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Sample records for foliar nitrogen content

  1. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

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    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  3. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature responses of photosynthetic capacity parameters were not affected by foliar nitrogen content in mature Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2018-03-01

    A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax ) and electron transport (J max ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that V cmax and J max exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability. However, despite the strong recent anthropogenic influence on atmospheric temperatures and N deposition to forests, little is known about the role of foliar N contents in controlling the photosynthetic temperature responses. In this study, we investigated the temperature dependencies of V cmax and J max in 1-year-old needles of mature boreal Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) trees growing under low and high N availabilities in northern Sweden. We found that needle N status did not significantly affect the temperature responses of V cmax or J max when the responses were fitted to a peaked function. If such N insensitivity is a common tree trait it will simplify the interpretation of the results from gradient and multi-species studies, which commonly use sites with differing N availabilities, on temperature acclimation of photosynthetic capacity. Moreover, it will simplify modeling efforts aimed at understanding future carbon uptake by precluding the need to adjust the shape of the temperature response curves to variation in N availability. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Growth, gas exchange, foliar nitrogen content, and water use of subirrigated and overhead irrigated Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Matthew M. Aghai; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Kent G. Apostal

    2011-01-01

    Because limitations on water used by container nurseries has become commonplace, nursery growers will have to improve irrigation management. Subirrigation systems may provide an alternative to overhead irrigation systems by mitigating groundwater pollution and excessive water consumption. Seedling growth, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen (N) content, and water use were...

  6. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

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    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  7. Aplicação foliar de nitrogênio em videira: avaliação do teor na folha e das reservas nitrogenadas e de carboidratos nas gemas dos ramos do ano Nitrogen foliar spraying in grapevine: content in leaves and reserve of nitrogen and carboihydrates in shoots buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Rio Grande do Sul (RS, as aplicações foliares de nitrogênio, quando necessárias, têm sido usadas para complementar a adubação via solo. Entretanto, carece-se de informações dos efeitos da freqüência e da quantidade de N aplicado sobre a sua dinâmica na folha e de reservas nitrogenadas e de carboidratos nas partes perenes da videira, que compõem o objetivo deste trabalho. O trabalho foi conduzido em um vinhedo da cultivar Chenin Blanc, safra 2004/05, na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves (RS, sobre um Neossolo Litólico. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma, duas e três aplicações foliares de 0 (água; 1,11; 2,23; 3,31 e 4,41g de N planta-1. Após cada aplicação de nitrogênio, foram coletadas folhas inteiras (limbo+pecíolo no terço médio dos ramos do ano, no interior e exterior dos diferentes lados da planta, secas, moídas e preparadas para a análise de N total. Na última época de coleta de folhas, foram coletados três ramos do ano em cada planta, retiradas seis gemas em cada ramo, as quais foram submetidas à análise de amido, carboidratos solúveis totais, carboidratos redutores, aminoácidos totais e proteínas totais. As aplicações foliares de N aumentaram o teor do nutriente na folha inteira, de forma destacada, nas épocas de coletas próximas às aplicações; entretanto, essas aplicações diminuíram os teores de amido e carboidratos solúveis totais nas gemas dos ramos do ano e não afetaram os teores de carboidratos redutores e os totais de aminoácidos e proteínas.Leaf nitrogen application is used in grapevines in Southern Brazil as complement to soil fertilization. On the other hand, there is no information about its affects on nitrogen content in the leaves and nitrogen and carbohydrates reserves in the perennial parts. The experiment was carried out in 2004/2005, with the objective to evaluate the effect of nitrogen foliar spraying on leaves and nitrogen and carbohydrates reserves in shoots buds

  8. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  9. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  10. Accounting for the effect of temperature in clarifying the response of foliar nitrogen isotope ratios to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjuan; Li, Jiazhu; Wang, Guoan; Shi, Minrui

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects nitrogen isotope composition (δ 15 N) in plants. However, both negative effect and positive effect have been reported. The effects of climate on plant δ 15 N have not been corrected for in previous studies, this has impeded discovery of a true effect of atmospheric N deposition on plant δ 15 N. To obtain a more reliable result, it is necessary to correct for the effects of climatic factors. Here, we measured δ 15 N and N contents of plants and soils in Baiwangshan and Mount Dongling, north China. Atmospheric N deposition in Baiwangshan was much higher than Mount Dongling. Generally, however, foliar N contents showed no difference between the two regions and foliar δ 15 N was significantly lower in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. The corrected foliar δ 15 N after accounting for a predicted value assumed to vary with temperature was obviously more negative in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. Thus, this suggested the necessity of temperature correction in revealing the effect of N deposition on foliar δ 15 N. Temperature, soil N sources and mycorrhizal fungi could not explain the difference in foliar δ 15 N between the two regions, this indicated that atmospheric N deposition had a negative effect on plant δ 15 N. Additionally, this study also showed that the corrected foliar δ 15 N of bulk data set increased with altitude above 1300m in Mount Dongling, this provided an another evidence for the conclusion that atmospheric N deposition could cause 15 N-depletion in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2

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    Haley F. Wicklein; Scott V. Ollinger; Mary E. Martin; David Y. Hollinger; Lucie C. Lepine; Michelle C. Day; Megan K. Bartlett; Andrew D. Richardson; Richard J. Norby

    2012-01-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen-albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting...

  12. Effect of two doses of urea foliar application on leaves and grape nitrogen composition during two vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; García-Escudero, Enrique; Martínez-Vidaurre, José María

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen affects grapevine growth and also yeast metabolism, which have a direct influence on fermentation kinetics and the formation of different volatile compounds. Throughout the grapevine cycle, soil nitrogen availability and grape nitrogen composition can vary because of different factors. Nitrogen foliar applications can contribute toward enhancing grapevine nitrogen status and minimize the problem of leaching that traditional nitrogen-soil applications can provoke. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of urea foliar applications on grapevine nitrogen status and grape amino acid content. Accordingly, two different doses of urea were applied over the leaves of a 'Tempranillo' vineyard. The highest urea doses affected nitrogen content on blade leaf tissues after veraison. Must amino acid profiles were modified by urea application and some of the compounds increased their concentrations. The effect of year on the increase of must total amino acid concentrations was more important than the effect of the doses applied. Urea foliar applications can be an interesting tool for decreasing grapevine nitrogen deficiencies. This method of nitrogen implementation in the vineyard could avoid sluggish fermentation problems during winemaking, enhance must nitrogen composition, and contribute to improving wine quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  14. Effects of Foliar Application of Nitrogen, Zinc and Manganese on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Quality of Chickpea in Two Growing Seasons

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    B. Shirani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of foliar application of zinc, manganese and nitrogen on yield, yield components and grain quality of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. two experiments, one in autumn and the other in spring were conducted at Research Farm, Shahrekord University in 2009-2010 growing season each as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were foliar application of zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate mixture, nitrogen and distilled water (as control. The results showed that planting season had a significant effect on plant height, 100-seed weight and seed yield. All measured traits, except plant height, increased in winter compared to spring growing season. This increase was more than 12% for grain yield. Foliar application of nutrients significantly affected seed yield and seed yield components. Foliar application of nitrogen, presumably, through significant increase in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and 100-seed weight, increased the grain yield by 6.2% compared to control. Foliar application × planting season interactions were significant for plant height and number of pods per plant. Foliar application of nitrogen caused a significant increase in grain yield and protein content. Foliar application of zinc sulphate significantly increased Zn content of grains however it did not affect seed yield. In conclusion, foliar application of nitrogen could be suggested for increasing protein and grain yield in chickpea under similar conditions to that of the present study.

  15. [Dynamics of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition under artificial forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantation.

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    Zhang, Ming Jin; Chen, Liang Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan Qin; Liu, Hua; Li, Xun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays large areas of plantations have caused serious ecological problems such as soil degradation and biodiversity decline. Artificial tending thinning and construction of mixed forest are frequently used ways when we manage plantations. To understand the effect of this operation mode on nutrient cycle of plantation ecosystem, we detected the dynamics of microbial bio-mass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition of Pinus massoniana and Toona ciliate in seven types of gap in different sizes (G 1 : 100 m 2 , G 2 : 225 m 2 , G 3 : 400 m 2 , G 4 : 625 m 2 , G 5 : 900 m 2 , G 6 : 1225 m 2 , G 7 : 1600 m 2 ) of 42-year-old P. massoniana plantations in a hilly area of the upper Yang-tze River. The results showed that small and medium-sized forest gaps(G 1 -G 5 ) were more advantageous for the increment of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition. Along with the foliar litter decomposition during the experiment (360 d), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in P. massoniana foliar litter and MBN in T. ciliata foliar litter first increased and then decreased, and respectively reached the maxima 9.87, 0.22 and 0.80 g·kg -1 on the 180 th d. But the peak (44.40 g·kg -1 ) of MBC in T. ciliata foliar litter appeared on the 90 th d. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in T. ciliate was significantly higher than that of P. massoniana during foliar litter decomposition. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in foliar litter was not only significantly associated with average daily temperature and the water content of foliar litter, but also closely related to the change of the quality of litter. Therefore, in the thinning, forest gap size could be controlled in the range of from 100 to 900 m 2 to facilitate the increase of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition, accelerate the decomposition of foliar litter and improve soil fertility of plantations.

  16. Variation in foliar water content and hyperspectral reflectance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirex noctilio, the Eurasian wood wasp, is one of the major pests responsible for declining forest health in pine forests located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Researchers have shown that stress induced by S. noctilio causes a rapid decrease in foliar water content, with the foliage of the tree changing from a dark green to a ...

  17. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

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    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  18. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  19. Mapping spatial variability of foliar nitrogen in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations with multispectral Sentinel-2 MSI data

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    Chemura, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Odindi, John; Kutywayo, Dumisani

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting factor to coffee development and productivity. Therefore, development of rapid, spatially explicit and temporal remote sensing-based approaches to determine spatial variability of coffee foliar N are imperative for increasing yields, reducing production costs and mitigating environmental impacts associated with excessive N applications. This study sought to assess the value of Sentinel-2 MSI spectral bands and vegetation indices in empirical estimation of coffee foliar N content at landscape level. Results showed that coffee foliar N is related to Sentinel-2 MSI B4 (R2 = 0.32), B6 (R2 = 0.49), B7 (R2 = 0.42), B8 (R2 = 0.57) and B12 (R2 = 0.24) bands. Vegetation indices were more related to coffee foliar N as shown by the Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index - IRECI (R2 = 0.66), Relative Normalized Difference Index - RNDVI (R2 = 0.48), CIRE1 (R2 = 0.28), and Normalized Difference Infrared Index - NDII (R2 = 0.37). These variables were also identified by the random forest variable optimisation as the most valuable in coffee foliar N prediction. Modelling coffee foliar N using vegetation indices produced better accuracy (R2 = 0.71 with RMSE = 0.27 for all and R2 = 0.73 with RMSE = 0.25 for optimized variables), compared to using spectral bands (R2 = 0.57 with RMSE = 0.32 for all and R2 = 0.58 with RMSE = 0.32 for optimized variables). Combining optimized bands and vegetation indices produced the best results in coffee foliar N modelling (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 0.23). All the three best performing models (all vegetation indices, optimized vegetation indices and combining optimal bands and optimal vegetation indices) established that 15.2 ha (4.7%) of the total area under investigation had low foliar N levels (landscape scale.

  20. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

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    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  1. Effect of foliar nitrogen and sulphur application on aromatic expression of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc

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    Florian Lacroux

    2008-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Vine nitrogen deficiency can negatively impact on grape aroma potential. Soil nitrogen application can increase vine nitrogen status, but it has several drawbacks: it increases vigour and enhances Botrytis susceptibility. This study shows that foliar N and foliar N + S applications can improve vine nitrogen status and enhance aroma expression in Sauvignon blanc wines without the negative impact on vigour and Botrytis susceptibility. Although this study was carried out on Sauvignon blanc vines, it is likely that foliar N or foliar N + S applications will have similar effects on other grapevine varieties containing volatile thiols (Colombard, Riesling, Petit Manseng and Sémillon.

  2. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzi, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Gils, H.A.M.J.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam

  3. Vegetation Indices for Mapping Canopy Foliar Nitrogen in a Mixed Temperate Forest

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    Zhihui Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing serves as an effective tool for estimating foliar nitrogen using a variety of techniques. Vegetation indices (VIs are a simple means of retrieving foliar nitrogen. Despite their popularity, few studies have been conducted to examine the utility of VIs for mapping canopy foliar nitrogen in a mixed forest context. In this study, we assessed the performance of 32 vegetation indices derived from HySpex airborne hyperspectral images for estimating canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N in the Bavarian Forest National Park. The partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed for comparison. These vegetation indices were classified into three categories that are mostly correlated to nitrogen, chlorophyll, and structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI. %N was destructively measured in 26 broadleaf, needle leaf, and mixed stand plots to represent the different species and canopy structure. The canopy foliar %N is defined as the plot-level mean foliar %N of all species weighted by species canopy foliar mass fraction. Our results showed that the variance of canopy foliar %N is mainly explained by functional type and species composition. The normalized difference nitrogen index (NDNI produced the most accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.79, RMSECV = 0.26. A comparable estimation of %N was obtained by the chlorophyll index Boochs2 (R2CV = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.27. In addition, the mean NIR reflectance (800–850 nm, representing canopy structural properties, also achieved a good accuracy in %N estimation (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 0.30. The PLSR model provided a less accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.69, RMSECV = 0.32. We argue that the good performance of all three categories of vegetation indices in %N estimation can be attributed to the synergy among plant traits (i.e., canopy structure, leaf chemical and optical properties while these traits may converge across plant species for evolutionary reasons. Our

  4. Effect of Nitrogen Foliar Application on Canola Yield (Brassica napus L. and Nitrogen Efficiency across Different Sowing Dates

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    S Doori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Between oil seeds, from the quality, quantity and nutrition index point of view, canola has the top level . Because of the solubility of N fertilizers, the time of urea application, is very important and one of the main reasons of the reduction in N application efficiency is utilization of urea in an inappropriate time. By precisely foliar application of nitrogen, the efficiency of nitrogen transformation to the grain will be very high because in this method the leaf is considered the main organ of nitrogen uptake and a low amount of absorbed nitrogen was transferred to the root and entered the soil. The more division of N application in growth stages and in accordance with plant need and foliar application result in increasing nitrogen use efficiency. The delay in sowing will result in the reduction of yield and this is due to low LAI, and thus low radiation absorb in vegetable phase and shorter reproductive phase with high temperature in flowering and subsequent stages that result in low prolific silique and make disorder in transferring stored material to grain. In this experiment using N foliar application to decrease the adverse effect of delay in sowing is objective. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resource University of Khuzestan. Experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In this experiment sowing date]optimum sowing (27 November, 17 December and late sowing (30 December [were assigned to main plots and several time of N-foliar application with 5 percent density from urea (20 liter per ha, ]TO (control, T1 (foliar N application in rosette stage, T2 (foliar N application in budding stage, T3 (foliar N application in flowering stage[ were placed in sub-plots in randomized way. Fertilizing was based on the results of soil examination. Therefore, 162 kg ha-1 of pure nitrogen (from resource urea in the way

  5. Are nitrate exports in stream water linked to nitrogen fluxes in decomposing foliar litter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    The central hardwood forest receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, which results in nitrate leaching to surface waters. Immobilization of N in foliar litter during litter decomposition represents a potential mechanism for temporal retention of atmospherically deposited N in forest ecosystems. When litter N dynamics switch to the N-...

  6. Regional patterns in foliar 15N across a gradient of nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Pardo; Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs; Sara Duke

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural abundance 15N can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation, because as nitrification and nitrate loss increase, d15N of foliage and soil also increases. We measured foliar d15N at 11 high-elevation spruce-fir stands along an N deposition gradient...

  7. Seasonal variability of leaf area index and foliar nitrogen in contrasting dry-mesic tundras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Michelsen, Anders; Lemeur, Raoul

    2009-01-01

    Assimilation and exchange of carbon for arctic ecosystems depend strongly on leaf area index (LAI) and total foliar nitrogen (TFN). For dry-mesic tundras, the seasonality of these characteristics is unexplored. We addressed this knowledge gap by measuring variations of LAI and TFN at five contras...

  8. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  9. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition on foliar stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorus of five tree species in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenjuan; Zhou Guoyi; Liu Juxiu; Zhang Deqiang; Xu Zhihong; Liu Shizhong

    2012-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N) addition on foliar N and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry were investigated in five native tree species (four non-N 2 fixers and one N 2 fixer) in open-top chambers in southern China from 2005 to 2009. The high foliar N:P ratios induced by high foliar N and low foliar P indicate that plants may be more limited by P than by N. The changes in foliar N:P ratios were largely determined by P dynamics rather than N under both elevated CO 2 and N addition. Foliar N:P ratios in the non-N 2 fixers showed some negative responses to elevated CO 2 , while N addition reduced foliar N:P ratios in the N 2 fixer. The results suggest that N addition would facilitate the N 2 fixer rather than the non-N 2 fixers to regulate the stoichiometric balance under elevated CO 2 . - Highlights: ► Five native tree species in southern China were more limited by P than by N. ► Shifts in foliar N:P ratios were driven by P dynamic under the global change. ► N addition lowered foliar N:P ratios in the N 2 fixer under elevated CO 2 . - N addition could facilitate the N 2 fixer rather than the non-N 2 fixers to regulate foliar N and P stoichiometry under elevated CO 2 in subtropical forests.

  10. A comparison of two methods for estimating conifer live foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow

    2012-01-01

    Foliar moisture content is an important factor regulating how wildland fires ignite in and spread through live fuels but moisture content determination methods are rarely standardised between studies. One such difference lies between the uses of rapid moisture analysers or drying ovens. Both of these methods are commonly used in live fuel research but they have never...

  11. Seasonal relationships between foliar moisture content, heat content and biochemistry of lodge pole pine and big sagebrush foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Matt Jolly; Philip E. Dennison; Rachael C. Kropp

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fires propagate by liberating energy contained within living and senescent plant biomass. The maximum amount of energy that can be generated by burning a given plant part can be quantified and is generally referred to as its heat content (HC). Many studies have examined heat content of wildland fuels but studies examining the seasonal variation in foliar HC...

  12. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  13. Effects of Foliar Applications of Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Castor Bean (Ricinus cmmunis L. Seed Yield and its Components under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of foliar applications of some macroelements on castor seed yield and its components under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of East Azerbaijan province. A factorial experiment, based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out during 2013 growing season. Treatment factors consisted of irrigations with two levels (no water deficit and water deficit during grain filling stage and of foliar applications of macroelements with four levels [control, wettable sulfur (0.2 percent, nitrogen (urea: 0.6 percent and phosphor (super phosphate triple: 0.4 percent. Traits studied were: plant height, number of inflorescence, number of lateral branches, number of leaves, leaf temperature, relative water content, number of seeds per plant, 1000-kernal weight and seed yield. All traits, except number of inflorescence, were affected significantly by drought stress. Water deficit reduced plant height, number of leaves, number of seeds per plant, 1000-kernal weight, seed yield, relative water content, while it increased leaf temperature. Number of lateral branches was affected significantly by interaction between factors. Maximum latral branches (1.86 were obtained under non-stress treatment with nitrogen foliar application. Moderate drought stress had significant effect on leaf temperature and relative water content. It seems that, these traits can be used in determination of water deficit effects on castor bean.

  14. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  15. Relationships between net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentrations in a loblobby pine forest ecosystem grown in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, C. J.; Thomas, R. B.; Delucia, E. H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on the relationship between light-saturated net photosynthesis and area-based foliar nitrogen concentration in the canopy of a loblobby pine forest at the Duke Forest FACE experiment was examined. Two overstory and four understory tree species were examined at their growth carbon dioxide concentrations during the early summer and late summer of 1999, 2001 and 2002. Light-saturated net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen relationship were compared to determine if the stimulatory effects of elevated carbon dioxide on net photosynthesis had declined. Results at all three sample times showed no difference in either the slopes, or in the y-intercepts of the net photosynthesis-foliar nitrogen relationship when measured at common carbon dioxide concentrations. Net photosynthesis was also unaffected by growth in elevated carbon dioxide, indicating that these overstory and understory trees continued to show strong stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide. 46 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Growth and foliar nitrogen concentrations of interplanted native woody legumes and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Kenneth L. Hunt

    2008-01-01

    The interplanting and underplanting of nodulated nitrogen-fixing plants in tree plantings can increase early growth and foliage nitrogen content of hardwoods, especially black walnut and pecan. Recent studies have demonstrated that some non-nodulated woody legumes may be capable of fixing significant levels of atmospheric nitrogen. The following nine nurse crop...

  17. Foliar nitrogen metabolism of adult Douglas-fir trees is affected by soil water availability and varies little among provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Baoguo; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Dannenmann, Michael; Junker, Laura Verena; Kleiber, Anita; Hess, Moritz; Jansen, Kirstin; Eiblmeier, Monika; Gessler, Arthur; Kohnle, Ulrich; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Wildhagen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The coniferous forest tree Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is native to the pacific North America, and is increasingly planted in temperate regions worldwide. Nitrogen (N) metabolism is of great importance for growth, resistance and resilience of trees. In the present study, foliar N metabolism of adult trees of three coastal and one interior provenance of Douglas-fir grown at two common gardens in southwestern Germany (Wiesloch, W; Schluchsee, S) were characterized in two subsequent years. Both the native North American habitats of the seed sources and the common garden sites in Germany differ in climate conditions. Total and mineral soil N as well as soil water content were higher in S compared to W. We hypothesized that i) provenances differ constitutively in N pool sizes and composition, ii) N pools are affected by environmental conditions, and iii) that effects of environmental factors on N pools differ among interior and coastal provenances. Soil water content strongly affected the concentrations of total N, soluble protein, total amino acids (TAA), arginine and glutamate. Foliar concentrations of total N, soluble protein, structural N and TAA of trees grown at W were much higher than in trees at S. Provenance effects were small but significant for total N and soluble protein content (interior provenance showed lowest concentrations), as well as arginine, asparagine and glutamate. Our data suggest that needle N status of adult Douglas-fir is independent from soil N availability and that low soil water availability induces a re-allocation of N from structural N to metabolic N pools. Small provenance effects on N pools suggest that local adaptation of Douglas-fir is not dominated by N conditions at the native habitats.

