, implicating 3 distinguishable forms of underlying pathophysiology. Conversely, pooling these groups risks obfuscating potentially identifiable differences. Such a position does not challenge the importance of dopamine D2 receptor blockade, but rather highlights the need to better isolate those other subgroups that require something more or entirely different.

  8. Association between attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle crashes, depressive symptoms, and return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Stafford, Lesley; Nordfjaern, Trond; Berk, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Perceptions surrounding the underlying causes of accidents and injuries may be a key mechanism influencing postaccident health and functional outcomes among people injured in road crashes. In particular, attributions of responsibility may influence rates of postcrash depressive symptomatology and return-to-work. We studied a large sample of people injured in motor vehicle crashes who were working at their time of accident and needed to take time off as a result of their injuries. Interviews took place at 2 time points, 12 months apart (T1: n = 1,024, T2: n = 303). Comparisons were made between participants' levels of depressive symptoms and rates of return to work based on their assessment of responsibility for their accident. People who did not attribute responsibility to themselves for their accident were 3 times more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression at follow-up than those who attributed responsibility to themselves. People with depressive symptoms were 3.5 times less likely to have returned to work. The effect of attributions of responsibility for accidents on return to work was mediated by the presence of depressive symptoms. Functional and psychological recovery from road trauma is closely associated with the assessment of responsibility for accidents. Findings are discussed in light of established posttrauma cognitive theories, the potential explanatory power of broader, more socially oriented models, and the changing nature of road trauma populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Revealing the importance of meristems and roots for the development of hypersensitive responses and full foliar resistance to Phytophthora infestans in the resistant potato cultivar Sarpo Mira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Basile, Alessio; Kandzia, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The defence responses of potato against Phytophthora infestans were studied using the highly resistant Sarpo Mira cultivar. The effects of plant integrity, meristems, and roots on the hypersensitive response (HR), plant resistance, and the regulation of PR genes were analysed. Sarpo Mira shoots a...

  10. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  11. Stress response symptoms in adolescents during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Gea A.; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey M.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This work aims to prospectively study stress response symptoms (SRS) in adolescents during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis and factors associated with SRS. Additionally, SRS in these adolescents were compared to SRS in adolescents whose parents were diagnosed 1-5 years (refe

  12. A Prospective Examination of Emotional Clarity, Stress Responses, and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…

  13. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  14. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  15. The diagnostic utility of separation anxiety disorder symptoms: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is not clear whether the current definition of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the optimal classification of developmentally inappropriate, severe, and interfering separation anxiety in youth. Much remains to be learned about the relative contributions of individual SAD symptoms for informing diagnosis. Two-parameter logistic Item Response Theory analyses were conducted on the eight core SAD symptoms in an outpatient anxiety sample of treatment-seeking children (N = 359, 59.3 % female, M Age = 11.2) and their parents to determine the diagnostic utility of each of these symptoms. Analyses considered values of item threshold, which characterize the SAD severity level at which each symptom has a 50 % chance of being endorsed, and item discrimination, which characterize how well each symptom distinguishes individuals with higher and lower levels of SAD. Distress related to separation and fear of being alone without major attachment figures showed the strongest discrimination properties and the lowest thresholds for being endorsed. In contrast, worry about harm befalling attachment figures showed the poorest discrimination properties, and nightmares about separation showed the highest threshold for being endorsed. Distress related to separation demonstrated crossing differential item functioning associated with age-at lower separation anxiety levels excessive fear at separation was more likely to be endorsed for children ≥9 years, whereas at higher levels this symptom was more likely to be endorsed by children <9 years. Implications are discussed for optimizing the taxonomy of SAD in youth.

  16. Do interactions between stress and immune responses lead to symptom exacerbations in irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2011-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, debilitating gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, with a worldwide prevalence of between 10% and 20%. This functional gut disorder is characterized by episodic exacerbations of a cluster of symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating and altered bowel habit, including diarrhea and/or constipation. Risk factors for the development of IBS include a family history of the disorder, childhood trauma and prior gastrointestinal infection. It is generally accepted that brain-gut axis dysfunction is fundamental to the development of IBS; however the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. Additional considerations in comprehending the chronic relapsing pattern that typifies IBS symptoms are the effects of both psychosocial and infection-related stresses. Indeed, co-morbidity with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety is common in IBS. Accumulating evidence points to a role for a maladaptive stress response in the initiation, persistence and severity of IBS-associated symptom flare-ups. Moreover, mechanistically, the stress-induced secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is known to mediate changes in GI function. Activation of the immune system also appears to be important in the generation of IBS symptoms and increasing evidence now implicates low-grade inflammation or immune activation in IBS pathophysiology. There is a growing body of research focused on understanding at a molecular, cellular and in vivo level, the relationship between the dysregulated stress response and immune system alterations (either individually or in combination) in the etiology of IBS and to the occurrence of symptoms.

  17. Cognitive Mediation of Symptom Change in Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Jen; Carpenter, Joseph K; Zandberg, Laurie J; Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2016-07-01

    This study examined cognitive mediators of symptom change during exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on cognitive models of OCD, obsessive beliefs were hypothesized as a mediator of symptom change. Participants were 70 patients with primary OCD receiving EX/RP either as part of a randomized controlled trial (n=38) or in open treatment following nonresponse to risperidone or placebo in the same trial (n=32). Blinded evaluations of OCD severity and self-report assessments of three domains of obsessive beliefs (i.e., responsibility/threat of harm, importance/control of thoughts, and perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty) were administered during acute (Weeks 0, 4 and 8) and maintenance treatment (Weeks 12 and 24). Study hypotheses were examined using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Contrary to predictions, the obsessive beliefs domains investigated did not mediate subsequent OCD symptom reduction. In addition, OCD symptoms did not significantly mediate subsequent change in obsessive beliefs. The present study did not find evidence of cognitive mediation during EX/RP for OCD, highlighting the need to investigate other plausible mediators of symptom improvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in apparently healthy workers exposed to flour dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Kolopp, M N; Toamain, J P

    1994-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the levels of exposure to wheat flour dust in a modern industrial bakery, and to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms, sensitization to wheat flour antigens and airway responsiveness in the workforce. Forty four flour-exposed male workers and 164 unexposed controls were examined. Inspirable dust concentrations were measured using personal samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, sensitization to wheat flour antigens by skin-prick tests, and methacholine airway challenge (MAC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MAC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. Inspirable dust concentrations were within acceptable limits in all working areas but one. The proportion of subjects with one or more symptoms and with airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly greater among flour-exposed workers than among controls. Using logistic or linear regression analysis, airway responsiveness was found to be strongly related to working at the bakery and to the baseline level of lung function. A positive skin-prick test was found in only 11% of flour-exposed workers and 6% of controls. In conclusion, our data show that despite exposure to relatively low concentration levels of inspirable flour dust, subjects working in the baking industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  19. Mapping Foliar Traits Across Biomes Using Imaging Spectroscopy: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Singh, A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    One of the great promises of imaging spectroscopy - also known as hyperspectral remote sensing - is the ability to map the spatial variation in foliar functional traits, such as nitrogen concentration, pigments, leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity and secondary biochemistry, that drive terrestrial ecosystem processes. A remote-sensing approach enables characterization of within- and between-biome variations that may be crucial to understanding ecosystem responses to pests, pathogens and environmental change. We provide a synthesis of the foliar traits that can be mapped from imaging spectroscopy, as well as an overview of both the major applications of trait maps derived from hyperspectral imagery and current gaps in our knowledge and capacity. Specifically, we make the case that a global imaging spectroscopy mission will provide unique and urgent measurements necessary to understand the response of agricultural and natural systems to rapid global changes. Finally, we present a quantitative framework to utilize imaging spectroscopy to characterize spatial and temporal variation in foliar traits within and between biomes. From this we can infer the dynamics of vegetation function across ecosystems, especially in transition zones and environmentally sensitive systems. Eventual launch of a global imaging spectroscopy mission will enable collection of narrowband VSWIR measurements that will help close major gaps in our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and improve representation of vegetated biomes in Earth system process models.

  20. Relationship between gene responses and symptoms induced by Rice grassy stunt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji eSatoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we examined gene responses of rice to RGSV infection to gain insight into the gene responses which might be associated with the disease symptoms. The results indicated that 1 many genes related to cell wall synthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were predominantly suppressed by RGSV infection; 2 RGSV infection induced genes associated with tillering process; 3 RGSV activated genes involved in inactivation of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid ; and 4 the genes for strigolactone signaling were suppressed by RGSV. These results suggest that these gene responses to RGSV infection account for the excess tillering specific to RGSV infection as well as other symptoms by RGSV, such as stunting and leaf chlorosis.

  1. Depressive symptoms and immune response to meningococcal conjugate vaccine in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Wyman, Peter A; Carnahan, Jennifer; Lofthus, Gerry; Quataert, Sally A; Bowman, Melissa; Caserta, Mary T

    2014-11-01

    Research findings in psychoneuroimmunology document reliable, bidirectional linkages among psychological processes, the nervous system, and the immune system. However, available data are based almost entirely on animal and adult human studies; the application to children and adolescents is uncertain. We capitalized on the experimental leverage provided by a routine vaccination to examine the link between mood symptoms and the immune response to a vaccine challenge in early adolescence. One hundred twenty-six 11-year-olds for whom vaccine response data were available were assessed at prevaccination and 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months following vaccination; self-report ratings of depression and anxiety as well as measures of psychosocial and somatic risk were assessed prior to vaccine response. Analyses indicated that children's internalizing mood symptoms were associated with elevated and persistently higher antibody responses, with evidence extending to two of the four serogroups. The associations remained after controlling for multiple possible confounders (social class, body mass index, sleep, psychosocial risk, and pubertal status). The observed enhanced vaccine response associated with depressive and anxious symptoms in early adolescence may reflect an important developmental difference in immune system-brain interplay between adults and children, and it underscores the need for further developmental studies of psychoneuroimmunology.

  2. Responsiveness of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propert, K J; Litwin, M S; Wang, Y; Alexander, R B; Calhoun, E; Nickel, J C; O'Leary, M P; Pontari, M; McNaughton-Collins, M

    2006-03-01

    The NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) was developed to assess symptoms and quality of life in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). We assessed the responsiveness of the NIH-CPSI to change over time and defined thresholds for changes perceptible to patients. We studied 174 men with CP/CPPS who participated in a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Changes from baseline to six weeks in the NIH-CPSI total score and pain, urinary, and quality of life subscores were compared to a global response assessment (GRA). Effect sizes and Guyatt statistics were calculated to evaluate responsiveness; 95% confidence intervals were produced using bootstrapping. All scores decreased over time with the largest decrease in subjects who reported on the GRA that they were markedly improved. The NIH-CPSI total, pain, and quality of life scores were highly responsive in the improved groups; the urinary score showed minimal responsiveness. There was no evidence of responsiveness among those subjects who worsened on the trial. ROC curves identified a 6-point decline in the NIH-CPSI total score as the optimal threshold to predict treatment response. The NIH-CPSI total score and pain and quality of life subscores are responsive to change over time.

  3. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: response of symptom dimensions to pharmacotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D; Lochner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a substantial body of evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms can be grouped into a series of discrete dimensions, and some evidence that not all OCD symptom dimensions respond equally well to pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic intervention. The response...... of OCD symptom dimensions to 12 weeks of treatment with escitalopram or placebo was investigated. METHODS: Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in 466 adults with OCD were analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis of individual items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive...... of individual Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, hoarding/symmetry, religious/sexual, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Analyses of covariance including all the subscales demonstrated that escitalopram was more effective than placebo...

  4. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. METHOD: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo......-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale......-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset...

  5. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F(-) g(-1)). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  6. Early and late nasal symptom response to allergen challenge. The effect of pretreatment with a glucocorticosteroid spray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, H; Bisgaard, H; Rømeling, Frans

    1993-01-01

    with the glucocorticosteroid budesonide (200 micrograms twice daily) for 14 d and with placebo in a double-blind, cross-over trial. The early response, consisting of sneezing, discharge, and blockage, was followed by a weak late response, consisting of a few sneezes and nose-blowings, and of a sustained nasal blockage......We challenged 30 pollen-sensitive volunteers with allergen, recorded symptoms and signs over a 10-h period, and rechallenged them after 24 h, in order to characterize the early and late allergic symptom response in the nose. The challenge was performed after topical pretreatment....... These symptoms did not have a well-defined peak in time, and a biphasic symptom curve could not be identified. The rechallenge response showed increased nasal responsiveness. The degree of budesonide effect on the early response varied, depending on the symptom; there was a marked effect on sneezing (72...

  7. Grapevine leaf stripe disease symptoms (esca complex) are reduced by a nutrients and seaweed mixture.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco CALZARANO; Di Marco, Stefano; Vincenzo D'AGOSTINO; Silvia SCHIFF; Mugnai, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine leaf stripe disease (GLSD) seriously reduces the quality and quantity of grape production, and results in a shorter lifespan of vineyards. Recent research has shown that foliar applications of nutrients influence the development of GLSD foliar symptoms. Based on this knowledge the effect of foliar applications of a mixture of calcium chloride, magnesium nitrate and Fucales seaweed extract on the development of leaf symptoms was evaluated over a 3-year period from 2010 to 2012. Nine ...

  8. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms among OEF/OIF veterans: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew W; Street, Amy E; Gradus, Jaimie L; Vogt, Dawne S; Resick, Patricia A

    2013-04-01

    Establishing whether men and women tend to express different symptoms of posttraumatic stress in reaction to trauma is important for both etiological research and the design of assessment instruments. Use of item response theory (IRT) can reveal how symptom reporting varies by gender and help determine if estimates of symptom severity for men and women are equally reliable. We analyzed responses to the PTSD Checklist (PCL) from 2,341 U.S. military veterans (51% female) who completed deployments in support of operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OEF/OIF]), and tested for differential item functioning by gender with an IRT-based approach. Among men and women with the same overall posttraumatic stress severity, women tended to report more frequent concentration difficulties and distress from reminders whereas men tended to report more frequent nightmares, emotional numbing, and hypervigilance. These item-level gender differences were small (on average d = 0.05), however, and had little impact on PCL measurement precision or expected total scores. For practical purposes, men's and women's severity estimates had similar reliability. This provides evidence that men and women veterans demonstrate largely similar profiles of posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to military-related stressors, and some theoretical perspectives suggest this may hold in other traumatized populations.

  9. Repetitive thinking and depressive symptoms in a normal population : responses to normal negative events

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Simen Mjøen

    2016-01-01

    Some theories view repetitive thinking as a maladaptive coping response that exacerbates depressive symptoms and explains the sex difference in depression. Other theories view repetitive thinking as the chief mechanism for solving complex social problems. A central theoretical assumption in evolutionary psychology is that psychological mechanisms are sensitive to modern cues to ancestral fitness-relevant contexts. The measures that are currently used to probe repetitive thinking does not refl...

  10. Foliar zinc uptake processes and critical factors influencing foliar Zn efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Du

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in soils and plants is a global micronutrient deficiency problem in many cropping regions. Both soil and foliar application of Zn fertilizers have been commonly used to correct Zn deficiency and/or enhance Zn nutrition in crops. However, increasing foliar application of Zn fertilizers has been used to precisely deliver Zn when peak Zn demand could not meet by root Zn uptake at the late vegetative and early reproductive stages, where soil and climatic conditions inhibit adequate Zn uptake through roots. The present review has discussed key processes of foliar penetration of nutrient solutes and critical factors affecting the penetration rate of nutrient ions through the cuticular surfaces, including environmental factors, physiological status of leaves and plants, and physical and chemical properties of fertilizer chemicals used. In particular, the effects of leaf surface characteristics and chemical forms of foliar fertilizers on foliar nutrient uptake have been discussed in detail, with the aim to justify the potential of the newly developed nanocrystals of Zn compounds. Properties of different foliar Zn fertilizers have been compared and major shortcomings with traditional Zn foliar fertilizers have been identified, in relation to the justification to develop a new generation of foliar Zn technology.

  11. Brain response to viewing others being harmed in children with conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Kalina J; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Decety, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Deficient empathic processing is thought to foster conduct disorder (CD). It is important to determine the extent to which neural response associated with perceiving harm to others predicts CD symptoms and callous disregard for others. A total of 107 9- to 11-year-old children (52 female) were recruited from pediatric and mental health clinics, representing a wide range of CD symptoms. Children were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing brief video clips of persons being harmed intentionally or accidentally. Perceiving harm evoked increased hemodynamic response in the anterior insula (aINS), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), caudate, and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) across all participants. Intentionally caused, relative to unintentional harm was associated with greater activity in the aINS, amygdala, and temporal pole. There was an inverse association of number of CD symptoms with right posterior insula in both the Harm > No Harm and the Intentional > Unintentional Harm contrasts. Furthermore, an inverse association between callousness and posterior insula activation was found in the Harm > No Harm contrast, with the opposite pattern for reactive aggression scores. An interaction revealed a stronger association in girls between CD symptoms and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the Intentional Harm versus Unintentional Harm contrast. Children with greater CD and callousness exhibit dampened hemodynamic response to viewing others being harmed in the insula, a region which plays a key role in empathy and emotional awareness. Sex differences in the neural correlates of CD were observed. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Physiological highlights of manganese toxicity symptoms in soybean plants: Mn toxicity responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elcio Ferreira; Kondo Santini, José Mateus; Paixão, Amanda Pereira; Júnior, Enes Furlani; Lavres, José; Campos, Marcelo; Reis, André Rodrigues Dos

    2017-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants; however, high concentrations in certain soil conditions can cause toxicity symptoms in the plant tissue. Here, we describe Mn toxicity symptoms and Mn toxicity responses in soybean plants. Soybean plants exposed to excess Mn showed reductions in the CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, which in turn resulted in decreased shoot biomass. Furthermore, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity were higher in plants grown with the highest Mn concentration. The Mn doses increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, POD, and SOD. The toxicity symptoms presented by the leaves included hypertrophying of the adaxial epidermis and the formation of necrotic areas with purple-colored veins. Dramatic movement of calcium from the healthy region to the purple-colored necrotic region was observed, as was the exit of potassium from the necrotic area to the healthy region of the tissue. The high activities of POD and SOD in the presence of high Mn compartmented in the roots was the main physiological responses at high Mn uptake by soybean plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN SYMPTOM SCORE, WHEEZE, REVERSIBILITY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AND TREATMENT RESPONSE IN ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boskabady

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma management is a major concern because some asthmatic patients either do not respond or else hardly respond to treatment. Therefore in the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the predictors of treatment response in asthmatic patients.Thirty six asthmatic adults including 13 male and 23 female were studied dur¬ing a 3 month treatment period. Asthma symptom score (SS and wheezing were recorded before and after treatment. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs including forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVj, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximal expiratory measured at the beginning and the end of the study. The increase in PFT values 10 min after 200 ug inhaled salbutamol (in percentage was considered as reversibility in airway constriction.There were significant improvements in SS (/JKO.001 and PFT variables (/;>The results of these study showed that a well conducted therapeutic program could lead to improvement in symptoms, wheeze, and PFT values. In addition symptom score, wheeze, and reversibility in FEV1 and PEF could be good indi¬cators of response to treatment in asthma.

  14. Physical symptoms and emotional responses among women undergoing induced abortion protocols during the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Martine D; Porat, Nurit; Rojansky, Nathan; Elami-Suzin, Matan; Winograd, Orit; Ben-Meir, Assaf

    2016-11-01

    To compare the physical and emotional effects of two medical protocols for induced abortion during the second trimester. The present study was part of a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing mifepristone followed by oxytocin or misoprostol that was conducted at the Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel, from January 10, 2009, to February 22, 2012. Inclusion criteria were pregnancy (14-24weeks), epidural analgesia, and medical induction of abortion (either elective or following missed abortion). A structured questionnaire was used to assess the participants' physical symptoms and emotional responses. The primary outcome for the present analysis was the degree of physical symptoms reported. Overall, 68 women in the oxytocin group and 67 in the misoprostol group received epidural analgesia and completed the questionnaire. As assessed using a five-point Likert scale, women in the misoprostol group were more likely than those in the oxytocin group to experience diarrhea (1.34±0.84 vs 1.10±0.55; P=0.05) and shivers (3.03±1.75 vs 1.75±1.21; P<0.001). No other between-group differences were detected for the physical or emotional variables evaluated. Differences in physical symptoms experienced by the two treatment groups did not influence the participants' subsequent emotional response. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00784797. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms as Predictors of the Content of Their Facebook Communication and Responses Received from Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K

    2016-09-01

    This research examined how adolescents' internalizing symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and loneliness, relate to the content of their Facebook communication and the responses they receive from peers on Facebook. Participants (n = 125, 56 female, age 18) reported on their internalizing symptoms in the summer following 12(th) grade, and downloaded an application to their Facebook account that stored the content of all of their Facebook communication to secure, online archive. Two months of participants' status updates and comments and peers' comments were coded for content. Relations between internalizing symptoms and Facebook communication differed for girls and boys. For girls, internalizing symptoms predicted several types of Facebook content: negative affect, somatic complaints and eliciting support. In contrast, internalizing symptoms were not related to boys' Facebook posts. Relations between internalizing symptoms and peers' responses on Facebook also differed by gender. For girls, internalizing symptoms positively predicted receiving more peer comments expressing negative affect, and peer responses offering support. For boys, internalizing symptoms did not predict any of the measured peer responses. These findings suggest that girls prone to internalizing symptoms use Facebook in ways that appear similar to co-rumination, by expressing problems to friends and receive possibly reinforcing feedback in return.

  16. Resilience is decreased in irritable bowel syndrome and associated with symptoms and cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Naliboff, B D; Shih, W; Presson, A P; Videlock, E J; Ju, T; Kilpatrick, L; Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Chang, L

    2017-07-18

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs. Ninety-six of these subjects had serial serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH measured. The relationship between IBS status, resilience, and other variables of interest was assessed by regression analysis after adjusting for demographics and neuroticism, a predictor of resilience. Resilience was significantly lower in IBS compared to HCs (CD-RISC: 72.16±14.97 vs 77.32±12.73, P=.003; BRS: 3.29±0.87 vs 3.93±0.69, Presilience and IBS status for ACTH-stimulated cortisol response (P=.031); more resilient IBS subjects had lower cortisol response, and more resilient HCs had higher cortisol response. Lower resilience is associated with IBS status, worse IBS symptom severity, lower IBS-QOL, greater EALs, and stress hyperresponsiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Identification of symptom domains in ulcerative colitis that occur frequently during flares and are responsive to changes in disease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sijian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulcerative colitis disease activity is determined by measuring symptoms and signs. Our aim was to determine which symptom domains are frequent and responsive to change in the evaluation of disease activity, which are those defined by three criteria: 1 they occur frequently during flares; 2 they improve during effective therapy for ulcerative colitis; and 3 they resolve during remission. Methods Twenty-eight symptom domains, 16 from standard indices and 12 novel domains identified by ulcerative colitis patient focus groups, were evaluated. Sixty subjects with ulcerative colitis were surveyed, rating each symptom on the three criteria with a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. Frequent and responsive symptoms were defined a priori as those whose median Visual Analogue Scale rating for all 3 criteria was significantly greater than 50. Results Thirteen of the 28 symptom domains were identified as both frequent in ulcerative colitis flares and responsive to changes in disease activity. Seven of these 13 symptom domains were novel symptoms derived from ulcerative colitis patient focus groups including stool mucus, tenesmus, fatigue, rapid postprandial bowel movements, and inability to differentiate liquid or gas from solid stool when rectal urgency occurs. Ten of the 16 symptom domains from standard indices were either infrequent or unresponsive to changes in disease activity. Conclusion Only some of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis that are important to patients are included in standard indices, and several symptoms currently measured are not frequent or responsive to change in ulcerative colitis patients. Development of survey measures of these symptom domains could significantly improve the assessment of disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

  18. Direct association between orbitofrontal atrophy and the response of psychotic symptoms to olanzapine in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vicente; Sanz, Javier; Benito, Carlos; Palomo, Tomás

    2004-07-01

    The study of cerebral variables associated with response to neuroleptics holds interest from both theoretical and clinical points of view. To date, no studies have aimed to identify predictors of response to olanzapine based on cerebral measurements. Here, we used magnetic resonance to assess the relationship between volumes of the prefrontal (dorsolateral and orbitofrontal) and temporal (temporal lobe and hippocampus) cortical regions and ventricles and, on the other hand, the response to olanzapine in 16 schizophrenic patients. Data from 42 healthy controls were used to calculate volume residuals in the patients, defined as deviations from the expected values, given individual age and intracranial volume. Residuals thus represent the effect of illness on regional measurements. The association between clinical change and those residuals was calculated separately for the positive, negative and total scores from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). There was a significant direct association between the degree of orbitofrontal atrophy and the improvement of positive symptoms with olanzapine. No predictors were found for change in the negative dimension. A trend was found for patients with larger ventricles to show a greater global decrease in total PANSS scores. Neither age nor duration of illness explained a significant proportion of the symptom improvement. This result, together with others from the literature, supports the idea that atypical antipsychotics may offer some benefit to patients with significant regional atrophy, and this may have implications for the choice of antipsychotic in clinical practice.

  19. Ozone exposure thresholds and foliar injury on forest plants in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderHeyden, D; Skelly, J; Innes, J; Hug, C; Zhang, J; Landolt, W; Bleuler, P

    2001-01-01

    Canton Ticino in southern Switzerland is exposed to some of the highest concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Europe. During recent field surveys in Canton Ticino, foliar symptoms identical to those caused by ozone have been documented on native tree and shrub species. In Europe, the critical ozone level for forest trees has been defined at an AOT40 of 10 ppm.h O3 (10 ppm.h accumulated exposure of ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb) during daylight hours over a six-month growing season. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of ambient ozone required to induce visible foliar symptoms on various forest plant species in southern Switzerland. Species were grown within eight open-top chambers and four open plots at the Vivaio Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Ticino, Switzerland. Species differed significantly in terms of the ppb.h exposures needed to cause visible symptoms. The most to least symptomatic species grown within open-plots in this study rank as Prunus serotina, Salix viminalis, Vibrnum lantana, Rhamnus cathartica, Betula pendula, Rumex obtusifolius, Sambucus racemosa, Morus nigra, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Rhamnus frangula, Alnus viridis, Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus. Similar rankings were obtained in the non-filtered chamber plots. The ranking of species sensitivity closely follows AOT values for the occurrence of initial symptoms and symptom progression across the remainder of the exposure season. Species that first showed evidence of foliar injury also demonstrated the most sensitivity throughout the growing season, with symptoms rapidly advancing over ca. 25-30% of the total plant leaf surfaces by the end of the observation period. Conversely, those species that developed symptoms later in the season had far less total injury to plant foliage by the end of the observation period (1.5 to < 5% total leaf area injured). The current European ambient ozone standard may be insufficient to protect native plant species

  20. The cross-sectional relation between medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) and the Cortisol Awakening Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen-van Dessel, Nikki; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Dekker, Joost; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; van der Horst, Henriette E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to assess the cross-sectional relation between levels of cortisol and specific symptom clusters, symptom severity and duration of symptoms in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Methods: Baseline data of a cohort of MUPS patients were used. We chose the

  1. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are

  2. Foliar fertilization–induced injury and recovery of a creeping bentgrass putting green

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experimental objective was to evaluate early-response of putting green (PG) canopy quality parameters and rates of growth and nutrient use to rate and/or type of foliarly-applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In 2010, two independent fertility trials were conducted on a sand-based creeping bentgrass ...

  3. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  4. Teores foliares de nutrientes em mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘smooth cayenne’ em resposta à adubação Leaf nutrient contents on ´smooth cayenne´ planting material as response to fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘Smooth Cayenne’ obtidas por seccionamento de caule foram submetidas à adubação foliar com soluções em diferentes concentrações de uréia, KCl e H3BO3, em pulverizações semanais, num total de vinte e seis para a uréia e o KCl e aplicações mensais num total de quatro, para o H3BO3. Todos os tratamentos foram iniciados na nona semana após o plantio das secções. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial fracionado do tipo (1/553, com três tipos de adubo (uréia, KCl e H3BO3 e cinco concentrações num total de 25 tratamentos. Cada parcela constituiu-se de 50 secções. Os tratamentos consistiram nas combinações das seguintes concentrações em g L-1: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 para a uréia e o KCl, e 0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2,0 de H3BO3. Análises das amostras de folhas “D” revelam efeitos da uréia e H3BO3 sobre os teores foliares de S, Cl e B e efeito do KCL sobre K e Cl foliar. A uréia não apresentou efeito sobre o teor de N foliar, porém influencia significativamente o conteúdo de N nas mudas.‘Smooth Cayenne’ planting material obtained through stem sectioning were trea-ted with foliar fertilization with different concentrations of urea, KCl, in weekly pulverizations, and H3BO4, totalizing twenty-six for urea and KCL pulverizations and four for H3BO3, which was applied monthly The treatments were began nine weeks after planting thestem sections. The experimental scheme was a fractionated factorial (1/55³ with three types of fertilizers (urea, KCl and H3BO3 and five concentrations in a total of 25 treatments. There were 50 sections per plot. Treatments were a combination of concentrations in g L-1: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 of urea and KCl, and 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2,0 of H3BO3. Sample analyses of ‘D’ leaves showed urea and H3BO3 effect on S, Cl and B leaf contents whereas KCL affected leaf K and Cl contents. Urea did not affect N leaf content, however it strongly influenced N content in planting material.

  5. PARTITIONING THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF SOIL N, MYCORRHIZAE, AND FOLIAR N UPTAKE ON FOLIAR δ15N PATTERNS: CAN WE DETECT FOLIAR UPTAKE OF REACTIVE N?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive N in N-limited systems and may be capable of incorporating reactive N compounds directly into leaves through the foliar uptake pathway. A proxy for atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation would be useful to estimate the impact of direct foliar N uptake on plant metabolism. Natural abundance foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) is a practical tool for this purpose because plant-available N sources often have different isotopic compositions. Current understanding of foliar δ15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of soil δ15N, direct foliar N uptake, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we estimated the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N patterns in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along an N deposition gradient in New York State. We found that mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ15N in red maple seedlings from 0.03 - 1.01‰ across sites. Along the same temporal and spatial scales, we examined the influence of soil δ15N, foliar N uptake, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in adult stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), red maple (A. rubrum), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Using multiple regression models, atmospheric NO2 concentration explained 0%, 69%, 23%, and 45% of the residual variation in foliar δ15N remaining in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for soil δ15N. Our results suggest that foliar δ15N may be used to estimate pollution-derived atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation via the foliar N uptake pathway.

  6. Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Victimization and Victims' Symptoms of PTSD and Depression: The Protective Role of Ethnic Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Bautista, Adrian; Brown, Elissa J

    2016-11-03

    College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and comfort with the mainstream culture moderate the association between negative responses to the first disclosure of sexual victimization and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A diverse sample (10% Black/African American, 51% White, 39% Other, and 66% Hispanic) of undergraduate women was recruited from two urban, Eastern United States universities for this online study. Participants reported histories of sexual victimization, demographics, responses to sexual assault disclosure (i.e., victim blame, treating the victim differently, taking control, distraction, and egocentric reactions), symptoms of PTSD and depression, and their ethnic identity and mainstream cultural comfort. Thirty-seven percent (n = 221) endorsed an experience of sexual victimization, and 165 disclosed it to someone. Hierarchical ordinary least squares regressions revealed that a stronger sense of ethnic identity was associated with fewer symptoms of PTSD for those women who experienced higher levels of control, distraction, and egocentric responses from the first disclosure recipient. A strong sense of affiliation with the mainstream culture did not protect survivors who reported receiving negative responses to disclosure against symptoms of PTSD or depression. Ethnic affiliation may protect women against PTSD when they receive high levels of negative messages about sexual victimization experiences.

  7. Acute child and mother psychophysiological responses and subsequent PTSD symptoms following a child's traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Sarah A; Christopher, Norman C; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between acute cortisol responses to trauma and subsequent PTSD symptoms (PTSS) in children and their biological mothers. Urinary cortisol levels were assessed in 54 children aged 8-18 upon admission to a level-1 trauma center. Six weeks posttrauma, 15-hour urine samples were collected from children and their mothers. Depression and PTSS were assessed at 6 weeks (N = 44) and 7 months (N = 38) posttrauma. Higher child in-hospital cortisol significantly predicted 6-week child PTSS. This was true only for boys at 7 months. In mothers, lower 6-week cortisol levels significantly predicted 7-month PTSS. Results extend findings of differing directions of acute hormonal predictors of PTSS in adults versus children to a sample of genetically related individuals.

  8. Wood and foliar respiration of tropical wet forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, S.; Bedoya Arrieta, R.; Ryan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Wood and foliar respiration from tropical forests constitute major components of ecosystem respiration that may control their productivity and carbon storage. However, few estimates on tropical forests vary greatly. Furthermore, the trees in these forests respire great amounts of carbon, but impacts of individual tree species on respiration is not well known. We examined wood and foliar respiration in this environment in relation to individual tree species. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify how respiration rates relate to scaling variables for wood and foliage, 2) examine the effects of individual tree species on these relationships, 3) extrapolate the rates to the annual fluxes of the whole stands, and 4) determine if tree species differed in these fluxes. Established on an abandoned pasture in 1988 at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, the monodominant stands contained four native species in a complete randomized block design. Respiration rates based on tissue surface area ranged among dominant tree species from 0.6 to 1.0 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for small diameter wood (<10cm), 1.0 to 1.8 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for large diameter wood, and 0.7 to 0.8 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for foliage. Understory species had similar wood respiration rates, but foliage respiration rates were about half of those for canopy leaves. Among surface area, volume, or biomass, respiration rates scaled best with surface area for wood with small diameter, volume or biomass for large diameter wood, and leaf area for foliage. These relationships differed slightly among tree species and between canopy trees and understory species. Foliar respiration rate was generally related to leaf nitrogen content, and this relationship differed among dominant tree species. Temperature response of foliar respiration also differed among tree species and canopy class. However, daily and annual temperature fluctuations had less than 3% effect on annual flux. Annual respiratory fluxes from wood and foliage

  9. FTO at rs9939609, food responsiveness, emotional control and symptoms of ADHD in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur P Velders

    Full Text Available The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg/height (m(2 in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21, p = 0.03. Also, children with the A allele were less likely to have symptoms of ADHD (OR 0.74, p = 0.01 and showed more emotional control (OR 0.64, p = 0.01 compared to children without the A allele. Our findings suggest that before the association between FTO and BMI becomes apparent, the FTO minor allele at rs9939609 leads to increased food responsiveness, a decreased risk for symptoms of ADHD and better emotional control. Future studies are needed to investigate whether these findings represent one single mechanism or reflect pleiotropic effects of FTO.

  10. Probiotics reduce symptoms of antibiotic use in a hospital setting: a randomized dose response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; DongLian, Cai; Weijian, Xu; Stewart, Morgan; Ni, Jiayi; Stewart, Tad; Miller, Larry E

    2014-01-16

    Probiotics are known to reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) risk in a strain-specific manner. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of a four strain probiotic combination (HOWARU(®) Restore) on the incidence of AAD and CDAD and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in adult in-patients requiring antibiotic therapy. Patients (n=503) were randomized among three study groups: HOWARU(®) Restore probiotic 1.70×10(10) CFU (high-dose, n=168), HOWARU(®) Restore probiotic 4.17×10(9) CFU (low-dose, n=168), or placebo (n=167). Subjects were stratified by gender, age, and duration of antibiotic treatment. Study products were administered daily up to 7 days after the final antibiotic dose. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of AAD. Secondary endpoints included incidence of CDAD, diarrhea duration, stools per day, bloody stools, fever, abdominal cramping, and bloating. A significant dose-response effect on AAD was observed with incidences of 12.5, 19.6, and 24.6% with high-dose, low-dose, and placebo, respectively (p=0.02). CDAD was the same in both probiotic groups (1.8%) but different from the placebo group (4.8%; p=0.04). Incidences of fever, abdominal pain, and bloating were lower with increasing probiotic dose. The number of daily liquid stools and average duration of diarrhea decreased with higher probiotic dosage. The tested four strain probiotic combination appears to lower the risk of AAD, CDAD, and gastrointestinal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner in adult in-patients.

  11. Anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms in palliative care: from neuro-psychobiological response to stress, to symptoms' management with clinical hypnosis and meditative states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, Anirudh Kumar; Brugnoli, Maria Paola

    2017-08-09

    Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatic medicine in palliative care, integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse clinical specialties including psychiatry, psychology, neurology, internal medicine, allergy, dermatology, psychoneuroimmunology, psychosocial oncology and spiritual care. Clinical conditions where psychological processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence. Thus, the psychosomatic symptom develops as a physiological connected of an emotional state. In a state of rage or fear, for example, the stressed person's blood pressure is likely to be elevated and his pulse and respiratory rate to be increased. When the fear passes, the heightened physiologic processes usually subside. If the person has a persistent fear (chronic anxiety), however, which he is unable to express overtly, the emotional state remains unchanged, though unexpressed in the overt behavior, and the physiological symptoms associated with the anxiety state persist. This paper wants highlight how clinical hypnosis and meditative states can be important psychosocial and spiritual care, for the symptom management on neuro-psychobiological response to stress.

  12. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Aupperle

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses.

  13. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (symptoms of damage.Foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in A. rubrum and P. rubens trees growing in Hadlock Brook watershed, but differences were significant only for P. rubens. Foliar aluminum (Al) concentrations were also higher in both species growing in Hadlock Brook watershed but differences were significant only for A. rubrum. Foliar calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, on the other hand, were significantly lower in Hadlock Brook watershed for both species. Foliar potassium (K) was significantly higher for P. rubens growing in Hadlock Brook. No differences in foliar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were found between watersheds. The higher foliar N concentrations

  14. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  15. Maternal Responsiveness as a Predictor of Self-Regulation Development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms Across Preschool Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Schloß, Susan; Becker, Katja

    2017-04-12

    Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms. A sample of 125 preschoolers and their families were seen at the ages of 4 and 5 years. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity was assessed via home observations, RRC by neuropsychological tasks, and ADHD symptoms by a structured clinical parent interview. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicted RRC development. The negative link between maternal responsiveness/sensitivity at 4 years and ADHD symptoms at 5 years was mediated by RRC performance at 5 years. Preschoolers showing ADHD symptoms combined with low RRC capacity in particular might benefit from responsive/sensitive parenting.

  16. Foliar temperature acclimation reduces simulated carbon sensitivity to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Kattge, Jens; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-04-01

    Plant photosynthesis and respiration are the largest carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, and their parameterizations represent large sources of uncertainty in projections of land carbon uptake in Earth system models (ESMs). The incorporation of temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and foliar respiration, commonly observed processes, into ESMs has been proposed as a way to reduce this uncertainty. Here we show that, across 15 flux tower sites spanning multiple biomes at various locations worldwide (10° S-67° N), acclimation parameterizations improve a model's ability to reproduce observed net ecosystem exchange of CO2. This improvement is most notable in tropical biomes, where photosynthetic acclimation increased model performance by 36%. The consequences of acclimation for simulated terrestrial carbon uptake depend on the process, region and time period evaluated. Globally, including acclimation has a net effect of increasing carbon assimilation and storage, an effect that diminishes with time, but persists well into the future. Our results suggest that land models omitting foliar temperature acclimation are likely to overestimate the temperature sensitivity of terrestrial carbon exchange, thus biasing projections of future carbon storage and estimates of policy indicators such as the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions.

  17. Increase of soybean nutritional quality with nonstandard foliar fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna DRAGIČEVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies of mineral elements in human nutrition could be surpassed by crop fortification. One of the prevalent measures of fortification is foliar fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the content and availability of the mineral nutrients Mg, Fe and Zn, together with phytate, as an anti-nutritive factor, and β-carotene as a promoter of mineral nutrient availability in grain of two soybean cultivars (Nena and Laura treated with different non-standard foliar fertilizers (mainly based on plant extracts. Generally, a negative correlation between Fe and phytate indicated that factors which decrease phytate and increase β-carotene could be primarily responsible for Fe utilization by humans and animals. Zlatno inje (based on manure had the highest impact on increasing the grain yield and decreasing the ratios between phytate and mineral elements in Nena grain, while for Laura, it was generally Zircon (based on an extract of Echinacea purpurea L, increasing also availability of mineral elements.

  18. Habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar δ13C in temperate steppe grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Niu, Haishan; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2014-01-01

    A decrease in foliar δ13C with increasing precipitation is a common tendency in steppe plants. However, the rate of decrease has been reported to differ between different species or populations. We here hypothesized that plant populations in the same habitat of temperate steppes may not differ in foliar δ13C response patterns to precipitation, but could differ in the levels of plasticity of foliar δ13C across different habitats. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted controlled watering experiments in northeast China at five sites along a west–east transect at latitude 44°N, which show substantial interannual fluctuations and intra-annual changes in precipitation among them. In 2001, watering treatment (six levels, three replicates) was assigned to 18 plots at each site. The responses of foliar δ13C to precipitation (i.e., the sum of watering and rainfall) were determined in populations of several grass species that were common across all sites. Although similar linear regression slopes were observed for populations of different species growing at the same site, significantly different slopes were obtained for populations of the same species growing at different sites. Further, the slope of the line progressively decreased from Site I to Site V for all species in this study. These results suggest habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar δ13C in temperate steppe grasses. This indicates that species' δ13C response to precipitation is conservative at the same site due to their long-term acclimation, but the mechanism responsible behind this needs further investigations. PMID:25035804

  19. Respostas do capim-Tifton 85 à aplicação de nitrogênio: cobertura do solo, índice de área foliar e interceptação da radiação solar Responses of the grass Tifton 85 to the application of nitrogen: soil cover, leaf area index, and solar radiation interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.P. Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre o crescimento do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85, em termos de ocorrência de plantas e altura do dossel, índice de área foliar e interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa. O estudo foi desenvolvido sobre um planossolo de ocorrência em campo experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de N (0; 150; 300; 450 e 600kg/ha de N-ureia, aplicados em duas vezes, arranjados em um desenho experimental de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, entre 10 e 40 dias após o corte. Tanto a ocorrência de plantas como a altura do dossel responderam à adubação nitrogenada, conforme um padrão de resposta que variou, sazonalmente, em função das doses de N em interação com as condições ambientais. A expansão da área foliar e a interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa associada, também foram controladas direta e proporcionalmente pelas doses de N aplicadas, sendo maximizadas a valores de índice de área foliar em torno de 4,0.The effects of nitrogen (N fertilization levels on the growth patterns of the grass Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv.Tifton 85 were studied in terms of occurrence of plants, sward height, leaf area index, and photosynthetically active radiation interception (PARint. The field trial was made in an experimental area. Treatments consisted of N levels (0; 150; 300; 450; and 600kg/ha N-urea, split in two applications arranged in an experimental design of entirely randomized blocks with four repetitions. Plots were weekly sampled, from the day 10th to 40th after cutting. Both occurrence of plants as well as sward height were responsive to nitrogen fertilization according to a response pattern that seasonally varied, depending on N rates and environmental conditions; thus, demonstrating their sensitivity as indicators of growth conditions and canopy structure. Leaf expansion

  20. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Criss, Michael M.; Judah, Matt R.; Eagleton, Sally G.; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Methods Eighteen females (ages 12–16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Results Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Conclusions Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses. PMID:27158587

  1. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L; Morris, Amanda S; Silk, Jennifer S; Criss, Michael M; Judah, Matt R; Eagleton, Sally G; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P

    2016-01-01

    The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Eighteen females (ages 12-16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses.

  2. Symptom predictors of response to electroconvulsive therapy in older patients with treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Keiichiro Tominaga¹, Mioto Okazaki¹, Hisashi Higuchi¹, Itaru Utagawa¹, Etsuko Nakamura², Noboru Yamaguchi¹¹Department of Neuropsychiatry, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, ²Tsurukawa Sanatorium Hospital, Machida City, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been used for treatment-resistant depression. However, predictors of response to ECT have not been adequately studied using the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, especially in older patients with treatment-resistant depression.Methods: This study included 18 Japanese patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision criteria for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder with a current major depressive episode, and met the definition of treatment-resistant depression outlined by Thase and Rush, scoring ≥21 on the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. The three-factor model of the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale was used for analysis. Factor 1 was defined by three items, factor 2 by four items, and factor 3 by three items, representing dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative symptoms, respectively. ECT was performed twice a week for a total of six sessions using a Thymatron System IV device with the brief pulse technique. Clinical responses were defined on the basis of a ≥50% decrease in total pretreatment Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores.Results: The mean pretreatment factor 2 score for responders (n = 7 was significantly lower than that for nonresponders (n = 11. Furthermore, a significant difference in mean factor 3 score between responders and nonresponders was observed one week after six sessions of ECT, indicating a time lag of response. No significant differences were observed for age, number of previous episodes, and duration of the current episode between responders and

  3. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  4. A vulnerability-stress examination of response styles theory in adolescence: stressors, sex differences, and symptom specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-01-01

    The stress-reactivity extension of the response styles theory of depression suggests that individuals who ruminate (or fail to engage in distraction or problem solving) in response to dysphoric mood are likely to experience higher levels of depression following stress. However, previous studies have not addressed (a) the specificity of these vulnerability-stress relations to symptoms of depression following different types of stressors, and (b) to what extent rumination and stress can account for the sex differences in depression that emerge during early adolescence. A community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12-13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit 9 months later. Response styles and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events, emotional maltreatment, peer relational victimization, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at follow-up. Higher rumination and lower distraction/problem solving interacted with several types of stressors to predict higher levels of symptoms of depression but not anxiety. Rumination was more strongly associated with elevations in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of relational victimization events in girls than in boys. In addition, dependent interpersonal stress mediated the sex difference in depressive symptoms that emerged at follow-up, and this indirect pathway was stronger among adolescents who tended to ruminate. Rumination may confer vulnerability that is specific to symptoms of depression following recent stressors during early adolescence. Girls who ruminate may be particularly likely to experience depression following relational victimization, and dependent interpersonal stressors may help to account for girls' greater risk for depression during adolescence.

  5. Leaf plasticity in successive selection cycles of 'Saracura' maize in response to periodic soil flooding Plasticidade foliar nos sucessivos ciclos de seleção do milho 'Saracura' em resposta ao alagamento intermitente do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Corrêa de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of successive selection cycles on leaf plasticity of 'Saracura' maize BRS-4154 under periodical flooding in field conditions. Soil flooding started at the six-leaf stage with the application of a 20-cm depth water layer three times a week. At flowering, samples of leaves were collected and fixed. Paradermic and transverse sections were observed under photonic microscope. Several changes were observed throughout the selection cycles, such as modifications in the number and size of the stomata, higher amount of vascular bundles and the resulting decrease of the distance between them, smaller diameter of the metaxylem, decrease of cuticle and epidermis thickness, decrease of number and size of bulliform cells, increase of phloem thickness, smaller sclerenchyma area. Therefore, the successive selection cycles of 'Saracura' maize resulted in changes in the leaf anatomy, which might be favorable to the plant's tolerance to the intermittent flooding of the soil.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sucessivos ciclos de seleção na plasticidade foliar do milho 'Saracura' BRS-4154 sob alagamento intermitente do solo em condições de campo. O alagamento do solo iniciou-se no estádio de seis folhas com a aplicação de uma lâmina de 20 cm de água três vezes por semana. No florescimento, foram coletadas e fixadas amostras das folhas. Secções paradérmicas e transversais de amostras foram observadas em microscópio fotônico. Várias modificações foram observadas durante os ciclos de seleção, como o número e o tamanho dos estômatos, a maior quantidade de feixes vasculares e a consequente diminuição da distância entre eles, o metaxilema com diâmetros menores, a diminuição da espessura da cutícula e da epiderme, a diminuição no número e tamanho das células buliformes, o aumento da espessura do floema e a menor área de esclerênquima. Os sucessivos ciclos de seleção do

  6. Foliar δ15N is affected by foliar nitrogen uptake, soil nitrogen, and mycorrhizae along a nitrogen deposition gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano, Dena M; Sparks, Jed P

    2013-05-01

    Foliar nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) composition patterns have been linked to soil N, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. However, few studies have examined the potential importance of the direct foliar uptake of gaseous reactive N on foliar δ(15)N. Using an experimental set-up in which the rate of mycorrhizal infection was reduced using a fungicide, we examined the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ(15)N in potted red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along a regional N deposition gradient in New York State. Mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ(15)N values in red maple seedlings from 0.06 to 0.74 ‰ across sites. At the same sites, we explored the predictive roles of direct foliar N uptake, soil δ(15)N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ(15)N in adult stands of A. rubrum, American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Multiple regression analysis indicated that ambient atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration explained 0, 69, 23, and 45 % of the variation in foliar δ(15)N in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for the influence of soil δ(15)N. There was no correlation between foliar δ(13)C and foliar %N with increasing atmospheric NO2 concentration in most species. Our findings suggest that total canopy uptake, and likely direct foliar N uptake, of pollution-derived atmospheric N deposition may significantly impact foliar δ(15)N in several dominant species occurring in temperate forest ecosystems.

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, the symptoms of many disorders presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) lack sufficient psychometric…

  8. Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna Sara; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to l...

  9. Assessment of Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Incest: A Factor Analytic Study of the Responses to Childhood Incest Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Hierarchy and Psychometric Properties of ADHD Symptoms in Spanish Children: An Application of the Graded Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Victor B.; Nuñez, Daniel E.; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P.; Arias, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria assume that the 18 symptoms carry the same weight in an Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and bear the same discriminatory capacity. However, it is reasonable to think that symptoms may differ in terms of severity and even in the reliability with they represent the disorder. To test this hypothesis, the aim of this study was to calibrate in a sample of Spanish children (age 4–7; n = 784) a scale for assessing the symptoms of ADHD proposed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR within the framework of Item Response Theory. Samejima’s Graded Response Model was used as a method for estimating the item difficulty and discrimination parameters. The results showed that ADHD subscales (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Impulsivity) had good psychometric properties and had also a good fit to the model. However, relevant differences between symptoms were observed at the level of severity, informativeness and reliability for the assessment of ADHD. This finding suggests that it would be useful to identify the symptoms that are more important than the others with regard to diagnosing ADHD. PMID:27736911

  11. Symptoms, but Not a Biomarker Response to Inhaled Corticosteroids, Predict Asthma in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. M. Klaassen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A reliable asthma diagnosis is challenging in preschool wheezing children. As inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are more effective in asthmatics than in children with transient wheeze, an ICS response might be helpful in early asthma diagnosis. Methods. 175 children (aged two–four years with recurrent wheeze received 200 μg Beclomethasone extra-fine daily for eight weeks. Changes in Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC biomarkers (pH, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, sICAM, and CCL-11, Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO, airway resistance, and symptoms were assessed. At six years of age a child was diagnosed as transient wheezer or asthmatic. Adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed with multiple testing correction. Results. 106 transient wheezers and 64 asthmatics were analysed at six years of age. Neither changes in EBC biomarkers, nor FeNO, airway resistance, or symptoms during ICS trial at preschool age were related to asthma diagnosis at six years of age. However, asthmatics had more airway symptoms before the start of the ICS trial than transient wheezers (P<0.01. Discussion. Although symptom score in preschool wheezing children at baseline was associated with asthma at six years of age, EBC biomarkers, airway resistance, or symptom response to ICS at preschool age could not predict asthma diagnosis at six years of age.

  12. Relationship between symptom response and esophageal pH level on standard dose of esomeprazole treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Sui; XIONG Li-shou; XIAO Ying-lian; WANG An-jiang; LIN Jin-kun; HU Pin-jin; CHEN Min-hu

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between symptom elimination and normalization of esophageal acid level of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been questioned. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between symptom response and gastro-esophageal acidity control in Chinese patients with GERD on esomeprazole therapy, and to assess the role of 24-hour esophageal pH-metry after therapy in GERD patients.Methods GERD patients with typical reflux symptoms were enrolled and received esomeprazole 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with positive baseline 24-hour esophageal pH-metry were divided into two groups depending on an additional dual-channel 24-hour pH-metry after treatment. The pH- group achieved normalization of esophageal pH level whereas the pH+ group did not.Results Of the 80 patients studied, 76 had abnormal baseline esophageal pH levels. Of these, 90% (52/58) of symptom-free patients and 67% (12/18) of symptom-persistent patients achieved esophageal pH normalization after therapy (P=0.030). The mean post-therapy gastric nocturnal percent time of pH <4.0 was significantly higher in pH+group than that in pH- group (P <0.001) after therapy. The multivariate regression analysis identified hiatus hernia (P<0.001) and persistent reflux symptom (P=0.004) were two independent factors predicting the low post-therapy esophageal pH level.Conclusions Symptom elimination is not always accompanied by esophageal pH normalization, and vice verse.Esophageal pH-metry is recommended for GERD patients with hiatus hernia or with persistent reflux symptoms after PPI therapy.

  13. Can the foliar nitrogen concentration of upland vegetation be used for predicting atmospheric nitrogen deposition? Evidence from field surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W K; Leith, I D; Woodin, S J; Fowler, D

    2000-03-01

    The deposition of atmospheric nitrogen can be enhanced at high altitude sites as a consequence of cloud droplet deposition and orographic enhancement of wet deposition on hills. The degree to which the increased deposition of nitrogen influences foliar nitrogen concentration in a range of upland plant species was studied in a series of field surveys in northern Britain. A range of upland plant species sampled along altitudinal transects at sites of known atmospheric nitrogen deposition showed marked increases in foliar nitrogen concentration with increasing nitrogen deposition and altitude (and hence with decreasing temperature). For Nardus stricta L., Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Erica cinerea L. and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Br. Eur. on an unpolluted hill, foliar nitrogen increased by 0.07, 0.12, 0.15, 0.08 and 0.04% dry weight respectively for each 1 kg ha(-1) year(-1) increase in nitrogen deposition. Most species showed an approximately linear relationship between foliar nitrogen concentration and altitude but no trend with altitude for foliar phosphorus concentration. This provided evidence that the tissue nutrient status of upland plants reflects nutrient availability rather than the direct effects of climate on growth. However, differences in the relationship between foliar nitrogen concentration and atmospheric nitrogen deposition for N. stricta sampled on hills in contrasting pollution climates show that the possibility of temperature-mediated growth effects on foliar nitrogen concentration should not be ignored. Thus, there is potential to use upland plant species as biomonitors of nitrogen deposition, but the response of different species to nitrogen addition, in combination with climatic effects on growth, must be well characterised.

  14. Hymenolepis nana infection: symptoms and response to nitazoxanide in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chero, Juan C; Saito, Mayuko; Bustos, Javier A; Blanco, Eladio M; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Garcia, Hector H

    2007-02-01

    A matched case-control study on clinical symptoms of Hymenolepis nana and an open trial of nitazoxanide treatment were conducted in a village on the northern coast of Peru. Interview data were obtained from 25 individuals with hymenolepiasis only and 46 matched controls. Individuals with other intestinal helminths or giardiasis were excluded. Twenty nitazoxanide-treated cases were followed with stool examination a month later. There were no significant differences between groups in the prevalence of symptoms except headache, which was less frequent in the cases. Treatment efficacy was 75%. Hymenolepiasis in this community did not have significant impact on specific symptoms.

  15. Interaction between perceived maternal care, anxiety symptoms, and the neurobehavioral response to palatable foods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Reis, Roberta Sena; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Minuzzi, Luciano; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Toazza, Rudineia; Ergang, Bárbara Cristina; Cunha, Ana Carla de Araújo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2016-05-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that early life trauma leads to anxiety, increased stress responses to threatening situations, and modifies food intake in a new environment. However, these associations are still to be tested in humans. This study aimed to verify complex interactions among anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol on food intake in a new environment in humans. A community sample of 32 adolescents and young adults was evaluated for: psychiatric diagnosis using standardized interviews, maternal care using the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), caloric consumption in a new environment (meal choice at a snack bar), and salivary cortisol. They also performed a brain fMRI task including the visualization of palatable foods vs. neutral items. The study found a three-way interaction between anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol levels on the total calories consumed (snacks) in a new environment. This interaction means that for those with high maternal care, there were no significant associations between cortisol levels and food intake in a new environment. However, for those with low maternal care and who have an anxiety disorder (affected), cortisol was associated with higher food intake; whereas for those with low maternal care and who did not have an anxiety disorder (resilient), cortisol was negatively associated with lower food intake. In addition, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased activation in the superior and middle frontal gyrus when visualizing palatable vs. neutral items in those reporting high maternal care. These results in humans mimic experimental research findings and demonstrate that a combination of anxiety diagnosis and maternal care moderate the relationship between the HPA axis functioning, anxiety, and feeding behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  16. Measuring foliar chemistry alongside airborne observations in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Meier, C. L.; Goulden, T.; Leisso, N.; Petroy, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of canopy foliage mediates key ecosystem processes including productivity, herbivory and nutrient export. However, long-term datasets that can reveal directional change in canopy foliar traits in response to environmental drivers are scarce. Advances in imaging spectroscopy have enhanced our ability to remotely sense canopy reflectance, and a better understanding of links between observed reflectance and measured foliar constituents will enhance our ability to map unsampled regions and predict foliar chemical change over time. In this talk, I will present the current canopy foliage sampling plan for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). NEON will analyze sun-lit canopy leaves and needles across all 47 terrestrial observation sites every 3-5 years throughout the 30-year lifetime of the observatory. Sampling will occur in plots adjacent to flux towers as well as those distributed across the landscape, with individuals targeted to represent locally dominant canopy species. Measured variables include leaf mass per area, chlorophyll content, carbon and nitrogen concentrations and stable isotopes, major and minor elements, and lignin. Sampling will coincide with overflights of the NEON Airborne Observation Platform in order to maximize the utility of ground-based observations for developing regressions with hyperspectral data, with algorithm development lead by the community. To demonstrate the kind of data that will be collected and made publicly available once the observatory becomes operational, results from three linked ground-aerial prototype campaigns from summer 2016 will be shown. Prototype data highlights strong taxonomic controls on foliar physical and chemical properties but also notable variation within species and genera across sites and environmental gradients. NEON's canopy sampling program will hopefully provide exciting, continental-scale opportunities to advance our understanding of the controls on foliar chemistry

  17. Parental response to child injury: examination of parental posttraumatic stress symptom trajectories following child accidental injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Brocque, Robyne M; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin A

    2010-01-01

    Trajectory analyses were used to empirically differentiate patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents following child accidental injury and explore the relationship between parent and child recovery patterns. Parent (n = 189...

  18. Pupillary Responses as a Biomarker of Diminished Effort Associated With Defeatist Attitudes and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ruiz, Ivan; Gallegos-Rodriguez, Yuliana; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C

    2016-10-15

    The hypothesis that defeatist performance attitudes are associated with decreased goal-directed task effort and negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia was investigated by using pupillary responses as a biomarker of task effort. Pupillary dilation during cognitive tasks provides a biomarker of effort devoted to the task, with greater dilation indicating greater effort. Defeatist attitudes were assessed in 149 consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 50 healthy control subjects, and consumers were divided into three groups (tertile split) with respect to severity of defeatist attitudes. Pupillary dilation responses were recorded during a digit-span task with three-, six-, and nine-digit spans. Effort allocation (pupillary responses) to the task increased as the processing load increased from low (three-digit) to moderate (six-digit) demands in healthy control subjects and consumers with schizophrenia with mild and moderate severity of defeatist attitudes. In contrast, consumers with severe defeatist attitudes did not increase their effort when processing demands increased from low to moderate loads. These consumers showed significantly less effort in the six-digit condition relative to consumers with mild defeatist attitudes. Moreover, consumers with severe defeatist attitudes showed significantly greater severity of negative symptoms relative to consumers with mild defeatist attitudes and negative symptoms were significantly correlated with defeatist attitudes. These results suggest a relationship between defeatist performance attitudes, goal-directed task effort indexed by pupillary responses, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The findings have implications for using cognitive therapy to reduce defeatist attitudes that may contribute to diminished effort and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  20. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: II. Leaf gas exchange and nitrogen content Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: II. Troca gasosa e conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    áxima de fotossíntese significativamente maiores que das folhas cultivadas sob baixa luz. Em S. cayennensis, não houve diferença significativa, entre tratamentos, quanto a esses parâmetros. Em ambas espécies, folhas desenvolvidas sob baixa irradiância apresentaram maiores taxas de assimilação de CO2 sob baixos níveis de irradiância. Em ambas as espécies, plantas cultivadas em luz alta apresentaram menores teores de nitrogênio por unidade de peso foliar. Em S. cayennensis, folhas de baixa irradiância tiveram maior teor de N por unidade de área que em folhas de plantas de luz alta; no entanto, em I. asarifolia não foi observado um padrão definido quanto a essa variável durante o período experimental. O conteúdo de N foliar e a assimilação de CO2 em S. cayennensis foram inversamente correlacionados com o percentual de biomassa alocado para estruturas reprodutivas. Esses resultados são discutidos com relação a suas importâncias ecológica e de manejo.

  1. Acupuncture and the relaxation response for treating gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bei-Hung; Sommers, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    To examine the effect of acupuncture and the relaxation response (RR) for treating gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in HIV patients who are using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The authors conducted a 4-arm 2×2 double-blind randomised controlled trial in an acupuncture clinic in the USA. Sham acupuncture and health education were used as the control conditions of real acupuncture and RR elicitation, respectively. Enrolled patients were randomised to real acupuncture+RR (AR), sham acupuncture+RR (SR), real acupuncture+health education (AE) or sham acupuncture+health education (SE) study arm. Participants listened to CDs with RR-eliciting instructions or health education while receiving acupuncture intervention. Interventions were provided twice weekly for 4 weeks and once weekly for another 4 weeks. Participants used daily diaries to record GI symptom severity ratings (0-10). The authors estimated the intervention effect as the changes in symptom rating per intervention session increase using a mixed-effects regression model. A total of 130 people with HIV/AIDS who were on HAART and had persistent GI symptoms were enrolled and 115 started the study intervention. The AR group had greater intervention effects for loose stools symptoms than the other three groups (β=-0.149, -0.151 and -0.144, p value=0.013, 0.013 and 0.018 comparing AR to AE, SR and SE, respectively). The AR group also had significant intervention effects on reducing nausea symptoms when the intervention was given twice per week (β=-0.218, p=0.001). Our trial provided preliminary data demonstrating the potential synergistic effects of acupuncture and RR for treating GI symptoms in HIV patients on HAART.

  2. Optimizing vs. matching: response strategy in a probabilistic learning task is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Waltz, James A; Strauss, Gregory P; Frank, Michael J; Gold, James M

    2011-04-01

    Previous research indicates that behavioral performance in simple probability learning tasks can be organized into response strategy classifications that are thought to predict important personal characteristics and individual differences. Typically, relatively small proportion of subjects can be identified as optimizers for effectively exploiting the environment and choosing the more rewarding stimulus nearly all of the time. In contrast, the vast majority of subjects behaves sub-optimally and adopts the matching or super-matching strategy, apportioning their responses in a way that matches or slightly exceeds the probabilities of reinforcement. In the present study, we administered a two-choice probability learning paradigm to 51 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 29 healthy controls (NC) to examine whether there are differences in the proportion of subjects falling into these response strategy classifications, and to determine whether task performance is differentially associated with symptom severity and neuropsychological functioning. Although the sample of SZ patients did not differ from NC in overall rate of learning or end performance, significant clinical differences emerged when patients were divided into optimizing, super-matching and matching subgroups based upon task performance. Patients classified as optimizers, who adopted the most advantageous learning strategy, exhibited higher levels of positive and negative symptoms than their matching and super-matching counterparts. Importantly, when both positive and negative symptoms were considered together, only negative symptom severity was a significant predictor of whether a subject would behave optimally, with each one standard deviation increase in negative symptoms increasing the odds of a patient being an optimizer by as much as 80%. These data provide a rare example of a greater clinical impairment being associated with better behavioral performance.

  3. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela . Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  4. Pervasive effects of wildfire on foliar endophyte communities in montane forest trees

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-ling; Devan, MM Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M; Furr, Susan H.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to wildfires has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe wildfires in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe wildfires on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on trad...

  5. Facing HIV as a family: predicting depressive symptoms with correlated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ding, Ying Ying; Ji, Guoping

    2011-04-01

    This study makes an effort to go beyond traditional analytical models to explore the complex and interactive nature of family processes. A total of 79 families affected by HIV in China participated in the study (79 persons living with HIV [PLH] and 79 seronegative family members), with in-person interviews conducted in 2009. A higher level of depressive symptoms was reported by PLH participants than their family members. Negative associations between depressive symptoms and social support and family relations were observed for both PLH and their family members. Results from actor-partner interdependence models indicate that the depressive symptoms of PLH and their family members were positively correlated when either the family relations measure or the social support measure was included in the model. Results highlight the link between family experience and individual well-being, with implications for designing and implementing interventions for families impacted by HIV.

  6. Impact of foliar application of seaweed extract on growth, yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasim Haider, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Habat Ullah Asad, Abdul Manan, Syed Ali Raza and Irfan Ashraf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in 2010 to investigate the effect of foliar application of seaweed extract “Primo” as an organic biostimulant on potato cv. ‘Sante’. Foliar application of seaweed extract was carried out at different growth stages of the crop (i.e. 30 days; 45 days; 60 days; 30 and 45 days; 30 and 60 days; 45 and 60 days; 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing. Control plants were sprayed with water without seaweed extract. A significant improvement in growth, yield and tuber quality of potato was observed where treatment was applied. The highest tuber yield was recorded with applications of seaweed extract at 30 + 60 days interval after planting. The treatment also improved nitrogen, total soluble solids and protein contents of the potato tubers. The results of the study concluded a positive response of potato plant growth and yield to the foliar application of seaweed extract.

  7. Effect of zinc (Zn and auxin (IBA foliar application on phytohormonal variation and growth of corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Moradi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess corn responses to zinc compounds and auxin (Indole Butyric Acid foliar application in shoots and roots, a pot experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design in three replications. Results showed that, zinc and auxin increased auxin and abscisic acid concentration both in shoots and roots. Also, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root increased model to foliar application, because protein synthesis was increased. On the other hand, according to unusual case, auxin and ABA showed positive parallel variation both in shoot and root, but this relation was more noticable in shoots.

  8. Beyond fear: the role of peritraumatic responses in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms among female crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Kaysen, Debra; Gutner, Cassidy A; Griffin, Michael G; Resick, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines peritraumatic (and posttrauma) responses in a sample of female crime victims who had been sexually or physically assaulted within the previous 2 months. Women were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral responses during the trauma and assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptomatology. Results indicate that women experience a wide range of behavioral and emotional responses during a traumatic event and that these responses have implications for posttrauma adjustment. Women who experienced behaviors typical of a freeze response are more likely to have a greater degree of symptomatology after the assault. Peritraumatic emotions, other than fear, such as sadness, humiliation, and anger, also appear to be related to posttrauma depression symptoms. These findings highlight the necessity of exploring the full range of possible reactions during a trauma.

  9. Amygdala Response Predicts Trajectory of Symptom Reduction During Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Adolescent Girls with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent...

  10. 苎麻叶面施肥研究进展%Research Progress on Foliar Fertilization of Ramie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉超; 崔国贤; 马渊博; 肖呈祥; 赵丹博

    2012-01-01

    As a significant method of supplying nutrition and improving variety quality, foliar fertilizers can not only reduce the symptoms of nutrition deficiency, but also raise the fiber yields and better fiber quality. The ramie foliar fertilizers include nutritional fertilizer, regulative fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. This paper introduced the effects of the three types of foliar fertilizers on ramie growth and the methods of fertilizing. In addition, the research prospects on the foliar fertilizers of ramie were put forward.%作物叶面施肥是补充营养元素和改善品质的一种重要手段,对苎麻进行叶面施肥不但可以及时改善缺素症状,还能提高原麻产量、改善纤维品质.苎麻叶面肥料大致可以分为营养型肥料、调节型肥料和益菌型肥料.本文介绍了三类叶面肥料对苎麻生长发育的影响以及苎麻叶面施肥的方法,并对今后苎麻叶面肥研究方向进行了展望.

  11. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  12. Assessing threat responses towards the symptoms and diagnosis of schizophrenia using visual perceptual biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, Adam; Best, Michael W; Ouellette, Sarah J; Meiklejohn, Erin; Troje, Nikolaus F; Bowie, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Stigma towards individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia continues despite increasing public knowledge about the disorder. Questionnaires are used almost exclusively to assess stigma despite self-report biases affecting their validity. The purpose of this experiment was to implicitly assess stigma towards individuals with schizophrenia by measuring visual perceptual biases immediately after participants conversed with a confederate. We manipulated both the diagnostic label attributed to the confederate (peer vs. schizophrenia) and the presence of behavioural symptoms (present vs. absent). Immediately before and after conversing with the confederate, we measured participants' facing-the-viewer (FTV) biases (the preference to perceive depth-ambiguous stick-figure walkers as facing towards them). As studies have suggested that the FTV bias is sensitive to the perception of threat, we hypothesized that FTV biases would be greater after participants conversed with someone that they believed had schizophrenia, and also after they conversed with someone who presented symptoms of schizophrenia. We found partial support for these hypotheses. Participants had significantly greater FTV biases in the Peer Label/Symptoms Present condition. Interestingly, while FTV biases were lowest in the Schizophrenia Label/Symptoms Present condition, participants in this condition were most likely to believe that people with schizophrenia should face social restrictions. Our findings support that both implicit and explicit beliefs help develop and sustain stigma.

  13. Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome with Carbohydrate-Responsive Symptoms but without Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, Anne; Assmann, Birgit; Klepper, Joerg; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is caused by a defect in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. The main symptoms are epilepsy, developmental delay, movement disorders, and deceleration of head circumference. A ketogenic diet has been shown to be effective in controlling epilepsy in GLUT1-DS. We report a female…

  14. Morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata Gardiner (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Zefa Valdivina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Palicourea - tribo Psychotrieae - compreende cerca de 200 espécies e destaca-se por apresentar alcalóides indólicos muitas vezes tóxicos para bovinos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi contribuir para o conhecimento da família Rubiaceae, enfatizando os aspectos da morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata. O material foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso (RFMP, município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e amostras-testemunha foram depositadas no herbário VIC. Folhas provenientes do quarto nó foram fixadas em FAA50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. Seções transversais e longitudinais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar foram obtidas em micrótomo de mesa para montagem de lâminas permanentes, conforme metodologia usual. As folhas são simples, opostas, inteiras, ovais lanceoladas, dorsiventrais e hipoestomáticas. A epiderme do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar é uniestratificada, papilosa na face adaxial da folha e recoberta por cutícula delgada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e ocorrem no mesmo nível das demais células epidérmicas. O mesofilo é constituído por uma camada de parênquima paliçádico e de várias de parênquima lacunoso. Na face adaxial e abaxial da nervura mediana e no bordo da lâmina observa-se colênquima subepidérmico. Um feixe vascular do tipo colateral, em forma de "U", distribui-se ao longo do pecíolo e da nervura mediana, acompanhado, invariavelmente, por dois feixes menores localizados lateralmente. No córtex do pecíolo e da nervura mediana observa-se aerênquima. As características anatômicas seguem o padrão descrito para as Rubiaceae, e algumas delas são interpretadas como adaptações a ambientes úmidos e sombreados no qual a espécie ocorre.

  15. Non-specific symptoms in response to hazard exposure in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, A; Gompertz, D; Harrington, J M

    1997-07-01

    Recent concerns in occupational health have shown a shift in emphasis from the study of diseases with well-established pathology toward the investigation of conditions characterized by a range of nonspecific symptoms. Exposure to potential hazards differing widely in terms of their physical nature or chemical composition, for example, electromagnetic fields, organophosphate-based pesticides, and organic solvents, frequently results in the reporting of a relatively consistent group of symptoms. Furthermore, these symptoms may arise among groups of workers where no specific physical or chemical cause can be implicated; for example, in many cases of sick building syndrome. The role of psychosocial factors in the expression of ill-health has been well-documented in the psychological literature. Important modifying factors include the attitudes and belief systems of the individuals concerned, certain personality and behavior patterns, and the presence of current stress or pre-existing psychological distress. In addition, social processes may be involved in the generation and reinforcement of health concerns at the group level. These include the workers' perceptions of the competence and credibility of managers and professionals, and the influence and involvement of the media, pressure groups, and the legal system. A proper understanding of the association between putative hazards and the reporting of nonspecific symptoms therefore requires consideration not only of the direct physical pathway between hazard and harm, but also an assessment of factors which may modify the relationship between exposure and symptom reporting. The results of such investigations have important implications for determining the focus of any management and control strategies which may subsequently be implemented in the workplace.