  18. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Plants Under Nitrogen Stress Determined with Active and Passive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; Chappelle, E. W.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation productivity is driven by nitrogen (N) availability in soils. Both excessive and low soil N induce physiological changes in plant foliage. In 2001, we examined the use of spectral fluorescence and reflectance measurements to discriminate among plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of optimal N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight daily). Three types of steady state laser-induced fluorescence measurements were made on adaxial and abaxial surfaces: 1) fluorescence images in four 10 nm bands (blue, green, red, far-red) resulting from broad irradiance excitation; 2) emission spectra (5 nm resolution) produced by excitation at single wavelengths (280,380 or 360, and 532 nm); and 3) excitation spectra (2 nm resolution), with emission wavelengths fixed at wavelengths centered on selected solar Fraunhofer lines (532,607,677 and 745 nm). Two complementary sets of high resolution (less than 2 nm) optical spectra were acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces: 1) optical properties (350-2500 nm) for reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; and 2) reflectance spectra (500-1000 nm) acquired with and without a short pass filter at 665 nm to determine the fluorescence contribution to apparent reflectance in the 650-750 spectrum, especially at the 685 and 740 nm chlorophyll fluorescence (ChIF) peaks. The strongest relationships between foliar chemistry and optical properties were demonstrated for C/N content and two optical parameters associated with the red edge inflection point. Select optical properties and ChIF parameters were highly correlated for both species. A significant contribution of ChIF to apparent reflectance was observed, averaging 10-25% at 685 nm and 2 - 6% at 740 nm over all N treatments. Discrimination of N treatment

  19. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  20. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seed and Foliar Application of Amino Acids Improve Variables of Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Soybean Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Walquíria F; Fagan, Evandro B; Soares, Luis H; Soares, Jérssica N; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D

    2018-01-01

    The application of amino acids in crops has been a common practice in recent years, although most of the time they are associated with products based on algae extracts or on fermented animal or vegetable wastes. However, little is known about the isolated effect of amino acids on the development of crops. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the in some steps of the soybean nitrogen metabolism and on productivity. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and glycine (Gly) and as a set (Glu+Phe+Cys+Gly), as seed treatment (ST), as foliar application (FA) and both (ST+FA), at the V 4 growth stage. Evaluations consisted of nitrate reductase and urease activities, nitrate, ureide, total amino acids and total nitrogen content in leaves, and productivity. The application of Glu to leaves, Cys as ST and a mixture of Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as ST+FA in the greenhouse experiment increased the total amino acids content. In the field experiment all treatments increased the amino acid content in leaves. At the V 6 stage in the field experiment, all modes of Gly application, Glu as ST and FA, Cys and Phe as ST+FA and Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as FA increased the nitrate content in leaves. In the greenhouse, application of Cys and Phe as ST increased the production of soybean plants by at least 21%. The isolated application of Cys, Phe, Gly, Glu and the set of these amino acids as ST increased the productivity of soybean plants in the field experiment by at least 22%.

  2. Seed and Foliar Application of Amino Acids Improve Variables of Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Walquíria F.; Fagan, Evandro B.; Soares, Luis H.; Soares, Jérssica N.; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D.

    2018-01-01

    The application of amino acids in crops has been a common practice in recent years, although most of the time they are associated with products based on algae extracts or on fermented animal or vegetable wastes. However, little is known about the isolated effect of amino acids on the development of crops. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the in some steps of the soybean nitrogen metabolism and on productivity. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and glycine (Gly) and as a set (Glu+Phe+Cys+Gly), as seed treatment (ST), as foliar application (FA) and both (ST+FA), at the V4 growth stage. Evaluations consisted of nitrate reductase and urease activities, nitrate, ureide, total amino acids and total nitrogen content in leaves, and productivity. The application of Glu to leaves, Cys as ST and a mixture of Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as ST+FA in the greenhouse experiment increased the total amino acids content. In the field experiment all treatments increased the amino acid content in leaves. At the V6 stage in the field experiment, all modes of Gly application, Glu as ST and FA, Cys and Phe as ST+FA and Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as FA increased the nitrate content in leaves. In the greenhouse, application of Cys and Phe as ST increased the production of soybean plants by at least 21%. The isolated application of Cys, Phe, Gly, Glu and the set of these amino acids as ST increased the productivity of soybean plants in the field experiment by at least 22%. PMID:29643860

  3. Nitrate transporters in leaves and their potential roles in foliar uptake of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo eHu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While plant roots are specialized organs for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients, the absorption of gaseous or liquid mineral elements by aerial plant parts has been recognized since more than one century. Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient which generally absorbed either as nitrate (NO3- or ammonium (NH4+ by plant roots. Gaseous nitrogen pollutants like N dioxide (NO2 can also be absorbed by plant surfaces and assimilated via the NO3– assimilation pathway. The subsequent NO3– flux may induce or repress the expression of various NO3–-responsive genes encoding for instance, the transmembrane transporters, NO3–/NO2– (nitrite reductase, or assimilatory enzymes involved in N metabolism. Based on the existing information, the aim of this review was to theoretically analyze the potential link between foliar NO2 absorption and N transport and metabolism. For such purpose, an overview of the state of knowledge on the NO3– transporter genes identified in leaves or shoots of various species and their roles for NO3– transport across the tonoplast and plasma membrane, in addition to the process of phloem loading is briefly provided. It is assumed that a NO2-induced ac-cumulation of NO3–/NO2– may alter the expression of such genes, hence linking transmembrane NO3– transporters and foliar uptake of NO2. It is likely that NRT1/NRT2 gene expression and spe-cies-dependent apoplastic buffer capacity may be also related to the species-specific foliar NO2 uptake process. It is concluded that further work focusing on the expression of NRT1 (NRT1.1, NRT1.7, NRT1.11 and NRT1.12, NRT2 (NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 and chloride channel family genes (CLCa and CLCd may help us elucidate the physiological and metabolic response of plants fumigated with NO2.

  4. Long-term trends of changes in pine and oak foliar nitrogen metabolism in response to chronic nitrogen amendments at Harvard Forest, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Swathi A. Turlapati; Stephanie Long; William H. McDowell; Subhash C. Minocha

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term (1995-2008) trends in foliar and sapwood metabolism, soil solution chemistry and tree mortality rates in response to chronic nitrogen (N) additions to pine and hardwood stands at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Common stress-related metabolites like polyamines (PAs), free amino acids (AAs) and inorganic elements...

  5. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  6. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Stock, W.D.; Hedderson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar δ 15 N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha -1 a -1 since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa

  7. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  8. Absorção e redistribuição do nitrogênio aplicado via foliar em videiras jovens Uptake and redistribution of nitrogen in foliar application in young grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de nitrogênio via foliar antes da senescência das folhas da videira pode ser uma estratégia para aumentar as reservas deste nutriente nas partes perenes, uma vez que as mesmas são disponibilizadas no início do crescimento vegetativo dos órgãos anuais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estimar a absorção e a redistribuição do N adicionado via foliar em videiras jovens. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na EMBRAPA-Uva e Vinho, no município de Bento Gonçalves (RS. Foram utilizadas as variedades Chardonnay e Riesling Itálico com porta-enxerto 101-14 Mgt. Foi cultivada uma planta por vaso contendo 10kg de solo Neossolo Litólico. A aplicação do N via foliar foi parcelada em três vezes, durante três dias sucessivos. Foram aplicados 84,84mg N planta-1 na forma de (15NH42SO4 . As plantas foram colhidas em sete épocas diferentes. Após a colheita, as plantas foram fracionadas em folhas, enxerto, porta-enxerto, raízes grossas (>2mm e raízes finas (The foliar application of nitrogen before the leaves senescence may be a strategy to increase the nutrient reserves in the perennial parts, being available in the beginning of the vegetative growth of the annual parts. The objective of this work was to estimate the uptake and redistribution of N applied by foliar way in young grapevines. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at EMBRAPA-Grape and Wine, Bento Gonçalves Southern Brazil. The cultivars used were Chardonnay and Riesling Italic grafted on rootstock 101-14 Mgt. It was cultivated one plant by vase with 10kg of soil Udorthent. The foliar application of N was parceled in three times during three successive days. It was applied 84,84mg N plant-1 using (15NH42SO4 . The plants were collected in seven times, during vegetative growth. The plants were fractionated in leaves, graft, carry-graft, thick roots (>2mm and fine roots (<2mm, oven-dried, weighted, and analyzed N-total and 15N contents. The

  9. Soil Fauna Affects Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen in Foliar Litter in Alpine Forest and Alpine Meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Yu; Peng, Yan; Li, Jun; Tan, Bo; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) are generally considered important active biogeochemical pools of total carbon and nitrogen. Many studies have documented the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition, but the effects of the soil fauna on labile substances (i.e., DOC and TDN) in litter during early decomposition are not completely clear. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was carried out from 13th November 2013 to 23rd October 2014 in an alpine forest and an alpine meadow located on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Litterbags with different mesh sizes were used to provide access to or prohibit the access of the soil fauna, and the concentrations of DOC and TDN in the foliar litter were measured during the winter (the onset of freezing, deep freezing and thawing stage) and the growing season (early and late). After one year of field incubation, the concentration of DOC in the litter significantly decreased, whereas the TDN concentration in the litter increased. Similar dynamic patterns were detected under the effects of the soil fauna on both DOC and TDN in the litter between the alpine forest and the alpine meadow. The soil fauna showed greater positive effects on decreasing DOC concentration in the litter in the winter than in the growing season. In contrast, the dynamics of TND in the litter were related to seasonal changes in environmental factors, rather than the soil fauna. In addition, the soil fauna promoted a decrease in litter DOC/TDN ratio in both the alpine forest and the alpine meadow throughout the first year of decomposition, except for in the late growing season. These results suggest that the soil fauna can promote decreases in DOC and TDN concentrations in litter, contributing to early litter decomposition in these cold biomes.

  10. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ffect of Nitrogen and Zinc Foliar Application on Quantitative Traits of Tea Rosslle (Hibiscus sabdariffa in Jiroft Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza raisi sarbijan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen is an essential element forplants and in combination withelements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur results ineven more valuable materials such as amino acids, nucleic acids, alkaloids. Hibiscus tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa from Malvaceaefamily is known by different names in different parts of the world. In Iran it is calledthe Maki tea, tea Meccaorred tea.As an important plant,it is decided to investigate its growth and development in Jiroft. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in farm research of Islamic Azad University of Jiroft during 2010. The first factor was nitrogen foliar application in four levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 percent and second factor was foliar application of zinc at twolevels (0 and 1 percent. The measured quantitative characteristics were stem diameter, plant height, calycle fresh weight,calycle dry weight, plant fresh weight,plant dry weight, leaf fresh weight,leaf dry weight, mucilage percentage and mucilage yield. Results and Discussion:The results of ANOVA showed that nitrogen foliar application on leaf dry weight, calycle fresh and dry weight was effective. Plant fresh weight, dry weight, stem diameter, plant height, mucilage percentageandmucilage yield showedsignificanteffects. Zinc foliar application significantly affected leaf fresh weight,leafdry weight, calycle fresh weight, plant fresh weight,plant dry weight, mucilage percentage andmucilage yield.The interaction effect of nitrogen and zinc on leaf dry weight, plant freshweight and plant dry weight was also significant. The mean comparison of studied characteristics revealed that byincreasing the amount of nitrogen up to N2 level, the stem diameter, plant height, leaf dry weight, calycle dry weight, mucilage percentage and yield increased but there was no significant difference between N2 and N3 levels. Plant fresh weight and plantdry weight

  12. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Foliar nitrogen and potassium applications improve photosynthetic activities and water relations in sunflower under moisture deficit condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.A.; Ahmad, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of foliar supplementation of nitrogen (N) potassium (K) and their combination on photosynthetic activities, physiological indices and water relations of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids Hysen-33 and LG-5551 under water deficit condition. Studies were conducted in a wire-house at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Treatments were two water stress levels [100 (control) and 60% field capacity (water deficit)], six levels of foliar spray (no spray, water spray, 1% N, 1% K, 0.5% N + 0.5% K and 1% N + 1% K) and each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed that water stress reduced the photosynthetic activities: Pn (photosynthetic rate), E (rate of tanspiration) and gs (stomatal conductance) and water relations i.e., pie w (water potential), pie s (osmotic potential) and pie p (turgor potential) . Soil moisture deficit also significantly reduced the plant height, root length, fresh and dry matter which consequently affected the plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and dry matter stress tolerance index (DMSI) in both sunflower hybrids. However, foliar supplementation with N and K or N+K improved the photosynthetic activities, water relations and physiological indices of both the sunflower hybrids. The findings of present study suggest that application of N+K is necessary to have high plant productivity. (author)

  14. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  15. Slow-cycle effects of foliar herbivory alter the nitrogen acquisition and population size of Collembola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Bradford; Tara Gancos; Christopher J. Frost

    2008-01-01

    In terrestrial systems there is a close relationship between litter quality and the activity and abundance of decomposers. Therefore, the potential exists for aboveground, herbivore-induced changes in foliar chemistry to affect soil decomposer fauna. These herbivore-induced changes in chemistry may persist across growing seasons. While the impacts of such slow-cycle...

  16. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Corn and Soybean Plants Under Nitrogen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We are investigating the use of spectral indices derived from actively induced fluorescence spectra and passive optical spectra. We examined the influence of photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the spectral fluorescence and passive optical property characteristics of mature, upper leaves from plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of recommended N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight. Steady state laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra (5 nm resolution) were obtained from adaxial and abaxial surfaces resulting from excitation at single wavelengths (280, 380 or 360, and 532 nm). For emission spectra produced by each of these excitation wavelengths, ratios of emission peaks were calculated, including the red far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) ratio (F685/F740) and the far-red/green (F740/F525) ratio. High resolution (treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380 nm excitation). Higher ChlF and blue-green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces. Abaxial surfaces also produced higher reflectances, in general, in the 400-800 nm spectrum.

  17. Variations in yield and gluten proteins in durum wheat varieties under late-season foliar versus soil application of nitrogen fertilizer in a northern Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Bonas, Urbana; Dal Cortivo, Cristian; Pasini, Gabriella; Marmiroli, Nelson; Mosca, Giuliano; Vamerali, Teofilo

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing demand for high-quality foodstuffs and concern for environmental sustainability, late-season nitrogen (N) foliar fertilization of common wheat is now an important and widespread practice. This study investigated the effects of late-season foliar versus soil N fertilization on yield and protein content of four varieties of durum wheat, Aureo, Ariosto, Biensur and Liberdur, in a three-year field trial in northern Italy. Variations in low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMW-GS), high-molecular-weight glutenins (HMW-GS) and gliadins were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was found that N applied to the canopy did not improve protein rate compared with N application to the soil (general mean 138 mg g -1 ), but moderately increased productivity in the high-yielding varieties Liberdur and Biensur (three-year means 7.23 vs 7.13 and 7.53 vs 7.09 t ha -1 respectively). Technological quality was mainly related to variety choice, Aureo and Ariosto having higher protein rates and glutenin/gliadin ratios. Also found was a strong 'variety × N application method' interaction in the proportions of protein subunits within each class, particularly LMW-GS and gliadins. A promising result was the higher N uptake efficiency, although as apparent balance, combined with higher HMW/LMW-GS ratio in var. Biensur. Late-season foliar N fertilization allows N fertilizer saving, potentially providing environmental benefits in the rainy climate of the northern Mediterranean area, and also leads to variety-dependent up-regulation of essential LMW-GS and gliadins. Variety choice is a key factor in obtaining high technological quality, although it is currently associated with modest grain yield. This study provides evidence of high quality in the specific high-yielding variety Biensur, suggesting its potential as a mono-varietal semolina for pasta production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Long-term trends of changes in pine and oak foliar nitrogen metabolism in response to chronic nitrogen amendments at Harvard Forest, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Long, Stephanie; McDowell, William H; Minocha, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term (1995-2008) trends in foliar and sapwood metabolism, soil solution chemistry and tree mortality rates in response to chronic nitrogen (N) additions to pine and hardwood stands at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Common stress-related metabolites like polyamines (PAs), free amino acids (AAs) and inorganic elements were analyzed for control, low N (LN, 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N (HN, 150 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) treatments. In the pine stands, partitioning of excess N into foliar PAs and AAs increased with both N treatments until 2002. By 2005, several of these effects on N metabolites disappeared for HN, and by 2008 they were mostly observed for LN plot. A significant decline in foliar Ca and P was observed mostly with HN for a few years until 2005. However, sapwood data actually showed an increase in Ca, Mg and Mn and no change in PAs in the HN plot for 2008, while AAs data revealed trends that were generally similar to foliage for 2008. Concomitant with these changes, mortality data revealed a large number of dead trees in HN pine plots by 2002; the mortality rate started to decline by 2005. Oak trees in the hardwood plot did not exhibit any major changes in PAs, AAs, nutrients and mortality rate with LN treatment, indicating that oak trees were able to tolerate the yearly doses of 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1). However, HN trees suffered from physiological and nutritional stress along with increased mortality in 2008. In this case also, foliar data were supported by the sapwood data. Overall, both low and high N applications resulted in greater physiological stress to the pine trees than the oaks. In general, the time course of changes in metabolic data are in agreement with the published reports on changes in soil chemistry and microbial community structure, rates of soil carbon sequestration and production of woody biomass for this chronic N study. This correspondence of selected metabolites

  19. Impacts of limestone and nitrogen top dressing application on the potassium content in the soil profile and marandu-grass leaf concentration Impactos da aplicação de calcário e nitrogênio em cobertura no teor de potássio no perfil do solo e na concentração foliar do capim-marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen doses (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1, with or without dolomitic lime covering application, on the potassium (K soil content at depths varying form 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 20 cm, and the potassium concentration in the plant. The experiment was carried out in a rhodic ferralsol with a slightly rolling relief, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, in a complete randomized block design, with four replications. Nitrogenated fertilization caused a linear increase in the potassium concentration in the plant and also in the mineral content in the 0-5 cm soil layer. An effect of competitive inhibition occurred between the potassium and calcium absorption, and potassium and magnesium absorption. Although a significant fraction of potassium returned to the soil surface layer through the forage residue due to the increase in dry matter production caused by nitrogenated fertilization, the increase in the potassium concentration in the plant due to the doses of nitrogen demonstrated the importance of considering the potassium supply to the plant, when the forage mass is intensified through nitrogenated fertilization.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg/ha.ano, com ou sem aplicação de calcário dolomítico em cobertura, sobre o teor de potássio (K do solo nas profundidades de 0 a 5; 5 a 10; e 10 a 20 cm e a concentração de potássio na planta. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de relevo suavemente ondulado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A adubação nitrogenada promoveu aumento linear na concentração de potássio na planta e no teor desse mineral na camada de 0 a 5 cm do solo. Ocorreu efeito de inibição competitiva entre a absorção de potássio e cálcio e entre potássio e magnésio. Embora uma fração significativa de potássio retorne

  20. HIGH FOLIAR NITROGEN IN DESERT SHRUBS: AN IMPORTANT ECOSYSTEM TRAIT OR DEFECTIVE DESERT DOCTRINE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen concentrations in green and senesced leaves of perennial desert shrubs were compiled from a worldwide literature search to test the validity of the doctrine that desert shrubs produce foliage and leaf litter much richer in nitrogen than that in the foliage of plants from...

  1. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Corn and Soybean Plants Under Nitrogen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We are investigating the use of spectral indices derived from actively induced fluorescence spectra and passive optical spectra. We examined the influence of photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the spectral fluorescence and passive optical property characteristics of mature, upper leaves from plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of recommended N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight. Steady state laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra (5 nm resolution) were obtained from adaxial and abaxial surfaces resulting from excitation at single wavelengths (280, 380 or 360, and 532 nm). For emission spectra produced by each of these excitation wavelengths, ratios of emission peaks were calculated, including the red far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) ratio (F685/F740) and the far-red/green (F740/F525) ratio. High resolution (< 3 nm) optical spectra (350-2500 nm) of reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance were also acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Species differences were demonstrated for several optical parameters. A 'red edge' derivative ratio determined from transmittance spectra [as the maximum first deivative, between 650-750 nm, normalized to the value at 744 nm, or Dmax/D744], was strongly associated with the C/N ratio (r(exp 2) = 0.90, P +/- 0.001). This ratio, calculated from reflectance spectra, was inversely related to chlorophyll b content (r(exp 2) = 0.91, P +/- 0.001) as was the ChlF (F685/F740) ratio obtained with 532 nm excitation (r(exp 2) = 0.76, P +/- 0.01). Discrimination of N treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380 nm excitation). Higher ChlF and blue-green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces

  2. Rational Application of Fertilizer Nitrogen to Soil in Combination With Foliar Zn Spraying Improved Zn Nutritional Quality of Wheat Grains

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    Haiyong Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate human zinc (Zn deficiency, it is worthy to develop rational agronomic managements to achieve high yielding and high resource-use efficiency wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains biofortified with Zn. Effects of application of three rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer (75,200 and 275 kg·ha−1 to soil in combination with three foliar applications (deionized water, Zn alone, and a combination of Zn and sucrose on grain yield, yield components, grain Zn concentration, protein, phytic acid (PA, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and carbon (C, as well as on Zn bioavailability, were investigated in four wheat cultivars (“Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” under field conditions. Enhanced N increased Zn and protein concentrations as well as bioavailability; excessive N input did not result in further improvements. Zinc spraying was more effective than soil fertilizer N application, the spray of Zn (with or without sucrose increased grain Zn concentrations by 11.1–15.6 mg·kg−1 (27.1–38.1%, and increased grain Zn bioavailability, estimated using total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ and molar ratios of PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn, by 0.4–0.6 mg d−1 (28.6–42.9%, 23.1–27.4% and 24.0–28.0%, respectively. Remarkably, increases caused by ‘Zn + sucrose’ were higher than spraying Zn alone. Grain Zn bioavailability was more sensitive to the selection of cultivar than Zn concentrations. Among cultivars, the higher the grain yields and concentrations of antinutritional compounds, the lower the grain Zn nutritional quality would be. 200 kg N ha−1 application rate in combination with foliar spraying of “Zn + sucrose” maximized grain Zn concentrations of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” to be 59.4, 56.9, 55.8, and 60.9 mg kg−1, respectively, achieving the target value for biofortification. Additionally, PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” and “Luyuan 502” were

  3. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  5. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content ... devices to measure chlorophyll index (SPAD) and N content in the leaf. The nitrogen levels were found ... absorption of other nutrients and the production of carbohydrates. The methods ...

  6. Aplicação foliar de cálcio em pessegueiro na Serra Gaúcha: avaliação do teor de nutrientes na folha, no fruto e produção Foliar application of calcium in peach in Serra Gaúcha: evaluation of content of nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-06-01

    calcium in Peach tree in the Southern Brasil is used during productive cycle, without any information about calcium content and other nutrients in the leaves, fruits and yield. Two experiments were carried out in 2003/2004 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different sources of calcium in its content and other nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield of peach trees, Chimarrita cultivar, at an Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Pinto Bandeira city. The treatments in the experiment 1 were three foliar applications of calcium chloride, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%.Experiment 2 were three foliar applications of calcium nitrate, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications and three plants for treatment. Leaves were collected, oven-dried and analyzed total calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. In the maturation, fruits were collected and determined the mass, yield and total content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. The results showed that foliar applications of calcium in the form of chloride and nitrate in peach tree, increase calcium content in the leaves, but did not affect the content of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the leaves, content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the fruit and yield.

  7. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

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    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein content in the plants under examination constitutes 18 to 25%o of dry matter. Albumins and glutelins are the most abundant protein fractions.

  8. Nitrogen availability, leaf life span and nitrogen conservation mechanisms in leaves of tropical trees Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, longevidade foliar e mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio em folhas de espécies arbóreas tropicais

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    Guilherme Nascimento Corte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen species of temperate regions are dominant in low-nutrient soils. This feature is attributed to more efficient mechanisms of nutrient economy. Nevertheless, the cashew (Anacardium occidentale- Anacardiaceae, a deciduous species, is native to regions in Brazil with sandy soil, whilst the annatto (Bixa orellana- Bixaceae, classified as an evergreen species native to tropical America, grows spontaneously in regions with more humid soils. Evergreens contain robust leaves that can resist adverse conditions for longer. The physical aspects of the leaves and mechanisms of nutrient economy between the two species were compared, in order to verify whether the deciduous species had more efficient mechanisms that might explain its occurrence in regions of low soil fertility. The mechanisms of nitrogen economy were also compared for the two species at available concentrations of this nutrient. The following were analysed: (i leaf life span, (ii physical leaf characteristics (leaf mass per area, and rupture strain, (iii nitrogenous compounds (nitrogen, chlorophyll, and protein, (iv nitrogen conservation mechanisms (nitrogen resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, and use efficiency, and (v nitrogen conservation mechanisms under different availability of this mineral. The higher values of leaf mass per area and leaf rupture strain found in A. occidentale were related to its longer leaf life span. A. occidentale showed lower concentrations of nitrogen and protein in the leaves than B. orellana. Under lower nitrogen availability, A. occidentale had higher nitrogen resorption proficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and leaf life span than B. orellana. These characteristics may contribute to the adaptation of this species to sandy soils with low nitrogen content.Perenifólias de clima temperado são dominantes em solos pouco férteis. Essa característica é atribuída a mecanismos mais eficientes de economia de nutrientes. O cajueiro (Anacardium

  9. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  10. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Lindsey Rustad; G. Bruce Wiersma; Ivan Fernandez; Alan S. White; Gregory J. White

    2005-01-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since...

  11. Organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of some tea soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.S.; Zamir, M.R.; Sanauallah, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from Rungicherra Tea-Estate of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh. Organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus content of the collected soil of different topographic positions have been determined. The experimental data have been analyzed statistically and plotted against topography and soil depth. Organic carbon and organic matter content varied from 0.79 to 1.24% and 1.37 to 2.14%. respectively. Total nitrogen and available phosphorus content of these soils varied respectively from 0.095 to 0.13% and 2.31 to 4.02 ppm. (author)

  12. Microbial Biofertilizer Decreases Nicotine Content by Improving Soil Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cui; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Guiqiu; Li, Huanke; Guan, Song; He, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Biofertilizers have been widely used in many countries for their benefit to soil biological and physicochemical properties. A new microbial biofertilizer containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Bacillus thuringiensis was prepared to decrease nicotine content in tobacco leaves by regulating soil nitrogen supply. Soil NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, nitrogen supply-related enzyme activities, and nitrogen accumulation in plant leaves throughout the growing period were investigated to explore the mechanism of nicotine reduction. The experimental results indicated that biofertilizer can reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves, with a maximum decrement of 16-18 % in mature upper leaves. In the meantime, the total nitrogen in mature lower and middle leaves increased with the application of biofertilizer, while an opposite result was observed in upper leaves. Protein concentration in leaves had similar fluctuation to that of total nitrogen in response to biofertilizer. NO 3 - -N content and nitrate reductase activity in biofertilizer-amended soil increased by 92.3 and 42.2 %, respectively, compared to those in the control, whereas the NH 4 + -N and urease activity decreased by 37.8 and 29.3 %, respectively. Nitrogen uptake was improved in the early growing stage, but this phenomenon was not observed during the late growth period. Nicotine decrease is attributing to the adjustment of biofertilizer in soil nitrogen supply and its uptake in tobacco, which result in changes of nitrogen content as well as its distribution in tobacco leaves. The application of biofertilizer containing P. chrysosporium and B. thuringiensis can reduce the nicotine content and improve tobacco quality, which may provide some useful information for tobacco cultivation.

  13. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  14. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  15. Leaf and sidedressing nitrogen application on wheat crop in savannaAplicação foliar e em cobertura de nitrogênio na cultura do trigo no cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Andreotti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen in wheat is essential for obtaining high yields, not only the dose but also the time and the way of application are critical, reducing potential leaching and the cost of production. The objective is evaluating leaf and sidedressing nitrogen application on wheat crop in years of 2006 and 2007. A randomized blocks design in a factorial scheme 5x3x2 was used. The treatments consisted of five doses of nitrogen in the solution (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10%, three application times (at tillering: 30 days after plant emergency (DAE, at full flowering (50 DAE + in the beginning of grain formation (70 DAE and at tillering + in the beginning of grain formation, with and without sidedressing nitrogen applied at 40 DAE, using urea as source. They were evaluated: chlorophyll and nitrogen content in leaf, number of spikelets per ear, number of grains per ear, mass of grains per ear, number of grains per spikelet, mass hectolitric, mass of 100 grains and productivity of grains. The application of nitrogen topdressing in both years, influenced the yield characteristics of wheat. The times of leaf nitrogen only affected the leaf N content. The leaf nitrogen concentrations increased linearly the number of grains per spikelets, grains per spike, chlorophyll content, grain weight per ear and grain yield, and reduced mean weight per hectoliter, only in 2007.A adubação nitrogenada na cultura do trigo é essencial para a obtenção de altas produtividades da cultura, não somente a dose, como também a época e o modo de aplicação são fundamentais no rendimento, reduzindo possíveis problemas de lixiviação e o custo de produção. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura e foliar em diferentes estádios sobre as características produtivas da cultura do trigo em dois agrícolas, em condições irrigadas no cerrado. Os tratamentos foram originados do fatorial 5x3x2 e consistiram de cinco concentrações de

  16. Uptake of soil-, foliar-and pod-applied nitrogen and phosphorus by rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Xi Haifu; Lang Xianhua

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of soil-applied and foliar-and pod applied N, P by rape was studied by using 32 P and 15 N labelled fertilizer under pot culture condition. Application of phosphorus fertilizer to purplish clayey paddy soil which was poor in available P had influence on utilization of basal-dressed NH 4 HCO 3 by rape and subsequently on its growth and seed yield. Utilization rate of applied N in whole plant and seeds were 3.66 and 5.13 fold respectively as compared with control when 187.5 kg/ha of superphosphate were applied and increased with increasing application of superphosphate (187.5-562.5 kg/ha). Application of P fertilizer not only increased uptake of N but also promoted transportation of N from vegetative organs to seeds. Rape plant uptook 69.09% of foliar-and pod-applied N in form of 2% solution of urea after flowering and transported the N to seeds in greater proportion than that of soil-applied N. In the same period, 60% of foliar- and pod-applied P in form of 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 was absorbed by rape plant, most of which was in leaves. Uptake of N and P by rape increased 17.89% and 27.78% respectively when urea and phosphate was applied together compared with using urea and phosphate alone. Uptake of basal-dressed P by rape plant was 6% at early growing stage

  17. Content of nitrogen in atmospheric precipitation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstroem, A; Hoegberg, L

    1952-01-01

    In the present paper an attempt is made to give a general idea of the geographical distribution of fixed nitrogen (NH/sub 4/-N) transferred to the soil through precipitation in Sweden. Further a map is given showing the distribution af alpha, a quantity proportional to the nitrogen concentration in the precipitation at the beginning of a rain and, it is assumed, representative for the content of fixed nitrogen in the atmosphere before the rain is falling. A discussion of different causes of the concentration of fixed nitrogen in precipitation is presented and a photochemical process is suggested, which would explain the almost constant ratio between NH/sub 4//sup -n/ and NO/sub 3//sup -n/ frequently found within the temperate zones. It is evident, however, that other causes also are at work, especially at lower latitudes. The need of laboratory experiments is emphasized.

  18. Predicting soil nitrogen content using narrow-band indices from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal fertiliser applications for sustainable forest stand productivity management, whilst protecting the environment, is vital. This study estimated soil nitrogen content using leaf-level narrow-band vegetation indices derived from a hand-held 350–2 500 nm spectroradiometer. Leaf-level spectral data were collected and ...

  19. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was carried out at John Ker Nigeria Organo-Mineral Company site at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of nitrogen enrichment on contents of heavy metals in cattle dung/poultry manure compost and the growth of maize. Cattle dung was mixed with poultry manure in the ratio of 3:1 ...

  20. Combined effects of soil-applied and foliar-applied nitrogen on the nitrogen composition and distribution in water stressed "Vitis vinifera L." cv Sauvignon blanc grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Jreij

    2009-12-01

    Significance and impact of study: This work helps to provide insight into the effect of N soil fertilization along with foliar fertilization on waterstressed vines. This may be useful in fertilization programs in the Mediterranean area and may help to choose the type and the rate of the N fertilization in case of severe vine water deficit. Also, we provide information of utmost importance on the distribution of summer foliarapplied N in grape tissues.

  1. Climate controls photosynthetic capacity more than leaf nitrogen contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Global vegetation models continue to lack the ability to make reliable predictions because the photosynthetic capacity varies a lot with growth conditions, season and among species. It is likely that vegetation models link photosynthetic capacity to concurrent changes in leaf nitrogen content only. To improve the predictions of the vegetation models, there is an urgent need to review species growth conditions and their seasonal response to changing climate. We sampled the global distribution of the Vcmax (maximum carboxylation rates) data of various species across different environmental gradients from the literature and standardized its value to 25 degree Celcius. We found that species explained the largest variation in (1) the photosynthetic capacity and (2) the proportion of nitrogen allocated for rubisco (PNcb). Surprisingly, climate variables explained more variations in photosynthetic capacity as well as PNcb than leaf nitrogen content and/or specific leaf area. The chief climate variables that explain variation in photosynthesis and PNcb were radiation, temperature and daylength. Our analysis suggests that species have the greatest control over photosynthesis and PNcb. Further, compared to leaf nitrogen content and/or specific leaf area, climate variables have more control over photosynthesis and PNcb. Therefore, climate variables should be incorporated in the global vegetation models when making predictions about the photosynthetic capacity.

  2. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  3. Concentração foliar de nutrientes em cultivares de Coffea arabica L. sob espaçamentos adensados Foliar nutrient contents in cultivars of Coffea arabica L. at condensed spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Silva Augusto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios adensados de café proporcionam melhor reciclagem de nutrientes e conseqüentemente reduzem a perda de nutrientes do solo por erosão, lixiviação e oxidação da matéria orgânica. Avaliaram-se as influências de diferentes espaçamentos na concentração de macro e micronutrientes em folhas de cafeeiro das cultivares IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 e UFV 3880. Ao início do experimento o solo foi arado para incorporação do calcário. As mudas foram plantadas em covas de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,40 m, espaçadas entre si em 0,75 m na fileira. Na adubação de plantio aplicou-se 200 g de Fosfato Natural de Araxá, 50 g de Superfosfato Simples por cova, e 15 dias após o plantio 2L/cova de esterco em cobertura. As demais adubações foram realizadas segundo o recomendado para a cultura do café. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados num esquema fatorial 6 x 4 (seis cultivares x quatro espaçamentos, com seis repetições. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro fileiras de 4,50 m de comprimento, espaçadas entre fileiras em 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 m. Amostras de folhas foram retiradas aos 21 e 34 meses para avaliação dos teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes. O adensamento não influenciou na concentração de nutrientes nas folhas aos 21 meses após o plantio, mas influenciou as concentrações foliares de P, K e Mg aos 34 meses após o plantio.Coffee-tree condensed plantings provide reduction in the loss of the soil nutrients by erosion, lixiviation and oxidation of the organic matter, and even increase nutrient recycling. This experiment aimed evaluates the influence of different spacing among rows on the nutrient foliar contents of coffee-tree varieties, and was performed in randomized blocks with 24 treatments and six replications. The employed varieties IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 and UFV 3880 were planted with a spacing of 0,75 m among plants and 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 and 2,5m among rows. Each plot was composed

  4. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  5. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas

  6. Content of nitrogen in waste petroleum carbon for steel industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.O; Jimenez, A.F; Szieber, C.W; Banchik, A.D

    2004-01-01

    Steel industries use refined carbon as an alloy for steel production. This alloy is produced from waste carbon from the distillation of the petroleum. The refined carbon, called recarburizer, is obtained by calcination at high temperature. Under these thermal conditions the organic molecules decompose and a fraction of the N 2 , S and H 2 , volatile material and moisture are released; while the carbon tends to develop a crystalline structure similar to graphite's. The right combination of calcinations temperature and time in the furnace can optimize the quality of the resulting product. The content of S and N 2 has to be minimized for the use of calcined carbon in the steel industry. Nitrogen content should be reduced by two orders of magnitude, from 1% - 2% down to hundreds of ppm by weight. This work describes the activities undertaken to obtain calcined coke from petroleum from crude oil carbon that satisfies the requirements of the Mercosur standard 02:00-169 (Pending) for use as a carborizer in steels industries. To satisfy the requirements of the Mercosur standards NM 236:00 IRAM-IAS-NM so that graphite is used as a carburizer a content of 300 ppm maximum weight of nitrogen has to be obtained. So the first stage in this development is to define a production process for supplying calcined coke in the range of nitrogen concentrations required by the Mercosur standards (CW)

  7. Increased needle nitrogen contents did not improve shoot photosynthetic performance of mature nitrogen-poor Scots pine trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Tarvainen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modelling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar P deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute towards lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises

  8. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  9. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  10. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  11. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium with a high phycoerythrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Losada, M

    1989-03-01

    The elemental and molecular composition, pigment content, and productivity of a phycoerythrin-rich nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium-an Anabaena strain isolated from the coastal lagoon Albufera de Valencia, Spain-has been investigated. When compared with other heterocystous species, this strain exhibits similar chlorophyll a, carotene, and total phycobiliprotein contents but differs remarkably in the relative proportion of specific phycobiliproteins; the content of C-phycoerythrin amounts to 8.3% (versus about 1% in the other species) of cell dry weight. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of intact phycobilisomes isolated from this Anabaena sp. corroborate the marked contribution of phycoerythrin as an antenna pigment, a circumstance that is unusual for cyanobacteria capable of fixing N(2). The pigment content of cells is affected by variations in irradiance and cell density, these adaptive changes being more patent for C-phycoerythrin than for phycocyanins. The Anabaena strain is clumpy and capable of rapid flocculation. It exhibits outdoor productivities higher than 20 g (dry weight) m day during summer.

  12. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  13. Total Protein Content Determination of Microalgal Biomass by Elemental Nitrogen Analysis and a Dedicated Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Templeton, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Accurately determining protein content is important in the valorization of algal biomass in food, feed, and fuel markets, where these values are used for component balance calculations. Conversion of elemental nitrogen to protein is a well-accepted and widely practiced method, but depends on developing an applicable nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. The methodology reported here covers the quantitative assessment of the total nitrogen content of algal biomass and a description of the methodology that underpins the accurate de novo calculation of a dedicated nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor.

  14. Use of the radioisotopes in foliar fertilizing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of the radioactive isotopes is studied to evaluate the efficiency of nitrogen in foliar fertilizers. One of the objectives was study the urea absorption via foliar in time function in sugar cane. The nitrogen 15 determination was done by mass spectrometer. (author)

  15. Influência do extrato pirolenhoso na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes em limoeiro 'Cravo' Effect of pyroligneous acid in the spraymg solutions on foliar nutrients content of 'Rangpur' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zanetti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença do extrato pirolenhoso (EP na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, foi desenvolvido um experimento com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, em blocos ao acaso, em ambiente protegido. Os tratamentos constituíram da pulverização das soluções: T0 = água; T1 = solução de micronutrientes sem EP; T2 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (1cm³ dm-3; T3 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (2 cm³ dm-3; T4 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (5cm³ dm-3; T5 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (10 cm³ dm-3. A solução de micronutrientes foi preparada com sulfatos de Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (250 mg dm-3 do elemento e ácido bórico (42,5 mg dm-3 de B. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes cônicos de 0,280 dm³, com substrato sem a adição de micronutrientes na formulação. As soluções foram pulverizadas uma única vez, aos 140 dias após o plantio (DAP, momento em que as plantas apresentavam aproximadamente 20 cm de altura. Ao final do experimento (160 DAP, quantificaram-se a massa seca e os teores de macro e micronutrientes da parte aérea e sistema radicular. A presença do extrato pirolenhoso na solução de micronutrientes não interferiu na concentração foliar de B, Fe e Zn em mudas de limoeiro 'Cravo'. Entretanto, na concentração de 10 cm³ dm-3, aumentou a concentração foliar de Cu e Mn. Observou-se também que as plantas pulverizadas com soluções contendo EP (1 a 10 cm³ dm-3 + micronutrientes apresentaram menor teor de Fe e maior teor de Ca no sistema radicular.This research studied the effect of pyroligneous acid (PA presence in the micronutrient solution sprayed on leaves on the foliar nutrient content of 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osbeck0 seedlings, under screen house. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replicates was set up. Treatments consisted of leaf spraying with

  16. Foliar stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in woody Mediterranean species with different life form and post-fire regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire is an important ecological disturbance factor in most Mediterranean ecosystems. In the Mediterranean Basin, most shrub species can regenerate after fire by resprouting or seeding. Here, we hypothesize that post-fire regenerative syndromes may potentially co-vary with traits directly related to functional properties involved in resource use. Thus, seeders with a shorter life span and smaller size would have lower water-use efficiency (WUE) than re-sprouting species and would take up nutrients such as nitrogen from more superficial parts of the soil. To test this hypothesis, we compared leaf (13)C and (15)N signatures from 29 co-existing species with different post-fire regeneration strategies. We also considered life form as an additional explanatory variable of the differences between post-fire regenerative groups. Our data support the hypothesis that seeder species (which mostly evolved in the Quaternary under a Mediterranean climate) have lower WUE and less stomatal control than non-seeders (many of which evolved under different climatic conditions in the Tertiary) and consequently greater consumption of water per unit biomass. This would be related to their smaller life forms, which tend to have lower WUE and shorter life and leaf lifespan. Differences in (15)N also support the hypothesis that resprouters have deeper root systems than non-resprouters. The study supports the hypothesis of an overlap between plant functional traits and plant attributes describing post-disturbance resilience.

  17. Spatial variability of leaf nutrient contents in a drip irrigated citrus orchard Variabilidade espacial dos teores foliares de nutrientes em um pomar de citros sob irrigação localizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson A. Armindo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of leaf content of macro and micronutrients. The citrus plants orchard with 5 years of age, planted at regular intervals of 8 x 7 m, was managed under drip irrigation. Leaf samples were collected from each plant to be analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analyzed using the software R, version 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, along with geostatistics package GeoR. All contents of macro and micronutrients studied were adjusted to normal distribution and showed spatial dependence.The best-fit models, based on the likelihood, for the macro and micronutrients were the spherical and matern. It is suggest for the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur the minimum distances between samples of 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 and 15 m respectively, while for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc, the distances suggests are 29; 9; 113; 35 and 14 m, respectively.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de macro e micronutrientes foliares. O pomar com plantas de 5 anos de idade, plantado com espaçamento regular de 8 x 7 m, foi manejado sob irrigação localizada. Foram coletadas amostras foliares de cada planta do pomar para serem analisadas em laboratório. Os dados foram analisados por meio do programa computacional R, versão 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, juntamente com o pacote GeoR. Todos os teores de macro e micronutrientes estudados ajustaram-se à distribuição normal e apresentaram dependência espacial. Os modelos de melhor ajuste, com base na verosimilhança, para os macro e micronutrientes, foram esférico e matern. Para os macronutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre, sugerem-se distâncias mínimas entre amostras de 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 e 15 m, respectivamente, enquanto para os micronutrientes boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco, essas distâncias são de 29; 9; 113; 35 e 14 m, respectivamente.

  18. Changes in conifer and deciduous forest foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area tree growth across a nitrogen (N) deposition gradient in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty; Linda H. Pardo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999...