  16. FOLIAR OR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR GARDEN PEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOZGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was the research and controlled study of the main physiological processes of the garden pea, the type Redondo, with the purpose of knowing adaptability the natural conditions in the area. In this purpose, was observed the special behavior of the garden pea Redondo, at the meteorological conditions that exist in this study (temperature, moist, light intensity determining physiological that took place: photosynthesis, chlorophyll, perspiration, absorption and index of the foliar surface. During the vegetation have been realized observations regarding: moment of arising, apparition of the first real leaves, dynamics of formation leaves and their dimensions, the number of plant leaves, formation of ramification of the roots, apparition of the floral buds, opening flowers, formation of fruits and reaching full maturity.

  17. Probing occurrence of phenylpropanoids in Morinda citrifolia in relation to foliar diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Rath, Chiranjibi; Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Nath, Vishal; Singh, Hari Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell walls of different plant organs leading to increased lignification is an early defence response of plants against biotic stress. The aim of this work was to delineate occurrence of cell wall-bound (CWB) phenolic compounds in Morinda citrifolia leaves. Alkaline hydrolysis of the cell wall material of leaf tissues yielded 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) as the major bulk of the phenolic compounds in all Morinda germplasms. Next in line was 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Other phenolics identified were vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and ferulic acid. Concentrations of all the CWB phenolics were highest in the germplasm CHN-5, followed by the germplasm CHN-1. Incidentally, these two Morinda germplasms recorded lowest incidence of foliar diseases. Significantly higher amounts of 4-CA in combination with other phenolics may be the reasons for lowest incidence of foliar diseases in CHN-5 and CHN-1 germplasms of M. citrifolia.

  18. Phytotoxic activity of foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Labiatae family, were investigated for their phytotoxic activities on seed germination and root growth of crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and weed species (Lolium perenne L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Foliar volatiles of C. nepeta (L.) Savi strongly inhibited both germination and root growth of lettuce, and its essential oils, especially at 125, 250 and 500 μL/L, inhibited both processes in lettuce, radish and A. retroflexus L. species, while displaying a little effect on L. perenne L. By GC-MS, 28 chemicals were identified: 17 monoterpenes, 8 sesquiterpenes, 1 diterpene and 2 miscellaneous. Pulegone was the main constituent of the C. nepeta (L.) Savi essential oils. The terpenic components of essentials oils were probably responsible for the phytotoxic activities.

  19. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  20. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: Symptom Control and Objective Radiological Response after Treatment with Lanreotide Autogel

    OpenAIRE

    Gema Marín Zafra; Pedro Segura Luque

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis is an aggressive subtype of pseudomyxoma peritonei, which often leads to inoperable bowel obstruction and, ultimately, death. Due to the poor prognosis, treatment is often symptomatic and aimed at alleviating the symptoms - pain, nausea, and vomiting - associated with gastrointestinal obstruction. Due to their antisecretory activity, somatostatin analogues are commonly prescribed in such cases. In the case presented here, a patient diagnosed with disseminate...

  1. Pregabalin for the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder with inadequate treatment response to antidepressants and severe depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José M; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, José L; Pérez Páramo, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin in patients with resistant generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and severe depressive symptoms, we carried out a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, prospective, and observational 6-month study. We included patients who were at least 18 years old, fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for GAD, showed inadequate responses to previous courses of antidepressant treatment, had Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale scores of at least 35, had not received pregabalin previously, and were prescribed pregabalin upon entry into this study. We included 1815 patients fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for GAD, and 133 (7.3%) fulfilled the selection criteria for these analyses. Ninety-seven percent of the patients received pregabalin (mean dose: 222 mg/day) in combination with other psychotropics. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale total score was reduced by a mean of 20.3 points (95% confidence interval, 22.1-18.4) (57.2% reduction) at month 6. Pregabalin also ameliorated comorbid depressive symptoms, with a reduction in the mean score of the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale of 22.3 points (95% confidence interval, 24.2-20.4) (56.6% reduction). Our results suggest that pregabalin, as part of a combination regimen with antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines, might be effective for the treatment of patients with GAD who have shown inadequate response to previous antidepressants and have severe depressive symptoms.

  2. Relationship between Latent Aggression, Inflated Responsibility, Guilt Feeling and Reaction Formation with Severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to study previous findings about interpersonal ambivalence in people with obsessive compulsive disorders that shows itself as hidden aggression, excessive responsibility, feelings of guilt, and reverse reaction formations. Materials and Methods: In this correlational study, 60 individuals (33 women and 27 men with obsessive-compulsive disorders who were referred to psychologists' offices and clinics of the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling. Participants completed the Padua Inventory, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Inventory, the Responsibility Attitude Scale, the Guilt Inventory, and the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. SPSS-16 software was used to analyze the data.Results: The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient was significant between excessive responsibility, hidden aggression, feelings of guilt, and reverse reaction formations with the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Based on the results of the regression analysis, feelings of guilt were the strongest predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (β=0.388. Also, the results of path analysis suggest that hidden aggression had predicted feelings of guilt (β=0.47, which was also a predictor of excessive responsibility (β=0.30.Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that a high interpersonal ambivalence exists among people with obsessive-compulsive disorders. Therefore, this structure has the eligibility to be considered in research, especially in the treatment.

  3. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M;

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11...... foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations. Together, these results suggest that warm, dry ecosystems have the highest N availability, while plants with high N concentrations, on average, occupy sites with higher N availability than plants with low N concentrations. Global-scale comparisons of other components...

  4. Distribution of response time, cortical, and cardiac correlates during emotional interference in persons with subclinical psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kathinka Barbara Holper

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R. Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots (behavioral response time data and quantile analysis (fNIRS data were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects.Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific effects could be detected, based on behavioral response times, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates, and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates. Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001 and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001, supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype.

  5. Imaging spectroscopy of foliar biochemistry in forestry environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... an overview of the state of the art of foliar biochemistry assessment in general and, where possible, ... A major challenge is scaling of predictions of biochemicals from ground to airborne and ...

  6. Do foliar, litter, and root nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations reflect nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical wet forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alvarez-Clare

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P] and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation--as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization--based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba had 9% higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community.

  7. Do foliar, litter, and root nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations reflect nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical wet forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Mack, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP) is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation--as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization--based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root) [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba) had 9% higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza) had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community.

  8. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Grant-Downton

    Full Text Available Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.

  9. Medication Responsiveness of Motor Symptoms in a Population-Based Study of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M. Bordelon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed degree of Parkinson disease motor symptom improvement with medication among subjects enrolled in an ongoing, population-based study in Central California. The motor section of the unified Parkinson disease rating scale (UPDRS was performed on subjects in both OFF and ON medication states, and difference between these scores was used as an indicator of symptomatic benefit. Higher OFF minus ON scores correlated with more severe baseline symptoms. There was equivalent improvement on the motor UPDRS scale for subjects divided according to medication classes used: levodopa alone 7.3 points, levodopa plus other medications 8.5 points, and dopamine agonists but not levodopa 6.1 points. In addition, there was no difference in the magnitude of improvement when subjects were divided according to Parkinson disease subtype, defined as tremor dominant, akinetic-rigid, or mixed. In this community-based sample, these values are within the range of a clinically important difference as defined by previous studies.

  10. Response inhibition and attention processing in 5-to 7-year-old children with and without symptoms of ADHD : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, M.; Jonkman, L. M.; Kemner, C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Response inhibition and attention processing in 5- to 7-year-old children with or without symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined. Methods: Twelve children with ADHD symptoms and 15 control children performed a CPT-AX task. Behavioral Measures of inattent

  11. Assessing Coping Responses within Specific Faith Traditions: Suffering in Silence, Stress, and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Catholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is empirically evaluate a coping response that is thought to be unique among older Catholics - suffering in silence. Two hypotheses are examined. The first predicts that older Catholics will be more likely than older Protestants to suffer in silence when ongoing economic difficulty is encountered. The second hypothesis specifies that the potentially deleterious effects of financial problems on depressive symptoms will be offset for older adults who prefer to suffer in silence. Data from an ongoing nationwide survey of older people in the United States provide support for both hypotheses. PMID:20922026

  12. Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes.

  13. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  14. Measuring Change in Symptoms of Neurobehavioural Disability: Responsiveness of the St Andrew's-Swansea Neurobehavioural Outcome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Nick; Williams, Claire; Knight, Caroline; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2017-04-05

    Neurobehavioural disability (NBD) after acquired brain injury (ABI) is often associated with poor outcome. The "St Andrew's-Swansea Neurobehavioural Outcome Scale" (SASNOS) was developed to measure NBD in a range of applications. Two of the "holy trinity" of psychometric properties, reliability and validity, have been comprehensively mapped, but the extent to which SASNOS meets the third, responsiveness, has not been investigated. Demonstrating responsiveness is essential in instruments employed in repeated measurement scenarios to confirm their ability to discriminate real change from error. However, there is no single agreed method for determining responsiveness. For some instruments, this property remains unexplored. A difference in scores attaining statistical significance for aggregate data is frequently cited as support for this construct, but this approach remains heavily criticized. This study explores responsiveness of SASNOS. Consecutive SASNOS assessments completed over varying times for 145 individuals participating in neurobehavioural rehabilitation, drawn from multiple services, were compiled into a retrospective sample of convenience. Multiple methods were employed to confirm internal responsiveness, including those identifying statistically significant change, minimally detectable change and minimally important change. All methods confirmed responsiveness as a psychometric property of SASNOS; the extent depended on method used and NBD domain investigated. A number of indicators are presented, which equip clinicians and researchers with options to interpret results from repeated assessments, including the individual level in the context of rehabilitation. SASNOS reliably measures change over time in NBD symptoms, further confirming its suitability as an instrument for investigating multidimensional outcomes of ABI.

  15. Effect of acarbose on biochemical responses and clinical symptoms in dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T J; McLoughlin, J C; Shaw, C; Buchanan, K D

    1985-01-01

    A dose of 50 mg of acarbose was administered with a standard breakfast to 13 subjects with dumping syndrome. Significant attenuation of hyperglycaemia (p less than 0.01) was observed, and rises in plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide, insulin and enteroglycagon were reduced (p less than 0.05). Plasma levels of neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and somatostatin were not affected. Dumping score was reduced, but this did not achieve statistical significance. In a longer-term study, 9 patients took acarbose, 50 mg t.i.d., for 1 month. No significant reduction in the number or severity of dumping attacks was observed, but a majority expressed a preference for the drug and some individuals experienced a marked improvement of symptoms.

  16. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: Symptom Control and Objective Radiological Response after Treatment with Lanreotide Autogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Marín Zafra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis is an aggressive subtype of pseudomyxoma peritonei, which often leads to inoperable bowel obstruction and, ultimately, death. Due to the poor prognosis, treatment is often symptomatic and aimed at alleviating the symptoms - pain, nausea, and vomiting - associated with gastrointestinal obstruction. Due to their antisecretory activity, somatostatin analogues are commonly prescribed in such cases. In the case presented here, a patient diagnosed with disseminated peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis of appendiceal origin responded well to symptomatic treatment with lanreotide Autogel® at a dose of 120 mg/28 days. More importantly, radiological evidence of a reduction in peritoneal ascites, indicative of antiproliferative activity, was observed. These findings are important, particularly given the negative impact of this disease on both quality of life and survival. This case adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the antiproliferative and antisecretory activity of lanreotide Autogel.

  17. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: Symptom Control and Objective Radiological Response after Treatment with Lanreotide Autogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Gema Marín; Luque, Pedro Segura

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis is an aggressive subtype of pseudomyxoma peritonei, which often leads to inoperable bowel obstruction and, ultimately, death. Due to the poor prognosis, treatment is often symptomatic and aimed at alleviating the symptoms - pain, nausea, and vomiting - associated with gastrointestinal obstruction. Due to their antisecretory activity, somatostatin analogues are commonly prescribed in such cases. In the case presented here, a patient diagnosed with disseminated peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis of appendiceal origin responded well to symptomatic treatment with lanreotide Autogel(®) at a dose of 120 mg/28 days. More importantly, radiological evidence of a reduction in peritoneal ascites, indicative of antiproliferative activity, was observed. These findings are important, particularly given the negative impact of this disease on both quality of life and survival. This case adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the antiproliferative and antisecretory activity of lanreotide Autogel.

  18. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time.

  19. First Report of Foliar Blight on Dendropanax morbifera Caused by Alternaria panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian Xin; Kim, Chang Sun; Oh, Eun Sung; Yu, Seung Hun

    2010-12-01

    Leaf spot and blight disease was observed on two-year-old seedlings of Dendropanax morbifera (Korean name: Hwangchil tree) during July of 2008 in Jindo Island, Korea. Symptoms included yellow-brown to dark brown irregularly enlarged spots frequently located along the veins of leaves. The lesions were often surrounded by chlorotic haloes. Severe leaf blight and subsequent defoliation occurred when conditions favored disease outbreak. The causal organism of the disease was identified as Alternaria panax based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. A. panax isolates induced leaf spots and blight symptoms not only on D. morbifera but also on the other members of Araliaceae tested. This is the first report of foliar blight caused by A. panax on D. morbifera.

  20. Influência da nutrição mineral foliar nas doenças da parte aérea e no rendimento da cultura da soja / Foliar nutrition influence over soybean aerial part diseases and yield crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmir Santos

    2011-08-01

    at 60 DAE; 4- fertilization at 30 DAE and fungicide + nutrients at 60 DAE. Following evaluations were made: soybean oidium and rust incidence and severity, yield, number of seed per pod, number of pod per plant, weight of 100 seeds and defoliation percentage. Isolate foliar nutrient application did not influence oidium incidence and severity in the two evaluation periods, however, it has increased grain productivity. When nutrients were applied with fungicide, there was reduction as much in incidence as in the severity of the diseases in relation to the isolate application of fungicide. Foliar fertilization has proportioned defoliation reduction and increased in number of pod per plant, being this last one the most responsible for increasing productivity. It is possible to conclude that foliar fertilization potentiated fungicide effect, reducing disease intensity and enhancing yield culture.

  1. Home dampness, childhood asthma, hay fever, and airway symptoms in Shanghai, China: associations, dose-response relationships, and lifestyle's influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Liu, W; Huang, C; Zou, Z J; Zhao, Z H; Shen, L; Sundell, J

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies of associations between dampness and respiratory diseases have been conducted, but their implications remain inconclusive. In this study of 13,335 parent-reported questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%), we analyzed associations between home dampness and asthma and related symptoms in 4- to 6-year-old children in a cross-sectional study of Shanghai. Indicators of home dampness were strongly and significantly associated with dry cough, wheeze, and rhinitis symptoms. In the current residence, children with visible mold spots (VMS) exposure had 32% higher risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.07-1.64); damp clothing and/or bedding (frequently) was strongly associated with dry cough (1.78, 1.37-2.30); condensation on windows was strongly associated with hay fever (1.60, 1.27-2.01). In the early-life residence, VMS or damp stains (frequently) were strongly associated with dry cough (2.20, 1.55-3.11) and rhinitis ever (1.57, 1.11-2.21). Associations between dampness and diseases among children with or without family history of atopy were similar. The total number of dampness indicators had strong dose-response relationships with investigated health outcomes. Actions, including opening windows of the child's room at night and cleaning the child's room frequently, could potentially mitigate 25% of home VMS, thereby preventing more than 1.5% of attributable risk of the studied symptoms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cortisol responses on the dexamethasone suppression test among women with Bulimia-spectrum eating disorders: associations with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Israël, Mimi; Groleau, Patricia; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Sycz, Lindsay; Badawi, Ghislaine

    2012-08-07

    Evidence associates Bulimia Nervosa (BN) with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the clinical implications of such alterations need to be better understood. We contrasted cortisol responses to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in bulimic and non-eating disordered women and examined relationships among DST cortisol responses, eating symptoms and co-morbid disturbances. Sixty women with Bulimia Spectrum (BS) Disorders (either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) and 54 non-eating disordered women of similar age and body mass index participated in a 0.5 mg DST, and completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating symptoms and co-morbid psychopathology. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS women demonstrated significantly less DST suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Our findings show BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon delays Tobacco ringspot virus systemic symptoms in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Wendy; Frantz, Jonathan; Leisner, Scott

    2011-10-15

    Soluble silicon (Si) provides protection to plants against a variety of abiotic and biotic stress. However, the effects of Si on viral infections are largely unknown. To investigate the role of Si in viral infections, hydroponic studies were conducted in Nicotiana tabacum with two pathogens: Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Plants grown in elevated Si showed a delay in TRSV systemic symptom formation and a reduction in symptomatic leaf area, compared to the non-supplemented controls. TRSV-infected plants showed significantly higher levels of foliar Si compared to mock-inoculated plants. However, the Si effect appeared to be virus-specific, since the element did not alter TMV symptoms nor did infection by this virus alter foliar Si levels. Hence, increased foliar Si levels appear to correlate with Si-modulated protection against viral infection. This is all the more intriguing since N. tabacum is classified as a low Si accumulator.

  4. Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2012-01-01

    *Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes resorption ratios of resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

  5. Atypical depressive symptoms as a predictor of treatment response to exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethorst, Chad D; Tu, Jian; Carmody, Thomas J; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will require the development of alternative treatments and the ability for clinicians to match patients with the treatment likely to produce the greatest effect. We examined atypical depression subtype as a predictor of treatment response to aerobic exercise augmentation in persons with non-remitted MDD. Our results revealed a small-to-moderate effect, particularly in a group assigned to high-dose exercise (semi-partial eta-squared =0.0335, p=0.0735), indicating that those with atypical depression tended to have larger treatment response to exercise. Through this hypothesis-generating analysis, we indicate the need for research to examine depression subtype, along with other demographic, clinical and biological factors as predictors of treatment response to exercise.

  6. Problems with diagnosing Conversion Disorder in response to variable and unusual symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnum R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard BarnumPrivate practice, Child and adolescent psychiatry, MA, USAAbstract: Conversion Disorder (CD is a diagnosis offered to explain signs and symptoms that do not correspond to recognized medical conditions. Pediatric patients with variable, vague, and multisystem complaints are at increased risk for being diagnosed with CD. Little is known about the impact of such a diagnosis. In making such diagnoses, it is likely that pediatric providers hope to encourage patients to access mental health care, but no basis exists to show that these diagnoses result in such access in any useful way. This article presents the case of a child with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, who had been previously (incorrectly diagnosed with CD and referred for mental health care. It offers commentary based on interviews with other pediatric patients with similar experiences – conducted in collaboration with the Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation. These cases indicate that CD diagnoses can seriously undermine patients’ trust in doctors, and can create such defensiveness that it may interfere with (especially patients’ abilities to engage with mental health services. Such interference is an important problem, if the diagnosis is accurate. But, in the (more likely event that it is not accurate, this defensiveness can interfere with both important mental health care and further ongoing necessary medical care.Keywords: somatoform disorders, dysautonomias, pain, collagen diseases, mitochondrial diseases, complex regional pain syndromes

  7. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J; Demidova, Olga; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-09-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P rosacea and controls, respectively) stress was augmented in rosacea (both P rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component.

  8. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (Pfungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  9. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  10. Effect of Foliar Zinc Application on Yield, Physiological Traits and Seed Vigor of Two Soybean Cultivars under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh KARAMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of water deficit stress and zinc foliar application on yield, physiological traits and also on seed vigor and seedling emergence percentage in two soybean cultivars, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete block arrangement in split factorial design with three replications. The main factor was drought stress in three levels of optimal irrigation, withholding irrigation from vegetative growth stage and withholding irrigation from flowering stage; subordinate factors were the combination of foliar zinc application in three levels and two cultivars (‘L17’ and ‘Clark 63’. Water deficit stress obviously decreased the yield, soluble protein and chlorophyll content in leaves. Proline and soluble sugars content were significantly increased in response to stress. Water deficit stress increased antioxidant enzymes activity. Also, water deficit stress decreased the germination rate, radicle and plumule dry weight. Foliar application with zinc sulfate increased the yield, germination rate and percentage, radicle and plumule weight. Zinc prevented the harmful effects of stress which caused decreasing of leaf protein, chlorophyll content and increasing proline and carbohydrate accumulation. In general, foliar application of zinc decreased the harmful effects of oxidative stress due to water deficit stress and improved growth conditions of plants.

  11. Psychoneurometric operationalization of threat sensitivity: Relations with clinical symptom and physiological response criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative calls for the incorporation of neurobiological approaches and findings into conceptions of mental health problems through a focus on biobehavioral constructs investigated across multiple domains of measurement (units of analysis). Although the constructs in the RDoC system are characterized in "process terms" (i.e., as functional concepts with brain and behavioral referents), these constructs can also be framed as dispositions (i.e., as dimensions of variation in biobehavioral functioning across individuals). Focusing on one key RDoC construct, acute threat or "fear," the current article illustrates a construct-oriented psychoneurometric strategy for operationalizing this construct in individual difference terms-as threat sensitivity (THT+). Utilizing data from 454 adult participants, we demonstrate empirically that (a) a scale measure of THT+ designed to tap general fear/fearlessness predicts effectively to relevant clinical problems (i.e., fear disorder symptoms), (b) this scale measure shows reliable associations with physiological indices of acute reactivity to aversive visual stimuli, and (c) a cross-domain factor reflecting the intersection of scale and physiological indicators of THT+ predicts effectively to both clinical and neurophysiological criterion measures. Results illustrate how the psychoneurometric approach can be used to create a dimensional index of a biobehavioral trait construct, in this case THT+, which can serve as a bridge between phenomena in domains of psychopathology and neurobiology. Implications and future directions are discussed with reference to the RDoC initiative and existing report-based conceptions of psychological traits.

  12. Aplicação foliar de fertilizantes organominerais em cultura de alface Foliar application of organic mineral fertilizer in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes organominerais tem permitido respostas positivas em diversas olerícolas. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a produção de mudas e produção comercial de alface, cultivar Vera, em função da aplicação foliar de fertilizantes organominerais líquidos, de outubro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. A etapa de produção de mudas foi realizada em viveiro especializado na produção de mudas de hortaliças em Uberlândia e a condução da fase de campo foi realizada em área da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Analisou-se altura e número de folhas, massa fresca da parte aérea e diâmetro de raízes das mudas, massas fresca da parte aérea e de raízes das plantas na fase de campo. Foram empregados os fertilizantes organominerais Aminoagro Raiz, Aminoagro Folha Top, Aminoagro Mol, Nobrico Star, Aminolom Foliar e Lombrico Mol 75. O primeiro experimento utilizando mudas foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 15 repetições. O segundo experimento instalado a campo, foi feito em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. O uso exclusivo dos produtos organominerais líquidos, via aplicação foliar foi superior à testemunha para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas nas fases de muda e campo na alface, cultivar Vera.Biofertilizer application provides positive responses of several vegetable crops. The effect of foliar application of liquid biofertilizers on seedling and on commercial production of lettuce cultivar Vera were evaluated from October 2005 to January 2006. Seedling production was carried out in a nursery specialized in the production of vegetable seedlings, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and the crop growing was carried out at a field of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. Plant height, number of leaves, aboveground part fresh weight and root diameter were evaluated on seedlings and fresh weight of the aboveground part and roots were evaluated on plants in the field. Aminoagro Raiz

  13. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  14. Ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, S T; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    1998-03-01

    Ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. A tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-Never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced in tomato genotypes impaired in ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) and perception (14893), thereby corroborating a reducing effect for ethylene insensitivity on foliar disease development. The reduction in foliar disease symptoms in Never ripe plants was a specific effect of ethylene insensitivity and was not due to reductions in bacterial populations or decreased ethylene synthesis. PR-1B1 mRNA accumulation in response to X. c. vesicatoria infection was not affected by ethylene insensitivity, indicating that ethylene is not required for defense gene induction. Our findings suggest that broad tolerance of diverse vegetative diseases may be achieved via engineering of ethylene insensitivity in tomato.

  15. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  16. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  17. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  18. Foliar heavy metal uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants: A comparison of foliar and root metal uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Khalid, Sana; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Niazi, Nabeel Khan

    2017-03-05

    Anthropologic activities have transformed global biogeochemical cycling of heavy metals by emitting considerable quantities of these metals into the atmosphere from diverse sources. In spite of substantial and progressive developments in industrial processes and techniques to reduce environmental emissions, atmospheric contamination by toxic heavy metals and associated ecological and health risks are still newsworthy. Atmospheric heavy metals may be absorbed via foliar organs of plants after wet or dry deposition of atmospheric fallouts on plant canopy. Unlike root metal transfer, which has been largely studied, little is known about heavy metal uptake by plant leaves from the atmosphere. To the best of our understanding, significant research gaps exist regarding foliar heavy metal uptake. This is the first review regarding biogeochemical behaviour of heavy metals in atmosphere-plant system. The review summarizes the mechanisms involved in foliar heavy metal uptake, transfer, compartmentation, toxicity and in plant detoxification. We have described the biological and environmental factors that affect foliar uptake of heavy metals and compared the biogeochemical behaviour (uptake, translocation, compartmentation, toxicity and detoxification) of heavy metals for root and foliar uptake. The possible health risks associated with the consumption of heavy metal-laced food are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effects of ozone on morphogenesis of the foliar embryos of bryophyllum calycinum Salisb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rier, J.P.; Phillips, G. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Explants from three different ages, including the foliar embryo of ozonated and non-ozonated marginal leaf tissue from Bryophyllum calycinum were cultured on modified formulations of Murashige and Skoog's medium. Kinetin 2,4-D and IAA were added to the media individually or in combination. The development of the embryos was affected by tissue age, media composition and prior exposure to ozone. The production of callus, shoots, roots and anthocyanin were all in response to different sets of culture conditions.

  20. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  1. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Lara [Department of Biology, 572 Rivers Street, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)]. E-mail: lsouza@utk.edu; Neufeld, Howard S. [Department of Biology, 572 Rivers Street, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States); Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, 108 M White-Smith Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Burkey, Kent O. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Science Research Unit and Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, 3908 Inwood Road, Raleigh, NC 26703 (United States); Davison, Alan W. [School of Biology, Ridley Building, University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants. - Leaf loss was not necessarily accompanied by symptoms of foliar ozone injury.

  2. Changes in the dynamics of foliar N metabolites in oak saplings by drought and air warming depend on species and soil type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    Full Text Available Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous. Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity.

  3. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2011-10-01

    Although there is unambiguous evidence for vascular epiphytic plants to be limited by insufficient water and nutrient supply under natural conditions, it is an open debate whether they are primarily phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) limited. Plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry of a tank epiphyte (Vriesea sanguinolenta), and its response to combined N-P fertilization, were studied under semi-natural conditions over 334 d to clarify the type of nutrient limitation. Plants collected in the field and experimental plants with limited nutrient supply showed significant plant (15) N fractionation (mean 5‰) and plant N : P ratios of c. 13.5. Higher relative growth rates and declines in plant (15) N fractionation (0.5‰) and in foliar N : P ratios to 8.5 in the high N-P treatment indicated that these epiphytes were P limited in situ. The critical foliar N : P ratio was 10.4, as derived from the breakpoint in the relationship between plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P. We interpret the widespread (15) N depletion of vascular epiphytes relative to their host trees as deriving from (15) N fractionation of epiphytes as a result of P limitation. High foliar N : P ratios (> 12) corroborate widespread P limitation (or co-limitation by N and P) of epiphytic bromeliads and, possibly, other epiphyte species.

  4. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@rub.de [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Castillo-Michel, Hiram, E-mail: castillo@esrf.fr [ESRF, Beamline ID21, Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sobanska@univ-lille1.fr [LASIR, UMR CNRS 8516, Université Lille 1, Bât C5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Cécillon, Lauric, E-mail: lauric.cecillon@irstea.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Bureau, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.bureau@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barthès, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.barthes@cea.fr [CEA/LITEN/DTNM/L2T, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ouerdane, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ouerdane@univ-pau.fr [LCABIE/IPREM-UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Carrière, Marie, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [UMR E3 CEA-UJF/LAN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sarret, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag{sup +} by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  5. Variation in post-traumatic response: the role of trauma type in predicting ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark; Vallières, Frédérique; McElroy, Eoin; Elklit, Ask; Christoffersen, Mogens; Cloitre, Marylène

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization's 11th revision to the International Classification of Diseases manual (ICD-11) will differentiate between two stress-related disorders: PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). ICD-11 proposals suggest that trauma exposure which is prolonged and/or repeated, or consists of multiple forms, that also occurs under circumstances where escape from the trauma is difficult or impossible (e.g., childhood abuse) will confer greater risk for CPTSD as compared to PTSD. The primary objective of the current study was to provide an empirical assessment of this proposal. A stratified, random probability sample of a Danish birth cohort (aged 24) was interviewed by the Danish National Centre for Social Research (N = 2980) in 2008-2009. Data from this interview were used to generate an ICD-11 symptom-based classification of PTSD and CPTSD. The majority of the sample (87.1%) experienced at least one of eight traumatic events spanning childhood and early adulthood. There was some indication that being female increased the risk for both PTSD and CPTSD classification. Multinomial logistic regression results found that childhood sexual abuse (OR = 4.98) and unemployment status (OR = 4.20) significantly increased risk of CPTSD classification as compared to PTSD. A dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to multiple forms of childhood interpersonal trauma and risk of CPTSD classification, as compared to PTSD. Results provide empirical support for the ICD-11 proposals that childhood interpersonal traumatic exposure increases risk of CPTSD symptom development.

  6. Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-11-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

  7. Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac R Galatzer-Levy

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. SETTING: Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. PARTICIPANTS: Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957 were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT between one and nine months. APPROACH: We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41 or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49, starting 29.8±5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35 starting at 151.8±42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. RESULTS: THREE TRAJECTORIES WERE IDENTIFIED: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample, Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27% and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%. CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. CONCLUSIONS: The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to

  8. Early PTSD Symptom Trajectories: Persistence, Recovery, and Response to Treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Ankri, Yael; Freedman, Sara; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Context Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Objectives To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. Design Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. Setting Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. Participants Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. Approach We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8±5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8±42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. Main Outcome Measure Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. Results Three trajectories were identified: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. Conclusions The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder

  9. Changes in foliar carbon isotope composition and seasonal stomatal conductance reveal adaptive traits in Mediterranean coppices affected by drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Di Matteo; Luigi Perini; Paolo Atzori; Paolo De Angelis; Tiziano Mei; Giada Bertini; Gianfranco Fabbio; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza

    2014-01-01

    We estimated water-use efficiency and potential photosyn-thetic assimilation of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) on slopes of NW and SW aspects in a replicated field test examining the effects of intensifying drought in two Mediterranean coppice forests. We used standard tech-niques for quantifying gas exchange and carbon isotopes in leaves and analyzed total chlorophyll, carotenoids and nitrogen in leaves collected from Mediterranean forests managed under the coppice system. We pos-tulated that responses to drought of coppiced trees would lead to differ-ential responses in physiological traits and that these traits could be used by foresters to adapt to predicted warming and drying in the Mediterra-nean area. We observed physiological responses of the coppiced trees that suggested acclimation in photosynthetic potential and water-use effi-ciency:(1) a significant reduction in stomatal conductance (p<0.01) was recorded as the drought increased at the SW site;(2) foliarδ13C increased as drought increased at the SW site (p<0.01);(3) variations in levels of carotenoids and foliar nitrogen, and differences in foliar morphology were recorded, and were tentatively attributed to variation in photosyn-thetic assimilation between sites. These findings increase knowledge of the capacity for acclimation of managed forests in the Mediterranean region of Europe.

  10. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: a comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Adamson, Joy; Dixon, Diane; Hunt, Kate

    2013-06-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of knowledge across disciplines. We present a critical review and detailed comparison of three process models of response to symptoms: the Illness Action Model, the Common Sense Model of the Self-Regulation of Health and Illness and the Network Episode Model. We suggest an integrated framework in which symptoms, responses and actions are simultaneously interpreted and evaluated in the light of accumulated knowledge and through interactions. Evaluation may be subconscious and is influenced by the extent to which the symptoms impose themselves, expectations of outcomes, the resources available and understanding of symptoms' salience and possible outcomes. Actions taken are part of a process of problem solving through which both individuals and their immediate social network seek to (re)achieve 'normality'. Response is also influenced by social structure (directly and indirectly), cultural expectations of health, the meaning of symptoms, and access to and understandings of the legitimate use of services. Changes in knowledge, in embodied state and in emotions can all be directly influential at any point. We do not underestimate the difficulty of operationalising an integrated framework at different levels of analysis. Attempts to do so will require us to move easily between disciplinary understandings to conduct prospective, longitudinal, research that uses novel methodologies to investigate response to symptoms in the context of affective as well as cognitive responses and interactions within social networks. While challenging such an approach would facilitate accumulation of knowledge across disciplines and enable movement beyond description to change in individual and

  11. The Evolution of Fungicide Resistance Resulting from Combinations of Foliar-Acting Systemic Seed Treatments and Foliar-Applied Fungicides: A Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, James L; van den Bosch, Frank; Paveley, Neil D; Helps, Joseph; van den Berg, Femke

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment of foliar diseases of cereals, fungicides may be applied as foliar sprays or systemic seed treatments which are translocated to leaves. Little research has been done to assess the resistance risks associated with foliar-acting systemic seed treatments when used alone or in combination with foliar sprays, even though both types of treatment may share the same mode of action. It is therefore unknown to what extent adding a systemic seed treatment to a foliar spray programme poses an additional resistance risk and whether in the presence of a seed treatment additional resistance management strategies (such as limiting the total number of treatments) are necessary to limit the evolution of fungicide-resistance. A mathematical model was developed to simulate an epidemic and the resistance evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici on winter wheat, which was used to compare different combinations of seed and foliar treatments by calculating the fungicide effective life, i.e. the number of years before effective disease control is lost to resistance. A range of parameterizations for the seed treatment fungicide and different fungicide uptake models were compared. Despite the different parameterizations, the model consistently predicted the same trends in that i) similar levels of efficacy delivered either by a foliar-acting seed treatment, or a foliar application, resulted in broadly similar resistance selection, ii) adding a foliar-acting seed treatment to a foliar spray programme increased resistance selection and usually decreased effective life, and iii) splitting a given total dose-by adding a seed treatment to foliar treatments, but decreasing dose per treatment-gave effective lives that were the same as, or shorter than those given by the spray programme alone. For our chosen plant-pathogen-fungicide system, the model results suggest that to effectively manage selection for fungicide-resistance, foliar acting systemic seed treatments should be included as

  12. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions using in-situ ... is non-destructive to the crops as opposed to other traditional ground-based methods. ... water indices that could monitor the water status at leaf level on maize (Zea ... about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  13. A preliminary survey of foliar sclerenchyma in neotropical Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, J.; Lye, D.