  19. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  20. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase), and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase) in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement. At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  1. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Deshpande

    Full Text Available Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear.Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene, and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase, and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement.At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  2. Foliar carbohydrates content and invertase activity in vines at São Francisco River Valley - Brazil Teores foliares de carboidratos e atividade de invertases em videiras no Vale do Rio São Francisco- Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara França Dantas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The irrigated agriculture at the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast Brazil, shows an increasing production of grapes for winery. Among the wines produced there the one obtained from Vitis vinifera L., cultivar Syrah, stands out due to its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the region. However, little is known about carbohydrates metabolism of vines cultivated in this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate sugar and starch contents and the invertase activity in vines leaves during two consecutive growing seasons. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Árido and at Santa Maria Winery, respectively located in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, Pernambuco-Brazil. Leaves were collected weekly from January to December of 2003 and assessed for reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents, as well as for acid (AI and neutral invertases (NI. The results showed that reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased during fruit maturation and are influenced by temperature, radiation and insolation variations. The second growing season showed higher reducing sugars and total soluble sugars content and lower starch content in the leaves than the first one. AI activity was higher than NI activity and these also varied according to weather conditions. During berries ripening, leaves showed higher sugar content and invertase activity, suggesting a higher sugar metabolism and transport during this phase.O pólo de agricultura irrigada do Vale do Rio São Francisco apresenta um crescente aumento na produção de uvas para vinificação. Entre os vinhos finos produzidos na região, destaca-se aquele obtido da cultivar Syrah, que se adaptou bem às condições climáticas da região. Pouco se conhece, no entanto, sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos das videiras nessa região. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de açúcares e de amido, bem como a atividade de invertases durante dois ciclos de

  3. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  4. Faixas críticas de teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. produzidas em tubetes Critical ranges of macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. grown in plastic pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Moraes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar os teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro produzidas em tubetes. O experimento foi conduzido em viveiro localizado no Setor de Cafeicultura do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, no período de maio de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial simples 6 x 3 com quatro blocos, sendo seis níveis de adubação do substrato (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 e 200% da dose padrão de Osmocote por m³ de substrato e três estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas: 3, 4 e 5 pares de folhas. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura de planta (cm, diâmetro de caule (mm, área foliar (cm², massa seca de raiz (g, massa seca de caule (g, massa seca das folhas (g, massa seca de parte aérea (g, massa seca total (g e concentrações foliares de: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S. As faixas críticas de teores obtidas para macronutrientes são as seguintes: nitrogênio (2,26 a 2,62 dag/Kg; fósforo (0,22 a 0,25 dag/Kg; potássio (2,59 a 2,92 dag/Kg; cálcio (0,69 a 0,76 dag/Kg; magnésio (0,11 a 0,12 dag/Kg; enxofre (0,15 a 0,24 dag/Kg. Além disso, constatou-se que o estádio de 4 pares de folhas verdadeiras é o ideal para a coleta de folhas visando à avaliação do estado nutricional das mudas.The aim of this study was to determinate the macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings grown in plastic pots. The experiment was carried out at a greenhouse located in the coffee research area at the Agronomy Department of Lavras Federal University from May 2003 to January 2004. We used a block design in a sample factorial 6 x 3 with four blocks, where the substrate was treated with six levels of fertilization (50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 200% of standard fertilization with Osmocote for m³ substrate and the evaluations were performed at three stages of development (sampling times: three, four, and five pairs of

  5. Organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of some soils of kaliti tea-estate, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. S.; Shahin, M. M. H.; Sanaullah, A. F. M.

    2005-01-01

    Some soil samples were collected from Kaliti Tea-Estate of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh. Total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter, carbon-nitrogen ratio and available phosphorus content of the collected soil samples of different depths and of different topographic positions have been determined. Total nitrogen was found 0.07 to 0.12 % organic carbon and organic matter content found to vary from 0.79 to 1.25 and 1.36 to 2.15 % respectively. Carbon-nitrogen ratio of these soils varied from 9.84 to 10.69, while available phosphorus content varied from 2.11 to 4.13 ppm. (author)

  6. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunun-Perez, A Y; Guevara-Figueroa, T; Jimenez-Garcia, S N; Feregrino-Perez, A A; Gautier, F; Guevara-Gonzalez, R G

    2017-06-01

    Capsinoids are non-pungent analogues of capsaicinoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). The absence of pungency, in addition to their biological activities similar to that of capsaicinoids such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, makes capsinoids an excellent option for increasing use in human and animal nutrition, as well as health and pharmaceutical industries. There are only few sources of pepper producing capsinoids, and one of them (accession 509-45-1), Capsicum annuum L., is a potential source for increasing capsinoids content using strategies as controlled elicitation during plant production in the greenhouse. In this research we evaluated the effect of weekly and one-day-before-harvest foliar applications of hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on the concentration of capsiate in fruits of this pepper accession, as well as the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), putative aminotransferase (pamt), capsaicin synthase (at3) and β-keto acyl synthase (kas). Results showed that the two tested concentrations of H2O2 significantly increased capsiate content and gene expression associated with capsaicinoids (pamt, at3 and kas) and the phenylpropanoids (pal) pathways. Plant yield was not affected using this induction strategy. Our results indicated that the pre-harvest and weekly application of hydrogen peroxide and xyloglucan oligosaccharide improved production of capsiate in C. annuum L.

  7. [Effects of nitrogen application levels on yield and active composition content of Desmodium styracifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamin; Yin, Xiaohong; Chen, Chaojun; Huang, Min; Peng, Fuyuan; Zhu, Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    To find out the optimal nitrogen application level of Desmodium styracifolium. A field experiment using randomized block design was carried out to study the effects of 5 nitrogen application levels (150, 187.5, 225.0, 262.5 and 300.0 kg x hm(-2)) on yield and active component content of D. styracifolium. Nitrogen application could increase the yield and contents of polysaccharide, total flavonoides and total saponins of D. styracifolium. However, the enhancing extent of the active component content and the yield were not always significant with the increase of nitrogen level. In which, the yield were not significantly different among the nitrogen application levels of 225.0, 262.5, 300.0 kg x hm(-2) the polysaccharide content was no significantly difference among the nitrogen application levels of 225.0, 262. 5 and 300.0 kg x hm(-2), the total flavonoides content under the nitrogen level of 300.0 kg x hm(-2) was significantly lower than that of 150.0 kg hm(-2) (P < 0.01), and the total saponins content under the nitrogen level of 300.0 kg x hm(-2) was no significant difference compared with that of 262.5 kg x hm(-2). The optimal nitrogen application level of D. styracifolium was 225.0-262.5 kg x hm(-2).

  8. [Diagnosis of nitrogen content in upper and lower corn leaves based on hyperspectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang; Hu, Ke-Lin; Tian, Ming-Ming; Wei, Dan; Li, Hong; Bai, You-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Zheng

    2013-04-01

    Based on the spectral characters of corn leaf nitrogen content in the space, the spectral models for rapid estimating crop nitrogen content were set up, which is practically meaningful to effectively providing the guidance in fertilization. Spectral technology was applied to explore corn leaves nitrogen content distribution regularity and the relationship between the nitrogen content and plant index was analysed and then the estimation models were built. The results showed N content in upper leaves is higher than that in lower leaves in four growing stages; lower leaves at tassel emerge stage are sensitive to nitrogen losses, which could be used in guiding fertilization in grain production; optimum estimation models were built atjointing stage, the full-grown stage and tasseling stage, The research results provided the proof of crop nutrient analysis and rational fertilization.

  9. The effect of elevated cadmium content in soil on the uptake of nitrogen by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Z.; Kalembasa, S.; Wyszkowski, M.; Rolka, E. [University of Warmia & Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Cd/kg of soil) contamination in soil with the application of different substances (compost, brown coal, lime and bentonite) on the intake of nitrogen by some plants. The correlations between the nitrogen content in the plants and the cadmium concentration in the soil, as well as the plant yield and the content of micro- and macroelements in the plants were determined. Plant species and cadmium dose determined the effects of soil contamination with cadmium on the content of nitrogen. Large doses of cadmium caused an increase in nitrogen content in the Avena sativa straw and roots and in the Zea mays roots. Soil contamination with cadmium resulted in a decrease of nitrogen content in the Avena sativa grain, in above-ground parts and roots of the Lupinus luteus, in the above-ground parts of the Zea mays and in the above-ground parts and roots of Phacelia tanacaetifolia. Among the experimental different substances, the application of bentonite had the strongest and a usually negative effect on the nitrogen content in plants. The greatest effect of bentonite was on Avena sativa grain, above-ground parts Zea mays and Lupinus luteus and Phacelia tanacaetifolia. The content of nitrogen in the plants was generally positively correlated with the content of the macroelements and some of the microelements, regardless of the substances added to the soil.

  10. Changes in conifer and deciduous forest foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area tree growth across a nitrogen (N) deposition gradient in the northeastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, Johnny L.; McNulty, Steven G.; Pardo, Linda H.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999, we observed a significant correlation between mean growing season temperature and red spruce basal area growth. Red spruce and deciduous foliar %N correlated significantly with N deposition. Although N deposition has not changed significantly from 1987/1988 to 1999, net nitrification potential decreased significantly at Whiteface. This decrease in net potential nitrification is not consistent with the N saturation hypothesis and suggests that non-N deposition controls, such as climatic factors and immobilization of down dead wood, might have limited N cycling. - Data from the 1999 remeasurement of the red spruce forests suggest that N deposition, to some extent, is continuing to influence red spruce across the northeastern US as illustrated by a significant correlation between N deposition and red spruce foliar %N. Our data also suggest that the decrease in forest floor %N and net nitrification potential across sites from 1987 to 1999 may be due to factors other than N deposition, such as climatic factors and N immobilization in fine woody material (<5 cm diameter)

  11. Changes in sugar content and related enzyme activities in table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to foliar selenium fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaimeng; Liang, Yinli; An, Xiaojuan; Kong, Fanchao; Gao, Dekai; Yin, Hongfei

    2017-09-01

    Spraying selenium (Se) fertilizer is an effective method for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated. Acid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, and photosynthetic rate in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control. Glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries, with a trace of sucrose. In both berries and leaves, neutral invertase activity was lower than AI, there was no significant difference in neutral invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase between Se fertilizer-treated and control. In berries, AI showed a significant positive correlation with glucose and fructose; also Se content was significantly correlated with sugar content. AI played an important role in the process of sugar accumulation in berries; high AI activity in berries and photosynthetic rate in leaves could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in berries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  13. Effect of packaging material on nitrate nitrogen content of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, N.I.; Koushik, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of packaging materials on nitrate nitrogen content of irradiated potatoes was investigated. Tubers were irradiated at 10, 30 and 100 Krads and stored for 12 wk at 5 degrees C in paper or plastic bags. Nitrate nitrogen content was significantly (p 0.01) higher in tubers packaged in plastic as compared to those in paper bags. Irradiation significantly (p 0.01) increased nitrate nitrogen content between the lowest and highest levels of treatment in tubers stored in both paper and plastic bags

  14. Toxic Effect of Lead on Nitrogen Contents and Enzymes in Wheat Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Parveen; Mukherji, S.

    2005-01-01

    Application of lead nitrate solution to the foliar parts of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sonalika) caused inhibition of uptake of total as well as soluble nitrogen in pre- and post-flowering stages. Maximum inhibition was recorded under the highest dose (10 mM) in both the stages. Catalase also suffered gradual reduction in the activity with the increase of concentration and a maximum reduction of 56 and 41 per cent was recoreded in pre- and post flowering stage respectively, under 10 mM dose. Peroxidase and IAA oxidase showed progressive increase in their activity proportional to the concentration of lead. In peroxidase, a maximum of 108 and 85 per cent increased activity was noted at the highest dose at pre- and post-flowering stages respectively, while in IAA oxidase highest dose resulted in 46 and 84 per cent increment in the activity from the control at pre- and post-flowering stages respectively. (authors)

  15. Nitrogen-doped graphene: effect of graphite oxide precursors and nitrogen content on the electrochemical sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Monica; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdenek; Klímová, Kateřina; Pumera, Martin

    2017-06-21

    Graphene, produced via chemical methods, has been widely applied for electrochemical sensing due to its structural and electrochemical properties as well as its ease of production in large quantity. While nitrogen-doped graphenes are widely studied materials, the literature showing an effect of graphene oxide preparation methods on nitrogen quantity and chemical states as well as on defects and, in turn, on electrochemical sensing is non-existent. In this study, the properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials, prepared via hydrothermal synthesis using graphite oxide produced by various classical methods using permanganate or chlorate oxidants Staudenmaier, Hummers, Hofmann and Brodie oxidation methods, were studied; the resulting nitrogen-doped graphene oxides were labeled as ST-GO, HU-GO, HO-GO and BR-GO, respectively. The electrochemical oxidation of biomolecules, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, nicotinamide adenine nucleotide and DNA free bases, was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The nitrogen content in doped graphene oxides increased in the order ST-GO graphene followed this trend, as shown in the cyclic voltammograms. This is a very important finding that provides insight into the electrocatalytic effect of N-doped graphene. The nitrogen-doped graphene materials exhibited improved sensitivity over bare glassy carbon for ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine detection. These studies will enhance our understanding of the effects of graphite oxide precursors on the electrochemical sensing properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials.

  16. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  17. The effects of nitrogen deficiencies on the lipid and protein contents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen deficiencies were studied in Spirulina platensis (Cyanophyceae) with the aim of determining the effects of the 50 and 100% deficient nitrogen on the lipid and protein contents of the cell under laboratory conditions. S. platensis cultures were grown in Spirulina medium and kept at the constant room temperature of ...

  18. Effect of irrigation and timing and type of nitrogen application on the biochemical composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay and Syrah grapeberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canoura, Carolina; Kelly, Mary T; Ojeda, Hernan

    2018-02-15

    This study reports the effect of different doses of nitrogen applied to soil and/or leaves of Syrah and Chardonnay grapevines in the Languedoc-Roussillon (France) over two years. In 2011, nitrogen treatment involved both foliar urea sprayings and soil application at two different levels, with two controls - irrigated without nitrogen and no irrigation nor nitrogen. In 2012, the same grapevines received either soil or foliar nitrogen using the same controls. Results showed that foliar application increased the amino acid content to a greater extent than soil application, but that a combination of both was the most effective. For the first time, significantly elevated proline levels in response to drought were demonstrated for the grapevine. Increased contents of aromatic compounds and glycosylated precursors closely mirrored the applied nitrogen dose. Wines produced from N-fertilized Syrah grapes in 2011 showed a statistically significant effect of irrigation and fertilization on positive sensorial perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Method to reduce the nitrogen oxide content of gaseous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopp, G.; Sueto, J.; Szasz, K.; Szebenyi, I.; Winkler, G.; Machacs, M.; Palmai, G.

    1980-11-13

    The proposed process is suited for the denitrification of waste gases from nitric acid plants. It proceeds without an additional energy source with an integrated adsorption unit which guaranties the complete recirculation of the produced nitrogen oxides and allows the regeneration of the adsorbents by the use of the energy from the oxidation of nitrous oxide to nitric oxide. The desorption is carried out by the intermediate passage of the hot gases from the oxidizer through the adsorber.

  20. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Background Wheat is the staple food for most of the world’s population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Methods/Principle findings Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two du...

  1. Mineral, protein and nitrate contents in leaves of Pereskia aculeata subjected to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina de Miranda Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that nitrogen is directly related to leaf protein content, the nitrogen fertilization in Pereskia aculeata plants may affect the protein content and increase its nutritional potential. This study aimed at assessing the effect of nitrogen fertilization on mineral, protein and nitrate contents, as well as the yield of P. aculeata leaves. A randomized blocks design was used, with three replications and five treatments, consisting of increasing topdressing nitrogen doses (0-400 kg ha-1, in soil with organic matter content of 4.0 dag kg-1. Three harvests were performed for leaf analysis. No significant effect was observed for mineral and protein content or leaf fresh mass yield. The mean values for mineral composition were: 3.52 dag kg-1 of N, 0.47 dag kg-1 of P, 4.65 dag kg-1 of Ca, 0.71 dag kg-1 of Mg, 0.25 dag kg-1 of S, 36.64 mg kg-1 of Zn and 174.13 mg kg-1 of Fe. The mean content for protein was 21.86 % and the leaf fresh mass yield was 0.971 kg plant-1. K levels decreased from 50 kg ha-1 of N. Nitrate increased linearly with the nitrogen fertilization, reaching a maximum value of 78.2 mg kg-1 of fresh mass, well below the health risk threshold. It was concluded that a soil with high organic matter content does not require nitrogen fertilization. However, doses up to 400 kg ha-1 of nitrogen ensure adequate leaf yield and protein and mineral contents within the desired range for the species, being a food rich in proteins, iron and calcium.

  2. Adubação foliar e via solo de nitrogênio em plantas de milho em fase inicial de desenvolvimento Leaf fertilization and via soil nitrogen suplementation in maize plants at initial developmental stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Deuner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerado o nutriente mais importante, tanto no incremento da produção de grãos como no teor protéico destes, o nitrogênio (N é também o elemento que mais onera a cultura do milho. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se a aplicação foliar de nitrogênio influencia o acúmulo de proteínas e parâmetros de crescimento de plantas jovens de milho em comparação com a aplicação de uréia via solo. Para tanto, plantas jovens do híbrido de milho BR 206 receberam aplicações de uréia como fonte de N via foliar e via solo nas concentrações de zero; 0,5% e 1,0%. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação sendo realizadas três aplicações de N, a primeira aos seis dias após a emergência (DAE num volume de 10 mL por planta e as duas seguintes aos 10 e 14 DAE com 20 mL cada. Aos 18 DAE as plantas foram coletadas e as análises procedidas. Para altura de plantas, volume radicular, área foliar, matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes, observou-se maior eficiência da adubação foliar, principalmente ao nível de 0,5% de uréia. O fornecimento de uréia a 1,0% via solo proporcionou aumento significativo no teor de proteínas nas folhas. Tais resultados sugerem que a adubação foliar pode ser uma maneira eficiente para complementar o que é absorvido pelas raízes, no entanto não deve ser utilizada como fonte única de N inorgânico às plantas.Consider the most important nutrient in the increment of grain gield and also the proteic level, nitrogen (N, in addition of this fact, this nutrient is the component that most increases the production cost of maize crop. This study aimed to verify whether the application of leaf nitrogen influences the accumulation of proteins and parameters of growth of young plants of maize compared to the application of urea via soil. For both, young plants of the hybrid maize BR 206 received applications of urea as a source of N via leaf and soil at concentrations of zero, 0.5% and 1.0%. The

  3. DEPOSITION AND PROPERTY CHARACTERISATION OF TaN COATINGS DEPOSITED WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bejarano Gaitán

    Full Text Available This study focused on the study of the influence of nitrogen content on the microstructure, chemical composition, mechanical and tribological properties of TaN coatings deposited on 420 stainless steel and silicon samples (100 using the magnetron sputtering technique. For the deposition of the TaN coatings an argon/nitrogen atmosphere was used, varying the nitrogen flux between 12% and 25%. For the coating characterization, scanning electron microscopy, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, a microhardness tester, and a ball on disc tribometer were used. A refining of the columnar structure of the coatings, accompanied by a decrease in their thickness with the increased nitrogen content was observed. Initially, fcc-TaN (111 cubic phase growth was observed; this phase was changed to the fcc-TaN (200 above N2 12%. For contents greater than N2 18%, another nitrogen-rich phase was formed and the system tended towards amorphicity, particularly for a coating with N2 25% content. The TaN-1sample deposited with N2 12% in the gas mixture presented the highest micro-hardness value with 21.3GPa and the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate with 0.02 and 1.82x10-7 (mm³/Nm, respectively. From the obtained results, an important relationship between the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the coated samples and their nitrogen content was observed.

  4. Foliar free polyamine and inorganic ion content in relation to soil and soil solution chemistry in two fertilized forest stands at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Alison H. Magill; John Aber; William H. McDowell

    2000-01-01

    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight, open-chained, organic polycations which are found in all organisms and have been linked with stress responses in plants. The objectives of our study were to investigate the effects of chronic N additions to pine and hardwood stands at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA on foliar polyamine and...

  5. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHASEMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  6. [Estimation and Visualization of Nitrogen Content in Citrus Canopy Based on Two Band Vegetation Index (TBVI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-nan; Ye, Xu-jun; Li, Jin-meng; Xiao, Yu-zhao; He, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen is a necessary and important element for the growth and development of fruit orchards. Timely, accurate and nondestructive monitoring of nitrogen status in fruit orchards would help maintain the fruit quality and efficient production of the orchard, and mitigate the pollution of water resources caused by excessive nitrogen fertilization. This study investigated the capability of hyperspectral imagery for estimating and visualizing the nitrogen content in citrus canopy. Hyperspectral images were obtained for leaf samples in laboratory as well as for the whole canopy in the field with ImSpector V10E (Spectral Imaging Ltd., Oulu, Finland). The spectral datas for each leaf sample were represented by the average spectral data extracted from the selected region of interest (ROI) in the hyperspectral images with the aid of ENVI software. The nitrogen content in each leaf sample was measured by the Dumas combustion method with the rapid N cube (Elementar Analytical, Germany). Simple correlation analysis and the two band vegetation index (TBVI) were then used to develop the spectra data-based nitrogen content prediction models. Results obtained through the formula calculation indicated that the model with the two band vegetation index (TBVI) based on the wavelengths 811 and 856 nm achieved the optimal estimation of nitrogen content in citrus leaves (R2 = 0.607 1). Furthermore, the canopy image for the identified TBVI was calculated, and the nitrogen content of the canopy was visualized by incorporating the model into the TBVI image. The tender leaves, middle-aged leaves and elder leaves showed distinct nitrogen status from highto low-levels in the canopy image. The results suggested the potential of hyperspectral imagery for the nondestructive detection and diagnosis of nitrogen status in citrus canopy in real time. Different from previous studies focused on nitrogen content prediction at leaf level, this study succeeded in predicting and visualizing the nutrient

  7. Effect of nitrogen and Nitragin application on soybean yield and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Vojin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer applied under previous crop and seed inoculation with a microbial preparation NS Nitragin on soybean yield and protein content in grain. The experiment was set up in four replications at Rimski Šančevi experiment field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Presowing seed inoculation contributed to a statistically significant increase in yield and protein content in all three research years, while the highest nitrogen dose had a positive impact on soybean yield only in 2007 and on protein content in 2006 and 2007. .

  8. Nitrogen and in vitro fermentation of nitrogenous substrates in caecal contents of the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Adamec, T.; Skřivanová, V.; Latsik, N.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2002), s. 429-433 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:GA NATO(XX) MO-99-04 Keywords : Pig * caecum * nitrogenous substances Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  9. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  10. Improvement of Soybean (Glycine max L. Yield with Urea Foliar Application at Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Tohidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of nitrogen foliar application at different growth stages of soybean on the yield and yield components this experiment was performed in Shush, north of Khuzestan, Iran, during growing season of 2014. The experiment was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments consisted of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer foliar applications as control (no nitrogen foliar application, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha pure nitrogen from urea source (46% pure nitrogen assigned to the main plots and spraying times in three levels, at vegetative stage, flowering stage and podding stage to the subplots. Results showed that the effects of nitrogen foliar application on traits measured in this experiment like leaf area index, number of pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, biologic yield, harvest index, protein percent and protein yield and also interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were significant. Oil percent and yield were only significant under the effect of nitrogen foliar application treatments at different growth stages while the interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were not significant. In this experiment nitrogen foliar application increased seed yield. The highest seed yield amounted to 2466 kg/ha when 50kg/ha of foliar nitrogen applied at vegetative growth stage and lowest seed yield amounted to 1295 kg/ha in the control treatment at the stage of podding. In general, results demonstrated that 50 kg/ha treatment could be considered as the best management option of nitrogen foliar application for soybean at vegetative growth stage.

  11. Elicitor and nitrogen applications to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines: effect on grape amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Elicitors and nitrogen foliar applications to vineyards could regulate grape nitrogen composition, which has an important effect on grape and wine quality. Thus the aim of this research was to study the effect of foliar elicitor treatments, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and yeast extract (YE), and foliar nitrogen applications, urea (Ur) and phenylalanine (Phe), to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines on grape amino acid composition. The results showed that elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to Garnacha and Tempranillo grapevines decreased the must amino acid concentration. However, Phe application to these two grapevines increased the must Phe content. The treatments applied to Graciano grapevines barely effected the grape amino acid content. According to the percentage of variance attributable, the variety had a higher impact on the must amino acid composition than the treatments and their interaction, except in certain amino acids such as Phe. The influence of elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to grapevines on grape amino acid concentration was strongly conditioned by the variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-04-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  13. Foliar-applied urea modulates nitric oxide synthesis metabolism and glycinebetaine accumulation in drought-stressed maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Tian, L.; Lai, J.; Zheng, P.; Liang, Z.; Alva, A

    2014-01-01

    Foliar urea has been proved to play a better positive role in enhancing accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress (DS). However, it is unclear how foliar urea affects biosynthetic metabolism of NO and its relationship with GB accumulation. This study was on investigating the effect of foliar- applied urea on seedlings of maize cultivar Zhengdan 958 grown in a hydroponic medium under DS or No DS. Contents of NO and GB and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increased and peaked 12 h after the treatment. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) followed the similar pattern 6h after the treatment. Under DS foliar urea application increased NR and NOS activity and, thereby, increased NO formation. Therefore, enhancement in activities of both NRA and NOS resulted in an increase of NO accumulation. Foliar- applied urea could induce an increased NO burst by enhanced NO synthesis metabolism as a nitrogen signal, possibly resulting in GB accumulation under DS. (author)

  14. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianwei; Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A.; Skelly, John M.; Steiner, Kim C.; Savage, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g wv ), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N L ) to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g wv , foliar injury, and N L (P 3 treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g wv due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g wv , N L , and higher foliar injury (P wv , and foliar injury to O 3 . Both VPD and N L had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O 3 -induced injury appeared when cumulative O 3 uptake reached 8-12 mmol m -2 , depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O 3 -induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O 3 risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  15. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  16. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  17. Influence of carbon dioxide content in the biogas to nitrogen oxides emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are an alternative solution for the fossil fuel shortage. Usually this kind of fuels is called low calorific value fuels, due to the large proportion of inert components in their composition. The most common is carbon dioxide, and its proportion in biogas can be different, from 10 up to 40%, or even more. The presence of inert component in the composition of biogas causes the problems that are related with flame blow off limits. One of the possibilities for efficient combustion of biogas is the combustion in swirling flow including a pilot burner, aimed to expand the borders of stable combustion. This paper presents an analysis of the influence of the carbon dioxide content to the nitrogen oxides emissions. Laboratory biogas was used with different content of CO2 (10, 20, 30 and 40%. Investigation was carried out for different nominal powers, coefficients of excess air and carbon dioxide content. With increasing content of carbon dioxide, emission of nitrogen oxides was reduced, and this trend was the same throughout the whole range of excess air, carried out through measurements. Still, the influence of carbon dioxide content is significantly less than the influence of excess air. The coefficient of excess air greatly affects the production of radicals which are essential for the formation of nitrogen oxides, O, OH and CH. Also, the results show that the nominal power has no impact on the emission of nitrogen oxides.

  18. Low light intensity and nitrogen starvation modulate the chlorophyll content of Scenedesmus dimorphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V S; Pinto, R F; Sant'Anna, C

    2016-03-01

    Chlorophyll is a photosynthetic pigment found in plants and algal organisms and is a bioproduct with human health benefits and a great potential for use in the food industry. The chlorophyll content in microalgae strains varies in response to environmental factors. In this work, we assessed the effect of nitrogen depletion and low light intensity on the chlorophyll content of the Scenedesmus dimorphus microalga. The growth of S. dimorphus under low light intensity led to a reduction in cell growth and volume as well as increased cellular chlorophyll content. Nitrogen starvation led to a reduction in cell growth and the chlorophyll content, changes in the yield and productivity of chlorophylls a and b. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the S. dimorphus exposed to nitrogen and light deficiency. In contrast to nitrogen depletion, low light availability was an effective mean for increasing the total chlorophyll content of green microalga S. dimorphus. The findings acquired in this work are of great biotechnological importance to extend knowledge of choosing the right culture condition to stimulate the effectiveness of microalgae strains for chlorophyll production purposes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Assessment of nitrogen content in buffalo manure and land application costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Faugno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.

  20. Nitrogen deposition alters nitrogen cycling and reduces soil carbon content in low-productivity semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Maestre, Fernando T.; Ríos, Asunción de los; Valea, Sergio; Theobald, Mark R.; Vivanco, Marta G.; Manrique, Esteban; Bowker, Mathew A.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition poses a threat to European Mediterranean ecosystems. We combined data from an extant N deposition gradient (4.3–7.3 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ) from semiarid areas of Spain and a field experiment in central Spain to evaluate N deposition effects on soil fertility, function and cyanobacteria community. Soil organic N did not increase along the extant gradient. Nitrogen fixation decreased along existing and experimental N deposition gradients, a result possibly related to compositional shifts in soil cyanobacteria community. Net ammonification and nitrification (which dominated N-mineralization) were reduced and increased, respectively, by N fertilization, suggesting alterations in the N cycle. Soil organic C content, C:N ratios and the activity of β-glucosidase decreased along the extant gradient in most locations. Our results suggest that semiarid soils in low-productivity sites are unable to store additional N inputs, and that are also unable to mitigate increasing C emissions when experiencing increased N deposition. -- Highlights: •Soil organic N does not increase along the extant N deposition gradient. •Reduced N fixation is related to compositional shifts in soil cyanobacteria community. •Nitrogen cycling is altered by simulated N deposition. •Soil organic C content decrease along the extant N deposition gradient. •Semiarid soils are unable to mitigate CO 2 emissions after increased N deposition. -- N deposition alters N cycling and reduces soil C content in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems

  1. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  2. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  3. Electronic structure of copper nitrides as a function of nitrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, N.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Ares, J.R.; Ferrer, I.J.; Yndurain, F.; Agulló-López, F.

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen content dependence of the electronic properties for copper nitride thin films with an atomic percentage of nitrogen ranging from 26 ± 2 to 33 ± 2 have been studied by means of optical (spectroscopic ellipsometry), thermoelectric (Seebeck), and electrical resistivity measurements. The optical spectra are consistent with direct optical transitions corresponding to the stoichiometric semiconductor Cu 3 N plus a free-carrier contribution, essentially independent of temperature, which can be tuned in accordance with the N-excess. Deviation of the N content from stoichiometry drives to significant decreases from − 5 to − 50 μV/K in the Seebeck coefficient and to large enhancements, from 10 −3 up to 10 Ω cm, in the electrical resistivity. Band structure and density of states calculations have been carried out on the basis of the density functional theory to account for the experimental results. - Highlights: ► Electronic structure of N-rich Cu 3 N ► Stoichiometric films behave as an intrinsic semiconductor. ► N excess drives to the introduction of a narrow band at the Fermi level. ► Decrease of the Seebeck coefficient when increasing nitrogen content ► Increase of the electrical resistivity when increasing nitrogen content

  4. Spatial variability of chlorophyll and nitrogen content of rice from hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharana, Shreedevi; Dutta, Subashisa

    2016-12-01

    Chlorophyll and nitrogen are the most essential parameters for paddy crop growth. Spectroradiometric measurements were collected at canopy level during critical growth period of rice. Chemical analysis was performed to quantify the total leaf content. By exploiting the ground based measurements, regression models were established for chlorophyll and nitrogen aimed indices with their corresponding crop growth variables. Vegetation index models were developed for mapping these parameters from Hyperion imagery in an agriculture system. It was inferred that the present Simple Ratio (SR) and Leaf Nitrogen Concentration (LNC) indices, which followed a linear and nonlinear relationship respectively, were completely different from published Tian et al. (2011). The nitrogen content varied widely from 1 to 4% and only 2 to 3% for paddy crop using present modified index models and Tian et al. (2011) respectively. The modified LNC index model performed better than the established Tian et al. (2011) model as far as estimated nitrogen content from Hyperion imagery was concerned. Furthermore, within the observed chlorophyll range obtained from the studied rice varieties grown in the rice agriculture system, the index models (LNC, OASVI, Gitelson, mSR and MTCI) performed well in the spatial distribution of rice chlorophyll content from Hyperion imagery. Spatial distribution of total chlorophyll content varied widely from 1.77 to 5.81 mg/g (LNC), 3.0 to 13 mg/g (OASVI), 0.5 to 10.43 mg/g (Gitelson), 2.18 to 10.61 mg/g (mSR) and 2.90 to 5.40 mg/g (MTCI). The spatial information of these parameters will help in proper nutrient management, yield forecasting, and will serve as inputs for crop growth and forecasting models for a precision rice agriculture system.

  5. Teores foliares de nutrientes em mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘smooth cayenne’ em resposta à adubação Leaf nutrient contents on ´smooth cayenne´ planting material as response to fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘Smooth Cayenne’ obtidas por seccionamento de caule foram submetidas à adubação foliar com soluções em diferentes concentrações de uréia, KCl e H3BO3, em pulverizações semanais, num total de vinte e seis para a uréia e o KCl e aplicações mensais num total de quatro, para o H3BO3. Todos os tratamentos foram iniciados na nona semana após o plantio das secções. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial fracionado do tipo (1/553, com três tipos de adubo (uréia, KCl e H3BO3 e cinco concentrações num total de 25 tratamentos. Cada parcela constituiu-se de 50 secções. Os tratamentos consistiram nas combinações das seguintes concentrações em g L-1: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 para a uréia e o KCl, e 0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2,0 de H3BO3. Análises das amostras de folhas “D” revelam efeitos da uréia e H3BO3 sobre os teores foliares de S, Cl e B e efeito do KCL sobre K e Cl foliar. A uréia não apresentou efeito sobre o teor de N foliar, porém influencia significativamente o conteúdo de N nas mudas.‘Smooth Cayenne’ planting material obtained through stem sectioning were trea-ted with foliar fertilization with different concentrations of urea, KCl, in weekly pulverizations, and H3BO4, totalizing twenty-six for urea and KCL pulverizations and four for H3BO3, which was applied monthly The treatments were began nine weeks after planting thestem sections. The experimental scheme was a fractionated factorial (1/55³ with three types of fertilizers (urea, KCl and H3BO3 and five concentrations in a total of 25 treatments. There were 50 sections per plot. Treatments were a combination of concentrations in g L-1: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 of urea and KCl, and 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2,0 of H3BO3. Sample analyses of ‘D’ leaves showed urea and H3BO3 effect on S, Cl and B leaf contents whereas KCL affected leaf K and Cl contents. Urea did not affect N leaf content, however it strongly influenced N content in planting material.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  7. A one-step carbonization route towards nitrogen-doped porous carbon hollow spheres with ultrahigh nitrogen content for CO 2 adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nitrogen doped porous carbon hollow spheres (N-PCHSs) with an ultrahigh nitrogen content of 15.9 wt% and a high surface area of 775 m2 g-1 were prepared using Melamine-formaldehyde nanospheres as hard templates and nitrogen sources. The N-PCHSs were completely characterized and were found to exhibit considerable CO2 adsorption performance (4.42 mmol g-1).

  8. European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, L.) green attack affects foliar reflectance and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Haidi; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, L. (hereafter bark beetle), causes major economic loss to the forest industry in Europe, especially in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). To minimise economic loss and preclude a mass outbreak, early detection of bark beetle infestation (so-called ;green attack; stage - a period at which trees are yet to show visual signs of infestation stress) is, therefore, a crucial step in the management of Norway spruce stands. It is expected that a bark beetle infestation at the green attack stage affects a tree's physiological and chemical status. However, the concurrent effect on key foliar biochemical such as foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll as well as spectral responses are not well documented in the literature. Therefore, in this study, the early detection of bark beetle green attacks is investigated by examining foliar biochemical and spectral properties (400-2000 nm). We also assessed whether bark beetle infestation affects the estimation accuracy of foliar biochemicals. An extensive field survey was conducted in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), Germany, in the early summer of 2015 to collect leaf samples from 120 healthy and green attacked trees. The spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between healthy and infested needle samples were found in the mean reflectance spectra, with the most pronounced differences being observed in the NIR and SWIR regions between 730 and 1370 nm. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the biochemical compositions (chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration) of healthy versus green attacked samples. Our results further demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, utilising partial least square regression model, was lower for the infested compared to the healthy trees. We show that early stage of infestation reduces not only

  9. Climatic Controls on Leaf Nitrogen Content and Implications for Biochemical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherednichenko, I. A.; White, M.; Bastidas, L.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen (N) content, expressed as percent total nitrogen per unit of leaf dry mass, is a widely used parameter in biochemical modeling, due mainly to its role as a potentially limiting factor for photosynthesis. The amount of nitrogen, however, does not occur in a fixed amount in every leaf, but rather varies continuously with the leaf life cycle, in constant response to soil-root-stem-leaf-climate interactions and demand for growth. Moreover, while broad data on leaf N has become available it is normally measured under ambient conditions with consequent difficulty for distinguishing between genetic and time specific environmental effects. In the present work we: 1) Investigate the theoretical variation of leaf mass, specific heat capacity and leaf thickness of full sun-expanded leaves as a regulatory mechanism to ensure thermal survival along with long-term climatic radiation/temperature gradient; and discuss nitrogen and carbon controls on leaf thickness. 2) Based on possible states of partition between nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous components of a leaf we further derive probability density functions (PDFs) of nitrogen and carbon content and assess the effect of water and nutrient uptake on the PDFs. 3) Translate the results to spatially explicit representation over the conterminous USA at 1 km spatial resolution by providing maximum potential values of leaf N of fully expanded leaf optimally suited for long term climatic averages values and soils conditions. Implications for potential presence of inherently slow/fast growing species are discussed along with suitability of results for use by biochemical models.

  10. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  11. Foliar urea application affects nitric oxide burst and glycine betaine metabolism in two maize cultivars under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Wang, K.; Zhao, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Gao, M.

    2011-01-01

    Foliar urea has been proved to act a better role in alleviation of the negative effects of drought stress (DS). However, the modulation mechanism of foliar urea are not conclusive in view of nitric oxide (NO) burst and glycine betaine metabolism and their relationship. Two maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars (Zhengdan 958, JD958, Jundan 20, ZD20) were grown in hydroponic medium, which were treated with spraying of urea concentration of 15 g L/sup -1/ and two water regimes (non-stress and DS simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 15% w/v, MW 6000). The ten-day DS treatment increased betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity, choline content and nitric oxide (NO) content acted as the key enzyme, initial substrate and a nitrogenous signal substance respectively in GB synthesis metabolism, thus, induced to great GB accumulation. The accumulation of NO reached the summit earlier than that of GB. The more positive/less negative responses were recorded in JD958 as compared with ZD20 to DS. Addition of foliar ur ea could increase accumulation of choline and BADH activity as well as NO content, thereby, increase GB accumulation under DS. These positive effects of urea applying foliarly on all parameters measured were more pronounced in cultivar JD20 than those in ZD958 under drought. It is, therefore, concluded that increases of both BADH activity and choline content possibly resulted in enhancement of GB accumulation. Foliar urea application could provoke better GB accumulation by modulation of GB metabolism, possibly mediating by NO burst as a signal molecule during drought, especially in the drought sensitive maize cultivar. (author)

  12. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  13. [Development and test of a wheat chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Sun, Ming; Han, Shu-Qing; Xia, Jin-Wen

    2011-08-01

    A portable meter was developed which can detect chlorophyll, nitrogen and moisture content of wheat leaf simultaneously, and can supply enough data for guiding fertilization and irrigation. This meter is composed of light path and electronic circuit. And this meter uses 660, 940 and 1450 nm LED together with narrow band filters as the active light source. The hardware circuit consists of micro-controller, LED drive circuit, detector, communication circuit, keyboard and LCD circuit. The meter was tested in the field and performed well with good repeatability and accuracy. The relative errors of chlorophyll and nitrogen test were about 10%, relative error for water content was 4%. The coefficients of variation of the three indices were all below 1.5%. All of these prove that the meter can be applied under the field condition to guide the wheat production.

  14. Combined effects of nitrogen content in media and Ochromonas sp. grazing on colony formation of cultured Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YANG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the combined effects of nitrogen content in media and flagellate grazing on colony formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, we added Ochromonas sp. to M. aeruginosa cultured in different nitrogen content media for 7 days. Results showed that M. aeruginosa could be efficiently ingested by Ochromonas sp., no matter what nitrogen content media M. aeruginosa was cultured in. Colony formation was observed in M. aeruginosa in all Ochromonas sp. grazing treatments during the experiment. In contrast, M. aeruginosa populations in the controls were strongly dominated by unicellular and paired cell forms, and no colonies were observed. Among all Ochromonas sp. grazing treatments, the mean numbers of cells per particle of M. aeruginosa increased with decreased nitrogen concentration (except 0% N, therefore colony formation of M. aeruginosa can be enhanced under lower nitrogen conditions. This suggests that both nitrogen content and Ochromonas sp. grazing combine to affect M. aeruginosa colony formation. Three-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant interaction between time (day 1, 3, 5, and 7, treatment (with and without Ochromonas sp. grazing and N content (0%, 10%, 25%, and 100% N on the mean numbers of cells per particle, i.e. the extent of colony formation. At the end of the experiment, the influence of nitrogen content (except 0% N on the numbers of cells per particle followed a rectangular hyperbolic response. The experiments demonstrated that there exists a combined effect of nitrogen concentration and flagellate grazing on colony formation of M. aeruginosa under laboratory conditions.

  15. Radioactivation method for simultaneous determination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants and fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srapeniants, R.A.; Saveliev, I.B.; Kovtun, J.L.; Sidorov, A.V.; Tsagolov, K.S.; Miroshnikova, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radioactivation method for the simultaneous determination of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants and fertilizers is described. Samples to be analyzed and standard samples are exposed to neutron irradiation, and the spectra of gamma radiation induced in the samples are recorded. The samples laid aside for a period of time determined by the half-life of interfering isotopes, and the spectra of the samples and standards are recorded again. The first and second spectra are superposed and shifted relative to each other along the energy axis, and the content of the elements being analyzed is determined by comparing the spectra of the samples and standards

  16. Assimilation of 15N-labelled urea nitrogen and ammonium nitrate nitrogen by plants in case of root and non-root fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravin, Eh.A.; Kozhemyachko, V.A.; Vernichenko, I.V.

    1974-01-01

    Assimilation of 15 N labeled urea and ammonium nitrate in root and foliar application by spring wheat and barley has been studied during 1970-1973 period in a series of vegetative experiments at the Department of Agrochemistry, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and at D.N. Pryanishnikov Experimental Agrochemical Station. Additional fertilizer nitrogen applied at later ontogenesis stages (flowering and milky ripeness) is utilized mostly for protein synthesis in developing grains, thus leading to a significant increase in the relative grain protein content. A transfer of a part of nitrogen from the main ortion of fertilizer at later stages of nitrition results, at the same time, in a lower yield. Nitrogen utilization degree of urea and ammonium nitrate, when introduced before sowing or at the flowering stage is similar but in the latter case, however, additional assimilation of soil nitrogen is lower. The assimilation rate of nitrogen in root application is the lower the later the fertilizer is applied. When ammonium nitrate is additionally applied as nutrition to barley at the milky ripeness stage, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are assimilated at the same rate and to the same extent but ammonia nitrogen is more rapidly used for protein synthesis and the rate of its transfer to the developing grains is higher. The rate of nitrogen assimilation at plant is much higher in foliar than in root application. Wheat utilizes more urea nitrogen at the flowering stage when root application is used but at the milky ripeness stage foliar application is more effective

  17. Assimilation of /sup 15/N-labelled urea nitrogen and ammonium nitrate nitrogen by plants in case of root and non-root fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muravin, E A; Kozhemyachko, V A; Vernichenko, I V

    1974-01-01

    Assimilation of /sup 15/N labeled urea and ammonium nitrate in root and foliar application by spring wheat and barley has been studied during 1970-1973 period in a series of vegetative experiments at the Department of Agrochemistry, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and at D.N. Pryanishnikov Experimental Agrochemical Station. Additional fertilizer nitrogen applied at later ontogenesis stages (flowering and milky ripeness) is utilized mostly for protein synthesis in developing grains, thus leading to a significant increase in the relative grain protein content. A transfer of a part of nitrogen from the main portion of fertilizer at later stages of nitrition results, at the same time, in a lower yield. Nitrogen utilization degree of urea and ammonium nitrate, when introduced before sowing or at the flowering stage is similar but in the latter case, however, additional assimilation of soil nitrogen is lower. The assimilation rate of nitrogen in root application is the lower the later the fertilizer is applied. When ammonium nitrate is additionally applied as nutrition to barley at the milky ripeness stage, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are assimilated at the same rate and to the same extent but ammonia nitrogen is more rapidly used for protein synthesis and the rate of its transfer to the developing grains is higher. The rate of nitrogen assimilation at plant is much higher in foliar than in root application. Wheat utilizes more urea nitrogen at the flowering stage when root application is used but at the milky ripeness stage foliar application is more effective.

  18. Effect of nitrification inhibitors on the content of available nitrogen forms in the soil under maize (Zea mays, L. growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PANAKOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (dicyandiamide and 1,2,4 triazole on the content of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in the soil and the effectiveness of nitrogen-sulphur nutrition of maize. The research was conducted in field small-plot experiment with maize on Haplic Luvisol with dominance of clay fraction in experimental years 2012 to 2015. The dose of nitrogen in all experimental treatments was 160 kg*ha-1 and was applied at one shot or split in three partial doses. Soil samples from all examined treatments were taken from three soil depths (0.0-0.3 m, 0.3-0.6 m and 0.6-0.9 m, respectively by probe rod in 4-5 week intervals. Achieved results indicate that on the average of four years and three depths of the soil profile, application of nitrification inhibitors contained in fertilizer ENSIN considerably reduced portion of nitrate nitrogen from the content of mineral nitrogen in the soil by 7-32 relative %. The application of fertilizer ENSIN considerably increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the soil by 10-59 relative %. A favourable effect on increase of ammonium nitrogen content and reduction of nitrate nitrogen content was found out in spite of the fact that in this treatment the total dose of fertilizer was applied at one shot.