    2005-01-01

    The foliar sclerenchyma of all genera of neotropical Loranthaceae is surveyed by means of cleared leaves, using selected species. Three general categories of sclerenchyma are recognized. Fibers may form discontinuous or continuous bundles associated with veins or, more rarely, occur as individual ce

  14. Foliar carbohydrate differs betweenPicea crassifolia and Sabina przewalskii with the altitudinal variation of Qilian Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManXiao Zhang; HuiJuan Pei; YouFu Zhang; Tuo Chen; GuangXiu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen metabolism strongly influence growth and development in plants. The biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (structural carbohydrates, SC) depends largely on the supply of NSC. We desire to examine which hypothesis, carbon limitation or growth limitation, best fits the alpine plant response between NSC, SC, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and altitude. We compared the foliar concentrations of carbohydrates, C and N between the leaves ofPicea crassifolia (lower-elevation tree-line species) andSabina przewalskii (high-elevation tree-line species) in their response to changing elevation. Our site was located in the mid-northern area of Qilian Mountains, China. We found that foliar soluble sugar (SG)concentrations were significantly higher inP. crassifolia than inS. przewalskiiat the 2,700–3,400 m level. Foliar NSC levels inP. crassifolia increased at the 2,700–3,100 m level, indicating that growth was limited gradually resulting in a surplus of NSC (to conform to GLH), subsequently decreasing at the 3,100–3,400 m level, the assimilation declined leading to C deficit (to conform to CLH). SC (SC metabolism disorders at 3,100–3,400 m), C, N and starch were significantly lower inP. crassifolia than inS. przewalskii. Conversely, foliar SG concentration shows a fall-rise trend with increasing elevation forS. przewalskii. SC concentration inS. przewalskii leaves decreased with an increase of elevation and has a significantly positive correlation to N concentration marking the assimilation of plants. Therefore, the high-elevation tree-line species (S. przewalskii) utilize or store more foliar SG leading to a decrease of SG concentration for survival and growth/regrowth in an adverse environment, higher total C, N, SC, starch contents and lower NSC level. Also, their change trends along the elevational gradient in leaves ofS. przewalskii indicate better assimilation strategies for SG use under environmental stress compared to

  15. Anatomia foliar de Eugenia florida DC. (Myrtaceae Foliar anatomy of Eugenia florida DC. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Donato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito o estudo anatômico da folha de Eugenia florida DC., espécie arbórea da família Myrtaceae, coletada no Campus da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. A espécie apresenta importantes propriedades farmacológicas, incluindo-se atividade antiviral. O presente estudo teve como objetivo fornecer dados, revelados através da microscopia óptica e da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, que possam contribuir para o conhecimento da espécie e, conseqüentemente, para a segurança em sua identificação. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com organização dorsiventral do mesofilo. Apresenta tricomas simples apenas sobre a nervura mediana da face adaxial. As células epidérmicas apresentam contorno sinuoso em vista frontal e cutícula estriada. O parênquima paliçádico destaca-se pela grande quantidade de cristais prismáticos de oxalato de cálcio. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, pouco numerosas, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. As células epidérmicas situadas sobre as estruturas secretoras constituem característica de valor diagnóstico e são reconhecíveis pela célula de topo, que é reniforme, circundada pelas adjacentes, que apresentam disposição radiada. A comparação entre folhas de sol e de sombra revela que, nas primeiras, as estruturas secretoras são completamente diferenciadas, ao contrário das folhas de sombra, além de apresentarem maior concentração de compostos ergásticos.A study of the foliar anatomy of Eugenia florida DC., a tree of Myrtaceae family collected at Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, was accomplished. This species presents important pharmacological properties, including antiviral activity. The aim of this research was to furnish data, revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electronically microscopy, in order to contribute to the knowledge of the species and to its safe identification. Anatomically, the leaf is

  16. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (Ψw) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  18. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; DiManno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP) after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow "conventional wisdom" that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  19. Estimativa da área foliar de nabo forrageiro em função de dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo para estimar a área foliar de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg determinada por fotos digitais, em função do comprimento, ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura da folha. Aos 76 dias após a semeadura, foram coletadas 557 folhas da haste principal de 92 plantas, sendo mensurados o comprimento (C e a largura (L de cada folha, e calculado o produto comprimento × largura (C×L. Após, determinou-se a área foliar (Y, por meio do método de fotos digitais. Do total de folhas, separaram-se, aleatoriamente, 450 folhas para a construção de modelos do tipo quadrático, potência e linear de Y em função de C, da L, e/ou de C×L. 107 folhas foram usadas para a validação dos modelos. O modelo do tipo potência da área foliar obtida por meio do método de fotos digitais (Ŷ=0,6843x0,9221, R²=0,9862 em função do produto comprimento × largura é adequado para estimar a área foliar de nabo forrageiro.

  20. Measuring the Response of Extrahepatic Symptoms and Quality of Life to Antiviral Treatment in Patients with Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Isaacs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HCV infection is associated with musculoskeletal manifestations such as chronic widespread pain, sicca syndrome, polyarthritis, and a reduced HRQOL. Little data is available on the effect of treatment on these manifestations. This study measured changes in extrahepatic symptoms and HRQOL before and after antiviral treatment in a large UK patient cohort. Methods. 118 patients completed HQLQ and rheumatological questionnaires before and after treatment with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin, with specific regard to chronic widespread pain, sicca syndrome, and sustained virological response. Results. There was significant improvement in HQLQ domains of physical functioning, physical disability, social functioning, limitations and health distress due to hepatitis, and general health. There was significant deterioration in domains of positive well-being, health distress, and mental health. There was a significant decline prevalence of CWP (26.3% versus 15.3%, . Sicca syndrome prevalence fell insignificantly (12.7% versus 11%. SVR was associated positively with all HRQOL changes and significantly with CWP remission. Conclusions. HCV antivirals significantly improve poor HRQOL scores and CWP. Before treatment, both were common, coassociated, and unaccounted for through mixed cryoglobulinemia alone. Although a role of the hepatitis C virus in CWP cannot be deduced by these results, symptomatic improvement via antiviral treatment exists for this subset of patients.

  1. The General Public’s Awareness of Early Symptoms of and Emergency Responses to Acute Myocardial Infarction and Related Factors in South Korea: A National Public Telephone Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prompt treatment affects prognosis and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI onset. This study evaluated the awareness of early symptoms of AMI and knowledge of appropriate responses on symptom occurrence, along with related factors. Methods: Participants’ knowledge of the early symptoms of and responses to AMI onset were investigated using a random digit dialing survey. We included 9600 residents of 16 metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea. Results: The proportions of respondents who were aware of early symptoms of AMI ranged from 32.9% (arm or shoulder pain to 79.1% (chest pain and discomfort. Of the respondents, 67.0% would call an ambulance if someone showed signs of AMI, 88.7% knew ≥1 symptom, 10.9% knew all five symptoms, and 3.1% had excellent knowledge (correct identification of all five AMI symptoms, not answering “Yes” to the trap question, and correctly identifying calling an ambulance as the appropriate response when someone is exhibiting AMI symptoms. The odds ratio (OR for having excellent knowledge was significantly higher for those who graduated college or higher (OR 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–10.76 than for those with less than a primary school education, as well as for subjects with AMI advertisement exposure (OR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.10–2.02 and with knowledge of AMI (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16–2.27. The 60- to 79-year-old group had significantly lower OR for excellent knowledge than the 20- to 39-year-old group (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28–0.99. Conclusions: Awareness of AMI symptoms and the appropriate action to take after symptom onset in South Korea was poor. Therefore, educational and promotional strategies to increase the overall awareness in the general public, especially in the elderly and those with low education levels, are needed.

  2. Study to determine the improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms after changing the responsible antiretroviral drug to nevirapine: the RELAX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pedrol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Primary - evaluate the improvement in psychiatric symptoms attributable to changing the antiretroviral drug responsible for such symptoms to nevirapine (NVP. The tools used were a sleep test (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondary - determine the neuropsychiatric disorders and evaluate adherence to treatment and quality of life. Methods: Prospective, observational post-authorisation study that included HIV-1 patients from 36 Spanish hospitals who satisfied the following criteria: age over 18 years; change of antiretroviral treatment to NVP due to CNS side-effects; a PSQI score >5 (significant sleep disturbance; a HADS score ≥10 on the day of starting NVP treatment; and no psychoactive drug treatment initiated during the 6 weeks prior to starting treatment with NVP. Other data gathered from the patients included clinical and demographic details and administration of the Epworth somnolence scale, the Medical Outcomes Study-short form 30 items (MOS-SF-30 quality of life scale and the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ. Evaluations were performed at baseline, 1 and 3 months after the change. Results: 129 patients were included (73.6% men; mean age, 43.2 ± 9.8 years; 36.5% homosexual, 30.2% heterosexual; 28.7% drug users; 38% AIDS; 33.3% co-infection. The drug changed was efavirenz in 89.9% of cases. The reason for the change was sleep disturbances in 75.2%, anxiety in 65.1%, other psychiatric disturbances in 38.7%, attention disturbances in 31%, and other reasons in 31%; a mean of 2.4 neuropsychiatric disturbances were detected in each patient. CD4 rose from 582 ± 261 to 619 ± 299 (non-significant difference. Only three patients had developed an HIV viral load at the end of the study. The differences produced by the change are shown in Table 1. 29 patients withdrew from the study, for the following reasons: 9 for NVP-related toxicity (7 cases of rash

  3. Psychological responses after a major fatal earthquake: The effect of preitraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms on anxiety and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Esma; Dorahy, Martin J; Hanna, Donncha; Bagshaw, Sue; Blampied , Neville

    2013-01-01

    Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties experienced in 101 adult treatment seekers following exposure to a significant earthquake. Peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ...

  4. Neural responses to facial expressions of disgust but not fear are modulated by washing symptoms in OCD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, N.S.; An, S.K.; Mataix-Cols, D.; Ruths, F.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Phillips, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Washing symptoms in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are associated with increased trait sensitivity to disgust. This study explored neural systems underlying sensitivity to symptom-unrelated disgust and fear in OCD using functional neuroimaging. METHODS: Seventeen OCD subjects and 19

  5. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory : Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  6. An evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 using item response theory: which items are most strongly related to psychological distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Vries, de Rivka M.; Bruggen, van Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  7. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  8. An evaluation of the brief symptom inventory-18 using item response theory: which items are most strongly related to psychological distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  9. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory : Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  10. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  11. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bowel habits. Learn More About Pain in IBS Symptoms Won’t Stop Everyone suffers from bowel changes ... They can be constant or keep coming back. Symptoms Change Some or all of IBS symptoms can ...

  12. DETERMINACIÓN DEL NIVEL DE NUTRICIÓN FOLIAR EN BANANO POR ESPECTROMETRÍA DE REFLECTANCIA FOLIAR NUTRITION DETERMINATION LEVEL ON BANANAS BY REFLECTANCE SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Botero Herrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de generar conocimiento básico para el desarrollo de la agricultura de precisión y para mejorar la respuesta a las necesidades de disponer de más información a nivel espacial y temporal, se utilizó el espectro de reflectancia de muestras foliares de banano molidas y tamizadas. Se realizó calibración quimiométrica mediante PLSR (Partial Least Square Regresion, con diferentes pre-tratamientos espectrales (espectro crudo, transformaciones MSC (Multiplicative Scatter Correction, SNV (Standard Normal Variate, Savitzky y Golay con primera y segunda derivada, transformación Log 1/R, y DOSC (Direct Orthogonal Signal Correction. Para la calibración se empleó la concentración en tejido foliar de 11 nutrientes contrastada con la reflectancia de la misma muestra, encontrando que para todos los casos el mejor pre tratamiento fue DOSC, que permitió construir modelos de calibración con errores similares a los de los métodos de referencia, con un número bajo de variables latentes y ajustes superiores al 80%, lo cual es suficiente para sugerir esta metodología como una alternativa práctica, económicamente viable, precisa y rápida, a los análisis químicos tradicionales de tejido foliar.In order to generate basic knowledge for development of precision agriculture and to improve response to the needs of generate more information spatial and temporal level, was used the reflectance spectrum of banana leaf samples ground and sieved. The chemometric calibration was performed by PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression, with different pre-treatments spectrum (spectrum crude transformations MSC (Multiplicative Scatter Correction, SNV (Standard Normal Variate, Savitzky and Golay with first and second derivative transformation Log 1 / R, and DOSC (Direct Orthogonal Signal Correction. The calibration was between the leaf tissue concentration of 11 nutrients and the reflectance of the same sample, finding that in all cases the best DOSC

  13. 反应风格与青少年抑郁的相关性%Study on the relations of response styles and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜嘉嘉; 陈杰; 李新影

    2015-01-01

    目的 考察反应风格理论中的三种反应风格及其构成的比例分数与青少年抑郁的关系;反应风格的性别差异,及性别对反应风格与抑郁关系的调节.方法 采用儿童反应风格问卷和儿童抑郁量表对932对青少年双生子进行调查分析.结果 (1)冗思与青少年抑郁呈正相关(r=0.485),积极反应风格与青少年抑郁呈负相关(r=-0.331);(2)比例分数与青少年抑郁呈正相关(r=0.586),且相关程度高于单一反应风格;(3)反应风格的性别差异在中国青少年样本中不显著;(4)性别对冗思与抑郁的关系起调节作用(β=-0.07,P<0.05).结论 比例分数比单一反应风格能更有效地诠释反应风格与抑郁的相关,女孩中冗思与抑郁的相关性更高.%Objective To investigate the effect of three response styles and the ratio scores on Chinese adolescent depressive symptoms,and to investigate the gender differences of response styles and the moderation effects of gender on the relations between response styles and depressive symptoms.Methods The response style questionnaire and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were adopted to measure 932 adolescent twins.Results (1)Rumination was positively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms (r=0.485),positive response styles were negatively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms (r =-0.331).(2) Ratio score was positively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms(r=0.586) and the correlation between ratio score and depressive symptoms was even higher than that between response styles and depressive symptoms.(3) Gender differences of response styles were not significant in Chinese youth samples.(4)Gender moderated the relation between rumination and depressive symptoms(β=-0.07,P<0.05).Conclusion Ratio scores can explain the relationship between response styles and depressive symptoms better than each of the three individual response styles,and the association between rumination and

  14. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Observations of ozone-induced foliar injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina, var. capuli) within the Desierto de Los Leones National Park, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, J M; Savage, J E; de Bauer, M de L; Alvarado, D

    1997-01-01

    A survey for ozone-induced foliar injury of black cherry was conducted in mid-June 1995 within the Desierto de Los Leones National Park located southwest of Mexico City. Evaluations of the upper and lower tree crowns of 18 trees revealed evidence of significant upper surface stipple, leaf reddening and premature senescence on 72% of the trees. A general survey of an additional 169 trees disclosed that 41% exhibited similar symptoms. A gradient of increasing symptoms with increasing elevation was also evident. For the most part, asymptomatic trees were observed to be situated within well-shaded coves at the lower elevations with very few symptomatic trees present in these areas.

  16. Estimativa da área foliar da berinjela em função das dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dill Hinnah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora diferentes modelos não destrutivos de estimativa da área foliar de Solanum melongela L. através de medidas do comprimento (C e largura (L do limbo foliar. Para tanto, um cultivo de berinjela em estufa plástica foi conduzido no período de março a junho de 2007. Amostraram-se folhas de plantas em momentos aleatórios totalizando 186 folhas, sendo 98 utilizadas na estimativa dos parâmetros dos modelos e 88 para sua validação. As amostragens abrangeram amplo espectro de dimensões foliares, visando minimizar a raiz do quadrado médio do erro (RQME. Elas foram realizadas aos 71, 79, 81, 85, 92 e 99 dias após o transplante. Posteriormente obteve-se o maior número possível de discos foliares com o auxílio de um calador de 25 mm de diâmetro. Correlações foram realizadas entre a área foliar obtida pelo método dos discos com as dimensões lineares de L e C, o produto entre elas (CL e o quadrado do comprimento multiplicado pela largura (C²L. Análises de regressão para 20 modelos foram obtidas, entre quadráticos, exponenciais, lineares, logarítmicos e de potência, dos quais 12 apresentaram coeficiente de determinação (R² elevado. O modelo quadrático (Y = -5,78+0,4981CL-3,263.10-4CL² e o da potência (Y = 0,4395CL1,0055 apresentaram melhores estimativas, com R² de 0,964 para ambos e RQME de 33,2 e 34,4, respectivamente. Com a medida apenas de uma dimensão foliar, o modelo quadrático (Y = -63,5+10,492L+0,2822L²; R² = 0,937; RQME = 44,1 apresenta-se como alternativa, pouco afetando a precisão da estimativa.

  17. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON PINEAPPLE QUALITY AND YIELD ADUBAÇÃO FOLIAR NA QUALIDADE E PRODUTIVIDADE DE ABACAXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are just a few studies using foliar sprays with micronutrients on pineapple crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the B and Zn effect, as chelate, acid or salt, via foliar feeding, on fruit yield and quality. The experiment was carried out in Guaraçaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a loamy medium texture soil, by using Smooth Cayenne (Hawaiian pineapple seedlings. A randomized block design with four replications was adopted, with 110 g ha-1 of B and 250 g ha-1 of Zn for each application. Two foliar sprays were applied, at 7 and 9 months after planting. The B and Zn sources did not affect the total soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, average fruit diameter, fruit length without crown, and maturity index. Only the B, Zn, and K concentrations in the leaves were influenced by the application of micronutrients.

    Poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos com a aplicação via foliar de micronutrientes, na cultura do abacaxi. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de B e Zn, em forma de quelato, ácido ou sal, via foliar, buscando-se obter respostas sobre os efeitos na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos. O experimento foi realizado em Guaraçaí (SP, em solo com textura média. Foram utilizadas mudas tipo filhote, da cultivar Smooth Cayenne (Havaiano. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se fontes para fornecer, em cada aplicação, 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn. Foram realizadas duas pulverizações foliares, aos 7 e 9 meses após o plantio. As fontes de B e Zn não exerceram efeito nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, diâmetro médio do fruto, comprimento do fruto sem coroa e índice de maturação. Apenas os teores de B, Zn e K, na

  18. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research 1

    OpenAIRE

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel J.; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas...

  19. Which temperature to simulate foliar epidemics × crop architecture interactions ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, FREDERIC; Sache, Ivan; Suffert, Frederic; Chelle, Michaël

    2012-01-01

    Air temperature measured by weather stations is commonly used in epidemiological models to forecast the effect of temperature on the development of foliar fungal pathogens. However, leaf temperature is the temperature actually perceived by such pathogens. The leaf temperature depends on the leaf energy budget (e.g. air temperature, radiation, wind, transpiration, etc.), which itself strongly depends on the crop architecture (e.g. leaf position, leaf angle, leaf area density). Consequently, di...

  20. Effect of foliar fertilization on soybean grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić V.; Simić A.; Krnjaja V.; Bijelić Z.; Tomić Z.; Stanojković A.; Ruzić-Muslić D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to estimate the effects of foliar fertilization on quantitative traits (plant height, first pod height, number of nodes per plant, number of pods per plant, number of grain per plant, grain yield per plant, 1000-grain weight and grain yield) in two soybean cultivars (Balkan and Bečejka). Studied cultivars belong to different maturity groups (Balkan - I and Bečejka - 0). Four treatments of fertilization were tested: control ...

  1. Dose-response effect of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on whole gut transit time and functional gastrointestinal symptoms in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 supplementation on whole gut transit time (WGTT) and frequency of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults. Material and methods. We randomized 100 subjects (mean age: 44 years; 64% female) with functional GI symptoms to consume a proprietary probiotic strain, B. lactis HN019 (Fonterra Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand), at daily doses of 17.2 billion colony forming units (CFU) (high dose; n = 33), 1.8 bil...

  2. Atypical and Typical Winter Depressive Symptoms and Responsiveness to Light Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, or Combination Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia . Archives of General Psychiatry , 35(7), 837-844. Fallon, A., & Spada, C. (1997...significantly with remission at post-treatment. For the LT treatment group, pre- treatment scores on items A4 (Increased Eating) and H20 ( Paranoid Symptoms...significantly with remission at post-treatment. For the LT group, pre-treatment hyperphagia and paranoid symptoms both correlated negatively and

  3. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies.

  4. Inferring foliar water uptake using stable isotopes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Lehmann, Marco M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Arend, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2017-07-22

    A growing number of studies have described the direct absorption of water into leaves, a phenomenon known as foliar water uptake. The resultant increase in the amount of water in the leaf can be important for plant function. Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. However, a careful inspection of our understanding of the fluxes of water isotopes between leaves and the atmosphere under high humidity conditions shows that there can clearly be isotopic exchange between the two pools even in the absence of a change in the mass of water in the leaf. We provide experimental evidence that while leaf water isotope ratios may change following exposure to a fog event using water with a depleted oxygen isotope ratio, leaf mass only changes when leaves are experiencing a water deficit that creates a driving gradient for the uptake of water by the leaf. Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes.

  5. 15种叶面处理除草剂对6种中药材的药害症状观察%Observation of Phytotoxicity Symptoms of 15 Kinds of Foliar Processing Herbicide to 6 Kinds of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 原向阳; 郭平毅; 张谨华; 温银元

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了芳氧苯氧丙酸类等7类15种除草剂对半夏、瓜蒌子、远志、黄芩、丹参、柴胡6种中药材的药害情况,筛选可以安全使用的除草剂及其施用用量.结果表明:在试验用量处理范围内,半夏使用骠马、收乐通、高效盖草能、精喹禾灵、喹禾灵的各用量和苯磺隆、烟嘧磺隆、阔世玛、乙羧氟草醚的1~4处理较为安全.瓜蒌子田施用1,2处理的阔世玛较为安全.远志和黄芩田施用骠马、收乐通、高效盖草能、精喹禾灵、喹禾灵的1~5处理较为安全.丹参田施用骠马、精喹禾灵、收乐通、高效盖草能、喹禾灵的各处理和苯磺隆、烟嘧磺隆、阔世玛的1,2处理均较为安全.柴胡田施用骠马、收乐通、高效盖草能、精喹禾灵、喹禾灵、苯磺隆、烟嘧磺隆、阔世玛、世玛的各用量及乙羧氟草醚的1~3处理较为安全.百草枯和草甘膦在供试药材田均不安全,不能施用.%The experiment studies on phytotoxicity situation of 15 kinds of herbicide to Pinellia ternata (Thunb.)Breit., Semen Trichosanthis Kirilowii, Polygala tenuifolia Willd., Scutellaria bcdcalensis Georgi, Salvia miltiorrhiza, root of Chinese thorowax. Through phytotoxicity symptoms observation, screening safe herbicides and concentration, the results show that: it was safe to use concentration 1 ~ 5 of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, clethodim, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, quizalofop-ethyl, and concentration 1-4 of tribenuron - methyl, nicosulfuron, Sigma broad, nicosulfuron in Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. Field. It was safe to use concentration 1 ~ 2 of Sigma broad in Semen Trichosanthis Kirilowii filed. It was safe to use concentration 1 ~ 5 of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, clethodim, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, quizalofop-ethyl in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. And Scutellaria balicalensis Georgi field. It is safty to use concentration 1 - 5 of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, clethodim, haloxyfop

  6. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  7. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children are associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress but not with daily cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kajantie, Eero; Jones, Alexander; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Strandberg, Timo E; Räikkönen, Katri

    2011-11-01

    We tested associations of diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and its response to stress with behavioral symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among 272 eight-year-old children. We measured their diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Mothers rated their child's behavior with the ADHD-IV Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). There were no significant associations between ADHD symptoms and diurnal cortisol concentrations. The boys with predominantly inattentive symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-I; scores at or above the 90th percentile) had 26% lower mean salivary cortisol levels during the TSST-C than the boys with scores below this cutoff. In the girls with symptoms of ADHD-I, initial salivary cortisol levels prior to the TSST-C were higher and fell more rapidly during and after the TSST-C, which was not seen in the remaining girls (P = 0.007 for interaction 'ADHD-I × sampling time'). Controlling for Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and Anxiety Disorder or excluding children with these comorbid problems did not substantially affect these findings. We conclude that the boys and the girls with behavioral symptoms of ADHD-I had reduced HPAA responsiveness to stress, which is also seen in people after traumatic events or with chronic stress. Their diurnal cortisol rhythm was not affected. Thus, ADHD-I may be associated with dysregulation of the HPAA or reduced engagement with stressful stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Controle de verrugose, melanose e leprose em laranja pera, com fungicidas e acaricida em mistura com adubo foliar Control of citrus scab, melanose and leprosis with fungicides and miticide mixed to foliar fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulverizações com ziram (Rodisan SC, oxicloreto de cobre (Coprantol BR e óxido de fembutatina (Torque 500 SC em dosagens normais e subdosagens, isoladamente ou em mistura com um adubo foliar originário da fermentação glutâmica do melaço, controlaram de forma efetiva a verrugose, melanose e leprose em laranja pera. A aplicação isolada do resíduo da fermentação glutâmica do melaço, base para diversos adubos foliares, nas dosagens de 0,25% e 5% do produto comercial Ajifol, não interferiu na ocorrência de verrugose e melanose. Entretanto, ocasionou um aumento do número de frutos com leprose, do número de lesões de leprose por fruto e do número de ácaros da leprose (Brevipalpus phoenicis Geipsks nas folhas e nos frutos.Normal dosage and tinder-dosage sprays of ziram (Rodisan SC; cooper oxychloride (Coprantol BR and fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC, isolately or in association with Ajifol, a foliar fertilizer from molasses glutamic fermentation, provided efficient control of scab, melanose and leprosis in 'Pera' orange. Sprays of Ajifol at 0.25 and 5% had no effect on the rate of occurrence of scab and melanose, but was correlated with increases in the rates of fruits with symptoms of leprosis, number of leprosis spots per fruit, and the number of leprosis mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes on leaves and fruits.

  9. Psychological responses after a major, fatal earthquake: the effect of peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms on anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Esma; Dorahy, Martin J; Hanna, Donncha; Bagshaw, Sue; Blampied, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties experienced in 101 adult treatment seekers following exposure to a significant earthquake. Peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression, and emotional support were assessed. Path analysis was used to determine whether the experience of some psychological difficulties predicted the experience of other difficulties. As hypothesized, peritraumatic dissociation was found to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety. Posttraumatic stress symptoms then predicted anxiety and depression. Depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Contrary to expectations, emotional support was not significantly related to other psychological variables. These findings justify the provision of psychological support following a natural disaster and suggest the benefit of assessing peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms soon after the event to identify people in need of monitoring and intervention.

  10. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-β-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were α-aminobutyric acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed.

  11. Salivary IgA response and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms during a 21-week competitive season in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Mortatti, Arnaldo L; Arruda, Ademir F S; Freitas, Camila G; de Arruda, Miguel; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-02-01

    Sports training and competition are significant sources of stress, especially for young athletes. It is well known that physiological and psychological stressors induce neuroendocrine responses that could modulate immune system function. However, to date, little is known about the immune responses of young soccer players during a competitive season. Therefore, this study examined the effects of a 21-week competitive season divided into preseason, competitive season, and detraining on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms, and salivary cortisol in preadolescent male soccer players. Thirty-four young soccer players agreed to participate, and 26 (12.9 ± 0.2 years) completed the entire study. The investigation period was structured as follows: a 12-week preparatory training phase (preseason training), a 7-week competitive and a 2-week detraining phase. Resting saliva samples were taken to determine cortisol and SIgA responses. The players were required to complete a weekly log during the entire investigation reporting every sign or symptoms consistent with URTI. A significant increase in SIgA secretion rate and a decrease in URTI symptoms were observed after the 2-week detraining period (p cortisol during the study. These results indicate that training and competition demands affect the mucosal immune responses of young athletes. In addition, a short-prophylactic period (2-week detraining period) after a competitive period may attenuate mucosal immunosuppression related to URTI symptoms. Sport coaches should monitor markers of mucosal immune function to minimize illness that ultimately might lead to a decrease in performance.

  12. Nitrate transporters in leaves and their potential roles in foliar uptake of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo eHu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While plant roots are specialized organs for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients, the absorption of gaseous or liquid mineral elements by aerial plant parts has been recognized since more than one century. Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient which generally absorbed either as nitrate (NO3- or ammonium (NH4+ by plant roots. Gaseous nitrogen pollutants like N dioxide (NO2 can also be absorbed by plant surfaces and assimilated via the NO3– assimilation pathway. The subsequent NO3– flux may induce or repress the expression of various NO3–-responsive genes encoding for instance, the transmembrane transporters, NO3–/NO2– (nitrite reductase, or assimilatory enzymes involved in N metabolism. Based on the existing information, the aim of this review was to theoretically analyze the potential link between foliar NO2 absorption and N transport and metabolism. For such purpose, an overview of the state of knowledge on the NO3– transporter genes identified in leaves or shoots of various species and their roles for NO3– transport across the tonoplast and plasma membrane, in addition to the process of phloem loading is briefly provided. It is assumed that a NO2-induced ac-cumulation of NO3–/NO2– may alter the expression of such genes, hence linking transmembrane NO3– transporters and foliar uptake of NO2. It is likely that NRT1/NRT2 gene expression and spe-cies-dependent apoplastic buffer capacity may be also related to the species-specific foliar NO2 uptake process. It is concluded that further work focusing on the expression of NRT1 (NRT1.1, NRT1.7, NRT1.11 and NRT1.12, NRT2 (NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 and chloride channel family genes (CLCa and CLCd may help us elucidate the physiological and metabolic response of plants fumigated with NO2.

  13. It is possible to classify non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients into endoscopically normal groups and minimal change groups by subjective symptoms and responsiveness to rabeprazole -- a report from a study with Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Shirai, Naohito; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Hongo, Michio; Chiba, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-12-01

    The hypothesis that non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients comprise various subgroups is gaining popularity. This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of categorizing NERD patients according to symptom types and response to acid-suppressive drug rabeprazole (RPZ) 10 mg/day. NERD patients were classified as grade N (endoscopically normal), M (minimal change), or erosive GERD, and answered a 51-item, yes-or-no questionnaire pre and post-treatment. Compared to erosive GERD, clear differences existed in pretreatment prevalence of symptoms and responsiveness to RPZ in grades N and M; the results suggested stomachaches (especially at night) were significant symptoms in grade N and dysmotility-like symptoms like bloated stomach were significant in grade M while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were significant in erosive GERD. Clinical significance of classifying NERD was indicated from different symptoms and responsiveness to PPI.

  14. The MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Symptom Validity Scale (FBS/FBS-r) is not a measure of 'litigation response syndrome': commentary on Nichols and Gass (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Boone, Kyle B; Rohling, Martin L

    2017-08-22

    To address (1) Whether there is empirical evidence for the contention of Nichols and Gass that the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF FBS/FBS-r Symptom Validity Scale is a measure of Litigation Response Syndrome (LRS), representing a credible set of responses and reactions of claimants to the experience of being in litigation, rather than a measure of non-credible symptom report, as the scale is typically used; and (2) to address their stated concerns about the validity of FBS/FBS-r meta-analytic results, and the risk of false positive elevations in persons with bona-fide medical conditions. Review of published literature on the FBS/FBS-r, focusing in particular on associations between scores on this symptom validity test and scores on performance validity tests (PVTs), and FBS/FBS-r score elevations in patients with genuine neurologic, psychiatric and medical problems. (1) several investigations show significant associations between FBS/FBS-r scores and PVTs measuring non-credible performance; (2) litigants who pass PVTs do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r; (3) non-litigating medical patients (bariatric surgery candidates, persons with sleep disorders, and patients with severe traumatic brain injury) who have multiple physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r. Two meta-analytic studies show large effect sizes for FBS/FBS-r of similar magnitude. FBS/FBS-r measures non-credible symptom report rather than legitimate experience of litigation stress. Importantly, the absence of significant FBS/FBS-r elevations in litigants who pass PVTs demonstrating credible performance, directly contradicts the contention of Nichols and Gass that the scale measures LRS. These data, meta-analytic publications, and recent test use surveys support the admissibility of FBS/FBS-r under both Daubert and the older Frye criteria.

  15. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  16. Racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and depressive symptoms among pregnant black and African American women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Karen A; James-Todd, Tamarra; Kleinman, Kenneth; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew; Wright, Rosalind; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-12-01

    To assess the association between self-reported racial discrimination and prenatal depressive symptoms among black women. Our study population consisted of two cohorts of pregnant women: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress project (ACCESS) and Project Viva. We measured self-reported racial discrimination among black women using a modified Experiences of Discrimination scale (score 0-8). We assessed elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (≥13 on a 0-30 scale). Fifty-four percent of ACCESS and 78% of Viva participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, education, and nativity, a 1-U increment in Experiences of Discrimination score was associated with 48% increased odds of EDS (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.76) for ACCESS participants but was not significantly associated among Viva participants (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.37). In both cohorts, responding to unfair treatment by talking to others was associated with the lowest odds of EDS. Our findings suggest that higher levels of perceived racial discrimination may increase depressive symptoms during pregnancy among U.S. black women. Interventions involving talking to others may aid in reducing the risk of depressive symptoms among black women experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  18. Children's Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children's depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television…

  19. Performance, acute health symptoms and physiological responses during exposure to high air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Zhong, Weidi; Wargocki, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    subjects to report feeling uncomfortably warm, to rate the air quality as worse, to report increased sleepiness and higher intensity of several acute health symptoms. Eardrum temperature, skin temperature, heart rate and body weight loss all increased significantly at this exposure, arterial oxygen...

  20. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters or ...

  1. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    is typically carried out using a constant fungicide dose in the entire field although there may be large differences in crop development and biomass across the field. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test whether the fungicide dose response curve controlling septoria leaf blotch...... and other foliar diseases in winter wheat was dependent on crop development and biomass level. If such a biomass dependent dose response was found it was further the purpose to evaluate the potential to optimize fungicide inputs in winter wheat crops applying a site-specific crop density dependent fungicide...... dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...

  2. Temperature response of photosynthesis and its interaction with light intensity in sweet orange leaf discs under non-photorespiratory condition Resposta da fotossíntese à temperatura e sua interação com a intensidade luminosa em discos foliares de laranjeira doce na ausência de fotorrespiração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the response of photosynthesis (A, given by photosynthetic O2 evolution, to increasing temperature from 25 to 50ºC in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck leaf discs under non-photorespiring conditions. In order to evaluate the response of gross photosynthesis to temperature and the balance between photosynthetic and respiratory activities, respiration (Rd rates were also measured, i.e. the O2 uptake in each temperature. In addition, light response curves of photosynthesis were performed by varying the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD from 0 to 1160 µmol m-2 s-1 at 25 and 40ºC. The highest A values were observed at 35 and 40ºC, whereas the highest Rd values were noticed at 50ºC. A higher relationship A/Rd was found at 30 and 35ºC, suggesting an optimum temperature of 35ºC when considering the balance between photosynthesis and respiration under non-photorespiring condition. Overall, heat effects on plant metabolism were more evident when evaluating the relationship A/Rd. In light response curves, higher A values were also found at 40ºC under PPFD higher than 300 µmol m-2 s-1. Light saturation point of photosynthesis was increased at 40ºC, without significant change of quantum efficiency under low PPFD. Respiration was also enhanced at 40ºC, and as a consequence, the light compensation point increased. The better photosynthetic performance at 35-40ºC was supported by higher photochemical efficiency in both light and temperature response curves. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis was affected by growth temperature, i.e. a high air temperature during plant growth is a probable factor leading to a higher photosynthetic tolerance to heat stress.Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a resposta da fotossíntese (A, dada pela evolução fotossintética de O2, ao aumento da temperatura de 25 para 50ºC em discos foliares de laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sob condição de n

  3. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O(3) under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C; Skelly, J M; Pennypacker, S P; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D

    2004-07-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O(3)) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O(3) concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O(3) concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Ambient O(3) exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001 growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O(3) exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(wv)). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g(wv), which resulted in greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O(3) exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions.

  4. Evaluating the Responsiveness to Therapeutic Change with Routine Outcome Monitoring: A Comparison of the Symptom Questionnaire-48 (SQ-48) with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Ingrid V E; Kovács, Viktória; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Mooij, Nanda; Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of psychological distress is important, because it may help to monitor treatment effects and predict treatment outcomes. We previously developed the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) as a public domain self-report psychological distress instrument and showed good internal consistency as well as good convergent and divergent validity among clinical and non-clinical samples. The present study, conducted among psychiatric outpatients in a routine clinical setting, describes additional psychometric properties of the SQ-48. The primary focus is on responsiveness to therapeutic change, which to date has been rarely examined within psychiatry or clinical psychology. Since a questionnaire should also be stable when no clinically important change occurs, we also examined test-retest reliability within a test-retest design before treatment (n = 43). A pre-treatment/post-treatment design was used for responsiveness to therapeutic change, comparing the SQ-48 with two internationally widely used instruments: the Brief Symptom Inventory (n = 97) and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (n = 109). The results showed that the SQ-48 has excellent test-retest reliability and good responsiveness to therapeutic change, without significant differences between the questionnaires in terms of responsiveness. In sum, the SQ-48 is a psychometrically sound public domain self-report instrument that can be used for routine outcome monitoring, as a benchmark tool or for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message The SQ-48 is developed as a public domain self-report questionnaire, in line with growing efforts to develop clinical instruments that are free of charge. The SQ-48 has excellent test-retest reliability and good responsiveness to therapeutic change or patient progress. There were no significant differences in terms of responsiveness between the SQ-48 and BSI or OQ-45. The SQ-48 can be used as a routine evaluation outcome

  5. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  6. Aplicações de fertilizantes foliares na nutrição e na produção do pimentão e do tomateiro Foliar fertilizer applications on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton S. Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de fertilizantes foliares, contendo Ca e B, na nutrição e produção do pimentão cv. Mayata e do tomate cv. Carmem, cultivados em estufas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos, três e quatro repetições, respectivamente, para o tomateiro e pimentão. Os tratamentos foram a água de retortagem de xisto (100; 78; 3,0; 12,5; 3,0; 12,5; 4,0 e 0,2 g.L-1 de N, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Mn e Mo, respectivamente a 0,1; 0,25; 0,5 e 1%; os sais ácido bórico (170 g.kg-1 de B a 0,15% mais cloreto de cálcio a 0,15% e o quelato de cálcio (200 g.kg-1 de Ca a 0,1% e boro orgânico (10 g.kg-1 de B a 0,15%. A aplicação de água de retortagem de xisto a 0,5% via foliar aumentou em 27,4% a produção de frutos de pimentão e os teores foliares de Mg e S em relação à aplicação desse fertilizante a 0,1%. Para o tomateiro, as pulverizações com água de retortagem de xisto a 0,5 e 1% elevaram em 60,5 e 93,8% a produção de frutos em comparação à menor dose desse fertilizante. Os maiores teores de B nas folhas de pimentão e de tomate foram obtidos com as aplicações de sais e resultaram em sintomas visuais de toxicidade de B no início do desenvolvimento das culturas.The efficiency of foliar fertilizers was evaluated on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper cv. Mayata and tomato cv. Carmem, cultivated in plastic greenhouse. For the two experiments the experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with three and four replications for tomato and sweet pepper, respectively, and six treatments (schist retortage water 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1%; boric acid 0.15% plus clorate calcium 0.15% and quelate Ca 0.1% plus organic B 0.15%. The foliar application of schist retortage water 0.5% increased 27.4% the sweet pepper fruit yield and foliar concentrations of Mg and S compared to this fertilizer 0.1%. For tomato, the application of schist retortage water 0.5 and 1% increased 60.5 and 93.8% the fruit yield

  7. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  8. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  9. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  10. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Body Image Distress in Female Victims of Physical and Sexual Assault: Exploring Integrated Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Terri L.; Griffin, Michael G.; Mitchell, Elisha R.