  19. Combined effects of drought stress and npk foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, R.N.; Waraocj, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supplemental foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) spray, alone or in various combinations, on physiological processes and nutrients uptake in wheat under water deficit conditions. The study comprised of two phases; during the first phase, ten local wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were evaluated for their response to PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress. One drought tolerant (Bhakkar-2002) and sensitive (Shafaq-2006) genotype selected from screening experiments were used in the second phase to determine the individual and combined effects of N, P and K foliar spray on physiological mechanisms in wheat under drought stress. The results revealed that limited water supply significantly reduced germination, growth and uptake of N, P and K. Supplemental foliar fertilisation of these macronutrients alone or in different combinations significantly improved the water relations, gas exchange characteristics and nutrient contents in both the genotypes. Bhakkar-2002 maintained higher turgor, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and accumulated more N, P and K in shoot than Shafaq-2006. The foliar spray of NPK in combination was effective in improving wheat growth under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. (author)

  20. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Lan; Yao, Kexin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WATERMELON, CV. TOP GUN

    OpenAIRE

    NOWAKI, RODRIGO HIYOSHI DALMAZZO; CECÍLIO FILHO, ARTHUR BERNARDES; FARIA, ROGÉRIO TEIXEIRA DE; WAMSER, ANDERSON FERNANDO; CORTEZ, JUAN WALDIR MENDONZA

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N) is the second most important nutrient required by watermelons that can limit their growth and affect fruit quality when deficient. We evaluated the soil (N-nitrate) and foliar N contents and soluble-solid content of the watermelon 'Top Gun' in Brazil at six rates of N fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1). N-nitrate and foliar N levels increased linearly with rate. Number of total and marketable fruit, weight of total and marketable fruit and total and mar...

  2. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WATERMELON, CV. TOP GUN

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGO HIYOSHI DALMAZZO NOWAKI; ARTHUR BERNARDES CECÍLIO FILHO; ROGÉRIO TEIXEIRA DE FARIA; ANDERSON FERNANDO WAMSER; JUAN WALDIR MENDONZA CORTEZ

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the second most important nutrient required by watermelons that can limit their growth and affect fruit quality when deficient. We evaluated the soil (N-nitrate) and foliar N contents and soluble-solid content of the watermelon 'Top Gun' in Brazil at six rates of N fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1). N-nitrate and foliar N levels increased linearly with rate. Number of total and marketable fruit, weight of total and marketable fruit and total and marketable y...

  3. EFEITO DA OMISSÃO COMBINADA DE N, P, K E S NOS TEORES FOLIARES DE MACRONUTRIENTES EM MUDAS DE GOIABEIRA EFFECT OF COMBINED OMISSION OF N, P, K AND S ON FOLIAR MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF GUAVA SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Odemir Salvador

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da omissão simples e combinada de dois nutrientes, estabelecida entre os macronutrientes N, P, K e S, sobre a composição de macronutrientes no terceiro par de folhas de mudas de goiabeira. Avaliou-se, ainda, a tendência de acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn nas folhas, caules + ramos e raízes, de plantas mantidas em solução nutritiva completa durante 70 dias. A ausência de um nutriente promoveu a redução de sua concentração nas folhas, porém, não produziu grandes alterações na composição dos demais macronutrientes, exceto para K e Ca no tratamento com omissão de N. As folhas foram o principal órgão armazenador de macronutrientes. Dos micronutrientes, cerca de 57% do conteúdo de B e 65% do de Fe foram alocados nas folhas e o restante dividido em proporções equivalentes entre caules + ramos e raízes. Somente 23% do total do Cu extraído foi armazenado nas folhas, enquanto que 45% permaneceu nas raízes. Para o desenvolvimento inicial da goiabeira, a necessidade de macronutrientes obedeceu a ordem decrescente: N, K, Ca, S, Mg e P e a exigência de micronutrientes, por sua vez, obedeceu a seguinte ordem decrescente: Mn, Fe, Zn, B e Cu.This work had the objective of evaluating the effects of N, P, K and S deficiencies, when omitted in single or in pairs, on the macronutrient composition of the third leaf from the tip of young guava plants. The content of macro and micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn in leaves, stem + branches and roots of plants grown in a complete nutrient solution for 70 days, was also evaluated. It was shown that the lack of a given element caused a decrease in its leaf concentration, but did not cause significant changes on the level of the other macronutrients in the leaves, except for K and Ca when N was omitted. The leaves were the major storage organ for macronutrients (above 50% from each one. About 57% of the B and 65% of Fe were

  4. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  5. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  7. Long-term multifactorial climate change impacts on mesofaunal biomass and nitrogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Dyrnum, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    increased at elevated CO2, or tended do so. In contrast, enchytraeid N content decreased at elevated CO2. Soil microbial biomass N pool and litter C:N ratio also increased with elevated CO2, which suggests that mite biomasses are more coupled to microbial biomass, whereas enchytraeid biomass to a larger...... extent is governed by litter nitrogen concentration, i.e. litter quality. Structural equation modelling confirmed the positive coupling between soil microbial N content and oribatid biomass and further between oribatid and mesostigmatic biomass. The SEM also revealed a negative relationship between...... microbial N content and enchytraeid biomass. The biomass of all mesofaunal groups was reduced by spring drought, especially when combined with warming. Enchytraeid and especially collembolan biomass suffered greater drought declines than mite biomasses. We conclude that under long-term elevated CO2 exposure...

  8. The preparation and characterization of CNx film with high nitrogen content by cathode electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.-T.; Cao, C.-B.; Lv Qiang; Li Chao; Zhu Hesun

    2003-01-01

    CN x thin film with high nitrogen content was prepared on ITO conductive glass substrates by cathode electrodeposition, using dicyandiamide (C 2 H 4 N 4 ) in acetone as precursors. The surface morphologies, atomic bonding state, and chemical composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The CN x particles got nanometer level with the average size of 80 nm. The maximum value of the N/C atomic ratio was more than 1. Carbon and nitrogen existed mainly in the form of tetrahedral C-N bonds, with a few C-N bonds. From UV-Vis absorption spectrum, we found that during near-ultraviolet area the deposited CN x films appeared nonlinear optical absorption phenomena, and the ultraviolet light (200-280 nm) could be transmitted. The electrical resistivities of the films were in the range of 10 12 -10 16 Ω cm

  9. In-line estimation of sulfur and nitrogen contents during hydrotreating of middle distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is analyzing whether it is possible to develop an empirical correlation for in-line estimation of the sulfur and nitrogen contents of the middle distillates Hydrotreating (HDT products for control purposes. Correlations are based only on readily available in-line information of specific gravity variation between feedstock and products, without considering any piece of information about the kinetic behavior of the catalyst. Experimental data were obtained in pilot plants under operating conditions that are representative of refinery operations. Results indicate that the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds during middle distillates HDT can be monitored in-line in real time, based on the available measurements of specific gravity. This allows for development and implementation of advanced in-line procedures for monitoring and control of the HDT process in real time.

  10. Variation in Foliar δ13C of Desert Plant Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim. among Different Environments in Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Pendall, E.; Chen, F.

    2008-12-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant desert shrub species in arid regions of northwest China, it playing an important role in the maintenance of the stability and continuity of desert ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution characteristics of foliar δ13C value in R. soongorica, establish the correlations between foliar characteristics and environmental factors, and identify the major factor controlling the variations of foliar δ13C among different environments. Leaves of R. soongorica were collected from 21 natural populations in its major distribution area in northwestern China, across a range of mean annual precipitation from 27 to 328 mm, at altitudes from 394 to 1987 m above sea level, at latitudes from 36°N to 45°N and at longitudes from 81°E to 107°E. We measured the leaf nitrogen (LN), phosphorus (LP), potassium content (LK), leaf water content (LWC) and foliar δ13C in leaves of 407 individuals, and the soil physicochemical properties including nitrogen (SN), phosphorus (SP), soil organic matter (SOM), soil water contents (SWC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), evaporation, mean relative humidity (MRH) and duration of sunshine (DS), were collected from the Cold and Arid Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We observed that the foliar δ13C values increased significantly with the decreasing of MAP (r = -0.623, P = 0.003) and MRH(r = -0.702, P = 0.002), and decreased with decreasing DS and evaporation. No significant correlation with MAT was detected in δ13C values of R. soongorica. The correlations between foliar δ13C value and the soil factors demonstrated that the foliar δ13C values in R. soongorica significantly increased with the decreasing SWC (r = - 0.470, P = 0.037) and increasing TDS (r = 0.507, P = 0.022) in soil. There were no significant correlations between the foliar δ13C values and soil pH, total

  11. Remote estimation of nitrogen and chlorophyll contents in maize at leaf and canopy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, M.; Gitelson, A.; Schepers, J.; Ferguson, R.; Peng, Y.; Shanahan, J.; Rundquist, D.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf and canopy nitrogen (N) status relates strongly to leaf and canopy chlorophyll (Chl) content. Remote sensing is a tool that has the potential to assess N content at leaf, plant, field, regional and global scales. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied to estimate N and Chl contents of irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) fertilized at five N rates. Leaf N and Chl contents were determined using the red-edge chlorophyll index with R2 of 0.74 and 0.94, respectively. Results showed that at the canopy level, Chl and N contents can be accurately retrieved using green and red-edge Chl indices using near infrared (780-800 nm) and either green (540-560 nm) or red-edge (730-750 nm) spectral bands. Spectral bands that were found optimal for Chl and N estimations coincide well with the red-edge band of the MSI sensor onboard the near future Sentinel-2 satellite. The coefficient of determination for the relationships between the red-edge chlorophyll index, simulated in Sentinel-2 bands, and Chl and N content was 0.90 and 0.87, respectively.

  12. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  13. Utilization of 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer in dependence on organic manuring and carbon and nitrogen contents of loess chernozem profiles with different stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greilich, J.

    1988-01-01

    In an outdoor model experiment with different total C and N contents in five profile variants of loess chernozem, the utilization of 15 N-labelled mineral fertilizer N by maize was investigated over three years. The total nitrogen uptake in the variants correlated with the yields at nearly uniform nitrogen contents in dry matter. Total C and N contents of the profile variants and one organic manure application per year had no statistically significant effects on the 15 N-labelled fertilizer N proportion in total N content of biomass. As a result of the low yields obtained from the variants with low total C and N contents of soil, mineral fertilizer utilization was found to be lower, too, in most of these variants. Organic manuring had no essential effect on mineral fertilizer N utilization. (author)

  14. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrate reductase activity, nitric oxide content and gas exchange in winter wheat leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of different nitrogen application rates on the nitrate reductase (NR) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content and gas exchange parameters in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves from tillering stage to heading stage and on grain yield were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate (P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE) of leaves as well as the grain yield were increased with increasing nitrogen application rate first but decreased then, with the values of all these parameters reached the highest in treatment N180. The NR activity increased with increasing nitrogen application rate, and there was a significant linear correlation between NR activity and NO content at tillering and jointing stages (R2 > or = 0.68, n = 15). NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (G(s)) (R2 > or = 0.43, n = 15). The lower NO content produced by lower NR activity under lower nitrogen application rate promoted the stoma opened, while the higher NO content produced by higher NR activity under higher nitrogen application rate induced the stoma closed. Although the leaf NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (R2 > or = 0.36, n = 15), no remarkable correlation was observed between NR activity and NO content at heading stage, suggesting that nitrogen fertilization could not affect leaf NO content through promoting NR activity, and further more, regulate the stomatal action. Under appropriate nitrogen application the leaf NR activity and NO content were lower, G(s), T(r) and IWUE were higher, and thus, the crop had a better drought-resistant ability, higher P(n), and higher grain yield.

  15. Reference material certification of chinese cabbage composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupakhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. The reference material of composition with the established metrological characteristics including a certified value and an expanded uncertainty is necessary to ensure an effective accuracy and precision control of results of element composition determination in food ingredients and products. This paper represents the development of a reference material of food crop composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Methods. To identify the selenium the hybrid atomic absorption method was used, to identify the nitrogen and phosphorus the photometric method was used, to determine the potassium flame-photometric method was used. When determining the metrological characteristics of the reference material the Russian national instructions and recommendations MI 3174-2009 and P 50.2.058-2007 were applied. Results. Based on the research findings the reference material of Chinese cabbage composition with a certified value and an expanded uncertainty was developed: for selenium 0.044 ± 0.017 mg/kg; for nitrogen 4.09 ± 0.27 %; for phosphorus 0.69 ± 0.14 %; for potassium 2.87 ± 0.22 %.

  16. Nitrogen content, 15N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solga, A.; Burkhardt, J.; Zechmeister, H.G.; Frahm, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence on 15 N natural abundance (δ 15 N values) and on productivity was examined. Annual increases of the mosses were used for all analyses. Significant relationships between bulk N deposition and nitrogen content were obtained for both species; δ 15 N-values reflected the ratio of NH 4 -N to NO 3 -N in deposition. A negative effect of nitrogen input on productivity, i.e. decreasing biomass per area with increasing N deposition due to a reduction of stem density, was particularly evident with P. schreberi. Monitoring of N deposition by means of mosses is considered an important supplement to existing monitoring programs. It makes possible an improved spatial resolution, and thus those areas that receive high loads of nitrogen are more easily discernible. - Mosses are useful as monitors of nitrogen deposition

  17. Radioactivation method for simultaneous determination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants and fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, J.L.; Miroshnikova, N.N.; Saveliev, I.B.; Sidorov, A.V.; Srapeniants, R.A.; Tsagolov, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    According to the invention, the radioactivation method for simultaneous determination of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants and fertilizers consists in exposing samples to be analyzed and standard samples to neutron irradiation and recording the spectra of the gamma radiation induced in said samples, whereupon the samples are laid aside for a period of time determined by the half-life of the interfering isotope. This is followed by again recording the spectra of the samples being analyzed and of the standard samples and superposing the first and second spectra of the samples being analyzed and of the standard samples. These spectra are then shifted relative to each other along the energy axis, and the contents of the elements being analyzed are determined by thus comparing the spectra of the samples being analyzed and of the standard samples

  18. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  19. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  20. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on micronutrient content in grain maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maňásek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year small-plot field experiment with the grain maize hybrid KWS 2376 was conducted on heavy soil with a low supply of available nutrients incl. potassium (K at Otrokovice, Czech Republic, during 2010–2011. The experiment included 4 treatments: unfertilized control; nitrogen (N fertilisation with urea (120 kg N/ha alone or combined with two forms of K fertiliser (potassium chloride (KCl or potassium sulphate (K2SO4; 125 kg K2O/ha. Biomass samples for determination of Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe were taken as the whole aboveground biomass in the DC 32 (first node stage, the ear-leaf in the DC 61 (flowering stage and grain during the harvest.Between the two years the content of micronutrients in the individual treatments varied irregularly. In DC 32 and DC 61 the order of the content of micronutrients was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu. The Fe content was significantly the highest in the unfertilised control and the Mn content after the application of N + K2SO4 in both samplings. In the grain the order was as follows: Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu (mg/kg DM: at the following contents: Zn: 19.20–23.19; Fe: 15.12–19.87; Mn: 0.85–3.60; Cu: 0.19–1.34. We can recommend fertilisation of maize with urea and with both potassium mineral fertilisers without any negative effects on the content of the micronutrients in the maize biomass.

  1. Simulation of Soil Nitrogen Content Effect on Weed Seedling Emergence Pattern in Moldavian Balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Moradian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil nitrogen content with impact on weed seed dormancy breaking can change their seedling emergence pattern. A trial was carried out in 2014 to predict seedling emergence of Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Echinocloa cruss-galli,  Amaranthus retroflexus andConvolvulus arvensis,  and to evaluate the impact of soil nitrogen content (Control with 0.07% nitrogen, adding 50 and 100 kg N.ha-1 on seedling emergence pattern in Moldavian balm. The experimental design was randomized complete block design. Weed seedlings were counted and removed on a weekly basis throughout the season. The data were converted to percent of cumulative emergence and percentage of cumulative emergence values was compared with thermal time using Gompertz modified functions. The all species showed different emergence patterns and thermal time required for the onset of emergence. The results also showed that the emergence patterns of Chenopodium and Convolvulus  not affected by nitrogen treatments. However, soil nitrogen content significantly changed emergence patterns of A. retroflexus, E. cruss-galli and X. strumarium. According to our model, A. retroflexus, E. cruss-galli and X. strumarium emergence, respectively, started at 237, 96 and 63 TT with 50 kg additional nitrogen.ha-1, while the respective value in control were 340, 117 and 135, respectively. Due to influence of soil nitrogen on emergence pattern of A. retroflexus, E. cruss-galli and X. strumarium, soil nitrogen content should be considered as an important parameter in the modeling of these weed seedling emergence.

  2. Nitrogen dioxide column content measurements made from an aircraft between 5 deg and 82 deg N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W A

    1984-01-01

    In the first two weeks of May 1981, the research jet of the German Aerospace Research Estlablishment (DFVLR) was charted to fly a meridional section between 5 deg and 82 deg N. A scanning filter photometer, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie to measure column content values of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, using ultraviolet and visible absorption techniques, constituted part of the experimental payload for this campaign that was called SIMOC. The vertical NO2 column content above the aircraft, flying at approximately 10 km, was found to decrease rapidly from 6.9 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm to 2.5 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm around 50 deg N and then to increase again north of 75 deg N. A sharp rise in the NO2 content was observed south of the subtropical jet but this could possibly be due to the increased depth of the troposphere above the aircraft in these regions. 8 references.

  3. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  4. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Štork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. ► Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. ► Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. ► Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. ► Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g −1 DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  5. Uranium metal and uranium dioxide powder and pellets - Determination of nitrogen content - Method using ammonia-sensing electrode. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This International Standard specifies an analytical method for determining the nitrogen content in uranium metal and uranium dioxide powder and pellets. It is applicable to the determination of nitrogen, present as nitride, in uranium metal and uranium dioxide powder and pellets. The concentration range within which the method can be used is between 9 μg and 600 μg of nitrogen per gram. Interference can occur from metals which form complex ammines, but these are not normally present in significant amounts

  6. Nitrogen content determinations in different stages of thermal treatment involved in conversion of ammonium diuranate to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.C.; Shelke, G.P.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of nitrogen content in the uranium metal and uranium oxide based reactor fuels is important to meet the requirement of specifications given by fuel designer. Therefore, a systematic study was carried out to determine the variations in nitrogen content during the conversion of ammonium diuranate (ADU) to uranium oxides (UO 3 and UO 2 ), and finally to uranium metal by inert gas fusion-thermal conductivity detection (IGF-TCD) technique. To understand the measured nitrogen content variations, the thermal decomposition study of ADU was carried out using thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in the temperature range of 25-1073 K. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to confirm the formation of uranium oxide precursors at different temperature. (author)

  7. A facile approach towards increasing the nitrogen-content in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via halogenated catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombaka, L.M.; Ndungu, P.G.; Omondi, B.; McGettrick, J.D.; Davies, M.L.; Nyamori, V.O.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized at 850 °C via a CVD deposition technique by use of three ferrocenyl derivative catalysts, i.e. para-CN, -CF_3 and -Cl substituted-phenyl rings. The synthesized catalysts have been characterized by NMR, IR, HR-MS and XRD. The XRD analysis of the para-CF_3 catalyst indicates that steric factors influence the X-ray structure of 1,1′-ferrocenylphenyldiacrylonitriles. Acetonitrile or pyridine was used as carbon and nitrogen sources to yield mixtures of N-CNTs and carbon spheres (CS). The N-CNTs obtained from the para-CF_3 catalysts, in pyridine, have the highest nitrogen-doping level, show a helical morphology and are less thermally stable compared with those synthesized by use of the para-CN and -Cl as catalyst. This suggests that fluorine heteroatoms enhance nitrogen-doping in N-CNTs and formation of helical-N-CNTs (H-N-CNTs). The para-CF_3 and para-Cl catalysts in acetonitrile yielded iron-filled N-CNTs, indicating that halogens promote encapsulation of iron into the cavity of N-CNT. The use of acetonitrile, as carbon and nitrogen source, with the para-CN and -Cl as catalysts also yielded a mixture of N-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (CNFs), with less abundance of CNFs in the products obtained using para-Cl catalysts. However, para-CF_3 catalyst in acetonitrile gave N-CNTs as the only shaped carbon nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract showing the synthesis of N-CNTs using halogenated-ferrocenyl derivatives as catalyst with pyridine or acetonitrile as nitrogen and carbon sources via the chemical vapour deposition technique. - Highlights: • N-CNTs were synthesized from halogenated ferrocenyl catalysts. • Halogenated catalysts promote nitrogen-doping and pyridinic nitrogen in N-CNTs. • Halogenated catalysts facilitate iron filling of N-CNTs.

  8. Teores de nitrogênio em fôlhas de cafeeiro, em relação à adubação química: I - Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto Effects of fertilization on the nitrogen content of the coffee leaves: I - Latosolic B "Terra roxa" and ortho Red-yellow Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de análises foliares obtidos durante cinco anos em ensaio de adubação química nitrogenada em café, cultivar Mundo Nôvo, instalado em Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto, revelaram, para amostras colhidas no verão, teores médios de 2,8% a 3% de nitrogênio total como indicativos de uma nutrição adequada. Produções elevadas de frutos estiveram associadas com teores da ordem de 500 ppm de nitrogênio nítrico nas fôlhas. A análise de fôlhas para ambas as formas de nitrogênio mostrou que a aplicação do adubo nitrogenado em pelo menos três parcelas, no período que vai de outubro a março, parece importante para prevenir a deficiência.Nitrogen is highly demanded by coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants, and previous survey, made by foliar analysis, indicated that most of them, grown in São Paulo State, suffer nitrogen deficiency. A study was made to observe the variation of the total and nitric nitrogen, as judged by foliar chemical analysis, in relation to the type, amount and the timing of the application of several different nitrogen fertilizers (Nitrocálcio, nitrate of soda from Chile, ammonium sulphate, and urea. The experiment, a factorial of 4x4x4, was installed in a mixture of Latosolic B "Terra Roxa" and Ortho Red-Yellow Latosol at Experimental Center of Campinas, SP. The amount of the fertilizer used was 45, 90, 135 and 180 g N/plant, subdivided in 1 to 4 applications throughout the year. P2O5 (120 g and K(20 (180 g were uniformly applied to all plants. Leaf samples were collected at 45 days intervals between October and March, and another at July, from 1964 to 1969. The results of the analysis indicated that: (a sampling during summer (January-March is better to evaluate nitrogen deficiency in coffee; (b total nitrogen content of 2.8-3% (and about 500 ppm of nitric N was correlated to a production of more than 2,500 kg/ha of treated beans; (c the subdivision of the fertilizers applied

  9. Effect of pre-harvest foliar application of citric acid and malic acid on chlorophyll content and post-harvest vase life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh eDarandeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preharvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier and confirmed here on lilium. In this research citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15 percent v/v and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15 percent v/v were used together two times during growth period of lilium plants in a randomized factorial design with three replications. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid had increased vase life from 13.1 to 14 days (α=0.05. The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 8.6 gr to 2.9 gr in 0.15% citric acid per cut flower. Malic acid while having no effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. In mean comparison of factor-levels, the effect of citric acid on vase-life extension was more prominent increasing it from 11.8 to 14.3 days in treatment with 0.15% citric acid and without malic acid compared to control treatment.

  10. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  11. Nitrogen deposition and soil carbon content affect nitrogen mineralization during primary succession in acid inland drift sand vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrius, L.B.; Kooijman, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Two inland dunes in the Netherlands receiving low (24) and high (41 kg N ha−1 yr−1) nitrogen (N) deposition were compared for N dynamics and microbial activity to investigate the potential effect of N on succession rate of the vegetation and loss of pioneer habitats. Methods

  12. Effects of nitrogen content in monocrystalline nano-CeO2 on the degradation of dye in indoor lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongfeng; Gu, Mingjie; Li, Ruixing; Yin, Shu; Song, Xiaozhen; Zhao, Bin; Li, Chengqiang; Li, Junping; Feng, Zhihai; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes are an abundant class of synthetic dyes, however their complex structure makes them difficult to biologically degrade. We sought to degrade acid orange 7 (AO7) using nitrogen-doped nano-CeO 2 , which is a promising alternative photocatalyst to nitrogen-doped TiO 2 . Nitrogen-doped monocrystalline CeO 2 nanoparticles with various nitrogen contents were synthesized solvothermally at 120 o C from Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O, triethanolamine, and ethanol. The CeO 2 monocrystals were between 7 and 8 nm in diameter. Nitrogen was shown to be incorporated into CeO 2 lattice from the results of the lattice parameter calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and elemental analysis. The degradation of AO7 in water was investigated using a domestic 10 W compact fluorescent lamp. The degradation efficiency of AO7 by monocrystalline CeO 2 increased with increasing nitrogen content, reaching 97.6% for the sample with a N:Ce molar ratio of 0.3.

  13. Fixação biológica de nitrogênio e teores foliares de nutrientes na soja em função de doses de molibdênio e gesso agrícola Biological nitrogen fixation and leaf nutrient concentration on soybean as a function of molybdenum and gypsum levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Gelain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade econômica da soja brasileira no mercado mundial se deve, em grande parte, aos benefícios da fixação biológica do nitrogênio na cultura. O trabalho foi conduzido a campo, sob sistema plantio direto, em condição de sequeiro, no Município de Maracaju-MS, com o objetivo de avaliar a nodulação, o crescimento, nutrição mineral e produtividade de grãos da soja submetida a diferentes doses de gesso agrícola e molibdênio. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas representadas por quatro doses de gesso agrícola (0, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 kg ha-1 e as subparcelas, por quatro doses de molibdênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 g ha-1. Não houve efeito da interação gesso x Mo sobre a produtividade da soja. O gesso agrícola não influencia no teor foliar de N e na produtividade. O Mo proporciona incrementos na produtividade e no teor de proteínas dos grãos.The economic competitiveness of Brazilian soybeans on the world market occurs, in large part, due to the benefits of biological nitrogen fixation in this crop. The field experiment was carried out in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, under no-tillage system, in rainfed condition. The aim was to evaluate nodulation, growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of soybeans under different doses of gypsum and molybdenum. The experimental design used was a randomized block with five replicates and arranged in a split-plot squeme, with the plot represented by four doses of gypsum (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 kg ha-1 and the subplots by four doses of molybdenum (0, 20, 40 and 60 g ha-1. There were no interaction effects of Mo x gypsum for grain yield. Gypsum has no influence in the N leaf content and grain yield. Mo increases grain yield and protein levels in the grain.

  14. Níveis de irrigação e doses de potássio sobre os teores foliares de nutrientes do maracujazeiro amarelo Effect of irrigation levels and potassium doses on nutrient content of yellow passion fruit leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemício F. de Sousa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis de irrigação e doses de potássio aplicadas via água de irrigação por gotejamento, sobre os teores foliares de nutrientes do maracujazeiro amarelo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Campo Experimental da Fazenda Areão, da ESALQ/USP, em Piracicaba, SP (22° 42' 30" S e 47° 38' 00" W; utilizou-se, com tal propósito, um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos foram arranjados no esquema de parcelas subdivididas e resultaram da combinação de quatro níveis de irrigação (L1 = 0,25 L; L2 = 0,50 L; L3 = 0,75 L; L4 = 1,00 L em que L é o volume de água médio medido em lisímetros, e cinco níveis de potássio (K0 = 0,000; K1 = 0,225; K2 = 0,450; K3 = 0,675 e K4 = 0,900 kg planta-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas via água de irrigação. Avaliou-se a concentração de nutrientes nas plantas através da diagnose foliar, realizada no período de colheita de frutos. Os teores dos nutrientes nas folhas do maracujazeiro não foram influenciados pelos níveis de irrigação nem pela interação irrigação x potássio, ao passo que a acumulação de K, Ca, Mg, B e Mn o foram pelas doses de potássio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and potassium levels applied through irrigation water by drip irrigation on the nutrient content of yellow passion fruit. The experiment was performed in the Experimental Field of the Areão Farm at ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil (22° 42' 30" S e 47° 38' 00" W. An experimental design of randomized blocks in subdivided plots with four replications was used. The treatments resulted from the combination of four irrigation levels (L1 = 0.25 L, L2 = 0.50 L, L3 = 0.75 L and L4 = 1.00 L, in which L is the average water depth measured in lysimetr, and five potassium doses (K0 = 0.00; K1 = 0.225; K2 = 0.450 K3 = 0.675 and K4 = 0.90 kg plant-1 year-1 of K2O, applied

  15. Changes in the contents of nitrogen fractions with loosing vital capacity of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Prokushkin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Siberian fir seeds often lose their germinating capacity during storage. This results from, among other factors, changing contents of nitrogen compounds in the seeds, especially those of protein fractions. This paper focuses on analyzing changes of these compounds in nonviable seeds of the species depending on ecological and conditions and stand location, as well as on tree growth class (Kraft growth classes I and IV. The contents of the total and protein nitrogen in the nonviable seeds of the trees of growth classes I and IV appeared to vary widely and to depend on stand location and seed location in the tree crown. The maximum contents were in the seeds located in the upper part of the crown. The seeds from the middle and lower crown parts contained much less total and protein nitrogen. The hard-to-solve protein fraction dominated over other protein fraction in the seeds from the upper part of the crowns of the trees of growth classes I and IV. However, this fraction, like prolamines, changed uniformly throughout the crowns, whereas seed glutelin content varied insignificantly among the crown parts. Albumins and globulins showed a uniform crown top-to-bottom decrease. A comparison of viable seed with unviable seeds for contents of the nitrogen forms revealed a marked decrease in the total and protein nitrogen in the latter, especially for the trees of growth class IV. The seeds that lost their germinating capacity exhibited increasingly hard-to-solve protein fraction and drastically decreasing albumins and globulins wherever the seeds were in the crown. Their glutelin and prolamine contents changed inconsiderably.The changes of the quantitative ratio between the protein fractions found by the study cause, along with other physiological and biochemical factors, the loss of viability of Siberian fir seeds during storage.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the total nitrogen and protein content in body during different stages of silkworm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.; Binkh, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation of eggs of silk moth in B 2 stage in doses of 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 Gy on the changes of total nitrogen and protein content during different stages of Bombyx mori L. development. Highest levels of total nitrogen and protein were found in silk gland 14.032-14.355 mg%, followed by pupae - 7.448-8.092 and 46.550-48.906 mg%, moths after egg laying - 6.650-7.825 and 41.563-48.906 mg% and silkworm hemolymph - 6.920-6.980 and 43.250-43.625 mg%, respectively. The irradiation of eggs with 2.00 and 3,00 Gy gamma rays stimulated the increase of total nitrogen and protein content in silk gland by 6.66-7.3% compared to non-irradiated eggs of the same breed. 14 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  17. Application of titration methods for measuring the contents of ammonium nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Michał; Lisowski, Aleksander; Lisowska, Barbara

    2017-12-20

    The aim of our research was to assess a relatively new method of estimating ammonium nitrogen concentration in anaerobic digestion of plant substrates. We analysed our own data, received from the anaerobic digestion of maize silage (PM), as well as data published by Purser et al. (2014) who measured energy crops and slurry (ECS), and food waste (FW). In our study, the process was monitored for VFA content that was determined by gas chromatography, and for the content of ammonium nitrogen determined using the HACH LANGE LCK 303 cuvette test. We created polynomial regression models that bind the content of ammonium nitrogen with the volume of H 2 SO 4 used to titrate the sample from initial pH to pH 5. To estimate parameters of model, the PM dataset was used. The obtained models were positively validated using ECS and FW datasets. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of the Purser et al. method with an average absolute error of less than 223mgl -1 of the VFA concentration, which was approximately 20-times less than the level that caused inhibition. In conclusion, we can affirm the suitability of using titration methods to assess the ammonium nitrogen content of bioreactors with a stable composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genotypic and environmental effects on cottonseed oil, nitrogen, and gossypol contents in eighteen years Regional High Quality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of environmental influence on seed traits is critical for genetic improvement of seed quality in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of environment and genotype (G) for seed oil, nitrogen (N), and gossypol content...

  19. Integrated effect of nutrients from a recirculation aquaponic system and foliar nutrition on the yield of tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullian Klanian, Mariel; Delgadillo Diaz, Mariana; Aranda, Javier; Rosales Juárez, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of tomato plants to efficiently use the nitrogen (N) of a recirculation aquaponic system (RAS) and to evaluate the effects of foliar fertilization as a complement to the water nutrition on the growth of the two tomato cultivars. The significant effect of six macro- and seven micronutrients was evaluated on the plant growth and on the fruit yield. Two experiments were performed in a nutrient film aquaponic unit. The first experiment was designed to study the effects of foliar fertilization on the seedlings of two tomato cultivars Costoluto Genovese (CG) (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Currant tomato (Ct) (Solanum pimpinellifolium) with 8% of weekly water exchange (WE8%-RAS). The foliar fertilizer was formulated with N restriction in the last 11 weeks (TF1). In the second experiment, two other foliar fertilization treatments (TF2 and TF3) were applied with a concentration of nutrients twice and triple that in TF1, but with a lower proportion of NPK ratio. These treatments were tested on the cultivar CG in a RAS with zero water exchange (WE0%-RAS). The data from the 1st experiment showed a positive effect of the foliar fertilization on the yield of both cultivars. The fertilization markedly influenced the dry matter weight of the CG; however, this effect was not observed in the Ct. The root length of both cultivars was positively influenced by the P content, whereas the plant height was affected by the excess of Co and S. According to the results from the 2nd experiment, the TF2 plants had the highest number of fruits with a high mean weight. The system was efficient in utilizing N from fish tank; the water K favored the yield of the CG fruit and the foliar K favored the growth of the TF2 plants. With a decrease in the foliar N, the CG plants were able to absorb 27.5% of the NO 3 - and 7.06% of total ammonia nitrogen from water. The absolute and relative growth rate of Nile tilapia was not affected by the rate

  20. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyanit, Ekkarut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathaumthani (Thailand). Failure Analysis and Surface Technology Lab; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkom University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering,; Phakpeetinan, Panyasak; Chianpairot, Amnuysak

    2016-08-01

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  1. The Effect of Foliar Application of Humic Acid and Nano Fertilizer (Pharmks® on Morphological Traits, Yield, Essential Oil Content and Yield of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid azizi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ever-increasing tendency to the use of medicinal plants in the world has grown concerns about their cultivation and production processes. As medicinal plants are more compatible with the nature, special interest and attention have recently been given to herb therapy, and use of medicinal plants, being limited by the rise of pharmaceutical drugs, has become again common and widespread due to a number of reasons. In a sustainable agriculture system, application of the fertilizers which are nature friendly and suitable for plants is essential. This becomes more important when dealing with medicinal plants. Doing studies over the effect of nano¬pharmax and humic acid fertilizer on the plant, no research findings were obtained. So, in order to use less chemical fertilizers to prevent environmental pollution and encourage farmers to use more organic fertilizer, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar application of humic acid and nano-pharmax fertilizer on the growth index, yield, yield components, essential oil content of N. sativa. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2012-2013. Land preparation was done in October. The land area was 80 square meters in which three blocks were designed. Eight plots were prepared within each block and each plot was planted with 4 lines. Furrow sowing operations were carried out on October 29. The plants were thinned in 4-6 leaf stage. First irrigation after planting, and subsequent ones were done every 7 days until the end of the growing season. No herbicides were applied in this plan and weeding was done by hand. The test treatments included humic acid and nano¬pharmax fertilizer with the levels of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg per liter and 0 and 1 ml per liter, respectively. Fertilizer treatments was applied at the 8-10 leaf stage and continued once every two weeks, three times

  2. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  3. Effects of water deficit and nitrogen levels on grain yield and oil and protein contents of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in 2014, to evaluate the effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield, oil and protein contents of maize (cv. double Cross 303. The experiment was arranged as split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block design (RCB with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation and nitrogen levels (0, 46 and 92 kg N/ha were located in the main and sub plots, respectively. Mean grain yield per unit area decreased with decreasing water availability, but it was improved with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Grain oil percentage significantly decreased, but protein percentage slightly increased as a result of water deficit. In general, oil and protein yields significantly decreased under moderate and severe water stress, mainly because of decreasing grain yield under these conditions. Nitrogen application decreased oil percentage, but increased protein percentage significantly. Nevertheless, nitrogen fertilizer enhanced oil and protein yields per unit area, with no significant difference between nitrogen rates. These results were positively related with grain yield per unit area in maize.

  4. Decreasing the NO3 and increasing the vitamin C contents in spinach by a nitrogen deprivation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafar, A

    1996-02-01

    Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers is known to increase the NO3 and reduce the vitamin C contents in fruits and vegetables. We investigated the concentration of these compounds in spinach leaves when plants were transferred to nitrogen-free media prior to their harvest. It was noted that a pre-harvest transfer of spinach to N-free media reduces the NO3 and increases the vitamin C content of the leaves by a substantial amount in a 2-3 day period. It is suggested that this technique may be suited to produce spinach or other leafy vegetables with low NO3 and high vitamin C contents under commercial hydroponic conditions.

  5. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters foliar bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosakkannu, Anbu; Nissinen, Riitta; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2017-11-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM). We characterized bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal communities (internal transcribed spacer region) in surface-sterilized leaf and root plant compartments. AM fungus inoculation did not affect microbial species richness or diversity indices in leaves or roots, but the AM fungus inoculation significantly affected bacterial community composition in leaves. A total of three OTUs in leaves belonging to the phylum Firmicutes positively responded to the presence of the AM fungus in roots. Another six OTUs belonging to the Proteobacteria (Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) and Bacteroidetes were significantly more abundant in NM plants when compared to AM fungus-inoculated plants. Further, there was a significant correlation between plant dry weight and leaf microbial community compositional shift. Also, there was a significant correlation between leaf bacterial community compositional shift and foliar nitrogen content changes due to AM fungus inoculation. The results suggest that AM fungus colonization in roots has a profound effect on plant physiology that is reflected in leaf bacterial community composition.

  6. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  7. AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE VIA FOLIAR E DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO EM COBERTURA NA CULTURA DO TRIGO NA REGIÃO DE ITAPEVA-SP / SPRAYING WITH AZOSPIRILLUM ON WHEAT LEAF AND NITROGEN COVERAGE RATES IN ITAPEVA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de bactérias diazotróficas na agricultura, especialmente em gramíneas, tem por finalidade incrementar a produção e produtividade aliando com menor dose ou supressão das fontes nitrogenadas aplicadas para fertilização do solo. Diante disso, o trabalho objetivou avaliar a viabilidade da inoculação de Azospirillum brasilense via foliar com doses de nitrogênio em cobertura na produção e produtividade do trigo. O experimento foi implantado na Fazenda Bom Viver, Bairro dos Prestes em Itapeva-SP, na safra de 2016, sendo realizado em plantio direto (SPC em área de sucessão soja e milho safrinha. Os tratamentos foram em esquema fatorial 2x4 em blocos ao acaso (DBC sendo aplicado a formulação liquida de Azospirillum brasiliense (AbV5 com 2x108 células viáveis mL-1 na dose de 0,5 L.ha-1 via foliar e sem aplicação e posterior adubação nitrogenada com 0; 30; 60 e 90 kg.ha-1 em cobertura. Tanto a aplicação foliar de Azospirillum como a cobertura de N, foram aplicadas após 30 dias da semeadura (30 DAS. A variedade de trigo utilizada no plantio foi o Sinuelo, com manejo adotado pelo proprietário da área com aplicação de regulador de crescimento. Foram realizadas as avaliações a campo das plantas, medindo-se: a altura das plantas; espigas por metro linear; número de grãos por espiguetas; peso hectolítro; massa de mil grãos e produtividade. Pelos resultados obtidos, houve maior altura de plantas com o aumento das doses de nitrogênio em cobertura. A inoculação de Azospirillum brasiliense via foliar não mostrou interação entre as doses de nitrogênio em cobertura, não havendo estatisticamente incremento nos componentes de produtividade do trigo.

  8. Respostas do capim-Tifton 85 à aplicação de nitrogênio: cobertura do solo, índice de área foliar e interceptação da radiação solar Responses of the grass Tifton 85 to the application of nitrogen: soil cover, leaf area index, and solar radiation interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.P. Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre o crescimento do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85, em termos de ocorrência de plantas e altura do dossel, índice de área foliar e interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa. O estudo foi desenvolvido sobre um planossolo de ocorrência em campo experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de N (0; 150; 300; 450 e 600kg/ha de N-ureia, aplicados em duas vezes, arranjados em um desenho experimental de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, entre 10 e 40 dias após o corte. Tanto a ocorrência de plantas como a altura do dossel responderam à adubação nitrogenada, conforme um padrão de resposta que variou, sazonalmente, em função das doses de N em interação com as condições ambientais. A expansão da área foliar e a interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa associada, também foram controladas direta e proporcionalmente pelas doses de N aplicadas, sendo maximizadas a valores de índice de área foliar em torno de 4,0.The effects of nitrogen (N fertilization levels on the growth patterns of the grass Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv.Tifton 85 were studied in terms of occurrence of plants, sward height, leaf area index, and photosynthetically active radiation interception (PARint. The field trial was made in an experimental area. Treatments consisted of N levels (0; 150; 300; 450; and 600kg/ha N-urea, split in two applications arranged in an experimental design of entirely randomized blocks with four repetitions. Plots were weekly sampled, from the day 10th to 40th after cutting. Both occurrence of plants as well as sward height were responsive to nitrogen fertilization according to a response pattern that seasonally varied, depending on N rates and environmental conditions; thus, demonstrating their sensitivity as indicators of growth conditions and canopy structure. Leaf expansion

  9. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Sung, Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate. PMID:24758896

  10. Functional differences in the allometry of the water, carbon and nitrogen content of gelatinous organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl

    2015-05-19

    We have supplemented available, concurrent measurements of fresh weight (W, g) and body carbon (C, g) (46 individuals, 14 species) and nitrogen (N, g) (11 individuals, 9 species) of marine gelatinous animals with data obtained during the global ocean MALASPINA 2010 Expedition (totalling 267 individuals and 33 species for the W versus C data; totalling 232 individuals and 31 species for the N versus C data). We then used those data to test the allometric properties of the W versus C and N versus C relationships. Overall, gelatinous organisms contain 1.13 ± 1.57% of C (by weight, mean ± SD) in their bodies and show a C:N of 4.56 ± 2.46, respectively, although estimations can be improved by using separate conversion coefficients for the carnivores and the filter feeders. Reduced major axis regression indicates that W increases isometrically with C in the carnivores (cnidarians and ctenophores), implying that their water content can be described by a single conversion coefficient of 173.78 gW(g C)-1, or a C content of 1.17 ± 1.90% by weight, although there is much variability due to the existence of carbon-dense species. In contrast, W increases more rapidly than C in the filter feeders (salps and doliolids), according to a power relationship W = 446.68C1.54. This exponent is not significantly different from 1.2, which is consistent with the idea that the watery bodies of gelatinous animals represent an evolutionary response towards increasing food capture surfaces, i.e. a bottom-up rather than a top-down mechanism. Thus, the available evidence negates a bottom-up mechanism in the carnivores, but supports it in the filter feeders. Last, N increases isometrically with C in both carnivores and filter feeders with C:N ratios of 3.89 ± 1.34 and 4.38 ± 1.21, respectively. These values are similar to those of compact, non-gelatinous organisms and reflect a predominantly herbivorous diet in the filter feeders, which is confirmed by a difference of one trophic level

  11. Functional differences in the allometry of the water, carbon and nitrogen content of gelatinous organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Cá ceres, Carlos; Romero-Romero, Sonia; Bueno, Juan; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Sostres, Jorge; Bode, Antonio; Mompeá n, Carmen; Ferná ndez Puelles, Mariluz; Echevarria, Fidel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Acuñ a, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    We have supplemented available, concurrent measurements of fresh weight (W, g) and body carbon (C, g) (46 individuals, 14 species) and nitrogen (N, g) (11 individuals, 9 species) of marine gelatinous animals with data obtained during the global ocean MALASPINA 2010 Expedition (totalling 267 individuals and 33 species for the W versus C data; totalling 232 individuals and 31 species for the N versus C data). We then used those data to test the allometric properties of the W versus C and N versus C relationships. Overall, gelatinous organisms contain 1.13 ± 1.57% of C (by weight, mean ± SD) in their bodies and show a C:N of 4.56 ± 2.46, respectively, although estimations can be improved by using separate conversion coefficients for the carnivores and the filter feeders. Reduced major axis regression indicates that W increases isometrically with C in the carnivores (cnidarians and ctenophores), implying that their water content can be described by a single conversion coefficient of 173.78 gW(g C)-1, or a C content of 1.17 ± 1.90% by weight, although there is much variability due to the existence of carbon-dense species. In contrast, W increases more rapidly than C in the filter feeders (salps and doliolids), according to a power relationship W = 446.68C1.54. This exponent is not significantly different from 1.2, which is consistent with the idea that the watery bodies of gelatinous animals represent an evolutionary response towards increasing food capture surfaces, i.e. a bottom-up rather than a top-down mechanism. Thus, the available evidence negates a bottom-up mechanism in the carnivores, but supports it in the filter feeders. Last, N increases isometrically with C in both carnivores and filter feeders with C:N ratios of 3.89 ± 1.34 and 4.38 ± 1.21, respectively. These values are similar to those of compact, non-gelatinous organisms and reflect a predominantly herbivorous diet in the filter feeders, which is confirmed by a difference of one trophic level