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has been rarely explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African-American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distre...

  11. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    ) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94...... all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate...

  12. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  13. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  14. Foliar bacterial communities of trembling aspen in a common garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Holeski, Liza M; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-02-01

    Microbial associations with plants are widely distributed and are structured by a number of biotic and physical factors. Among biotic factors, the host plant genotype may be integral to these plant-microbe interactions. Trees in the genus Populus have become models for studies in scaling effects of host plant genetics and in plant-microbe interactions. Using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we assessed the foliar bacterial community of 7 genotypes of mature trembling aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) grown in a common garden. Trees were selected based on prior analyses showing clonal variation in their concentration of chemicals conferring resistance against insect herbivores. At broad taxonomic designations, the bacterial community of trembling aspen was similar across all plant genotypes. At a finer taxonomic scale, the foliage of these trees varied in their community composition, but there was no distinct pattern to colonization or abundance related to plant genotype. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were classified as Ralstonia, Bradyrhizobium, Pseudomonas, and Brucella. These OTUs varied across the common garden, but there was no significant effect of host plant genotype or spatial position on the abundance of these members. Our results suggest that aspen genotype is less important in the structuring of its foliar bacterial communities than are other, poorly understood processes.

  15. Adhesive polydopamine coated avermectin microcapsules for prolonging foliar pesticide retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Sheng, Wen-bo; Li, Wei; Tong, Yan-bin; Liu, Zhi-yong; Zhou, Feng

    2014-11-26

    In this work, we report a conceptual strategy for prolonging foliar pesticide retention by using an adhesive polydopamine (PDA) microcapsule to encapsulate avermectin, thereby minimizing its volatilization and improving its residence time on crop surfaces. Polydopamine coated avermectin (Av@PDA) microcapsules were prepared by emulsion interfacial-polymerization and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The in situ synthesis route confers Av@PDA microcapsules with remarkable avermectin loading ability of up to 66.5% (w/w). Kinetic study of avermectin release demonstrated that Av@PDA microcapsules exhibit sustained- and controlled-release properties. The adhesive property of Av@PDA microcapsules on different surfaces was verified by a comparative study between Av@PDA and passivated Av@SiO2 and Av@PDA@SiO2 capsules with silica shell. Moreover, PDA shell could effectively shield UV irradiation and so protect avermectin from photodegradation, making it more applicable for foliar spraying. Meanwhile, it is determinated that Av@PDA microcapsules have good mechanical stability property.

  16. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  17. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and body image distress in female victims of physical and sexual assault: exploring integrated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Griffin, Michael G; Mitchell, Elisha R

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has rarely been explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distress was a significant, unique predictor of depression but not PTSD severity. We recommend continued exploration of body image concerns to further integrated research on violence against women.

  18. Effects of thermal discomfort in an office on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms, physiological responses and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2011-01-01

    °C) and while warm (at 30°C). Multiple physiological measurements and subjective assessment were made. The results show that when the subjects felt warm, they assessed the air quality to be worse, reported increased intensity of many sick building syndrome symptoms, expressed more negative mood......, and were less willing to exert effort. Task performance decreased when the subjects felt warm. Their heart rate, respiratory ventilation, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide increased significantly, and their arterial oxygen saturation decreased. Tear film quality was found to be significantly...

  19. Neural activation during response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: preliminary findings on the effects of medication and symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Altshuler, Lori L; Mumford, Jeanette A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Sabb, Fred W; Ventura, Joseph; McGough, James J; London, Edythe D; Cannon, Tyrone D; Bilder, Robert M; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-04-30

    Studies of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have suggested that they have deficient response inhibition, but findings concerning the neural correlates of inhibition in this patient population are inconsistent. We used the Stop-Signal task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural activation associated with response inhibition between adults with ADHD (N=35) and healthy comparison subjects (N=62), and in follow-up tests to examine the effect of current medication use and symptom severity. There were no differences in Stop-Signal task performance or neural activation between ADHD and control participants. Among the ADHD participants, however, significant differences were associated with current medication, with individuals taking psychostimulants (N=25) showing less stopping-related activation than those not currently receiving psychostimulant medication (N=10). Follow-up analyses suggested that this difference in activation was independent of symptom severity. These results provide evidence that deficits in inhibition-related neural activation persist in a subset of adult ADHD individuals, namely those individuals currently taking psychostimulants. These findings help to explain some of the disparities in the literature, and advance our understanding of why deficits in response inhibition are more variable in adult, as compared with child and adolescent, ADHD patients.

  20. Uréia em cobertura e via foliar em feijoeiro Foliar and surface dressing of urea for the common bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei de Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a influência de diferentes concentrações de uréia (0, 40, 60, 80, 100 e 120 g kg-1 em solução, para fornecimento de N via foliar, em diferentes horários (08h, 16h e 20h, na presença e ausência de adubação nitrogenada em cobertura (via solo. O solo do local do ensaio é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico. O delineamento experimental seguiu o esquema fatorial 6x3x2, com quatro repetições. A semeadura foi realizada mecanicamente no dia 24.06.1996, utilizando-se o cultivar IAC Carioca, conduzido em regime de irrigação. Aplicaram-se 200 L ha-1 de calda, em cada pulverização com uréia. A adubação nitrogenada em cobertura foi realizada aos 32 dias após a emergência (dae, aplicando-se 40 kg ha-1 de N. Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: teor de agua e grau de fitotoxicidade nas folhas, número de dias para o florescimento pleno, matéria seca de plantas, teor de N total em folhas, número de vagens/planta, número de grãos/vagem, peso médio de 100 grãos e rendimento de grãos. A adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, aumentou a produtividade, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação foliar. É importante a época de aplicação e a concentração da uréia foliar, devido a fitotoxicidade.The objective was to determine common bean response to different urea concentrations (0, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 g kg-1. N was supplied through leaves at different hours of application (8:00 AM, 04:00 PM, and 08:00 PM, in either the presence or the absence of N (urea soil surface dressing at the rate of 40 kg ha-1 N. The soil used was a clayey Typic Haplustox . The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 5x3 with five urea rates and three times of application, with four replicates. Plant characteristics and degree of fitotoxicity were measured. It is concluded that N applied to the soil increased grain yield. N applied to leaves did not

  1. Foliar application of β-D-glucan nanoparticles to control rhizome rot disease of turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Sathiyanarayanan; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2015-01-01

    The soilborne Oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum is the causal agent of rhizome rot disease, one of the most serious threats to turmeric crops. At present, effective fungicides are not available. Researches on nanoparticles in a number of crops have evidenced the positive changes in gene expression indicating their potential use in crop improvement. Hence, experiments were carried out to determine the effect of β-D-glucan nanoparticles (nanobiopolymer) in protection of turmeric plants against rot disease by the way of products that reinforce plant's own defense mechanism. Foliar spray of β-D-glucan nanoparticles (0.1%, w/v) elicited marked increase in the activity of defense enzymes such as peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidases (E.C.1.14.18.1), protease inhibitors (E.C.3.4.21.1) and β-1,3-glucanases (E.C.3.2.1.39) at various age levels. Constitutive and induced isoforms of these enzymes were investigated during this time-course study. β-D-glucan nanoparticles (GNPs) significantly reduced the rot incidence offering 77% protection. Increased activities of defense enzymes in GNPs-applied turmeric plants may play a role in restricting the development of disease symptoms. These results demonstrated that GNPs could be used as an effective resistance activator in turmeric for control of rhizome rot disease.

  2. Occurrence of common scab in potato tubers after foliar treatment with glycinebetaine under glasshouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. TUOMOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A single foliar spray with 2.5 mM glycinebetaine (GB was applied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Matilda, Sabina and Saturna grown in a sand bed infested with Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter Waksman & Henrici at tuber initiation. A period of drought was maintained after GB treatment to enhance scab infection. Logit models were used to compare scab incidence in all harvested tubers (n = 622 and the type of scab in the symptomatic tubers (n = 382, whereas the tuber surface areas covered with scab lesions were compared using ANOVA. A 10 g increase in tuber weight increased the odds of scab incidence by 11.3%. Scab incidence was lowest in Sabina and highest in Matilda. Raised scab and superficial scab were common in all cultivars, but pitted scab developed only in a few tubers of Sabina and Matilda. Among the scabby tubers, the incidence of raised scab was highest in Sabina and lowest in Saturna. The mean surface area covered with scab was 32.8% in Matilda, 11.7% in Saturna and 7.5% in Sabina. Treatment with GB slightly reduced the severity of scab symptoms, as shown by the reduction in the proportion of tubers with raised scab among the scabby tubers (odds 0.60. No effect on the incidence of scab or the tuber area covered with scab lesions was detected following GB treatment.;

  3. Dynamic transcriptional signatures and network responses for clinical symptoms in influenza-infected human subjects using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linel, Patrice; Wu, Shuang; Deng, Nan; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that human blood transcriptional signatures may be used to support diagnosis and clinical decisions for acute respiratory viral infections such as influenza. In this article, we propose to use a newly developed systems biology approach for time course gene expression data to identify significant dynamically response genes and dynamic gene network responses to viral infection. We illustrate the methodological pipeline by reanalyzing the time course gene expression data from a study with healthy human subjects challenged by live influenza virus. We observed clear differences in the number of significant dynamic response genes (DRGs) between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and also identified DRG signatures for symptomatic subjects with influenza infection. The 505 common DRGs shared by the symptomatic subjects have high consistency with the signature genes for predicting viral infection identified in previous works. The temporal response patterns and network response features were carefully analyzed and investigated.

  4. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  5. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface

  6. Predictors of Individual Response to Placebo or Tadalafil 5mg among Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Integrated Clinical Data Mining Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fusco

    Full Text Available A significant percentage of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH achieve clinically meaningful improvement when receiving placebo or tadalafil 5mg once daily. However, individual patient characteristics associated with treatment response are unknown.This integrated clinical data mining analysis was designed to identify factors associated with a clinically meaningful response to placebo or tadalafil 5mg once daily in an individual patient with LUTS-BPH. Analyses were performed on pooled data from four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical studies, including about 1,500 patients, from which 107 baseline characteristics were selected and 8 response criteria. The split set evaluation method (1,000 repeats was used to estimate prediction accuracy, with the database randomly split into training and test subsets. Logistic Regression (LR, Decision Tree (DT, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Random Forest (RF models were then generated on the training subset and used to predict response in the test subset. Prediction models were generated for placebo and tadalafil 5mg once daily Receiver Operating Curve (ROC analysis was used to select optimal prediction models lying on the ROC surface.International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS baseline group (mild/moderate vs. severe for active treatment and placebo achieved the highest combined sensitivity and specificity of 70% and ~50% for all analyses, respectively. This was below the sensitivity and specificity threshold of 80% that would enable reliable allocation of an individual patient to either the responder or non-responder group.This extensive clinical data mining study in LUTS-BPH did not identify baseline clinical or demographic characteristics that were sufficiently predictive of an individual patient response to placebo or once daily tadalafil 5mg. However, the study reaffirms the efficacy of tadalalfil 5mg once daily in the

  7. Predictors of Individual Response to Placebo or Tadalafil 5mg among Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Integrated Clinical Data Mining Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Ferdinando; D’Anzeo, Gianluca; Henneges, Carsten; Rossi, Andrea; Büttner, Hartwig; Nickel, J. Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Background A significant percentage of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) achieve clinically meaningful improvement when receiving placebo or tadalafil 5mg once daily. However, individual patient characteristics associated with treatment response are unknown. Methods This integrated clinical data mining analysis was designed to identify factors associated with a clinically meaningful response to placebo or tadalafil 5mg once daily in an individual patient with LUTS-BPH. Analyses were performed on pooled data from four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical studies, including about 1,500 patients, from which 107 baseline characteristics were selected and 8 response criteria. The split set evaluation method (1,000 repeats) was used to estimate prediction accuracy, with the database randomly split into training and test subsets. Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) models were then generated on the training subset and used to predict response in the test subset. Prediction models were generated for placebo and tadalafil 5mg once daily Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis was used to select optimal prediction models lying on the ROC surface. Findings International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) baseline group (mild/moderate vs. severe) for active treatment and placebo achieved the highest combined sensitivity and specificity of 70% and ~50% for all analyses, respectively. This was below the sensitivity and specificity threshold of 80% that would enable reliable allocation of an individual patient to either the responder or non-responder group Conclusions This extensive clinical data mining study in LUTS-BPH did not identify baseline clinical or demographic characteristics that were sufficiently predictive of an individual patient response to placebo or once daily tadalafil 5mg. However, the study reaffirms the efficacy of

  8. Spectral unmixing techniques for retrieving plant foliar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, Kostas; Sykioti, Olga; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Kyparissis, Aris

    2010-05-01

    In this study two novel approaches for supervised and semi-supervised hyperspectral unmixing are applied in the unmixing of CHRIS/PROBA data, in order to monitor seasonal land cover changes - in particular plant foliar coverage. Foliar coverage variations are directly linked to seasonal changes of the ecophysiological status of a plant (i.e. growth status, pigment concentrations, LAI etc). The high potential of using hyperspectral satellite data in monitoring plant biochemical and structural characteristics is important in ecophysiological studies. A reliable and efficient method to extract leaf and/or canopy information from a mixed pixel significantly contributes towards this direction. In this study, the development of two efficient algorithms in spectral unmixing enables the detection and mapping of leaf contribution to the overall pixel spectra and its seasonal variations. For this purpose, leaf spectra measured in the field, simultaneously to satellite acquisitions, are included in the endmember data set. The proposed unmixing techniques are performed on ground reflectances, assuming knowledge of the number and spectral signatures of the objects present in the images. An efficient estimation for their corresponding fractions in the pixels of the image is developed, based on a recently proposed maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) method. By exploiting the constraints naturally imposed to the problem, closed form expressions are derived for the statistical parameters required by the MAP estimator. In the semi-supervised scenario, we assume that a spectral library is given, containing spectral signatures of multiple endmembers. The objective in the latter case, is (a) to determine how many and which endmembers are present in the mixed pixel under study and (b) to use the selected endmembers to estimate the corresponding abundance fractions - especially the abundance of foliar coverage. The approach is based on a properly modified weighted l1-regularized least

  9. IgM response to a human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Kovacs, J A; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1993-01-01

    95. Four of the 5 patients with IgM antibodies also had IgG antibodies to gp95 and microbiologically proven P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). In 76/128 patients for whom serial samples were available, changes in antibody response were determined. In 3 patients we demonstrated an increase in IgM antibody...... response to gp95. These patients also showed an increase in IgG antibodies to gp95 and had microbiologically proven PCP. Prior to the development of the IgM response, IgG antibodies to gp95 were detectable in all 3 patients. Thus, HIV-infected patients with PCP seldom produce IgM antibodies to the major...... human P. carinii surface antigen. The increase in IgM response during the course of PCP observed in 3 patients suggests either reinfection with a new strain, or antigenic drift of an already acquired strain of P. carinii....

  10. Foliar fungal communities strongly differ between habitat patches in a landscape mosaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Dispersal events between habitat patches in a landscape mosaic can structure ecological communities and influence the functioning of agrosystems. Here we investigated whether short-distance dispersal events between vineyard and forest patches shape foliar fungal communities. We hypothesized that these communities homogenize between habitats over the course of the growing season, particularly along habitat edges, because of aerial dispersal of spores. Methods We monitored the richness and composition of foliar and airborne fungal communities over the season, along transects perpendicular to edges between vineyard and forest patches, using Illumina sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 region. Results In contrast to our expectation, foliar fungal communities in vineyards and forest patches increasingly differentiate over the growing season, even along habitat edges. Moreover, the richness of foliar fungal communities in grapevine drastically decreased over the growing season, in contrast to that of forest trees. The composition of airborne communities did not differ between habitats. The composition of oak foliar fungal communities change between forest edge and centre. Discussion These results suggest that dispersal events between habitat patches are not major drivers of foliar fungal communities at the landscape scale. Selective pressures exerted in each habitat by the host plant, the microclimate and the agricultural practices play a greater role, and might account for the differentiation of foliar fugal communities between habitats.

  11. APPLICATION OF FOLIAR FERTILIZER AND FUNGICIDES ON WHITE SPOT DISEASE CONTROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forms of application of foliar fertilizers and fungicides to control fungus causing white maize spot, Phaeosphaeria maydis, and the growth and development of hybrids maize. The design had randomized blocks, with the use two sources hybrids maize with different reaction to white maize spot: resistant and susceptive and application with moisture of foliar chemical fungicide + cobalt foliar + molybdenum foliar + manganese and control treatment, without application consisting of four treatments and five replications. In the treatments with application of moisture were done on vegetative maize growth stage V8 (stage that determine that the number of kernel rows, VT (stage that arrives when the last branch of the tassel is completely visible and reproductive maize growth stage R2 (kernels are white on the outside and resemble a blister. The evaluation of variables of growth of maize plants: grain dry mass, cob dry mass, leaf dry mass, culm dry mass and modificated leaf ear and total plant dry mass. Harvest was carried out when the grains were 20% humidity. The application of fungicides and foliar fertilizers increased the leaves, culm, ear modificated, cobs and shoot dry mass plants maize. The application of fungicides and foliar fertilizers providing returning of 11.409,5 kg ha-1 of shoot dry mass plants with increased of 1.296 kg ha-1 on soil(12,81%. In the susceptive hybrid maize the application of fungicides and foliar fertilizers provide higher dry mass grains and shoot of plants.

  12. Foliar spray with vermiwash modifies the Arbuscular mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haneef Khan

    Full Text Available Vermiwash (VW, a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth.

  13. Foliar spray with vermiwash modifies the Arbuscular mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth.

  14. 不同叶面肥对番茄幼苗生长、干物质积累及耐旱性的影响%Responses of Growth, Dry Matter Accumulation and Drought Tolerance of Tomato Seedlings to Different Foliar Fertilizers Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 杨晓玉

    2011-01-01

    以硬果80番茄为试验材料,研究了质量浓度为3 g/L的磷酸二氢钾、葡萄糖以及氯化钙叶面肥料(清水为对照)处理对其株高、株幅、干物质总质量以及耐旱性的影响.结果表明:随着处理时间的延长,3个处理番茄幼苗的株高、株幅和干物质总质量均有不同程度增加,其中磷酸二氢钾处理增幅最大,分别增加8.0%、6.1%、8.0%.随着干旱胁迫时间的延长,3个处理番茄幼苗叶片的电解质相对渗透率均逐渐增加,在干旱处理结束时,叶片电解质相对渗透率由低到高的顺序依次为:磷酸二氢钾处理<葡萄糖处理<氯化钙处理<清水对照.综合分析同质量浓度的磷酸二氢钾、葡萄糖和氯化钙对幼苗期番茄进行叶面施肥处理效果,以磷酸二氢钾的效果最佳.%In this paper,the effects of 3 types of foliar fertilizers-3g/L KH2PO4,3g/L glucose and 3 g/L CaCl2 (water control) on plant height, crown width, plant dry weight and drought tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. "Yingguo 80") seedlings were investigated under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that plant height, crown width and plant dry weight of tomato seedlings treated with KH2 PO4, glucose and CaC12 were all increased by some extent with the treatment time prolonging. The best treatment effect was that of which was treated by KH2 PO4 among all the tomato seedlings. Compared with control, the plant height, crown width and plant dry weight of tomato seedlings treated by KH2 PO4 increased by 8.0%, 6.1%, and 8. 0 %, respectively. The electrolyte relative leakage rates of tomato seedlings treated by 3 types of foliar fertilizers were gradually increased with time prolonging of drought tolerance; at the termination of drought tolerance, the order of the electrolyte relative leakage rates from low to high was: KH2 PO4 <glucose<CaCl2 <CK. So, KH2 PO4 might be the best foliar fertilizer for tomato seedlings.

  15. Foliar application of TXCs on understory species of mesic forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitford, P.B.

    1968-01-01

    Foliar application to the understory in a Liriodendron forest of 35 Ci/mS of TXCs diluted in 11/mS water showed 18% retention of the isotope on foliage after 2 hr, 9, 8 and 7% after 2, 4, and 6 weeks; the major part of the applied solution dripped onto the litter layer. Approximately 22 cm of rain during the test period accounted for most of the reduction in isotope in the foliage, as well as for transfer through the litter to the top 5 cm of soil (23% of application) by the end of the sixth week. Less than 4% was absorbed and translocated to stem and roots. Differences, between species are probably related to leaf surface structure, mass/area ratio, and leaf orientation. 6 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  17. Effect of foliar feeding on nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants at insufficient molybdenum supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozkova, Marieta; Geneva, Maria; Stancheva, Ira

    2009-06-01

    The influence of foliar feeding on the nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants under conditions of Mo shortage was studied. It was established that foliar fertilization with 0.3% solution of Agroleaf® resulted in increase of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen assimilation in the absence of Mo. Insufficient molybdenum supply leads to significant reduction of plant Mo content and nitrogen-fixing activity, while stress induced amino acids as alanine, GABA, threonine, proline and serine increased repeatedly. The negative effect of Mo deficiency on the enzyme activities related to the primary nitrogen assimilation (NR, GS, GOGAT) and plant growth diminished due to the foliar absorbed nutrients.

  18. Pervasive Effects of Wildfire on Foliar Endophyte Communities in Montane Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Devan, M M Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M; Furr, Susan H; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to wildfires has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe wildfires in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe wildfires on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on traditionally fire-dominated, montane ecosystems in the southwestern USA. We evaluated the abundance, diversity, and composition of endophytes in foliage of Juniperus deppeana (Cupressaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) collected contemporaneously from areas affected by recent wildfire and paired areas not affected by recent fire. Study sites spanned four mountain ranges in central and southern Arizona. Our results revealed significant effects of fires on endophyte communities, including decreases in isolation frequency, increases in diversity, and shifts in community structure and taxonomic composition among endophytes of trees affected by recent fires. Responses to fire were similar in endophytes of each host in these fire-dominated ecosystems and reflect regional fire-return intervals, with endophytes after fire representing subsets of the regional mycoflora. Together, these findings contribute to an emerging perspective on the responses of diverse communities to severe fire, and highlight the importance of considering fire history when estimating endophyte diversity and community structure for focal biomes.

  19. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys

    2013-01-01

    ) and six workstations, three of which had DPV. The DV kept air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor). Pollution load was simulated by PVC floor covering and the bioeffluents generated by the subjects (60% recirculated room air). DPV sucked the air distributed over the floor by the DV...... and supplied it to the breathing zone of the subjects. The subjects were allowed to control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized flow rate. Each subject participated in five 4-hour experiments: 23 °C with DV only, 23 °C with DPV with air filter, 29 °C with DV only, 29 °C with DPV......The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV...

  20. Stress as a diagnostic challenge for postconcussive symptoms: sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury or physiological stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, B; Berry, Z M; Bennett, T; Phillips, H L; Gouvier, W D

    2001-08-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding whether persistent postconcussive symptoms (PCS) are injury-specific, in a subgroup of individuals after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The following findings have contributed to this controversy: (1) The base rate of PCS in mild TBI is comparable to uninjured controls; and (2) The severity of PCS covary with daily stress levels (Gouvier, Cubic, Jones, Brantley, & Cutlip, 1992). We examined this relationship further by evaluating the effects of experimental conditions of stress or relaxation on individuals with TBI and uninjured control subjects, with low and high PCS endorsement. We evaluated psychophysiological parameters, neuropsychological performance, and changes in PCS and stress perception. In our study, subjects with TBI increased PCS after engaging in cognitively challenging tasks, and demonstrated significant autonomic changes in the stress condition. Symptomatic TBI subjects exposed to high stress had increases in PCS complaints, decreased speed of information processing, and subtle memory deficits. Our results suggest that PCS are injury-specific and that individuals with a history of TBI are susceptible to the effects of stress. Relaxation training including breathing retraining may be an effective means of decreasing PCS and cognitive complaints in subjects with mild TBI.

  1. Modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Curcuma alismatifolia e Vurcuma zedoaria Leaf area prediction models for Curcuma alismatifolia and Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo determina modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Curcuma alismatifolia e de Curcuma zedoaria. Para utilização destas espécies como ornamentais, é necessário o estabelecimento de técnicas de produção adequadas. Assim, a determinação da área foliar é importante, pois é usada para avaliar a resposta da planta a fatores ambientais e técnicas culturais. O uso de modelos para estimar a área foliar é um método simples, de boa precisão e não destrutivo. No estádio de floração foram coletadas cem folhas de C.alismatifolia ('Pink' e 'White' e de C.zedoaria. Determinaram-se o comprimento (C e a largura (L máximos e a área foliar real (AFR, com auxílio de integrador de área foliar (LI-3100. Estudaram-se as relações entre a AFR e o C, L e CL (produto do comprimento pela largura da folha, por meio de modelos de regressão linear. Os modelos AFR = 0,59048 CL (C.alismatifolia 'Pink', AFR = 6,08410 + 0,52162 CL (C.alismatifolia 'White' e AFR = 0,70233 CL (C.zedoaria são estatisticamente adequados para estimar a área foliar real.The present work establishes regression models to estimate leaf area of Curcuma alismatifolia and Curcuma zedoaria. To use these of species as ornamental plants is necessary to establish adequate cultivation techniques. Thus, the determination of leaf area is very important, once it is used to evaluate plant response to environmental factors and crop techniques. The use of prediction models to estimate leaf area is a simple, accurate and nondestructive method. At the stage of flowering, a hundred leaves of C.alismatifolia ('Pink' and 'White' and C.zedoaria were collected for each species and cultivar. Maximum length (L, maximum width (W and real leaf area (RLA were measured with a leaf area meter (LI-3100. The relation between RLA and the L, W and the product of length by width (LW, was studied through linear regression models. The models RLA = 0.59048 LW (C.alismatifolia 'Pink', RLA = 6

  2. Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ano agrícola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicação foliar de manganês (testemunha; 2 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3 com aplicação de glyphosate e sem aplicação foliar de manganês; 4 aplicação de glyphosate em mistura com manganês; 5 aplicação de glyphosate mais uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 6 aplicação de glyphosate mais aplicação foliar de manganês parcelada em duas épocas, aos 7 e 14 dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 7 aplicação de glyphosate e uma aplicação foliar de manganês aos 14 dias após aplicação de glyphosate. A aplicação de glyphosate foi realizada no estádio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulação contendo 14% (m/v de manganês solúvel. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis estatura de plantas e altura de inserção da primeira vagem. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a absorção e o teor foliar de manganês e nitrogênio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de manganês com a suplementação de manganês, não houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima

  3. Quality of life and stress response symptoms in long-term and recent spouses of testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses c

  4. Quality of life and stress response symptoms in long-term and recent spouses of testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses c

  5. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  6. Plague Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  7. Comorbid anxiety and social avoidance in treatment of severe childhood aggression: response to adding risperidone to stimulant and parent training; mediation of disruptive symptom response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Gadow, Kenneth D; Farmer, Cristan A; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Molina, Brooke S G; Brown, Nicole V; Li, Xiaobai; Rundberg-Rivera, E Victoria; Bangalore, Srihari; Buchan-Page, Kristin; Hurt, Elizabeth A; Rice, Robert; McNamara, Nora K; Aman, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). A total of 168 children ages 6-12 with severe aggression (physical harm), DBD, and ADHD were randomized to parent training plus stimulant plus placebo (basic treatment) or parent training plus stimulant plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for 9 weeks. All received only parent training plus stimulant for the first 3 weeks, then those with room for improvement received a second drug (placebo or risperidone) for 6 weeks. CASI-4R category item means at baseline and week 9 were entered into linear mixed-effects models for repeated measures to evaluate group differences in changes. Mediation of the primary DBD outcome was explored. Parent ratings were nonsignificant with small/negligible effects, but teacher ratings (n=46 with complete data) showed significant augmented treatment advantage for symptoms of anxiety (p=0.013, d=0.71), schizophrenia spectrum (p=0.017, d=0.45), and impairment in these domains (p=0.02, d=0.26), all remaining significant after false discovery rate correction for multiple tests. Improvement in teacher-rated anxiety significantly (p=0.001) mediated the effect of risperidone augmentation on the primary outcome, the Disruptive-total of the parent-rated Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. Addition of risperidone to parent training plus stimulant improves not only parent-rated DBD as previously reported, but also teacher-rated anxiety-social avoidance. Improvement in anxiety mediates improvement in DBD, suggesting anxiety-driven fight-or-flight disruptive behavior with aggression, with implications for potential treatment strategies. Clinicians should attend to

  8. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar em Roraima = Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight in Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rodrigues Youssef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar isolados do fungo Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar, obtidos de hospedeiros de importância econômica no estado de Roraima. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, soja (Glycine max, seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, alface (Lactuca sativa e feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan. Os parâmetros utilizados foram números de núcleos, grupo de anastomose e as características culturais da colônia, taxa de crescimento micelial e a formação de escleródios nos meios de cultura: batata dextrose agar (BDA, BDA+asparagina, BDA+extrato de levedura, Czapek Agar, maltose-peptona-agar, soil extract agar, sacarose-yeast-asparagina e V-8. Todos os 10 isolados estudados foram caracterizados como multinucleados e pertencentes à espécie Rhizoctonia solani. Três isolados de feijão-caupi, um de soja e o isolado de melancia foram identificados como AGI-1A e um isolado de feijãocaupi, um de soja e o isolado de feijão-guandu como AGI-1B. O isolado de seringueira não foi identificado como nenhum dos padrões de anastomose utilizado. Para a maioria dos isolados as maiores taxas de crescimento micelialforam obtidas no meio de cultura Soil Extract Agar. Dois tipos de escleródios, característicos do grupo AGI, foram observados: formação de 2-20 tufos placa-1 coloração variável, 1-2 mm e formação de 38-611 microescleródios placa-1, de coloração marrom, medindo 100 μm. A produção e o tipo de escleródio variaram com o isolado e o meio de cultura utilizado.The aim of this work was to characterize Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight symptom from hosts with economic importance at Roraima state. The isolates were recovered from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, soybean (Glycine max, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, lettuce (Lactuca sativa and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan. The evaluated characteristics were nuclear

  9. Assimilação foliar de enxofre elementar pela soja Foliar elementary sulfur assimilation by soybean

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    Godofredo Cesar Vitti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a assimilação de enxofre elementar (S0, aplicado nas folhas de soja, e sua eficiência comparada à adubação feita ao solo, de acordo com a dose e a natureza da fonte do nutriente. O S0 aplicado às folhas, independentemente da dose e fonte, foi assimilado pela planta, o que acarretou em aumento no teor de proteína total na folha. Todas as fontes de S aplicadas às folhas aumentaram a produção de grãos, semelhantemente à aplicação ao solo. Observou-se uma mesma produtividade com o uso de 20 kg ha-1 de S0 no solo ou de 6 kg ha-1 via foliar. A eficiência da aplicação de S via foliar, com base no conteúdo de proteína solúvel total, foi superior à da aplicação ao solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the elementary sulfur (S0 assimilation applied on soybean leaves, and its efficiency compared to the fertilization done in the soil, according to the dose and nature of the nutrient source. The S0 applied to leaves, independently of the dose and source, was assimilated by the plant, what resulted in increase of total protein content in the leaf. All S sources applied to leaves increased the grain yield, similarly to the application to the soil. The same productivity was observed with the use of 20 kg ha-1 of S0 in the soil or 6 kg ha-1 applied to leaves. The elementary S application efficiency on leaves, based on the content of total soluble protein, was superior to application efficiency on soil.

  10. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

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    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-04

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  11. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

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    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations.

  12. Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains.

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    Liu, Chuanping; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Shihua; Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-01-30

    In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of two silica (Si) sols on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in contaminated soil to rice. Results showed that the foliar application of Si sols significantly increased the dry weight of grains (without husk) and shoots in rice grown in Cd contaminated soil, whereas the Cd concentration in the grains and shoots decreased obviously. The total accumulation of Cd in rice grains also decreased with the application of both of the Si sols, but no significant effect was found on the Cd accumulation in the shoots. For the optimal effect, Si-sol-B should be foliar applied at the tillering-stage during rice growth. The mechanism of Si foliar application to alleviate the toxicity and accumulation of Cd in grains of rice may be related to the probable Cd sequestration in the shoot cell walls.

  13. Reproducibility of the airway response to an exercise protocol standardized for intensity, duration, and inspired air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive of asthma

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    Anderson Sandra D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise testing to aid diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is commonly performed. Reproducibility of the airway response to a standardized exercise protocol has not been reported in subjects being evaluated with mild symptoms suggestive of asthma but without a definite diagnosis. This study examined reproducibility of % fall in FEV1 and area under the FEV1 time curve for 30 minutes in response to two exercise tests performed with the same intensity and duration of exercise, and inspired air conditions. Methods Subjects with mild symptoms of asthma exercised twice within approximately 4 days by running for 8 minutes on a motorized treadmill breathing dry air at an intensity to induce a heart rate between 80-90% predicted maximum; reproducibility of the airway response was expressed as the 95% probability interval. Results Of 373 subjects challenged twice 161 were positive (≥10% fall FEV1 on at least one challenge. The EIB was mild and 77% of subjects had 1 and 19.3% (72 positive on both challenges. The remaining 23.9% of subjects had only one positive test. The 95% probability interval for reproducibility of the % fall in FEV1 and AUC0-30 min was ± 9.7% and ± 251% for all 278 adults and ± 13.4% and ± 279% for all 95 children. The 95% probability interval for reproducibility of % fall in FEV1 and AUC0-30 min for the 72 subjects with two tests ≥10% fall FEV1 was ± 14.6% and ± 373% and for the 34 subjects with two tests ≥15% fall FEV1 it was ± 12.2% and ± 411%. Heart rate and estimated ventilation achieved were not significantly different either on the two test days or when one test result was positive and one was negative. Conclusions Under standardized, well controlled conditions for exercise challenge, the majority of subjects with mild symptoms of asthma demonstrated agreement in test results. Performing two tests may need to be considered when using exercise to exclude or diagnose EIB, when

  14. Biofortification and bioavailability of rice grain zinc as affected by different forms of foliar zinc fertilization.

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    Yanyan Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn biofortification through foliar Zn application is an attractive strategy to reduce human Zn deficiency. However, little is known about the biofortification efficiency and bioavailability of rice grain from different forms of foliar Zn fertilizers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four different Zn forms were applied as a foliar treatment among three rice cultivars under field trial. Zinc bioavailability was assessed by in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Foliar Zn fertilization was an effective agronomic practice to promote grain Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability among three rice cultivars, especially, in case of Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4. On average, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 increased Zn concentration in polished rice up to 24.04% and 22.47%, respectively. On average, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 increased Zn bioavailability in polished rice up to 68.37% and 64.43%, respectively. The effectiveness of foliar applied Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 were higher than Zn-EDTA and Zn-Citrate on improvement of Zn concentration, and reduction of phytic acid, as a results higher accumulation of bioavailable Zn in polished rice. Moreover, foliar Zn application could maintain grain yield, the protein and minerals (Fe and Ca quality of the polished rice. CONCLUSIONS: Foliar application of Zn in rice offers a practical and useful approach to improve bioavailable Zn in polished rice. According to current study, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 are recommended as excellent foliar Zn forms to ongoing agronomic biofortification.

  15. Uptake of Hydrophilic Solutes Through Plant Leaves: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Foliar Fertilization

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    Fernández, Victoria; Eichert, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Foliar fertilization is an agricultural practice of increasing importance in practical terms. Since nutrient sprays are mostly applied as water solutions, the focus of the article was placed on the penetration of ionic, polar solutes through the leaf surface, although the mechanisms of cuticular penetration of lipophilics are also taken into consideration. In theory, application of foliar nutrient sprays may indeed be a more target-oriented and environmentally friendly fertilization method si...

  16. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

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    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  17. Foliar Water Uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an Atmosphere of High Humidity

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    Shuang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants.

  18. Organismic-Scale Remote Sensing of Canopy Foliar Traits in Lowland Tropical Forests

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    K. Dana Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS holds great promise for bridging the gap between field studies of functional diversity, which are spatially limited, and satellite detection of ecosystem properties, which lacks resolution to understand within landscape dynamics. We use Carnegie Airborne Observatory HiFIS data combined with field collected foliar trait data to develop quantitative prediction models of foliar traits at the tree-crown level across over 1000 ha of humid tropical forest. We predicted foliar leaf mass per area (LMA as well as foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium for canopy emergent trees (R2: 0.45–0.67, relative RMSE: 11%–14%. Correlations between remotely sensed model coefficients for these foliar traits are similar to those found in laboratory studies, suggesting that the detection of these mineral nutrients is possible through their biochemical stoichiometry. Maps derived from HiFIS provide quantitative foliar trait information across a tropical forest landscape at fine spatial resolution, and along environmental gradients. Multi-nutrient maps implemented at the fine organismic scale will subsequently provide new insight to the functional biogeography and biological diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  19. Foliar Epidermal Traits of Invasive and Non-Invasive Species of Dracaena Vand. ex L. (Dracaenaceae in Obafemi Awolowo University Campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative foliar anatomical study of the invasive and non-invasive species of Dracaena in Obafemi Awolowo University Campus in Nigeria was carried out. A specific aim of the study was to determine the foliar and morphological traits in Dracaena mannii, which may be responsible for its invasive habit. The foliar anatomical traits were also used to describe the two studied Dracaena species. Fresh and matured leaves of D. mannii and D. arborea were collected and authenticated at the Herbarium of Obafemi Awolowo University (IFE. Quantitative and qualitative data were recorded for morphological traits, whereas scraping techniques were used to obtain the epidermal peels and photomicrographs of slides were taken for observing the anatomical traits. The presence of club-like glandular unicellular trichomes and papillose, high stomata index and frequency of epidermal cells per unit area strengthen the invasive habit of Dracaena mannii. The thin walls of the epidermal cells increase the intercellular flow of assimilates within D. mannii, which is also a notable invasive character.

  20. Disruption of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP) alters rates of foliar nitrate and carbon assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Gandin, Anthony; Denysyuk, Mykhaylo; Cousins, Asaph B

    2014-07-01

    Under high light, the rates of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation can be influenced by reductant consumed by both foliar nitrate assimilation and mitochondrial alternative electron transport (mAET). Additionally, nitrate assimilation is dependent on reductant and carbon skeletons generated from both the chloroplast and mitochondria. However, it remains unclear how nitrate assimilation and mAET coordinate and contribute to photosynthesis. Here, hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertional mutants for alternative oxidase (AOX1A) and uncoupling protein (UCP1) fed either NO3 (-) or NH4 (+) were used to determine (i) the response of NO3 (-) uptake and assimilation to the disruption of mAET, and (ii) the interaction of N source (NO3 (-) versus NH4 (+)) and mAET on photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and electron transport. The results showed that foliar NO3 (-) assimilation was enhanced in both aox1a and ucp1 compared with the wild-type, suggesting that foliar NO3 (-) assimilation is probably driven by a decreased capacity of mAET and an increase in reductant within the cytosol. Wild-type plants had also higher rates of net CO2 assimilation (A net) and quantum yield of PSII (ϕPSII) under NO3 (-) feeding compared with NH4 (+) feeding. Additionally, under NO3 (-) feeding, A net and ϕPSII were decreased in aox1a and ucp1 compared with the wild type; however, under NH4 (+) they were not significantly different between genotypes. This indicates that NO3 (-) assimilation and mAET are both important to maintain optimal rates of photosynthesis, probably in regulating reductant accumulation and over-reduction of the chloroplastic electron transport chain. These results highlight the importance of mAET in partitioning energy between foliar nitrogen and carbon assimilation.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of maize leaf systemic symptom infected by Bipolaris zeicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Jian; Yin, Fuqiang; Gong, Guoshu; Qin, Cheng; Ye, Kunhao; Zhang, Min; Sun, Xiaofang; Zhou, You; Zhang, Youju

    2015-01-01

    Bipolaris zeicola is a fungal pathogen that causes Northern corn leaf spot (NCLS), which is a serious foliar disease in maize and one of the most significant pathogens affecting global food security. Here, we report a genome-wide transcriptional profile analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of maize leaf development after inoculation with B. zeicola. We performed High-Throughput Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant inbred Mo17 lines after infection with B. zeicola at four successive disease development stages--CP (contact period), PP (penetration period), IP (incubation period), and DP (disease period); the expression of the genes was compared with those in a CK (mock-treatment) control. In addition, a sensitive maize line (Zheng58) was used for the comparisons with the Mo17. Among all tested genes, 466 differentially expressed genes were identified in all libraries, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of these genes suggested that they are involved in many biological processes related to systemic symptom development, such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic information regarding systemic symptom development in fungal-infected plants. This information will help in furthering our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of plant responses to fungal infection.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of maize leaf systemic symptom infected by Bipolaris zeicola.

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    Ming Liu

    Full Text Available Bipolaris zeicola is a fungal pathogen that causes Northern corn leaf spot (NCLS, which is a serious foliar disease in maize and one of the most significant pathogens affecting global food security. Here, we report a genome-wide transcriptional profile analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS of maize leaf development after inoculation with B. zeicola. We performed High-Throughput Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs in resistant inbred Mo17 lines after infection with B. zeicola at four successive disease development stages--CP (contact period, PP (penetration period, IP (incubation period, and DP (disease period; the expression of the genes was compared with those in a CK (mock-treatment control. In addition, a sensitive maize line (Zheng58 was used for the comparisons with the Mo17. Among all tested genes, 466 differentially expressed genes were identified in all libraries, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of these genes suggested that they are involved in many biological processes related to systemic symptom development, such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic information regarding systemic symptom development in fungal-infected plants. This information will help in furthering our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of plant responses to fungal infection.

  3. Foliar Uptake of Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Pollution Along an Urban-Rural Gradient in New York State

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    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) pollution in terrestrial ecosystems, and when soil N is limiting, foliar N uptake can be a source of plant-available N. A proxy for pollution derived N, and in particular foliar assimilated N, would be useful to quantify the impact of the foliar uptake pathway on plant metabolism. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (15N/14N) are practical for this purpose because forms of plant-available N often have varying isotopic compositions. However, the mechanisms driving differences in foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) are still unresolved. Current understanding of foliar δ 15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of the soil water solution δ15N, direct foliar uptake of atmospheric reactive N, within-plant fractionations, and fractionation due to the fungus to root transfer in mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the influence of direct foliar uptake, soil solution δ 15N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in seedlings of two dominant Northeastern tree species, red maple (Acer rubrum) and red oak (Quercus rubra), along an N deposition gradient in New York State. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we compared foliar δ15N values directly to soil solution δ15N values while controlling for mycorrhizal associations. Both species showed higher foliar δ15N when exposed to fractionation by mycorrhizal associations. Overall, A. rubrum showed higher foliar δ15N than Q. rubra across all sites. In both species, patterns of foliar δ15N values were coupled with soil solution δ15N values across the N deposition gradient. Additionally, increasing atmospheric N deposition was correlated with higher foliar δ15N values in Q. rubra, but not in A. rubrum. Using a mixing model, we estimated that Q. rubra seedlings incorporated up to 7% of their assimilated N via direct foliar uptake of atmospheric N pollution. However, foliar uptake was not detectable in A. rubrum seedlings. Results

  4. Foliar bacteria and soil fertility mediate seedling performance: a new and cryptic dimension of niche differentiation.

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    Griffin, Eric A; Traw, M Brian; Morin, Peter J; Pruitt, Jonathan N; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2016-11-01

    The phyllosphere (comprising the leaf surface and interior) is one of the world's largest microbial habitats and is host to an abundant and diverse array of bacteria. Nonetheless, the degree to which bacterial communities are benign, harmful, or beneficial to plants in situ is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the net effect of reducing bacterial abundance and diversity would vary substantially among host species (from harmful to beneficial) and this would be strongly mediated by soil resource availability. To test this, we monitored tree seedling growth responses to commercial antibiotics among replicated resource supply treatments (N, P, K) in a tropical forest in Panama for 29 months. We applied either antibiotics or control water to replicated seedlings of five common tree species (Alseis blackiana, Desmopsis panamensis, Heisteria concinna, Sorocea affinis, and Tetragastris panamensis). These antibiotic treatments significantly reduced both the abundance and diversity of bacteria epiphytically as well as endophytically. Overall, the effect of antibiotics on performance was highly host specific. Applying antibiotics increased growth for three species by as much as 49% (Alseis, Heisteria, and Tetragastris), decreased growth for a fourth species by nearly 20% (Sorocea), and had no impact on a fifth species (Desmopsis). Perhaps more importantly, the degree to which foliar bacteria were harmful or not varied with soil resource supply. Specifically, applying antibiotics had no effect when potassium was added but increased growth rate by almost 40% in the absence of potassium. Alternatively, phosphorus enrichment caused the effect of bacteria to switch from being primarily beneficial to harmful or vice versa, but this depended entirely on the presence or absence of nitrogen enrichment (i.e., important and significant interactions). Our results are the first to demonstrate that the net effect of reducing the abundance and diversity of bacteria can have very

  5. Effects of boron foliar applications on vegetative and reproductive growth of sunflower.

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    Asad, A; Blamey, F P C; Edwards, D G

    2003-10-01

    Foliar application may be used to supply boron (B) to a crop when B demands are higher than can be supplied via the soil. While B foliar sprays have been used to correct B deficiency in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the field, no studies have determined the amount of B taken up by sunflower plant parts via foliar application. A study was conducted in which sunflower plants were grown at constant B concentration in nutrient solution with adequate B (46 micro m) or with limited B supply (0.24, 0.40 and 1.72 micro m) using Amberlite IRA-743 resin to control B supply. At the late vegetative stage of growth (25 and 35 d after transplanting), two foliar sprays were applied of soluble sodium tetraborate (20.8 % B) each at 0, 28, 65, 120 and 1200 mm (each spray equivalent to 0, 0.03, 0.07, 0.13 and 1.3 kg B ha-1 in 100 L water ha-1). The highest rate of B foliar fertilization resulted in leaf burn but had no other evident detrimental effect on plant growth. Under B-deficient conditions, B foliar application increased the vegetative and reproductive dry mass of plants. Foliar application of 28-1200 mm B increased the total dry mass of the most B-deficient plants by more than three-fold and that of plants grown initially with 1.72 micro m B in solution by 37-49 %. In this latter treatment, the dry mass of the capitulum was similar to that achieved under control conditions, but in no instance was total plant dry mass similar to that of the control. All B foliar spray rates increased the B concentration in various parts of the plant tops, including those that developed after the sprays were applied, but the B concentration in the roots was not increased by B foliar application. The B concentration in the capitulum of the plants sprayed at the highest rate was between 37 and 93 % of that in the control plants. This study showed that B foliar application was of benefit to B-deficient sunflower plants, increasing the B status of plant tops, including that of the capitulum

  6. Plant homeostasis of foliar manganese sinks: specific variation in hyperaccumulators.

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    Fernando, Denise R; Woodrow, Ian E; Baker, Alan J M; Marshall, Alan T

    2012-11-01

    Plant manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulation provides unusual insight into homeostasis of this essential micronutrient, in particular its excessive storage in shoot tissues. The compartmentation of hyperaccumulated foliar Mn appears exceptional among metal hyperaccumulators, since it occurs via specific microdistribution patterns. Here, three associated Mn hyperaccumulators, Virotia neurophylla, Maytenus fournieri, and Garcinia amplexicaulis exhibiting distinctly different Mn detoxification strategies were examined. Non-invasive sample preparation in conjunction with cryo scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain in vivo quantitative microprobe X-ray and anatomical data from fully hydrated cells. Highly vacuolated large palisade mesophyll cells in V. neurophylla leaves were found to contain around 650 mM Mn. The large non-photosynthetic hypodermal cells of M. fournieri leaves, also with high vacuolar content, and the main site for Mn disposal, had an estimated mean vacuolar Mn concentration of around 600 mM. Previous qualitative X-ray mapping had shown Mn to be almost evenly sequestered across the entire leaf cross section of G. amplexicaulis. However, quantitative data obtained here showed a marked variation in localised concentrations that ranged between ~15 and >800 mM. Notable among these were mean values of >600 mM in spongy mesophyll cells, and ~800 mM within cells of a narrow sub epidermal layer preceding the palisade mesophyll. This study demonstrated the extraordinary Mn carrying capacities of different types of leaf cell vacuoles.

  7. Effects of stress on foliar trichomes plasticity in Mentha piperita

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    MEHERI ASKARY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Askary M, Talebi SM, Amini F, Bangan ADB. 2016. Effects of stress on foliar trichomes plasticity in Mentha piperita. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 32-38. Mentha piperita is considered as the most economically important aromatic as well as medicinal herb of Labiatae family. This medicinal herb has traditionally been used to treat a variety of digestive complaints. In the present study, effects of twenty treatments of salt and nanoparticles of Iron oxide were examined on the leaf trichomes morphology of M. piperita samples. In total twenty solutions, combinations of four salt concentrations with five iron oxide nanoparticles concentrations were used for the treatments. Different kinds of glandular and non-glandular trichomes were found in the studied plant samples. Glandular trichomes were seen in the shapes of peltate, short-talked capitate and non-stalked and non-glandular ones were unbranched and had one to seven cells. The obtained results showed that the kind and abundant of trichomes differed between the studied treatments. Statistical analyses showed significant positive correlations between salt concentrations with trichomes density. While, negative significant correlations were occurred between concentrations of nonoparticle of iron oxide with some kinds of trichomes.

  8. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  9. Foliar Spray of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Raised Bed Increases Yield of Transplanted Aman Rice over Conventional Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. M. Bhuyan; Mst. R. Ferdousi; Iqbal, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Bed planting with foliar nitrogen fertilizer application of rice production systems is very new, and research on it is still at introductory phase. Influence of foliar application of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of transplanted aman rice and evaluation of water and fertilizer application efficiency of rice-fallow-rice cropping system were investigated under raised bed cultivation method. Results showed that foliar spray in bed planting method increased grain yield of transplanted a...

  10. Litter quality and decomposition rates of foliar litter produced under CO{sub 2} enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, E.G.; Norby, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Decomposition of senesced plant material is one of two critical processes linking above- and below-ground components of nutrient cycles. As such, it is a key area of concern in understanding and predicting ecosystem responses to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Just as root acquisition of nutrients from soils represents the major pathway for nutrient movement from the soil to vegetation, decomposition serves as the major path of return to the soil. For any given ecosystem, a long-term shift in decomposition rates could alter nutrient cycling rates and potentially change the structure, function, and even the persistence of that ecosystem type within a given region. There is wide-spread concern that decomposition processes would be altered in an enriched-CO{sub 2} world. What is lacking presently is sufficient experimental data at the ecosystem level to determine whether these concerns have merit. Two issues are discussed in this article: effects of carbon dioxide enrichement on foliar litter quality and subsequent effects on decomposition rates. The focus is primarily on nitrogen because in many terrestrial ecosystems, nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting plant growth and experimental results from diverse ecosystem types have demonstrated that nitrogen concentrations are consistently reduced in green foliage produced at elevated carbon dioxide. Methodological questions are also discussed.

  11. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, J E; Hinton, T G; Whicker, F W

    2006-01-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium (133Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of 133Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1)) and a loss rate parameter k (d(-1)) were estimated for each species using time series of 133Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the 133Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u> or =0.75 x 10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1). Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for 137Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases.

  12. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Hinton, T.G. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)]. E-mail: thinton@srel.edu; Whicker, F.W. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each species using time series of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the {sup 133}Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u {>=} 0.75 x 10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for {sup 137}Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases.

  13. Timing of foliar Zn application plays a vital role in minimizing Cd accumulation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Javed, Hina; Naeem, Asif; Rengel, Zed; Dahlawi, Saad

    2016-08-01

    Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), application of Zn may minimize Cd uptake by plants and ameliorate its toxicity. However, there is poor understanding of the comparative effectiveness of the foliar Zn application at different growth stages on Cd toxicity and accumulation in wheat. The present study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of foliarly applied Zn at different stages of plant growth to minimize Cd accumulation in wheat grains. Wheat (cv AARI-2011) was grown at three levels of soil Cd (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg kg(-1)). Foliar application of Zn was carried out at either tillering, jointing, booting, heading, or grain filling stage using 0.05 % w/v aqueous solution of ZnSO4 · 7H2O. Increasing soil Cd had a negative effect on growth and yield attributes, including tiller production, root length and dry weight, plant height, 100-grain weight and grain and straw yield. Zinc foliar spray increased grain yield by increasing tiller production; importantly, an application at booting was more effective than at other stages. Foliarly applied Zn decreased Cd concentration in the roots, straw, and grain. Similar to grain yield, the largest decrease (74 %) in Cd concentration was associated with Zn foliar spray at booting. Grain yield was negatively related to grain Cd concentration which in turn showed a negative relationship with Zn concentration in leaves and grains. It is concluded that the booting stage is the suitable time for foliar application of Zn to (i) effectively minimize a Cd-induced loss in grain yield and (ii) decrease grain Cd concentration.

  14. The effect of foliar nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. with magnesium salts and urea on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a phytotron, the effectiveness of foliar nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. with different magnesium salts with and without the addition of 0.5% CO(NH22 was studied. Magnesium was applied 3 times in the form of solutions of MgSO4 x 7H2O, Mg(NO32 x 6H2O, MgCl2 x 6H2O, C4H6O4Mg x 4H2O, compared to water as the control treatment. The obtained results showed that foliar feeding of spinach with inorganic magnesium salts was an efficient method for supplementing the Mg level in plants during the growing period. But the application of a metalo-organic complex in the form of magnesium acetate (C4H6O4Mg x 4H2O at a concentration of 1.7%, in spite of a similar effect on leaf Mg content, induced phytotoxic symptoms in the form of chlorotic and necrotic spots on the leaves. The application of the solutions of inorganic magnesium salts had a significant effect, resulting in more intensive leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis and an increase in leaf yield. Magnesium sulphate affected the abovementioned processes in the most effective way, while magnesium acetate had a negative impact. Foliar feeding of spinach with the magnesium salts resulted in an increased leaf content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and proline, but a decrease in vitamin C content. The addition of urea to the applied magnesium salt solutions increased the plant gas exchange rates and the leaf content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and proline, but it decreased the content of vitamin C, potassium and magnesium.

  15. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  16. The clinical significance of immediate symptom responses to manual therapy treatment for neck pain: observational secondary data analysis of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Caelum A; Ruiz Aguila, Maria Eliza; Leaver, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to explore aspects of symptom responses to manual therapy treatment for neck pain. An observational secondary data analysis of a randomized trial was conducted. 181 participants seeking care from a physiotherapist or chiropractor for a new episode of neck pain were included. Outcome variables included recovery-time and participant-perceived effect of treatment (GPE) at 3-months. There was a significant reduction of ≥1.4 points (95%CI 1.2-1.5) in pre- and post-treatment pain scores at each occasion of treatment. There was also small but significant increases in pain of ≤0.7 points (95%CI 0.4-1.0) between each treatment session, without regression to the preceding pre-treatment level. The relationships between immediate post-treatment effects and longer-term outcomes were explored using multivariate regression analyses. There was significant univariate association between recovery time and cumulative post-treatment changes in pain from the second, third and fourth (Exp(B) = 1.2) treatment sessions, as well as the presence of post-treatment headache (Exp(B) = 0.7) and other minor adverse symptoms (Exp(B) = 0.6). There was significant univariate association between GPE at 3-months and cumulative pain responses from first (B = 0.2), second (B = 0.3), third (B = 0.3) and fourth (B = 0.4) treatment sessions. The change in pain after session 1 was independently associated with GPE (B = 0.2). There was a consistently significant difference of ≥0.7 points (95%CI 0.43-0.89) in the different methods of reporting pain. Our results showed that manual therapy for neck pain involves a "two-steps forward, one-step back" recovery pattern. Whilst minor adverse events are undesirable, they do not seem to be significantly associated with long-term recovery.

  17. Physiological mechanisms drive differing foliar calcium content in ferns and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Amatangelo, Kathryn L

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence points to ferns containing significantly lower contents of foliar calcium and other cations than angiosperms. This is especially true of more ancient 'non-polypod' fern lineages, which predate the diversification of angiosperms. Calcium is an important plant nutrient, the lack of which can potentially slow plant growth and litter decomposition, and alter soil invertebrate communities. The physiological mechanisms limiting foliar calcium (Ca) content in ferns are unknown. While there is a lot we do not know about Ca uptake and transport in plants, three physiological processes are likely to be important. We measured transpiration rate, cation exchange capacity, and leaching loss to determine which process most strongly regulates foliar Ca content in a range of fern and co-occurring understory angiosperm species from a montane Hawaiian rainforest. We found higher instantaneous and lifetime (corrected for leaf lifespan) transpiration rates in angiosperms relative to ferns. Ferns preferentially incorporated Ca into leaves relative to strontium, which suggests that root or stem cation exchange capacity differs between ferns and angiosperms, potentially affecting calcium transport in plants. There were no differences in foliar Ca leaching loss between groups. Among the physiological mechanisms measured, foliar Ca was most strongly correlated with leaf-level transpiration rate and leaf lifespan. This suggests that inter-specific differences in a leaf's lifetime transpiration may play a significant role in determining plant nutrition.

  18. Herbage Production and Quality of Shrub Indigofera Treated by Different Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on fodder legume Indigofera sp. was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer concentration on forage yield and quality, and to identify optimum concentrations among the fertilizer treatments on herbage yield, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, and in vitro dry matter (IVDMD as wll as organic matter (IVOMD digestibility in goat’s rumen. Randomized block design was used for the six concentration of fertilizer treatments; control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/10 l with 3 replicates. Leaves were sprayed with foliar fertilizer at 30, 34, 38, and 42 days after harvest. Samples were collected at 2 harvest times with 60 days cutting interval. Application of the foliar fertilizer up to 30 g/10 l significantly increased herbage DM yield, twig numbers, tannin, saponin, Ca and P content, as well as herbage digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD. The lower and higher concentration of foliar fertilizer resulted in lower value of those parameters, but NDF and ADF contents had the opposite patterns. The optimum level of foliar fertilizer that resulted the highest herbage yield and quality was 30 g/10 l, and the highest in vitro digestibility and Ca concentration was 20 g/10 l.

  19. Changes on grape phenolic composition induced by grapevine foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, J; López-Alfaro, I; Gómez-Alonso, S; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Grapevines may require the input of nitrogen to grow and to guarantee an appropriate grape composition. Recently there has been a growing interest in foliar fertilization, which entails a fast and efficient assimilation of the products. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on grape anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later at doses of 0.9 and 1.5 kg N/ha. The results showed that the synthesis of phenolic compounds was favoured by foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea. The application of the lowest dose of urea was the most effective treatment, increasing the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols. Moreover, none of the foliar treatments worsened the grape phenolic composition. In conclusion, foliar application of phenylalanine and especially urea, could be an interesting management tool for improving grape quality and their health-promoting properties.

  20. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  1. Precision and accuracy of visual foliar injury assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumpertz, M.L. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); Tingey, D.T.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    The study compared three measures of foliar injury: (i) mean percent leaf area injured of all leaves on the plant, (ii) mean percent leaf area injured of the three most injured leaves, and (iii) the proportion of injured leaves to total number of leaves. For the first measure, the variation caused by reader biases and day-to-day variations were compared with the innate plant-to-plant variation. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris 'Pinto'), pea (Pisum sativum 'Little Marvel'), radish (Rhaphanus sativus 'Cherry Belle'), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea 'Northland') plants were exposed to either 3 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/ or 0.3 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ ozone for 2 h. Three leaf readers visually assessed the percent injury on every leaf of each plant while a fourth reader used a transparent grid to make an unbiased assessment for each plant. The mean leaf area injured of the three most injured leaves was highly correlated with all leaves on the plant only if the three most injured leaves were <100% injured. The proportion of leaves injured was not highly correlated with percent leaf area injured of all leaves on the plant for any species in this study. The largest source of variation in visual assessments was plant-to-plant variation, which ranged from 44 to 97% of the total variance, followed by variation among readers (0-32% of the variance). Except for radish exposed to ozone, the day-to-day variation accounted for <18% of the total. Reader bias in assessment of ozone injury was significant but could be adjusted for each reader by a simple linear regression (R/sup 2/ = 0.89-0.91) of the visual assessments against the grid assessments.

  2. Concentração foliar de manganês e zinco em laranjeiras adubadas com óxidos e carbonatos via foliar Leaf concentrations of manganese and zinc in the orange fertilized via foliar application with oxides and carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Grava de Godoy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os micronutrientes, o Zn e o Mn limitam a produção dos citros, no Brasil. A aplicação foliar tem sido a forma tradicional de fornecimento, contudo, a eficiência desta adubação depende de uma série de fatores, entre eles o tipo de fertilizante. Foram realizados dois experimentos em pomar com laranjeiras Pêra, enxertadas em limão cravo, com sete anos de idade, em Botucatu, SP. No primeiro experimento foram avaliadas três fontes de Mn via foliar: carbonato de manganês A, carbonato de manganês B e sulfato manganoso, em duas doses para cada fertilizante, correspondente a 250 e 500 g ha-1 de Mn, mais o controle, pulverizado somente com água. No segundo experimento foram testadas três fontes de Zn para aplicação foliar: óxido de zinco A, óxido de zinco B e sulfato de zinco, em duas doses para cada fertilizante, correspondente a 375 e 750 g ha-1 de Zn, mais o controle. As amostragens de folhas foram realizadas mensalmente, iniciando aos 30 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos. A aplicação foliar com carbonato de manganês B, na dose de 500 g ha-1 Mn, e com óxido de zinco B, na dose de 750 g ha-1, proporcionaram, respectivamente, níveis nutricionais adequados de Mn e Zn nas folhas de laranjeira. Na ausência de chuvas, os teores adequados de Mn e Zn no solo, não permitem suprir satisfatoriamente as laranjeiras Pêra enxertadas em limoeiro cravo.Among micronutrients, Zn and Mn limit the production of citrus in Brazil. Foliar application has been the traditional form of supply, however the efficiency of this type of fertilization depends on a number of factors, including the type of fertilizer used. Two experiments were conducted in an orchard of seven year old Pêra orange, grafted onto Rangpur lime, in Botucatu, São Paulo. In the first experiment three sources of Mn, applied via foliar application, were evaluated: manganese carbonate A, manganese carbonate B and manganese sulphate, at two rates per fertilizer

  3. Do seasonal profiles of foliar pigments improve species discrimination of evergreen coastal tree species in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the Northern hemisphere have shown the potential of foliar pigment seasonal profiles as a means of improving species discrimination. Remote sensing vegetation indices have been used to optimise absorption features presented by foliar...

  4. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  5. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs.

  6. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  7. Foliar retention, transport and leaching of polonium-210 and lead-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, V.V.; Mistry, K.B.

    1972-01-01

    Polonium-210 and lead-210, the long-lived daughter radionuclides of gaseous radon-222, are deposited on plant surfaces under conditions of atmospheric washout. Foliar retention, transport and leaching of these radionuclides in Red Kidney beans were investigated in nutrient culture experiments. Under identical conditions, over 90 percent of foliar applied radiolead was retained by the plant while only about 30 percent of polonium was retained. Over a 48-hr period small quantities of polonium were translocated from the treated leaflet to other parts of the plant. By comparison, radiolead was totally immobilized at the site of retention. Leachability of root absorbed radiolead from bean leaves was 20-fold greater than that of polonium. The marked differences in the extent of foliar retention, translocation and leaching of polonium and radiolead could significantly affect the levels of these long-lived radionuclides attained in plants.

  8. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB on growth and stevioside (ST yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  9. Effects of ozone on the foliar histology of the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig-Armiñana, J; Calatayud, V; Cerveró, J; García-Breijo, F J; Ibars, A; Sanz, M J

    2004-11-01

    An open-top chamber study was conducted to investigate the tissue and cellular-level foliar effects of ozone (O3) on a Mediterranean evergreen species, the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.). Plants were exposed at three different O3 levels, and leaf samples were collected periodically from the beginning of the exposure. Although no visible foliar injury was evident, alterations of the plastids and vacuoles in the mesophyll were observed. Senescence processes were accelerated with an anomalous stacking of tannin vacuoles, and a reduction in the size and number of the chloroplasts. Overall, most of the modifications induced by O3 were consistent with previously reported observations on deciduous broadleaf species, with the exception of alterations in the cells covering the secretory channels, reported here as a new finding. Comments on the feasibility of using microscopy to validate O3 related field observations and subtle foliar injury are also given.

  10. Effects of ozone on the foliar histology of the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reig-Arminana, J.; Calatayud, V.; Cervero, J.; Garcia-Breijo, F.J.; Ibars, A.; Sanz, M.J

    2004-11-01

    An open-top chamber study was conducted to investigate the tissue and cellular-level foliar effects of ozone (O{sub 3}) on a Mediterranean evergreen species, the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.). Plants were exposed at three different O{sub 3} levels, and leaf samples were collected periodically from the beginning of the exposure. Although no visible foliar injury was evident, alterations of the plastids and vacuoles in the mesophyll were observed. Senescence processes were accelerated with an anomalous stacking of tannin vacuoles, and a reduction in the size and number of the chloroplasts. Overall, most of the modifications induced by O{sub 3} were consistent with previously reported observations on deciduous broadleaf species, with the exception of alterations in the cells covering the secretory channels, reported here as a new finding. Comments on the feasibility of using microscopy to validate O{sub 3} related field observations and subtle foliar injury are also given.

  11. Soybean seed phenol, lignin, and isoflavones and sugars composition are altered by Foliar Boron application in soybean under water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed that foliar boron (B) fertilizer at flowering or seed-fill growth stages altered seed protein, oil, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B fertilizer on seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) and sugars concentrat...

  12. Variación del contenido foliar de nutrimentos de alnus acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Segura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se encontró que la posición de las muestras en la copa provenientes de árboles de 3 y 5 años de A. acuminata no afecta la concentración foliar para la mayoría de los nutrimentos de manera significativa. La única excepción la constituye el Ca en árboles de 5 años, cuya concentración en la parte alta fue menor que en la parte media de la copa. Aunque no significativa, se observó que la concentración de Fe, Mn y Zn tiende a ser mayor en la sección alta externa de la copa a los 3 años; mientras que, a la edad de 5 años tiende a ser mayor en la parte media externa de la copa. No se observó diferencias significativas en la concentración foliar de los nutrimentos con la edad de la plantación entre 2 y 8 años, en ninguna de las épocas comparadas, excepto para el Mn, elemento que tiende a disminuir con la edad de las plantaciones (86 a 26 mg kg-1. La concentración foliar de Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu y B fue mayor durante la época seca que durante la época lluviosa, mientras que los contenidos foliares de N y P fueron más elevados durante la época lluviosa y no se observó variación alguna en las concentraciones foliares de Ca, K y S debidas la época de muestreo. Con base a lo encontrado, se define en forma tentativa los niveles críticos foliares para la especie A. acuminata.

  13. Foliar and Seed Application of Amino Acids Affects the Antioxidant Metabolism of the Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Walquíria F.; Fagan, Evandro B.; Soares, Luís H.; Umburanas, Renan C.; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of natural substances on crops has been intensified in order to increase the resistance and yield of the soybean crop. Among these products are included plant biostimulants that may contain algae extracts, amino acids, and plant regulators in their composition. However, there is little information on the isolated effect of each of these constituents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the antioxidant metabolism of the soybean crop. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate, phenylalanine, cysteine, glycine in seed treatment, and foliar application at V4 growth stage. Antioxidant metabolism constituents evaluated were superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide content, proline, and lipid peroxidation. In addition, resistance enzymes as polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were evaluated. In both experiments, the use of cysteine, only in seed treatment and in both seed treatment and foliar application increased the activity of the enzyme PAL and catalase. Also in both experiments, the use of phenylalanine increased the activity of the enzyme PAL when the application was carried out as foliar application or both in seed treatment and foliar application. In the field experiment, the application of glutamate led to an increase in the activity of the catalase and PAL enzymes for seed treatment and foliar application. The use of the set of amino acids was only efficient in foliar application, which led to a greater activity of the enzymes peroxidase, PAL, and polyphenol oxidase. The other enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide presented different results according to the experiment. Therefore, glutamate, cysteine, phenylalanine, and glycine can act as signaling amino acids in soybean plants, since small doses are enough to increase the activity

  14. Foliar Shielding: How Non-Meteoric Water Deposition Helps Leaves Survive Drought by Reducing Incoming Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The uptake of water from the surface of the leaves, called foliar uptake, is common when rainfall is scarce and non-meteoric water (dew or fog) is the only source of water. However, many species have very water repellent leaves. Past studies have not differentiated between the uptake of water and the impact of the droplets on the energy balance of the leaf, which we call 'foliar shielding'. Leaves of the hydrophobic Colocasia esculenta were misted with isotopically enriched water in order to mimic non-meteoric water deposition. The leaf water potential and water isotopes were monitored for different water-stress conditions. A new protocol was developed for the fast analysis of leaf water isotopes using the Picarro induction module coupled to a laser spectrometer. Comparing the isotopic composition of the bulk leaf water at the end of the experiment, the misted leaves exhibit a d-excess higher by c. 63‰ than the control ones (P < 0.001). Low d-excess values are commonly associated with a high transpiration rate. Linking isotopic enrichment with leaf transpiration rate, we find a c. 30% decrease in transpiration rate for the treated leaves compared to the control (P < 0.001). Water-stressed leaves that were misted regularly exhibit a c. 64% smaller decline in water potential than water-stressed leaves that did not get misted (P < 0.05). Three possible mechanisms are proposed for the interaction of water droplets with the leaf energy and water balance. Comparing three previous foliar uptake studies to our results, we conclude that foliar shielding has a comparable yet opposite effect to foliar uptake on leaf water isotopes and that it is necessary to consider both processes when estimating foliar uptake of fog water.

  15. Adubação foliar com silício na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Barbosa de Freitas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inúmeros trabalhos têm demonstrado o efeito benéfico da adubação com silício sobre o acréscimo da produção de diversas culturas, como, por exemplo, arroz, cana-de-açúcar e batata. No entanto, são escassas as informações sobre os benefícios nutricionais do silício para a cultura do milho. Desta maneira, objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de silício, via foliar, nas características agronômicas e na produtividade do milho, cultivado no ano agrícola 2007/2008. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 3 + 1, com quatro repetições, envolvendo doses de silício (130, 260, 390 e 520 g ha-1 de Si aplicadas via foliar, épocas de aplicação (2, 5 e 8 folhas expandidas e uma testemunha (sem aplicação de Si. As variáveis analisadas foram altura das plantas e a inserção da primeira espiga, diâmetro de colmo, índice de clorofila foliar, teor foliar de silício, número de grãos por espiga, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. O silício aplicado via foliar influenciou somente o teor foliar de Si.

  16. Vegetation Indices for Mapping Canopy Foliar Nitrogen in a Mixed Temperate Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing serves as an effective tool for estimating foliar nitrogen using a variety of techniques. Vegetation indices (VIs are a simple means of retrieving foliar nitrogen. Despite their popularity, few studies have been conducted to examine the utility of VIs for mapping canopy foliar nitrogen in a mixed forest context. In this study, we assessed the performance of 32 vegetation indices derived from HySpex airborne hyperspectral images for estimating canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N in the Bavarian Forest National Park. The partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed for comparison. These vegetation indices were classified into three categories that are mostly correlated to nitrogen, chlorophyll, and structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI. %N was destructively measured in 26 broadleaf, needle leaf, and mixed stand plots to represent the different species and canopy structure. The canopy foliar %N is defined as the plot-level mean foliar %N of all species weighted by species canopy foliar mass fraction. Our results showed that the variance of canopy foliar %N is mainly explained by functional type and species composition. The normalized difference nitrogen index (NDNI produced the most accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.79, RMSECV = 0.26. A comparable estimation of %N was obtained by the chlorophyll index Boochs2 (R2CV = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.27. In addition, the mean NIR reflectance (800–850 nm, representing canopy structural properties, also achieved a good accuracy in %N estimation (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 0.30. The PLSR model provided a less accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.69, RMSECV = 0.32. We argue that the good performance of all three categories of vegetation indices in %N estimation can be attributed to the synergy among plant traits (i.e., canopy structure, leaf chemical and optical properties while these traits may converge across plant species for evolutionary reasons. Our

  17. Effects of foliar fertilizers on grain quality by using SPAD chlorophyll meter

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Dora; Hegedus, Boglarka; Garret, Ed; Jung , Andras; Csaba GYURICZA; Sardi, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    On-farm field experiments were conducted in 2013 around Hungary to evaluate the effect of natural foliar fertilizer applications on spelt yield and grain quality. Four different  foliar  applications  and  a  control  field  were  compared  to  monitor  the  efficiancy  of  the treatments.

  18. Mitigating the Effects of Salinity by Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Fenugreek

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaira Babar; Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi; Iqbal Hussain; Khizar Hayat Bhatti; Rizwan Rasheed

    2014-01-01

    Present research work was conducted to alleviate the salinity-induced harmful effect on biomass production and physiochemical attributes of fenugreek by foliar application of salicylic acid. Two varieties (Deli Kabul and Kasuri) were grown in salt treated (100 mM NaCl) and untreated (0 mM NaCl) growth medium. Two levels of salicylic acid (0 mg L−1 and 100 mg L−1) were applied through foliar method. Salinity stress significantly reduced the growth biomass in both varieties. Higher shoot fresh ...

  19. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de exudados foliares de tabaco contra dos bacterias fitopatógenas

    OpenAIRE

    Yanelis Karina Capdesuñer; Maribel Rivas Paneca; Erinelvis Rodríguez Hernández; Madelín Gallo Rodríguez; Janet Quiñones Galvez; Ermis Yanes Paz; Martha Hernández de la Torre

    2015-01-01

    Título en ingles: In vitro antibacterial effect of tobacco leaf exudates against two bacterial plant pathogensTítulo corto: Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de exudados foliares de tabacoResumen: Los productos naturales son una alternativa para el control de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades en los cultivos. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar diferentes solventes para la obtención de extractos crudos a partir de exudados foliares de líneas de tabaco, y el efecto in vitro de estos ...

  20. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program.

  1. Skin symptoms in bakery and auto body shop workers: Associations with exposure and respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrandale, V.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Doekes, G.; Redlich, C.A.; Holness, D.L.; Heederik, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of skin exposure, studies of skin symptoms in relation to exposure and respiratory symptoms are rare. The goals of this study were to describe exposure-response relationships for skin symptoms, and to investigate associations between skin and respiratory symptoms in b

  2. Symptoms of Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Motor Symptoms Secondary Motor Symptoms Nonmotor Symptoms Causes Progression Medications & Treatments Clinical Trials Statistics on Parkinson's What's New In Parkinson's Research? What's in the ...

  3. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone fractures ...

  4. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  5. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  6. Relações lineares entre incidência e severidade foliar em patossistema multiplo de manchas foliares em arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bordin

    Full Text Available RESUMO A ocorrência de doenças foliares na cultura do arroz irrigado pode reduzir o rendimento e comprometer a qualidade do grão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre incidência e severidade na intensidade de manchas foliares em arroz irrigado. Os experimentos foram conduzidos com o cultivar SCS 116 Satoru nas safras 2011/12 e 2012/13, no município de Rio do Oeste, Alto Vale do Itajaí, estado de Santa Catarina. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e seis tratamentos constituídos de aplicações de mistura de fungicidas triazol (difenoconazole e estrobilurina (azoxistrobina, sendo uma aplicação em final de perfilhamento (V8, duas aplicações (V8 + R0, iniciação da panícula, três aplicações (V8 + R0 + R2, emborrachamento, quatro aplicações (V8 + R0 + R2 + R4, floração, cinco aplicações (V8 + R0 + R2 + R4 + R6, grão leitoso com objetivo de gerar um gradiente de intensidade de doença. Antes de cada aplicação foi determinada a incidência e a severidade das doenças foliares. Nas duas safras as doenças foliares predominantes foram brusone, mancha parda e escaldadura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão. Utilizando a equação com melhor ajuste nas duas safras e substituindo o valor de severidade de 1% obtém-se incidência de 30,80; 35,86; 25,91; 30,26; 32,90 respectivamente nos estádios fenológicos de perfilhamento, iniciação da panícula, emborrachamento, floração e grão leitoso. A severidade estimada com base na incidência e vice-versa possibilita seu uso pela assistência técnica no monitoramento das manchas foliares na cultura do arroz irrigado.

  7. Testing Taxonomic Predictivity of Foliar and Tuber Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Wild Relatives of Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiutti, A; Spooner, D M; Jansky, S H; Halterman, D A

    2015-09-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease found in potato-growing regions worldwide. Long-term management strategies to control late blight include the incorporation of host resistance to predominant strains. However, due to rapid genetic changes within pathogen populations, rapid and recurring identification and integration of novel host resistance traits is necessary. Wild relatives of potato offer a rich source of desirable traits, including late blight resistance, but screening methods can be time intensive. We tested the ability of taxonomy, ploidy, crossing group, breeding system, and geography to predict the presence of foliar and tuber late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp. Significant variation for resistance to both tuber and foliar late blight was found within and among species but there was no discernable predictive power based on taxonomic series, clade, ploidy, breeding system, elevation, or geographic location. We observed a moderate but significant correlation between tuber and foliar resistance within species. Although previously uncharacterized sources of both foliar and tuber resistance were identified, our study does not support an assumption that taxonomic or geographic data can be used to predict sources of late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp.

  8. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzi, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, H.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam

  9. Foliar trait contrasts between African forest and savanna trees: Genetic versus environmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrodt, F.; Domingues, T.F.; Feldpausch, T.; Saiz, G.; Quesada, C.A.; Schwarz, K.M.; Veenendaal, E.

    2015-01-01

    Variations in leaf mass per unit area (Ma) and foliar concentrations of N, P, C, K, Mg and Ca were determined for 365 trees growing in 23 plots along a precipitation gradient ranging from 0.29 m a-1 to 1.62 m a-1. The transect extended from just south to the Sahara Desert in Mali to the forest-savan

  10. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  11. Phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization: results of field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusà, E; Tosi, L

    2005-06-01

    The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. Phosphorous acid residues were found in apples after application of foliar P fertilizers. Concentrations of the residues ranged between 0.02 and 14 mg kg(-1) depending on the phosphorous acid content in the fertilizer used and the plant size and yield. The treatments induced an accumulation of the residue in the course of the experiments, which in some cases reached a level exceeding the maximum limit set by EU legislation. Residues were also detected in other plant organs, i.e., roots and buds. Plants treated with Fosetyl-Al contained phosphorous acid residues in their fruits and buds two years after the suspension of the treatment, suggesting a long-term persistence of the substance in plant storage organs. A second experiment, involving treatment of trees with seven foliar fertilizers of different composition, also induced accumulation of phosphorous acid residues in fruits. It is concluded that a wide array of foliar products containing phosphorous acid, even as a minor component, could mimic the residue effect of phosphonate fungicide treatments.

  12. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  13. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes

    2005-01-01

    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  14. Effect of N fertilizer and foliar-applied Fe fertilizer at various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrSohrabi

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... and increasing yield in some cases (Me liesch, 2011). Field studies ... was to study the effect of N fertilizer applied to the soil at. R4 and foliar spray, and the ... the 5% probability level based on Duncan's method. Graphs were.

  15. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzi, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, H.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delt

  16. Identification of factors involved in foliar resistance to bacteria in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar bacterial pathogens are a constant problem of many Solanaceous crops including tomato, pepper, and eggplant. However, cultivated potato has benefitted from low infection rates from most pathogenic Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas species. The purpose of this project is to understand the mechanisms...

  17. Foliar boron and nickel applications reduce water-stage fruit-split of pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-stage fruit-split (WSFS) is a relatively common and often major problem of certain pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. This study evaluates the possibility that the malady can be influenced by improving tree micronutrient nutrition. Foliar sprays of boron (B) and nickel...

  18. Mitigating the Effects of Salinity by Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Babar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present research work was conducted to alleviate the salinity-induced harmful effect on biomass production and physiochemical attributes of fenugreek by foliar application of salicylic acid. Two varieties (Deli Kabul and Kasuri were grown in salt treated (100 mM NaCl and untreated (0 mM NaCl growth medium. Two levels of salicylic acid (0 mg L−1 and 100 mg L−1 were applied through foliar method. Salinity stress significantly reduced the growth biomass in both varieties. Higher shoot fresh weight was recorded in Deli Kabul, while lower in Kasuri. Such reduction in growth biomass was mitigated by the foliar application of SA in both plants. Salinity caused a marked reduction in gas exchange attributes including net CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and substomatal CO2 concentration. Exogenous applied salicylic acid also overcomes the reduction in gas exchange attributes of the plants. The varieties “Deli Kabul” and “Kasuri” showed higher and lower net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively. These results indicate that growth medium salinity induced reduction in biomass production, gas exchange attributes, and also chlorophyll contents whereas the application of SA through foliar method can be used to protect plant growth and improve these attributes under salt stress.

  19. Influence of CaCl(2) on the foliar biomass and quality of tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Romero, L

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the influence of different CaCl(2) dosages on foliar biomass and quality of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Tennesse 86). Plants were grown under controlled conditions and submitted to regular fertilization with macro- and micronutrients. The CaCl(2) was applied to the nutrient solution at 1.25 mM (T1), 2.5 mM (T2), and 5 mM (T3). The results indicated that, under the experimental conditions of this work, the application of 1.25 mM of CaCl(2) favored the growth and development of the leaves, this leading to improved biomass production in tobacco leaves. The increase in foliar biomass in treatment T1 could largely be a result of the stimulation of NO(3)(-) assimilation. However, this situation has negative consequences for tobacco quality, given that the T1 treatment augmented the NO(3)(-) concentration and the foliar concentration of nicotine (both effects being harmful for human consumption) and decreased the concentration of reducing sugars in leaves of tobacco plants compared with those of T2 and T3. Finally, a close and directly proportional relationship was found in our experiment between the parameters of foliar-biomass production, total N concentration, chlorophyll concentration, and decline in quality.

  20. Sensitivity of soybean plant introductions to the foliar fungicide tebuconazole (Folicur)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 100 plant introductions, ranging in maturity from 0 to IX and representing over 90% of the current commercial germplasm, were planted in 2 replications of 1 row plots 2.4 m long. Tebuconazole was applied at R1 and R3 at 4.0 oz/acre. Evaluation was done in both 2006 and 2007 with foliar sympto...

  1. Regional patterns in foliar 15N across a gradient of nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Pardo; Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs; Sara Duke

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural abundance 15N can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation, because as nitrification and nitrate loss increase, d15N of foliage and soil also increases. We measured foliar d15N at 11 high-elevation spruce-fir stands along an N deposition gradient...

  2. Moderate Drought Stress Induces Increased Foliar Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP Concentration and Isoprene Emission in Two Contrasting Ecotypes of Arundo donax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Haworth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP in plants is unclear. It has been proposed as an antioxidant, osmolyte and overflow for excess energy under stress conditions. The formation of DMSP is part of the methionine (MET pathway that is involved in plant stress responses. We used a new analytical approach to accurately quantify the changes in DMSP concentration that occurred in two ecotypes of the biomass crop Arundo donax subject to moderate drought stress under field conditions. The ecotypes of A. donax were from a hot semi-arid habitat in Morocco and a warm-humid environment in Central Italy. The Moroccan ecotype showed more pronounced reductions in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and photochemical electron transport than the Italian ecotype. An increase in isoprene emission occurred in both ecotypes alongside enhanced foliar concentrations of DMSP, indicative of a protective function of these two metabolites in the amelioration of the deleterious effects of excess energy and oxidative stress. This is consistent with the modification of carbon within the methyl-erythritol and MET pathways responsible for increased synthesis of isoprene and DMSP under moderate drought. The results of this study indicate that DMSP is an important adaptive component of the stress response regulated via the MET pathway in A. donax. DMSP is likely a multifunctional molecule playing a number of roles in the response of A. donax to reduced water availability.

  3. Taxonomic value of foliar characters in Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae Valor taxonômico de caracteres foliares em Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae is a neotropical genus, native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and comprises two species, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme and D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., although it has been considered a monotypic genus by some authors. Leaf anatomy was compared to verify the presence of anatomical characters to help delimit species. Foliar primordium, leaflet, petiolule, petiole and pulvinus were collected from cultivated plants (Campinas, SP, Brazil and from natural populations (Picinguaba, Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil - D. pinnata; Antonina, PR, Brazil - D. pentaphylla. Studies on leaflet surface assessment (Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as histology and venation analyses were carried out of dehydrated, fresh and fixed material from two species. Leaflet material was macerated for stomatal counts. Histological sections, obtained by free-hand cut or microtome, were stained with Toluidine Blue, Safranin/Alcian Blue, Ferric Chloride, Acid Phloroglucin. Secretory cavities are present in the lamina, petiolule, petiole, pulvinus and leaf primordium in D. pentaphylla, but not in D. pinnata, and can be considered an important character for species diagnosis. Other leaf characters were uninformative in delimiting Dahlstedtia species. There is cambial activity in the petiolule, petiole and pulvinus. This study, associated with other available data, supports the recognition of two species in Dahlstedtia.Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae é um gênero neotropical, com duas espécies reconhecidas, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme e D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., embora tenha sido considerado monotípico por alguns autores. Seus representantes ocorrem na Floresta Atlântica, nos Estados do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo comparativo da anatomia foliar, para verificar a presença de caracteres que possam auxiliar a identificação das espécies. Primórdio foliar, lâmina foliar, peciólulo, pecíolo e pulvino

  4. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species.

  5. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of three wetland plants distributed along an elevation gradient in Dongting Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Gao, Han; Zhu, Lianlian; Xie, Yonghong; Yang, Guishan; Hu, Cong; Chen, Xinsheng; Deng, Zhengmiao

    2017-06-06

    We examined foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of 3 wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and Carex brevicuspis) distributed along an elevation gradient in the Dongting Lake, China, and how this stoichiometry is related to soil physico-chemical characteristics, elevation, and flooding days. Plant and soil samples were collected from 3 lakeshore sites. Total N and P concentrations of plants and six physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were measured, in addition to the elevation and flooding days. P. arundinacea and M. sacchariflorus had higher total N and P concentrations than C. brevicuspis. The foliar N:P ratio decreased with increasing elevation, and only increased with increasing foliar total N concentration. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the foliar stoichiometry was primarily regulated by soil water content, followed by soil nutrient concentration. The foliar N and P stoichiometry of the 3 wetland plants was insignificantly correlated with soil total P concentration. However, foliar stoichiometric characteristics and soil total N concentration significantly differed among the 3 species. These results demonstrate that spatial variation of foliar stoichiometry in wetland plants exists along an elevation gradient, with this information being useful for the conservation and management of wetland plants in this lake.

  6. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  7. Effects of Foliar-applied Selenite and Selenate on Selenium Accumulation in Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Author Name\tAffiliation\tE-mail WANG Xiao-fang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of foliar spray of selenite or selenate on selenium(Se accumulation, distribution in strawberry were observed in this study. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate were sprayed on the leaves of strawberry at the early stage of flowering. The results showed that foliar spay of both selenite and selenate significantly increased Se contents in strawberry fruits(P<0.05. The first batch of strawberry fruits contained 0.03, 0.10 and 0.15 mg Se·kg-1 fresh weight(FW at application rates of 20,40 and 60 g Se·hm-2 as selenite respectively, representing 3, 20 and 30 times of that under control. When applied with the same doses of selenate, contents of Se in the first batch of strawberry fruits were 0.05, 0.12, 0.17 mg Se·kg-1 FW, as much as 5, 24 and 34 times of that under control. However, foliar spray couldn't ensure long-term sustainability as Se contents in strawberry fruits decreased significantly in the following two batches. Four months after foliar spray, more than 30% of Se was translocated from leaves into roots of plants sprayed with selenite, while only less than 15% of Se was transported to roots when applied with selenate. The results demonstrated that foliar spray of Se significantly increased the Se concentration at the first stage and Se concentration decreased with the growing of strawberry. Sprayed selenite was more readily translocated from leaf to root than selenate.

  8. Delusion symptoms and response to antipsychotic treatment are associated with the 5-HT2A receptor polymorphism (102T/C) in Alzheimer's disease: a 3-year follow-up longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Bernardini, Sergio; Gravina, Paolo; Bellincampi, Lorenza; Trequattrini, Alberto; Di Iulio, Fulvia; Vanni, Diego; Federici, Giorgio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Although the etiology of psychotic symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) in Alzheimer's disease is still not known, alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission have been proposed. In a 3-year follow-up study, we evaluated the association of serotonin (5-HT) receptor 5-HT2a 102T/C polymorphism (allelic variants CC, CT and TT) with psychotic symptom severity and response to treatment with atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine and quietapine) in 80 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was administered to determine the frequency and severity (FxS) of psychotic and other behavioral symptoms. There was a significant difference in the NPI FxS delusion score among the three variants of the 5-HT2a 102T/C polymorphism, with patients carrying the TT genotype the most delusional during the follow-up period. In particular, NPI FxS delusion score was higher in TT than in CC genotype at year 2. Moreover, patients with delusion symptoms carrying the CT and TT genotypes were resistant to the treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Thus our study, although at preliminary level, suggests that the presence of T allele of the 102T/C polymorphism in patients with Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased presence of delusion symptoms and treatment-resistance to second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  9. Effects of solid water and foliar fertilizer on survival and growth of seedlings in sand prevention and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yutao; LI Jiyue; LIU Ping

    2007-01-01

    To promote afforestation in sandy lands and increase the effects of prevention and control of desertification,the application of a new drought-resistant productsolid water and foliar fertilizer "Shifengle"-was studied.A comparison of three treatments (solid water,foliar fertilizer,and control) showed that both solid water and foliar fertilizer increased plant survival rate by 10% and 18.2%,respectively.Afforestation survival rates of Salix psammophila and Hedysarum mongolicum reached over 90%.In addition,height and crown growth as well as biomass of seedlings were improved by the treatments.

  10. Diagnóstico de la fertilidad en rosas para corte mediante análisis foliares

    OpenAIRE

    Di Benedetto, Adalberto Hugo; Befumo, M; G. Rossi; Boschi, Carlos Luis

    1994-01-01

    p.229-234 En los meses de setiembre y diciembre de 1992 se tomaron muestras foliares de lotes con distintos períodos de cultivo y manejo cultural (con y sin calefacción invernal) de siete variedades de Rosa hybrida. Los resultados indican que: (1) es posible utilizar un número de muestras foliares relativamente pequeño para un monitoreo continuo de la fertilidad del cultivo y recomendaciones de fertilización en rosas para corte. (2) un análisis foliar que contenga sólo los macroelementos p...

  11. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sperlich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L. during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max, the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax, and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm. This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions previous to the frost event. The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species-specific, where Q. ilex exhibited the highest and P. halepensis the lowest reductions. In contrast, the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm was significantly lower in A. unedo after the cold period. The leaf position played an important role in Q. ilex showing a comparatively stronger winter effect on sunlit leaves. Our results generally agreed with

  12. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.A.D.A. [USDA Forest Service, Pineville, LA (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Kaczmarek, D.J. [Mead Westvaco Forest Science and Technology, Summerville, SC (United States); Kane, M.B. [International Paper Corp., Ridgeland, MS (United States). Silviculture Research and Technology

    2004-10-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations on a converted agricultural field and a pine cutover site to biannual applications of three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates: 0, 5 6, and 112 kg N ha{sup -1}. The trees did not respond to treatment at any age on the agricultural field site, but the fertilized trees on the cutover site had about 60% greater biomass at ages 5 and 6. Fertilization doubled foliar biomass on the cutover site in the years fertilizer was applied. Stem biomass was directly related to foliar biomass, but the relationship was age-specific at both sites. Stem biomass was also related to the foliar N concentration. Foliar critical values of N were about 18 g N kg{sup -1}. Foliage phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were diluted by the N fertilization-induced growth responses at both sites. Fertilization of young intensive-culture sweetgum plantations is necessary for optimum foliar N concentrations and foliar and stem biomass production, but is site-specific. (author)

  13. Modelos para a estimação da área foliar de feijão de porco por dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Toebe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi modelar a área foliar de feijão de porco determinada por fotos digitais em função do comprimento ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura do limbo do folíolo central da folha. Em seis períodos de desenvolvimento da cultura (29, 43, 57, 73, 87 e 101 dias após a emergência foram coletadas, aleatoriamente, 745 folhas. Cada folha é composta pelos folíolos esquerdo, central e direito. Nas 745 folhas foi mensurado o comprimento (CFC e a largura (LFC e calculado o produto do comprimento pela largura (CFC×LFC do limbo do folíolo central. A seguir, determinou-se a área foliar (soma da área dos folíolos esquerdo, central e direito por meio do método de fotos digitais (Y. Do total de folhas, foram separadas, aleatoriamente, 605 folhas para a construção de modelos do tipo quadrático, potência e linear de Y em função do CFC, da LFC, e/ou do CFC×LFC e 140 folhas para a validação dos modelos. Em feijão de porco, o modelo tipo potência (Ŷ=3,7046x1,8747, R²=0,9757 da largura do limbo do folíolo central é adequado para estimar a área foliar obtida por fotos digitais.

  14. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  15. Enxofre aplicado via foliar na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Foliar aplication of sulfur on soybean[Glycine max (L. Merrill] crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Milanez de Rezende

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar doses de enxofre aplicadas via foliar no acúmulo de nutrientes na planta e na produtividade da soja. O ensaio foi constituído por 7 tratamentos sendo utilizado o produto S300(S=26%, densidade=1,16 nas dosagens 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 l.ha-1 e S800 (S=56%, densidade=1,43 com doses 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 l.ha-1 e um tratamento controle, sendo todas as aplicações realizadas em R3. As parcelas foram constituídas por 4 linhas espaçadas de 0,50m sendo utilizadas como área útil as duas fileiras centrais. A produtividade dos grãos foi alterada significativamente pela aplicação do S, com destaque para S300 2,0 e 3,0 l.ha-1 e S800 1,0 e 1,5 l.ha-1 que proporcionaram rendimento de 2641, 2636, 2621 e 2549 kg.ha-1. Em relação aos nutrientes verificou-se que teor de Ca e S na planta foram elevados com a aplicação de S foliar.The objective of this work was to evaluate doses of foliar sulfur application on the accumulation of nutrients in the plant and on the productivity of the soybean crop. The experiment consisted of seven treatments using the product S300 (S=26%, density =1,16 with doses 1,0; 2,0 and 3,0 l./ha-1 and S800 (S=56%, density =1,43 with doses 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 l./ha-1 , and a control, with all of the applications being carried out in R3 stage. The plots consisted of 4 rows with 5,0m in length, spaced at 0,50m, utilizing the two central rows. The productivity of the grains was altered significantly by the application of sulfur for treatments S300 2,0 and 3,0 l.ha-1 and S800 1,0 and 1,5 l.ha-1 that yielded 2641, 2636, 2621, and 2549 kg/.ha-1. With respect to nutrients, it was confirmed that the content of Calcium and Sulfur in the plants was high with the foliar application of sulfur.

  16. Increasing foliar Zn:Ni or Cu:Ni concentration ratios increase severity of nickel deficiency symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nickel (Ni) deficiency of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] in orchards is an increasingly common problem. There is uncertainty regarding the primary cause of the problem, as orchard soils have plenty of Ni. The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous...

  17. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P. halepensis the lowest reductions. In contrast, the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was significantly lower in A. unedo after the cold period. The leaf position played an important role in Q. ilex showing a stronger winter effect on sunlit leaves in

  18. Biochar Amendment Modifies Expression of Soybean and Rhizoctonia solani Genes Leading to Increased Severity of Rhizoctonia Foliar Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Tanya; Bayen, Stéphane; Jabaji, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Application of biochar, a pyrolyzed biomass from organic sources, to agricultural soils is considered a promising strategy to sustain soil fertility leading to increased plant productivity. It is also known that applications of biochar to soilless potting substrates and to soil increases resistance of plants against diseases, but also bear the potential to have inconsistent and contradictory results depending on the type of biochar feedstock and application rate. The following study examined the effect of biochar produced from maple bark on soybean resistance against Rhizoctonia foliar blight (RFB) disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and examined the underlying molecular responses of both soybean and R. solani during interaction with biochar application. Soybean plants were grown in the presence of 1, 3, or 5% (w/w) or absence of maple bark biochar for 2 weeks, and leaves were infected with R. solani AG1-IA. At lower concentrations (1 and 3%), biochar was ineffective against RFB, however at the 5% amendment rate, biochar was conducive to RFB with a significant increase in disease severity. For the first time, soybean and R. solani responsive genes were monitored during the development of RFB on detached leaves of plants grown in the absence and presence of 5% biochar at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h post-inoculation (h.p.i.). Generally, large decreases in soybean transcript abundances of genes associated with primary metabolism such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, starch, amino acid and glutathione metabolism together with genes associated with plant defense and immunity such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid pathways were observed after exposure of soybean to high concentration of biochar. Such genes are critical for plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. The general down-regulation of soybean genes and changes in SA hormonal balance were tightly linked with an increased susceptibility to RFB. In conjunction, R. solani genes associated

  19. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  20. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. ...

  1. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Differential Disorders Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... be accounted for: ► The age at which the symptoms started. The age at which symptoms begin is ...

  2. Comparative Foliar Epidermal Studies in Coix lacryma-jobi L. andCoix aquatica Roxb. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Jitendrakumar DESAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As micromorphological knowledge was not available for Coix aquatica Roxb., the foliar epidermal studies were carried out for Coix lacryma-jobi L. and Coix aquatica Roxb. with the aim of determining the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and assessing their value in species identification. Comparative foliar analysis was carried out by using light microscopy, after following routine scraping method. The characters of diagnostic importance in the identification of C. aquatica are the sparsely distributed prickle hairs with long pointed apex in the abaxial epidermis and dumbbell shaped silica cells in both the epidermises. The diagnostic characters for C. lacryma-jobi are the cross shaped silica cells and dumbbell shaped on the abaxial and adaxial epidermis respectively. The observed differences in certain micromorphological characters helps in identification of presently studied two species of Coix.

  3. Eutrophication of mangroves linked to depletion of foliar and soil base cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that increasing eutrophication causes degradation of coastal ecosystems. Studies in terrestrial ecosystems have shown that increasing the concentration of nitrogen in soils contributes to the acidification process, which leads to leaching of base cations. To test the effects of eutrophication on the availability of base cations in mangroves, we compared paired leaf and soil nutrient levels sampled in Nypa fruticans and Rhizophora spp. on a severely disturbed, i.e. nutrient loaded, site (Mahakam delta) with samples from an undisturbed, near-pristine site (Berau delta) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The findings indicate that under pristine conditions, the availability of base cations in mangrove soils is determined largely by salinity. Anthropogenic disturbances on the Mahakam site have resulted in eutrophication, which is related to lower levels of foliar and soil base cations. Path analysis suggests that increasing soil nitrogen reduces soil pH, which in turn reduces the levels of foliar and soil base cations in mangroves.

  4. Alleviation Of Nacl Stress In Summer Squash ‘Eskandrani’ By Foliar Application Of Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwan Mohammed Wasfy Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed to assess the possibility of overcoming NaCl salinity stress by foliar sprays of summer squash ‘Eskandrani’ with salicylic acid (SA at the concentration of 10-6 M. NaCl treatment caused reduction of shoot fresh weight, leaf number per plant, fruit yield, concentrations of potassium in aerial parts, and the concentration of chlorophyll in leaves. Plants grown under salt stress conditions had higher shoot sodium concentrations than plants untreated with NaCl. Foliar application of SA ameliorated partly the negative effect of NaCl treatment. The beneficial effect of SA was also observed in non-stressed plants, increasing the shoot potassium accumulation and leaf photosynthetic pigments status, and decreasing sodium accumulation in shoots.

  5. Reconciling In Situ Foliar Nitrogen and Vegetation Structure Measurements with Airborne Imagery Across Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next 30 years the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor environmental and ecological change throughout North America. NEON will provide a suite of standardized data from several ecological topics of interest, including net primary productivity and nutrient cycling, from 60+ sites across 20 eco-climatic domains when fully operational in 2017. The breadth of sampling includes ground-based measurements of foliar nitrogen and vegetation structure, ground-based spectroscopy, airborne LIDAR, and airborne hyperspectral surveys occurring within narrow overlapping time intervals once every five years. While many advancements have been made in linking and scaling in situ data with airborne imagery, establishing these relationships across dozens of highly variable sites poses significant challenges to understanding continental-wide processes. Here we study the relationship between foliar nitrogen content and airborne hyperspectral imagery at different study sites. NEON collected foliar samples from three sites in 2014 as part of a prototype study: Ordway Swisher Biological Station (pine-oak savannah, with active fire management), Jones Ecological Research Center (pine-oak savannah), and San Joaquin Experimental Range (grass-pine oak woodland). Leaf samples and canopy heights of dominant and co-dominant species were collected from trees located within 40 x 40 meter sampling plots within two weeks of aerial LIDAR and hyperspectral surveys. Foliar canopy samples were analyzed for leaf mass per area (LMA), stable isotopes of C and N, C/N content. We also examine agreement and uncertainty between ground based canopy height and airborne LIDAR derived digital surface models (DSM) for each site. Site-scale maps of canopy nitrogen and canopy height will also be presented.

  6. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R Fernando

    Full Text Available Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg, sulphur (S and calcium (Ca distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  7. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Kithsiri Wijeratne; Leslie Gunatilaka; A Elizabeth Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have ...

  8. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, M.; Jimenez-Aleman, G.; W Boland

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new part...

  9. Herbage Production and Quality of Shrub Indigofera Treated by Different Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, L.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment on fodder legume Indigofera sp. was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer concentration on forage yield and quality, and to identify optimum concentrations among the fertilizer treatments on herbage yield, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, minerals), and in vitro dry matter (IVDMD) as wll as organic matter (IVOMD) digestibility in goat’s rumen. Randomized block design was used for the six concentration of fertilizer treatments; control, 10, 20, 30, 40,...

  10. Effectiveness of Foliar Application of Potassium on Flowering and Fruiting of Cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Erwiyono; Achmad Sucahyo; Suyono; Sugeng Winarso

    2006-01-01

    An experiment of foliar application of potassium on cocoa has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember to study its effectiveness on the flowering and fruiting of cocoa. The experiment was arranged according to factorial design of 2 factors with environmental design of randomized complete blocks. The first factor was soil application of potassium fertilization in two levels, i.e. without fertilizer and with K-fertilizer as K...

  11. FERTILIZACION FOLIAR CON ZINC Y MANGANESO EN HUERTOS DE NARANJO ‘VALENCIA LATE’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A. Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia se realizó en un huerto comercial en Corrientes, Argentina, durante tres campañas 2006 a 2009. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar la respuesta del naranjo dulce ‘Valencia late’ a las aplicaciones foliares de Zn y Mn, para definir prácticas de manejo nutricional. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se probaron siete tratamientos, diferentes dosis de Zn y Mn, solos y combinados, más un control. Se determinó la concentración foliar de Zn y Mn (ppm a partir de muestras de hojas tomadas en el mes de marzo (fructificación. A cosecha se determinó producción total (kg planta -1 y calidad, definida por diámetro de frutos (mm, porcentaje de jugo (%, acidez total titulable (%, sólidos solubles totales (ºBrix y color (escala visual. Se aplicó análisis de la varianza y test de Duncan (α=0,05 para rendimiento y se caracterizaron los tratamientos respecto a rendimiento y calidad de frutos con análisis de componentes principales. Las diferencias en los rendimientos promedios entre tratamientos y entre campañas resultaron significativas, no así la interacción tratamiento por campaña. La respuesta de naranjo dulce ‘Valencia late’ a las aplicaciones foliares de Zn solo o combinado con Mn incrementan significativamente los rendimientos. Las aplicaciones foliares de Zn y Mn influenciaron positivamente sobre la calidad de los frutos, encontrándose sus valores dentro de los Estándares Legales Argentinos de madurez para naranjo. Las aplicaciones de Zn y Mn solo o combinados no tuvieron efecto sobre el color de los frutos.

  12. Antecipação da diagnose foliar em arroz de sequeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Borges Tomio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de antecipar a amostragem foliar em arroz de sequeiro, para viabilizar o diagnóstico nutricional em tempo hábil para intervenção. Foram coletadas 107 amostras foliares em ensaios de materiais genéticos da Embrapa Rondônia, no Estado de Rondônia, em três épocas de amostragem: antecipada, aos 30 e 40 dias após a semeadura (DAS; e padrão, aos 65 DAS. Foram obtidas as normas de diagnose da composição nutricional (CND para cada época avaliada, as quais foram utilizadas para o diagnóstico em todas as épocas, tendo-se comparado os resultados do potencial de resposta à adubação sob duas ou três classes de suficiência nutricional, e verificado o grau de concordância entre os diagnósticos. O uso de duas classes de suficiência aumenta a possibilidade da antecipação da época de amostragem para diagnose foliar, o que viabilizaria o diagnóstico nutricional em tempo hábil para a correção ou a mitigação de eventuais deficiências nutricionais. A antecipação da diagnose foliar em arroz de sequeiro depende do desenvolvimento de normas de diagnose específicas para cada período amostral.

  13. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SAYYARI; Fardin GHANBARI; Sajad FATAHI; Fatemeh BAVANDPOUR

    2013-01-01

    Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus) by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA) was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the see...

  14. Effects of Foliar Treatments of Salicylic Acid on Apple (Malus domestica L.) Against Freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Türkyılmaz Ünal; Oğuzhan Mentiş; Ethem Akyol

    2015-01-01

    In our study we aim to increase frost resistance and improve the yield and quality of apple is important in Turkey and world economy. Phenological and morphological observations, physiological and biochemical analyzes were carried out in apple (Malus domestica L.) plants. It was studied to determine the effects of foliar Salicylic acid (0, 500 ppm/plant and 1000 ppm/plant) on adaptation of this plant when exposed to freezing stress, the quality and yield. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents...

  15. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Growth and Foliar Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Feng Ge; Yu-Cheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    A field study was carried out to quantify plant growth and the foliar chemistry of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)cotton (cv. GK-12) exposed to ambient CO2 and elevated (double-ambient) CO2 for different lengths of time (1, 2 and 3 months) in 2004 and 2005. The results indicated that CO2 levels significantly affected plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf chemistry of transgenic Bt cotton. Significantly, higher plant height and leaf area per plant were observed after cotton plants that were grown in elevated CO2 were compared with plants grown in ambient CO2 for 1, 2 and 3 months in the investigation. Simultaneously, significant interaction between CO2 level x investigating year was observed in leaf area per plant. Moreover, foliar total amino acids were increased by 14%, 13%, 11% and 12%, 14%, 10% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Condensed tannin occurrence increased by 17%, 11%, 9% in 2004 and 12%, 11%, 9% in 2005 in transgenic Bt cotton after being exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 for the same time. However, Bt toxin decreased by 3.0%,2.9%, 3.1% and 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.9% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3months compared with ambient CO2 for same time in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Furthermore, there was prominent interaction on the foliar total amino acids between the CO2 level and the time of cotton plant being exposed to elevated CO2. It is presumed that elevated CO2 can alter the plant growth and hence ultimately the phenotype allocation to foliar chemistical components of transgenic Bt cotton, which may in turn, affect the plant-herbivore interactions.

  16. Foliar fertilization with potassium, magnessium and calcium and postharvest fruit quality in plums (prunus domestica l)

    OpenAIRE

    Vangdal, Eivind; Flatland, Sigrid; Mehl, Ingvild

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. Foliar applications of fertilizers are an important part of standard fertilization programmes in apples to optimize the content of nutrients important to growth and fruit quality. In an experiment in plums (Prunus domesti...

  17. INFLUENCE OF Ca-FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SWEET PEPPER IN GLASSHOUSE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Parađiković; Zdenko Lončarić; Blaženka Bertić; Vladimir Vukadinović

    2004-01-01

    Calcium is an extremely important nutrient in highly productive fruit growing such as glasshousegrown sweet pepper. Good bioavailibility of calcium can be achieved by calcisation, but in many cases owing to its high prices, long-term effects, along with a delayed initial effect, as well as problems that appear due to radical change in availability of other nutrients in soil, its application is restricted. This paper deals with research on effects of foliar applications of the commercial ch...

  18. DESEMPENHO DA APLICAÇÃO FOLIAR DE ZINCO EM FEIJOEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Alexandre Coelho; Hélio Grassi Filho; Sergio Lázaro de Lim; Thomaz Figueiredo Lobo; Júlio César Thoaldo Romeiro; Rodrigo Domingues Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of crops, in general, becomes more intense with the beginning of the reproductive phase, being more critical at the time of seed formation, when considerable amounts of nutrients are they translocation, this requirement should be increased to the fact that nutrients are essential to training and development of new bodies of booking. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of foliar application of zinc (zinc oxide Zn 700 g L-1 ) in bean plant, compare...

  19. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Patrick G; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha(-1)) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50-100 μg I (100 g FM)(-1)] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3 (-)-I ha(-1) without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I(-)-I ha(-1). In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice.

  20. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grant Lawson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine (I biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI and potassium iodate (KIO3 directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5 and 15 kg I ha-1 increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50 - 100 µg I (100 g FM-1] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3--I ha-1 without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible yield reduction. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I--I ha-1. In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice.

  1. The effect of inhaled budesonide on symptoms, lung function, and cold air and methacholine responsiveness in 2- to 5-year-old asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    -acting beta(2)-agonist were monitored with diary cards. LF in awake children was measured as the specific airway resistance (sRaw), using whole-body plethysmography; as resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); and as resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (Rrs5, Xrs5) by the impulse oscillation technique....... Cold air challenge (CACh) and methacholine challenge (MCh) were used to assess BHR. Children in the BUD group experienced significantly fewer night- and daytime symptoms (p

  2. Screening for adolescents' internalizing symptoms in primary care: item response theory analysis of the behavior health screen depression, anxiety, and suicidal risk scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2012-05-01

    To apply a modern psychometric approach to validate the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS) Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidal Risk Scales among adolescents in primary care. Psychometric analyses were conducted using data collected from 426 adolescents aged 12 to 21 years (mean = 15.8, SD = 2.2). Rasch-Masters partial credit models were fit to the data to determine whether items supported the comprehensive measurement of internalizing symptoms with minimal gaps and redundancies. Scales were reduced to ensure that they measured singular dimensions of generalized anxiety, depressed affect, and suicidal risk both comprehensively and efficiently. Although gender bias was observed for some depression and anxiety items, differential item functioning did not impact overall subscale scores. Future revisions to the BHS should include additional items that assess low-level internalizing symptoms. The BHS is an accurate and efficient tool for identifying adolescents with internalizing symptoms in primary care settings. Access to psychometrically sound and cost-effective behavioral health screening tools is essential for meeting the increasing demands for adolescent behavioral health screening in primary/ambulatory care.

  3. Screening of As-accumulating plants using a foliar application and a native accumulation of As.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Sugawara, K; Hatayama, M; Huang, Y; Inoue, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of novel accumulating plants is useful for efficient phytoremediation due to the demands of various conditions of impacted sites such as land use, soil properties, concentration of pollutants, and climate. In the present study, we investigated foliar application or a field with highly bioavailable arsenic (As) to screen As-accumulating plants. Plants grown in the downstream of a hot springs area were analyzed for native As accumulation and As foliar application, and the rhizosphere soils were collected. The water-soluble As in the rhizosphere soils had a high average, 144 microg/kg, whereas total As was similar to normal soil in Japan. Among 34 herbaceous plants and 17 woody plants, Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum accumulated a relatively high As level, 8.07 mg/kg DW (93.6% of As added), that was not revealed by native accumulation. In a further pot experiment, C. majus accumulated a moderately high As level (314 mg/kg DW) in the roots but not in the shoot (30.1 mg/kg DW), and exhibited a low transfer factor (TF = 0.096). Thus, a foliar application would be a simple and high-throughput method to screen plants that accumulate and tolerate As. C. majus would be useful as a tool for phytostabilization of As.

  4. Characteristics of foliar fungal endophyte assemblages and host effective components in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianjun; Xia, Fei; Cui, Langjun; Liang, Jian; Wang, Zhezhi; Wei, Yukun

    2014-04-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a well-known medicinal plant, has more than 20 effective components. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate foliar fungal endophyte communities of S. miltiorrhiza and explore the inside relationship between host-specific fungal endophytes and effective components accumulation. Five plant samples were collected from four geological different provinces in China. Foliar fungal endophyte communities were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the ITS region. Effective components were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that S. miltiorrhiza foliage harbored a large diversity of fungal endophytes. Principal component analysis revealed similar T-RFLP profiles and the characteristics of the 24 effective components among the five samples, which could be clustered into three groups. In foliar T-RFLP profiles derived from the restriction digestion by CfoI, HaeIII, MspI, or TaqI, there were identical 45, 42, 38, and 34 terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) from the five samples. We consider these T-RFs as host-specific fungal endophytes. Correlation analysis of these T-RFs' area and 24 effective components contents revealed a significant correlationship between some host-specific fungal endophytes and foliage or root effective components accumulation.

  5. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  6. Costs and benefits of insecticide and foliar nutrient applications to huanglongbing-infected citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, James A; Vanaclocha, Pilar; Monzo, Cesar; Jones, Moneen; Stansly, Philip A

    2017-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which causes huanglongbing (HLB). In Florida, HLB incidence is approaching 100% statewide. Yields have decreased and production costs have increased since 2005. Despite this, some growers are maintaining a level of production and attribute this in part to aggressive psyllid control and foliar nutrition sprays. However, the value of these practices is debated. A replicated field study was initiated in 2008 in a commercial block of 'Valencia' sweet orange trees to evaluate individual and combined effects of foliar nutrition and ACP control. Results from 2012-2016 are presented. Insecticides consistently reduced ACP populations. However, neither insecticide nor nutrition applications significantly influenced HLB incidence or PCR copy number in mature trees. In reset trees, infection continued to build and reached 100% in all treatments. Greatest yields (kg fruit ha(-1) ) and production (kg solids ha(-1) ) were obtained from trees receiving both insecticides and foliar nutrition. All treatments resulted in production and financial gains relative to controls. However, material and application costs associated with the nutrition component offset these gains, resulting in lesser benefits than insecticides applied alone. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Efeitos do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de analisar as alterações na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi quando cultivadas em ambientes de sombra moderada ou densa, simulando as condições naturais encontradas em sistemas agroflorestais tradicionais do sul da Bahia, Brasil. Plantas das duas espécies, com aproximadamente um ano de idade, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob quatro níveis de sombreamento (25%, 17%, 10% e 5%. Estudos anatômicos do limbo foliar foram realizados a partir de material incluído em parafina e seccionado em micrótomo rotativo. Os diferentes níveis de sombreamento ocasionaram alterações na estrutura do mesofilo de ambas as espécies, com diferenças significativas na espessura do parênquima paliçádico, limbo foliar, e densidade estomática. Nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado os resultados obtidos indicaram que G. integrifolia apresenta maior capacidade de aclimatação a ambientes de sombra moderada e densa do que S. terebinthifolius, sendo mais indicada para o cultivo em sistemas agroflorestais pré-estabelecidos.

  8. Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape cv. 'Cardinal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalović, Ana; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Knezević, Mirko; Veberic, Robert

    2011-09-28

    The foliar fertilization has been used as an important agrotechnical measure to avoid deficiencies and to improve quality. During the two consecutive years, a study has been performed on Vitis vinifera L. (cv. 'Cardinal') to examine whether a grape berry quality has been affected by the foliar application of PK fertilizer. A liquid mineral fertilizer containing 15% P2O5, 20% K2O with 0.1% B, 0.1% Mn and 0.01% Mo (% w/w) has been sprayed three times at rate of 8 L ha(-1) every 14-15 days starting at about 15 days before veraison. The sugars, organic acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) have been analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography in the grape berries. The foliar fertilization of grapevine can accelerate the accumulation of sugars and anthocyanins, whereas climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence the content of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in general. The effect of fertilizer spraying on flavonols and flavan-3-ols has not been found.

  9. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy.

  10. Evidence for foliar endophytic nitrogen fixation in a widely distributed subalpine conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Kueppers, Lara M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Carper, Dana L; Vandehey, Nick; O'Neil, James; Frank, A Carolin

    2016-04-01

    Coniferous forest nitrogen (N) budgets indicate unknown sources of N. A consistent association between limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and potential N2 -fixing acetic acid bacteria (AAB) indicates that native foliar endophytes may supply subalpine forests with N. To assess whether the P. flexilis-AAB association is consistent across years, we re-sampled P. flexilis twigs at Niwot Ridge, CO and characterized needle endophyte communities via 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing. To investigate whether endophytes have access to foliar N2 , we incubated twigs with (13) N2 -enriched air and imaged radioisotope distribution in needles, the first experiment of its kind using (13) N. We used the acetylene reduction assay to test for nitrogenase activity within P. flexilis twigs four times from June to September. We found evidence for N2 fixation in P. flexilis foliage. N2 diffused readily into needles and nitrogenase activity was positive across sampling dates. We estimate that this association could provide 6.8-13.6 μg N m(-2)  d(-1) to P. flexilis stands. AAB dominated the P. flexilis needle endophyte community. We propose that foliar endophytes represent a low-cost, evolutionarily stable N2 -fixing strategy for long-lived conifers. This novel source of biological N2 fixation has fundamental implications for understanding forest N budgets.

  11. Phenylalanine and urea foliar applications to grapevine: effect on wine phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Santamaría, P; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in the organoleptic properties of wines. Viticultural practices may influence grape and wine phenolic content, thus determining their quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on wine phenolic composition. Grapes were harvested at their optimal technological maturity and their respective wines were elaborated at small scale. Wine detailed phenolic composition was determined. Results revealed that the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols was enhanced by the application of both phenylalanine doses and by the application of the low dose of urea. In contrast, flavanols and non-flavonoid compounds were less affected by the foliar treatments. The findings seem to be related to the time of application, since anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated after veraison. In conclusion, nitrogen foliar fertilization increased the phenolic content of Tempranillo wines. This could be of interest since anthocyanins and flavonols are associated with wine quality, especially with its color.

  12. Enzyme activity in soybean seeds produced under foliar application of manganese

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    Everson Reis Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affect the quality of soybean seeds, including the mineral nutrition of plants. Manganese (Mn is an important nutrient because it has as one of its functions the enzyme activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate enzyme activity in seeds of soybean cultivars produced with foliar application of different doses of Mn. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA (Federal University of Lavras in randomized blocks with three replications and 4 x 4 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four soybean cultivars, two conventional and its genetically modified RR derived (BRS Celeste and BRS Baliza RR; BRSGO Jataí and BRS Silvânia RR, four doses of Mn via foliar application (0; 200; 400 and 600 g Mn ha-1 and two stages of application (R1 or R3. In the seeds, the expressions of the enzymes esterase (EST, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (PRX and isocitratelyase (ICL were determined. For evaluation of physiological quality, the germination test and emergence speed index (ESI were performed. The Mn content in the seeds was also determined. The expression of the enzymes EST, SOD, PRX and ICL in soybean seeds are affected by foliar application of Mn, regardless of the stages of application. In the seeds of the cultivars that showed better physiological quality, Celeste and Baliza RR, greater expressions of the enzymes ADH and ICL and lower expressions of MDH and of PRX were observed.

  13. Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Oriental Lilies with Drip and Foliar-applied Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Radewald, J D; Anderson, C A; Darso, J

    1993-12-01

    Pratylenchus penetrans is a pest for producers of oriental lilies in northern California. Concern over groundwater contamination from 1,2-dichloropropane following shank injections of 1,3-dichloropropene-l,2-dichloropropane mixture and granular applications of aldicarb prompted testing for alternative methods of controlling P. penetrans. In field trials, nematicides applied by drip irrigation (ethoprop, fenamiphos, oxamyl, sodium tetrathiocarbonate, water extracts of marigold and vetch, and 1,3-D plus emulsifier) were tested with and without foliar applications of oxamyl. Nematode populations were reduced (P = 0.05) relative to controls in soil or roots on one or more sampling dates by all drip-applied nematicides except the plant extracts. On some sampling dates, additional reductions (P = 0.05) occurred as a result of three foliar applications of oxamyl. Foliar-applied oxamyl alone also reduced (P = 0.05) nematodes in soil or roots. Lily bulb weight was not affected (P = 0.05) by chemical treatments.

  14. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

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    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  15. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

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    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  16. Foliar biofertilizer applied in cover fertilization in the production of lettuce cv. Veronica El uso de bio-fertilizante foliar en la fertilización de cobertura de lechuga cv. Verónica Biofertilizante foliar aplicado em cobertura na produção de alface cv. Verônica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luniara Bastos dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    O uso de biofertilizantes via foliar pode ser utilizado como suplementação da adubação aplicada no solo e na correção mais rápida de possíveis deficiências. Devido a esse fato, essa prática tem sido cada vez mais utilizada pelos produtores em espécies olerícolas, especialmente folhosas. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho de plantas de alface crespa (cv. Verônica em resposta a doses de biofertilizante em diferentes concentrações aplicados via foliar. O ensaio foi instalado no delineamento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e cada parcela foi constituída por 64 plantas. Os tratamentos consistiram de biofertilizante aplicados via foliar, em solução, nas concentrações: 0%; 10%; 20% e 30% de biofertilizante. As características avaliadas foram: diâmetro da cabeça (DCAB, número de folhas (NF, altura de plantas (ALT e massa fresca total da parte aérea (MFTPA. Não houve efeito das concentrações de biofertilizantes sobre o DCAB. O NF, a ALT e MFTPA foram alteradas pelas concentrações de biofertilizantes, destacando a concentração de 20% que favoreceu a expressão dessas características.

    The use of biofertilizer through leaves can be a supplement of the applied fertilization in the soil and in the fastest correction of possible deficiencies. Due to that, this practice has been increasingly used by the producers in olericultural species, especially broadleaves. The present work aimed at evaluating the performance of lettuce plants (cv. Veronica in response to biofertilizer doses in different concentrations applied through leaves. The experiment was installed in the completely randomized blocks design with three replications and each plot was constituted by 64 plants. The treatments consisted of doses biofertilizer applied through leaves, in solution, in the concentrations: 0%; 10%; 20% and 30% of biofertilizer. The appraised characteristics were: diameter of

  17. Quantifying Foliar Pigment Concentrations of Temperate Forest Species Using Digital Photography and Hyperspectral Reflectance Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M. T.; Rock, B. N.; Jahnke, L. S.; Lee, T. D.

    2008-12-01

    Determination of leaf chlorophyll content is a common and important procedure for plant scientists. There are many multispectral techniques for non destructive in-vivo, estimation of chlorophyll in foliage. Although much has been done to explore the estimation of foliar pigments using remote sensing, very little work has been done exploring the potential that basic, affordable, digital cameras may have for such analysis. This study utilizes a combination of digital photography, hyperspectral laboratory remote sensing, and chlorophyll extractions to determine if digital photographs can be used to accurately predict foliar chlorophyll concentrations as well to compare this digital approach with several common spectral indices used for estimating foliar chlorophyll content. Foliar materials for this study come from three sources. A large collection of samples were collected (60) from 9 common temperate forest species in July and late September over a 1 kilometer area at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in northern New Hampshire. Secondly, 15 trees were selected in a forested setting near the University of New Hampshire for more intensive phenological analysis. These samples consist of 5 white pine (Pinus strobus), 5 black oak (Quercus velutina) and 5 sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Finally, dozens of samples of white pine utilized in Forest Watch, a successful K-12 science outreach which assesses the impact of tropospheric ozone on forest health in New England, were also analyzed for this study. For all samples in this study, chlorophyll extractions were conducted to determine chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll concentrations. Laboratory spectral analysis was performed using a GER 2600 Spectroradiometer to determine hyperspectral estimates of chlorophyll content using a Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) approach, as well as a Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption Reflectance Index/Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TCARI/OSAVI) approach. These

  18. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Tu, Shuxin; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-10-01

    The fact that heavy metals can enter various domains of the plant system through foliar pathways spurred us to explore if the fronds of the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient in absorbing arsenic in the form of sprays. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the impact of frond age, form of arsenic, and time of application on the absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic speciation in the frond following absorption. Foliar sprays of different arsenic concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) were applied to young and fertile fronds. A positive linear relationship existed between arsenic concentration and absorption; the arsenic concentration of fronds increased from 50 to 200 ppm. Time-course analysis with excised pinnae indicated an initial linear increase followed by a plateau at 48 h. The young fronds with immature sori absorbed more arsenic (3100 ppm) than the fertile mature fronds (890 ppm). In the frond, the arsenic absorption was greatest in the lamina of the pinnae followed by the sori and the rachis. Applying arsenic during night (20:00-22:00 h) or afternoon (12:00-14:00 h) resulted in greater absorption of arsenic than the application in the morning (08:00-10:00 h). The arsenic absorption was greater through abaxial surfaces than through adaxial surfaces. The brake fern absorbed more arsenic when it was applied in the form of arsenite. Regardless of the form of arsenic and the surface it was applied to, arsenic occurred as arsenite, the reduced and the most toxic form of arsenic, after having been absorbed by the fronds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no surface morphological alterations following all arsenic sprays. The study unequivocally illustrated that the Chinese brake fern absorbed foliar-applied arsenic with great efficiency. Consequently, the

  19. Análise histoquímica foliar do amendoim: genótipos 'Tatu' e SO-909 Leaf histochemical analyses of peanut: genotypes 'Tatu' and SO-909

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    Renato Ferraz de Arruda Veiga

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade a análise histoquímica foliar de dois genótipos de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L., do tipo botânico Valência: SO-53 ('Tatu' e SO-909 (PI-259747, cuja literatura demonstra apresentarem respostas diferentes de resistência às principais moléstias fúngicas foliares do Brasil. Seções transversais das seguintes estruturas - pulvino, haste peciolar, raque, pulvínulo e folíolo - e seções paradérmicas de folíolos coletados em dois anos agrícolas consecutivos, foram analisadas quanto à presença de alcalóides, amido, calose, celulose pura, celulose com pectina, cera, cristais, cutina, lignina, mucilagem, óleo, resina, tanino e ureídeos (micrograma por folíolo (grama. As diferenças qualitativas histoquímicas observadas nos diversos tecidos, como a freqüência de tanino, alcalóide, pectina e óleo, supostamente, podem ser responsáveis pela resistência ou suscetibilidade dos genótipos às moléstias fúngicas foliares. Para fins de caracterização, mostrou-se eficiente a avaliação de pureza de celulose.Leaf histochemical analyses were made in two genotypes of Arachis hypogaea L., of the Valencia group, which present different responses to some of the peanut foliar diseases. The analyses were performed on cross sections of the pulvini, petiole, rachis, pulvinulus and leaflets. The following constituents were observed: alkaloids, callose, cellulose with pectin, cristal, cutin, lignin, mucilage, oil, pure cellulose, resin, starch, tannin, wax and weight of ureides by leaflets. Some histochemical characteristics such the amount of tannin, alkaloids, pectin and oil can be produce different responses of peanut to foliar fungal diseases, and can be used in the characterization of peanut genotypes like the amount of pure cellulose and cellulose with pectin.

  20. Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 alters aspen foliar chemistry across developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, J J; Holeski, L M; Lindroth, R L

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities are altering levels of greenhouse gases to the extent that multiple and diverse ecosystem processes are being affected. Two gases that substantially influence forest health are atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ). Plant chemistry will play an important role in regulating ecosystem processes in future environments, but little information exists about the longitudinal effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on phytochemistry, especially for long-lived species such as trees. To address this need, we analysed foliar chemical data from two genotypes of trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, collected over 10 years of exposure to levels of CO2 and O3 predicted for the year 2050. Elevated CO2 and O3 altered both primary and secondary chemistry, and the magnitude and direction of the responses varied across developmental stages and between aspen genotypes. Our findings suggest that the effects of CO2 and O3 on phytochemical traits that influence forest processes will vary over tree developmental stages, highlighting the need to continue long-term, experimental atmospheric change research.

  1. Gap locations influence the release of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in two shrub foliar litter in an alpine fir forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhang, Danju; Xu, Zhenfeng; Tan, Bo; Zhao, Yeyi; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-02-24

    Gap formation favors the growth of understory plants and affects the decomposition process of plant debris inside and outside of gaps. Little information is available regarding how bioelement release from shrub litter is affected by gap formation during critical periods. The release of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the foliar litter of Fargesia nitida and Salix paraplesia in response to gap locations was determined in an alpine forest of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau via a 2-year litter decomposition experiment. The daily release rates of C, N, and P increased from the closed canopy to the gap centers during the two winters, the two later growing seasons and the entire 2 years, whereas this trend was reversed during the two early growing seasons. The pairwise ratios among C, N, and P converged as the litter decomposition proceeded. Compared with the closed canopy, the gap centers displayed higher C:P and N:P ratio but a lower C:N ratio as the decomposition proceeded. Alpine forest gaps accelerate the release of C, N, and P in decomposing shrub litter, implying that reduced snow cover resulting from vanishing gaps may inhibit the release of these elements in alpine forests.

  2. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

  3. [A case of an anti-Ma2 antibody-positive patient presenting with variable CNS symptoms mimicking multiple system atrophy with a partial response to immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a 5-month history of progressive bradykinesia of the bilateral lower extremities was admitted to our hospital. At the age of 64, he underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. He also had a history of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord since the age of 67, which was successfully treated with vitamin B12 therapy. Four weeks before admission to our hospital, he admitted himself to his former hospital complaining of walking difficulty. Two weeks later, however, his symptoms progressed rapidly; he was immobilized for two weeks and did not respond to the vitamin therapy. On admission to our hospital, he showed moderate paralysis of the lower extremities, cog-wheel rigidity of the four extremities, and dystonic posture of his left hand. He also showed orthostatic hypotension and vesicorectal disorders. Blood examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no remarkable abnormalities. Electroencephalography showed frontal dominant, high voltage, sharp waves. His brain and spinal MRI revealed no notable abnormalities. We suspected autoimmune disease and commenced one course of intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, resulting in improvement of the parkinsonism and orthostatic hypotension. Based on these results, we investigated possible neural antigens and detected anti-Ma2 antibody. In addition to limbic encephalitis, anti-Ma2 antibody-positive neural disorders are characterized by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders or parkinsonism. Here, we report an anti-Ma2 antibody positive patient presenting variable CNS symptoms mimicking multiple system atrophy, who responded to immunotherapy.

  4. Anticipatory Processing, Maladaptive Attentional Focus, and Postevent Processing for Interactional and Performance Situations: Treatment Response and Relationships With Symptom Change for Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Quincy J J; Gregory, Bree; McLellan, Lauren F; Kangas, Maria; Abbott, Maree J; Carpenter, Leigh; McEvoy, Peter M; Peters, Lorna; Rapee, Ronald M

    2017-09-01

    Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task. Across both tasks, the three cognitive process variables demonstrated decreases from pre- to posttreatment. Within the same task, a slower rate of decrease in a specific cognitive process variable from pre- to posttreatment was predicted from higher pretreatment levels of either one or both of the other cognitive process variables. Additionally, higher levels of pretreatment conversation-related anticipatory processing and maladaptive attentional focus predicted a slower rate of decrease in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Results are consistent with cognitive models of SAD and have important implications for enhancing existing treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  6. Renal provider recognition of symptoms in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Mor, Maria K; Resnick, Abby L; Unruh, Mark L; Palevsky, Paul M; Levenson, David J; Cooksey, Stephen H; Fine, Michael J; Kimmel, Paul L; Arnold, Robert M

    2007-09-01

    Although several studies have found that the burden of symptoms in patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis is substantial, little is known about renal providers' awareness of these symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess renal provider recognition of symptoms and their severity in hemodialysis patients. The Dialysis Symptom Index, a 30-item measure of symptoms and their severity, was administered to patients during a routine hemodialysis session. Immediately after surveying patients, the renal provider who evaluated the patient completed the Dialysis Symptom Index to report the symptoms that he or she believed were present in that patient. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of provider reports of symptoms were calculated using patient reports as the reference standard. Patient-provider agreement on the presence and severity of symptoms was assessed using the kappa statistic. Surveys were completed by 75 patients and 18 providers. For 27 of 30 symptoms, the sensitivity of provider responses was <50%, and provider responses for 25 symptoms were characterized by positive predictive values of <75%. kappa scores for 25 symptoms including those pertaining to pain, sexual dysfunction, sleep disturbance, and psychologic distress were <0.20, indicating poor provider recognition of these symptoms. Providers underestimated the severity of 19 of 30 symptoms. Renal providers are largely unaware of the presence and severity of symptoms in patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. Implementation of a standardized symptom assessment process may improve provider recognition of symptoms and promote use of symptom-alleviating treatments.

  7. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  8. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  9. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  10. Antecipação do período de diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra' no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de se antecipar o período de realização da diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra'. Vinte e sete pomares representativos da região produtora de laranja do Estado do Amazonas foram monitorados durante o ano agrícola de 2011/2012. Foram realizadas diagnoses da composição nutricional (CND em amostras foliares retiradas durante a floração e quando a árvore apresentava frutos com três e seis meses de idade (época tradicional para o monitoramento nutricional. Pomares com produtividade superior a 25 Mg ha‑1 foram selecionados para o estabelecimento dos padrões de referência. O estado nutricional da laranja variou com o estádio fenológico no qual se realizou a amostragem foliar, o que fez com que fosse necessário estabelecer normas CND para cada período. Com a antecipação da diagnose para o período de floração, observou-se aumento nas concentrações foliares de N, P, K e Cu diminuição e nas de Ca. A antecipação da diagnose foliar em laranja 'Pêra' depende da geração de padrões nutricionais CND específicos para cada época de amostragem.

  11. Tropospheric ozone and plants: absorption, responses, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, S B; Torres, N L; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Sarkar, Abhijit; Shibato, Junko; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Kubo, Akihiro; Rakwal, Randeep

    2011-01-01

    Ozone is now considered to be the second most important gaseous pollutant in our environment. The phytotoxic potential of O₃ was first observed on grape foliage by B.L. Richards and coworkers in 1958 (Richards et al. 1958). To date, unsustainable resource utilization has turned this secondary pollutant into a major component of global climate change and a prime threat to agricultural production. The projected levels to which O₃ will increase are critically alarming and have become a major issue of concern for agriculturalists, biologists, environmentalists and others plants are soft targets for O₃. Ozone enters plants through stomata, where it disolves in the apoplastic fluid. O₃ has several potential effects on plants: direct reaction with cell membranes; conversion into ROS and H₂O₂ (which alters cellular function by causing cell death); induction of premature senescence; and induction of and up- or down-regulation of responsive components such as genes , proteins and metabolites. In this review we attempt to present an overview picture of plant O₃ interactions. We summarize the vast number of available reports on plant responses to O₃ at the morphological, physiological, cellular, biochemical levels, and address effects on crop yield, and on genes, proteins and metabolites. it is now clear that the machinery of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing the economic yield of most plants and inducing a common morphological symptom, called the "foliar injury". The "foliar injury" symptoms can be authentically utilized for biomonitoring of O₃ under natural conditions. Elevated O₃ stress has been convincingly demonstrated to trigger an antioxidative defense system in plants. The past several years have seen the development and application of high-throughput omics technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) that are capable of identifying and prolifiling the O₃-responsive components in model and nonmodel plants. Such studies have been

  12. IMPACT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID AND α-TOCOPHEROL ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF FLAX CULTIVARS UNDER SALINITY STRESS

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    Hala M.S. El-Bassiouny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe interactive effects of saline water (2000, 4000 and 6000 mg/l and foliar application of 400 mg/l of ascorbic acid (Asc or α – tocopherol (α-Toco on three flax cultivars (Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane were conducted during two successive seasons (2011 and 2012. The results showed that, total soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids, proline contents were significantly increased with increasing salinity levels in all three tested cultivars except free amino acid content of Giza 8 which showed a non significant decrease. While, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA showed significant decreases compared with the corresponding controls. Moreover, applications of vitamins (Asc or α-Toco as foliar spraying increased all mentioned contents compared to the corresponding salinity levels. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation, and activity levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT enzymes showed progressive significant increases with increasing salinity levels of all tested three cultivars, while the behaviour of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity showed an opposite response as compared with the control in Sakha 3 and Giza 8. Treatments with Asc or α-Toco induced significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and activities of PPO and POX of all three tested cultivars. Meanwhile, SOD increased in all three cultivars, and CAT activities increased only in Sakha 3 cultivar under salt stress as compared with reference controls. Some modifications are observed in protein patterns hence some proteins were disappeared, while certain other proteins were selectively increased and synthesis of a new set of proteins were induced, some of these responses were observed under treatments and salinity, while others were induced by either treatments or salinity. 

  13. Crescimento e anatomia foliar de plantas jovens de Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco submetidas a diferentes fotoperíodos Growth and foliar anatomy of Mikania glomerata Sprengel ("guaco" plants submitted to different photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Mauro de Castro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel é uma importante espécie medicinal popularmente conhecida como guaco, coração-de-jesus, guaco-liso, guaco-cheiroso, cipó-caatinga e erva-de-cobra. Foram estudados os fotoperíodos de 8, 12, 16 e 20 horas. Após 90 dias de tratamento, determinaram-se o peso de matéria seca total, particionada (entre folhas, ramos e raízes, área foliar, razão de área foliar, razão de peso foliar e área foliar específica. O crescimento das plantas variou em função do fotoperíodo, havendo um acréscimo na matéria seca total e particionada até 16 horas de fotoperíodo, seguido de uma queda, quando o fotoperíodo foi aumentado de 16 para 20 horas. A área foliar e o número de folhas foram crescendo até o fotoperíodo de 20 horas. Houve redução da área foliar específica e na razão de área foliar com o aumento do fotoperíodo. Quanto à razão de peso foliar, houve também um decréscimo nesse caráter quando o fotoperíodo aumentou de 8 para 16 horas; em contrapartida, quando o fotoperíodo aumentou de 16 para 20 horas, houve uma tendência de aumento. Foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos no espessamento dos tecidos foliares. O fotoperíodo influenciou positivamente as características associadas ao crescimento, anatomia foliar e fotossintética, como produção de biomassa total, área foliar, número de folhas, particionamento de biomassa para os diversos órgãos da planta.Mikania glomerata Sprengel, an important medicinal species, popularly known as "guaco", "coração de Jesus", "guaco liso", "guaco cheiroso", "cipó caatinga" and "erva de cobra" was investigated. The photoperiods of 8, 12, 16 and 20 hours were studied. After 90 days' treatment; total dry matter weight, partitioned (among leaves, branches and roots, leaf area, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area were determined. The plants growth changed with photoperiod there was an increase in the total and partitioned dry matter up to

  14. Fertilização foliar de nitrogênio para laranjeira em estágio de formação Foliar nitrogen supply to young citrus plants

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Enedi Boaretto; Plácido Schiavinato Neto; Takashi Muraoka; Mauro Wagner Oliveira; Paulo César Ochezue Trivelin

    1999-01-01

    Laranjeiras em estágio de formação receberam adubação foliar com uréia (15N). As folhas absorveram, nas 48 horas após a adubação foliar, 52% do N aplicado. Em relação ao N aplicado nas folhas das mudas, 38, 39, 23 e 15% foram recuperados nas plantas coletadas aos 75, 120, 180 e 360 dias após o transplante para os vasos, respectivamente. A adubação foliar das mudas não teve efeitos significativos no peso de matéria seca e no acúmulo de N durante o primeiro ano após o transplante.Young orange p...

  15. Wine Grape Response to Foliar Kaolin Particle Film under Differential Deficit Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deficit irrigation improves grape quality for wine production. However, under arid production regions with high solar radiation, water stress may render the vine more susceptible to solar injury and inhibit fruit ripening. This is the first year of a multiyear study to examine the impact of kaolin...

  16. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Corn and Soybean Plants Under Nitrogen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We are investigating the use of spectral indices derived from actively induced fluorescence spectra and passive optical spectra. We examined the influence of photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the spectral fluorescence and passive optical property characteristics of mature, upper leaves from plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of recommended N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight. Steady state laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra (5 nm resolution) were obtained from adaxial and abaxial surfaces resulting from excitation at single wavelengths (280, 380 or 360, and 532 nm). For emission spectra produced by each of these excitation wavelengths, ratios of emission peaks were calculated, including the red far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) ratio (F685/F740) and the far-red/green (F740/F525) ratio. High resolution (< 3 nm) optical spectra (350-2500 nm) of reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance were also acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Species differences were demonstrated for several optical parameters. A 'red edge' derivative ratio determined from transmittance spectra [as the maximum first deivative, between 650-750 nm, normalized to the value at 744 nm, or Dmax/D744], was strongly associated with the C/N ratio (r(exp 2) = 0.90, P +/- 0.001). This ratio, calculated from reflectance spectra, was inversely related to chlorophyll b content (r(exp 2) = 0.91, P +/- 0.001) as was the ChlF (F685/F740) ratio obtained with 532 nm excitation (r(exp 2) = 0.76, P +/- 0.01). Discrimination of N treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380 nm excitation). Higher ChlF and blue-green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces. Abaxial surfaces also produced higher reflectances, in general, in the 400-800 nm spectrum.

  17. Topsoil depth substantially influences the responses to drought of the foliar metabolomes of Mediterranean forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Barbeta, Adrià; Sardans, Jordi; Guenther, Alex; Ogaya, Romà; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-08-01

    Soils provide physical support, water, and nutrients to terrestrial plants. Upper soil layers are crucial for forest dynamics, especially under drought conditions, because many biological processes occur there and provide support, water and nutrients to terrestrial plants. We postulated that tree size and overall plant function manifested in the metabolome composition, the total set of metabolites, were dependent on the depth of upper soil layers and on water availability. We sampled leaves for stoichiometric and metabolomic analyses once per season from differently sized Quercus ilex trees under natural and experimental drought conditions as projected for the coming decades. Different sized trees had different metabolomes and plots with shallower soils had smaller trees. Soil moisture of the upper soil did not explain the tree size and smaller trees did not show higher concentrations of biomarker metabolites related to drought stress. However, the impact of drought treatment on metabolomes was higher in smaller trees in shallower soils. Our results suggested that tree size was more dependent on the depth of the upper soil layers, which indirectly affect the metabolomes of the trees, than on the moisture content of the upper soil layers. Metabolomic profiling of Q. ilex supported the premise that water availability in the upper soil layers was not necessarily correlated with tree size. The higher impact of drought on trees growing in shallower soils nevertheless indicates a higher vulnerability of small trees to the future increase in frequency, intensity, and duration of drought projected for the Mediterranean Basin and other areas. Metabolomics has proven to be an excellent tool detecting significant metabolic changes among differently sized individuals of the same species and it improves our understanding of the connection between plant metabolomes and environmental variables such as soil depth and moisture content.

  18. Foliar Responses that may Determine Plant Injury by Simulated Acid Rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L. S.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the research presented here is to try to use visual, scanning electron micrographs, and histological preparations as tools to predict the relative sensitivity of various plant species to simulated acid rain. It is hoped that these results might enable a prediction of the relative sensitivities of major plant groups of economic and aesthetic interest to air pollutants.

  19. Photosynthesis, growth and foliar herbivory of four Ardisia species (Myrsinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Chen, Jin

    2011-05-01

    Ardisia elliptica is an understory shrub endemic to Southeast Asia and has become a notorious invasive plant in Florida. In this study, we determined the photosynthetic capacity of A. elliptica and phylogenetically related species under four levels of irradiations. In addition, the levels of damage from natural insect herbivory of these four species under common garden conditions were investigated. The results show that A. elliptica had the higher photosynthetic capacity and the relative growth rate (RGR) which could be attributed to its high light-saturated photosynthetic rates ( Pmax), relatively low respiratory rate ( Rd) and the increasing specific leaf area (SLA) with decreasing irradiation. A. elliptica also exhibited high phenotypic plasticity for photosynthetic traits in response to different irradiations including LSPT, Pmax and RGR. Comparing to its congeners, A. elliptica suffered consistently severe damage from natural herbivory. Our results suggest that high photosynthetic capacity and high phenotypic plasticity could enable A. elliptica become a nuisance with the absence of natural enemies in introduced habitats, especially in those disturbed environments with high-light conditions.

  20. EFFECT OF THE FOLIAR BORON FERTILIZATION ON SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kristek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of foliar fertilization with Fertina B element on sugar beet root yield and quality was investigated on two soil types (marsh gleyish hydro-meliorated and loess pseudo-gley poor in boron supply. The research was conducted in the growing season period of 2004th and 2005th. The research aimed to determine both needed boron amount in a foliar fertilization and necessary number of treatment