  12. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ -1 MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO 2 e·MJ -1 MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ -1 MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cotton responses to simulated insect damage: radiation-use efficiency, canopy architecture and leaf nitrogen content as affected by loss of reproductive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Key cotton pests feed preferentially on reproductive organs which are normally shed after injury. Loss of reproductive organs in cotton may decrease the rate of leaf nitrogen depletion associated with fruit growth and increase nitrogen uptake and reduction by extending the period of root and leaf growth compared with undamaged plants. Higher levels of leaf nitrogen resulting from more assimilation and less depletion could increase the photosynthetic capacity of damaged crops in relation to undamaged controls. To test this hypothesis, radiation-use efficiency (RUE = g dry matter per MJ of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the canopy) of crops in which flowerbuds and young fruits were manually removed was compared with that of undamaged controls. Removal of fruiting structures did not affect RUE when cotton was grown at low nitrogen supply and high plant density. In contrast, under high nitrogen supply and low plant density, fruit removal increased seasonal RUE by 20–27% compared to controls. Whole canopy measurements, however, failed to detect the expected variations in foliar nitrogen due to damage. Differences in RUE between damaged and undamaged canopies were in part associated with changes in plant and canopy structure (viz. internode number and length, canopy height, branch angle) that modified light distribution within the canopy. These structural responses and their influence on canopy light penetration and photosynthesis are synthetised in coefficients of light extinction (k) that were 10 to 30% smaller in damaged crops than in controls and in a positive correlation between RUE−1 and k for crops grown under favourable conditions (i.e. high nitrogen, low density). Changes in plant structure and their effects on canopy architecture and RUE should be considered in the analysis of cotton growth after damage by insects that induce abscission of reproductive organs. (author)

  14. ASSOCIATION OF PESTICIDES WITH SOYBEAN LEAF MICRONUTRIENTS CONTENTS AND SEEDS YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY ASSOCIAÇÃO DE AGROTÓXICOS AOS TEORES FOLIARES DE MICRONUTRIENTES E À PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Glyphosate effects on leaf micronutrients contents of transgenic soybean have been widely reported, however, little is known about these effects associated with other pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologic quality and yield of soybean seeds, as well as leaf micronutrients contents, according to weed control methods. Ten RBD treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme with four replications. The application or non-application of endosulphan + tebuconazole was evaluated in the plots, while the weeds control methods were assessed in the subplots (weeded control; non-weeded control; single application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 and fomesafen + fluazifop-?-butil (180 + 225 g ha-1, both at 15 DAE; and sequential application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 at 15, 30, and 45 DAE. After harvesting, the soybean seeds were sampled, in order to evaluate their germination, vigor, and yield. Copper and manganese contents were only influenced by the sequential application of glyphosate, associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. The cold test germination was reduced in seeds of plants treated with fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. Among the treatments without endosulphan + tebuconazole, the sequential application of glyphosate promoted the highest 100-seeds weight, as well as, when associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole, reduced the leaf concentrations of Cu and Mn, however, it improved seeds germination and showed no effects on seeds vigor, when compared with the weeded soybean.

  15. Resistência à traça-do-tomateiro em plantas com altos teores de acilaçúcares nas folhas Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm in tomato plants with high foliar acylsugar contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro C Gonçalves Neto

    2010-06-01

    in 1980 and today it is among the major pests of tomato in Brazil. The control of this pest has been done primarily with the use of insecticides, and three sprays per week may be necessary in extreme cases. Wild tomato accessions such as S. pennellii LA-716 possess high levels of insect resistance, mediated by high foliar contents of acylsugars. The objectives of this study were obtain improved tomato genotypes with high contents of leaf acylsugars, and to assess their levels of resistance to the South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta. These genotypes were obtained from segregating (F2 populations from the cross between AF-8665 (an elite low AS tomato line and lines BPX370E-30-275-11-7, BPX370E-30-275-11-8, BPX370E-30-380-68-6 and BPX370E-30-380-68-8 (pre-commercial high AS inbreds derived from an original interspecific cross between S. lycopersicum x S. pennellii LA-716. F2 plants selected for high AS contents were cloned and subsequently tested for pinworm resistance. The high AS genotypes showed smaller ovoposition counts and lower plant damage levels than low AS genotypes (commercial or not. Even though high AS genotypes were generally more resistant to the South American tomato pinworm than low AS genotypes, their actual levels of resistance may be background-dependent: high AS clones with BPX-410H background had slightly higher levels of resistance than high AS clones with BPX-370G background. Clones BPX-410H-01pl#281, BPX-410H-04pl#348 and BPX-410H-04pl#481 had the highest levels of pinworm resistance, and were recommended for further use in breeding programs.

  16. effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    dung/poultry manure supplemented with 25 kg of urea (CDPMU) and (iii) cattle dung (CD) as ... Key words: Nitrogen Enrichment, Heavy Metals, Cattle Dung, Poultry Manure, Compost. .... available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base.

  17. [Prediction of total nitrogen and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content in loess using hyperspectral data based on correlation analysis and partial least squares regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-ying; Wang, Li; Chang, Qing-rui; Wang, Xiao-xing; Shang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, where the vegetation recovering measures have been carried out for years, was taken as the study area. A total of 100 loess samples from 24 different profiles were collected. Total nitrogen (TN) and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AHN) contents of the soil samples were analyzed, and the soil samples were scanned in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) region of 350-2500 nm in the laboratory. The calibration models were developed between TN and AHN contents and VNIR values based on correlation analysis (CA) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Independent samples validated the calibration models. The results indicated that the optimum model for predicting TN of loess was established by using first derivative of reflectance. The best model for predicting AHN of loess was established by using normal derivative spectra. The optimum TN model could effectively predict TN in loess from 0 to 40 cm, but the optimum AHN model could only roughly predict AHN at the same depth. This study provided a good method for rapidly predicting TN of loess where vegetation recovering measures have been adopted, but prediction of AHN needs to be further studied.

  18. Investigation of Hydrogen and Nitrogen Content in Compacted Graphite Iron Production

    OpenAIRE

    Siafakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research, part of a wider program called SPOFIC, is to investigate how the casting procedure affects the concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen gases in Compacted Graphite Iron used for the production of truck cylinder blocks. Hydris equipment was used for the Hydrogen measurements and the Optical Emission Spectroscopy and combustion analysis methods were used for the nitrogen measurements. The experiment was performed in one of the cooperating foundries. It was found that Hyd...

  19. Foliar Epidermal Studies of Plants in Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Thakur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes foliar epidermal structure in 17 species belonging to 17 genera of the family Euphoprbiaceae. Anomocytic stomata is predominant, rarely they are anisocytic, paracytic on the same foliar surface with different combinations. Leaves are hypostomatic and rarely amphistomatic. The foliar surface is smooth, rarely striated. The foliar epidermal cell walls are straight or undulate. Distribution of stomata, stomatal index, stomatal frequency, stomatal size and other cell wall contours are described in detail.

  20. Effects of stepwise nitrogen depletion on carotenoid content, fluorescence parameters and the cellular stoichiometry of Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Xiao, Yan; Liu, Jing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang

    2017-06-01

    Stressful conditions can stimulate the accumulation of carotenoids in some microalgae. To obtain more knowledge of the stress response, we studied the effects of different N concentrations on unicellular content of carotenoids using Raman spectroscopic technique; cellular stoichiometric changes and the fluorescence parameters of Chlorella vulgaris were concomitantly studied. Initially, we optimized the Raman scattering conditions and demonstrated the feasibility of unicellular carotenoid analysis by Raman spectroscopic technique. The results showed that an integration time of 10 s, laser power at 0.1 mW and an accumulation time of 1 were the optimum conditions, and the peak height at 1523 cm- 1 scaled linearly with the carotenoid content in the range of 0.625-1440 mg/L with a recovery rate of 97% 103%. In the experiment, seven different nitrogen levels ranging from 0 to 2.48 × 105 μg/L were imposed. Samples were taken at the start, exponential phase and end of the experiment. The results showed that nitrogen stress can facilitate the synthesis of carotenoids, while at the same time, excessive nitrogen stress led to lower proliferative and photosynthetic activity. Compared with carotenoids, chlorophylls were more sensitive to nitrogen stress; it declined dramatically as stress processed. There existed no significant differences for Fv/Fm among different nitrogen levels during the exponential phase, while in the end, it declined and a significant difference appeared between cells in 2.48 × 105 μg/L N and other experimental levels. Photosynthetic efficiency, namely the C/N mole ratio in algal cells, didnot significantly change during the exponential phase; however, apparent increases ultimately occurred, except for the stable C/N in BG11 medium. This increase matched well with the carotenoid decline, indicating that an increasing cellular C/N mole ratio can be used as an indicator of excessive stress in carotenoid production. Besides, there also existed an inverse

  1. The Influence of Biopolym FTZ on the Content of Nitrogen Compounds in Rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Petrášková; Jana Hnisová; Bohuslav Čermák; Šoch Miloslav; Bohuslav Vostoupal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of Biopolym FZT on the crude protein in the ruminal content. The experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions. Rumen content was removed from the Holstein breed cow fitted with ruminal fistula. The hydrolyzed brown seaweed was added to the samples of the ruminal content. After incubation of the samples the crude protein content was determined. In experiments with solid ruminal contents positive effects of Biopolym on the crude protein conten...

  2. Effect of primary air content on formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion of Ehkibastuz coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Imankulov, Eh.R.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations are discussed carried out in a pilot plant at the Kaz. Power Engineering Scientific Research Institute into the effect of the amount of primary air in coal-dust flame on the final concentration of nitrogen oxides in flue gases. The tests were carried out in a 7500 mm high, 1600 mm dia vertical cylindrical combustion chamber having type P-57 burner, and air dispersed fuel plus additional air supplies located at the top. Amounts of coal dust fed by a drum feeder along the air pipe varied from 100-600 kg/h. The required air was supplied by 5000 m/sup 3//h Type TK-700/5 blowers at 0.04 MPa. Ehkibastuz coal samples contained: 1.3% moisture; 48.1% ash; 38.02% carbon; 2.56% hydrogen; 0.73% sulfur; 0.60% nitrogen; heat of combustion was 14.3 MJ/kg. Results obtained indicate that variations in the amount of primary air in swirl flow burners affect formation of fuel nitrogen; there is an optimum volume at which minimum quantities of nitrogen oxides are formed. Either an increase or decrease in the primary air results in a rise in nitrogen oxide concentration. 3 references.

  3. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  4. Improvement of the soil nitrogen content and maize growth by earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils polluted by oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Chong; Ji, Dingge

    2016-11-15

    Interactions between earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices, AM fungi) have been suggested to improve the maize nitrogen (N) content and biomass and were studied in soils polluted by oxytetracycline (OTC). Maize was planted and amended with AMF and/or earthworms (E) in the soil with low (1mgkg(-1) soil DM) or high (100mgkg(-1) soil DM) amounts of OTC pollution in comparison to soil without OTC. The root colonization, shoot and root biomass, shoot and root N contents, soil nitrogen forms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were measured at harvest. The results indicated that OTC decreased maize shoot and root biomass (psoil urease activity and AOB and AOA abundance, which resulted in a lower N availability for maize roots and shoots. There was a significant interaction between earthworms and AM fungi on the urease activity in soil polluted by OTC (ppolluted soil by increasing the urease activity and relieving the stress from OTC on the soil N cycle. AM fungi and earthworms interactively increased maize shoot and root biomass (ppolluted soils through their regulation of the urease activity and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers, resulting in different soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents, which may contribute to the N content of maize shoots and roots. Earthworms and AM fungi could be used as an efficient method to relieve the OTC stress in agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exogenous trehalose improves growth under limiting nitrogen through upregulation of nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchao; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Weichang; Chen, Yi; Li, Hongxun; Lawlor, David W; Paul, Matthew J; Pan, Wenjie

    2017-12-19

    The trehalose (Tre) pathway has strong effects on growth and development in plants through regulation of carbon metabolism. Altering either Tre or trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) can improve growth and productivity of plants as observed under different water availability. As yet, there are no reports of the effects of modification of Tre orT6P on plant performance under limiting nutrition. Here we report that nitrogen (N) metabolism is positively affected by exogenous application of Tre in nitrogen-deficient growing conditions. Spraying foliage of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with trehalose partially alleviated symptoms of nitrogen deficiency through upregulation of nitrate and ammonia assimilation and increasing activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glycolate oxidase (GO), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) with concomitant changes in ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations, glutamine and amino acids. Chlorophyll and total nitrogen content of leaves and rates of photosynthesis were increased compared to nitrogen-deficient plants without applied Tre. Total plant biomass accumulation was also higher in Tre -fed nitrogen-deficient plants, with a smaller proportion of dry weight partitioned to roots, compared to nitrogen-deficient plants without applied Tre. Consistent with higher nitrogen assimilation and growth, Tre application reduced foliar starch. Minimal effects of Tre feeding were observed on nitrogen-sufficient plants. The data show, for the first time, significant stimulatory effects of exogenous Tre on nitrogen metabolism and growth in plants growing under deficient nitrogen. Under such adverse conditions metabolism is regulated for survival rather than productivity. Application of Tre can alter this regulation towards maintenance of productive functions under low nitrogen. This has implications for considering approaches to modifying the Tre pathway for to improve crop nitrogen-use efficiency and

  6. The Influence of Biopolym FTZ on the Content of Nitrogen Compounds in Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrášková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effect of Biopolym FZT on the crude protein in the ruminal content. The experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions. Rumen content was removed from the Holstein breed cow fitted with ruminal fistula. The hydrolyzed brown seaweed was added to the samples of the ruminal content. After incubation of the samples the crude protein content was determined. In experiments with solid ruminal contents positive effects of Biopolym on the crude protein content was shown. The best results were achieved at the dilution of 1:2000.

  7. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  8. Dynamics of nitrogenous substances content in the diet of the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepelka, L.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, E.; Suchomel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2013), s. 1247-1253 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Apodemus sylvaticus * wood mouse * diet quality * near-infrared spectroscopy * nitrogenous substances Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zhang, L.; Chen, F.; Cui, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, P.; Tian, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  10. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  11. Fed-batch cultivation of baker's yeast followed by nitrogen or carbon starvation: effects on fermentative capacity and content of trehalose and glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B.

    2002-01-01

    , trehalose and glycogen. Nitrogen starvation triggered the accumulation of trehalose and glycogen. After 8 h of starvation, the content of trehalose and glycogen was increased 4-fold and 2-fold, respectively. Carbon starvation resulted in a partial conversion of glycogen into trehalose. The trehalose content...... increased from 45 to 64 mg (g dry-weight)(-1), whereas the glycogen content in the same period was reduced from 55 to 5 mg (g dry-weight)(-1). Glycogen was consumed faster than trehalose during storage of the starved yeast for 1 month. Nitrogen starvation resulted in a decrease in the protein content...

  12. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  13. Carbon and nitrogen in Danish forest soils - Contents and distribution determined by soil order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Callesen, Ingeborg; Vesterdal, Lars

    2003-01-01

    ). The average total organic C and N contents were 12.5 and 0.61 kg m(-2) respectively. There were large differences in total C and N among soil orders. Spodosols had the greatest C content (14.6 kg m(-2)), and Alfisols the least (8.8 kg m(-2)), while the N content was highest in Alfisols (0.75 kg m(-2......)) and least in Spodosols (0.51 kg m(-2)). The main contributor to the high C content in Spodosols is the spodic horizons containing illuvial humus, and thick organic horizons. Carbon and N concentrations decreased with soil depth. Soil clay content was negatively correlated to C content and positively...

  14. Nitrogen source tracking with δ15N content of coastal wetland plants in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory L. Bruland; Richard A.. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Inter- and intra-site comparisons of the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of wetland plant species have been used to identify sources of N in coastal areas. In this study, we compared δ15N values from different herbaceous wetland plants across 34 different coastal wetlands from the five main Hawaiian Islands and investigated relationships of δ15N with...

  15. Photoluminescence study of the nitrogen content effect on GaAs/GaAs1-xNx/GaAs/AlGaAs: (Si) quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdouni, A.; Bousbih, F.; Ben bouzid, S.; Aloulou, S.; Harmand, J.C.; Chtourou, R.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of nitrogen content in modulation-doped GaAs/GaAs 1-x N x /GaAs/GaAlAs:(Si) quantum well using low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. The samples were grown on GaAs (001) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy with different nitrogen compositions. The variation of the nitrogen composition from 0.04% to 0.32% associated to the bi-dimensional electron gas gives a new interaction mode between the nitrogen localized states and the GaAs 1-x N x /GaAs energies levels. The red-shift observed in photoluminescence spectra as function of nitrogen content has been interpreted in the frame of the band anticrossing model

  16. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.

  17. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  18. Using hyperspectral remote sensing data for retrieving canopy chlorophyll and nitrogen content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant stress is often expressed as a reduction in amount of biomass or leaf area index (LAI). In addition, stress may affect the plant pigment system, influencing the photosynthetic capacity of plants. Chlorophyll content is the main driver for this primary production. The chlorophyll content is

  19. Salinity and Salicylic Acid Interactions in Affecting Nitrogen Assimilation, Enzyme Activity, Ions Content and Translocation Rate of Maize Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodary, S.E.A.; Moussa, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity, ions concentration as well as the translocation rate (TR) of carbohydrates and salicylic acid (SA) in salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L). Salicylic acid plus salinity treatment highly significantly increased: nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), protein content, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and nitrate reductase (NR) and inhibited nucleases (DNase and RNase) activities compared with Na CI-treated plants. In addition, the ionic levels of potassium (K), phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO 3 ) and the translocation rate of the labelled photo assimilates have also been stimulated while sodium (Na) ions content was decreased. It is concluded that, salinazid maize plants might show an enhancement in their growth pattern upon salicylic acid application

  20. Long-term drought modifies the fundamental relationships between light exposure, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of the lychee tree (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Gaëlle; Vandame, Marc; Urban, Laurent

    2008-09-08

    Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants' growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity-nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed to light, from 3-year-old lychee trees cv. Kwaï Mi. Leaf nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were measured along with gas exchanges and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) after a 5.5-month-long period of drought. Leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis remained stable, while the leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) increased with increasing water stress. Consequently, the leaf nitrogen content on an area basis (N(a)) increased in a non-linear fashion. The starch content decreased, while the soluble sugar content increased. Stomata closed and net assimilation decreased to zero, while J(max) and the ratio J(max)/N(a) decreased with increasing water stress. The drought-associated decrease in photosynthetic capacity can be attributed to downregulation of photosynthetic electron transport and to reallocation of leaf nitrogen content. It is concluded that modeling photosynthesis in drought conditions will require, first, the modeling

  1. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  2. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana. PMID:28194424

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and stabilization in mid-rotation, intensively managed sweetgum and loblolly stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Lisa J. Samuelson; Felipe G. Sanchez; Bob Eaton

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forestry has resulted in considerable increases in aboveground stand productivity including foliar and belowground biomass which are the primary sources of soil organic matter. Soil organic matter is important for the maintenance of soil physical, chemical and biological quality. Additionally, sequestering carbon (C) in soils may provide a means of mitigating...

  4. Organismic-Scale Remote Sensing of Canopy Foliar Traits in Lowland Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dana Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS holds great promise for bridging the gap between field studies of functional diversity, which are spatially limited, and satellite detection of ecosystem properties, which lacks resolution to understand within landscape dynamics. We use Carnegie Airborne Observatory HiFIS data combined with field collected foliar trait data to develop quantitative prediction models of foliar traits at the tree-crown level across over 1000 ha of humid tropical forest. We predicted foliar leaf mass per area (LMA as well as foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium for canopy emergent trees (R2: 0.45–0.67, relative RMSE: 11%–14%. Correlations between remotely sensed model coefficients for these foliar traits are similar to those found in laboratory studies, suggesting that the detection of these mineral nutrients is possible through their biochemical stoichiometry. Maps derived from HiFIS provide quantitative foliar trait information across a tropical forest landscape at fine spatial resolution, and along environmental gradients. Multi-nutrient maps implemented at the fine organismic scale will subsequently provide new insight to the functional biogeography and biological diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  5. Plant yield and nitrogen content of a digitgrass in response to azospirillum inoculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schank, S.C.; Weier, K.L.; MacRae, I.C.

    1981-02-01

    Two Australian soils, a vertisol (pH 6.8, 0.299% N) and a sandy yellow podzol (pH 6.2, 0.042% N), were used with digitgrass, Digitaria sp. X46-2 (PI 421785), in a growth room experiment. Comparisons were made between plants inoculated with live and autoclaved bacterial suspensions of Australian and Brazilian isolates of Azospirillum brasilense. Seedlings were inoculated on days 10 and 35. Acetylene-reducing activity was measured five times during the experiment. Dry matter yields of the digitgrass on the podzol (low N) inoculated with liver bacteria were 23% higher than those of the controls. On the vertisol (high N), yield increases from inoculation with live bacteria were 8.5%. The higher-yielding plants had significantly lower precent nitrogen, but when total nitrogen of the tops was calculated, the inoculated plants had a higher total N than did the controls (P = 0.04). Acetylene-reducing activity was variable in the experiment, ranging from 0.5 to 11.9 mu mol of C2H2 core -1 day -1. Live bacterial treatment induced a proliferation of roots, possible earlier maturity, higher percent dry matter, and a higher total N in the tops. (Refs. 21).

  6. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  7. WAVELENGTH SELECTION OF HYPERSPECTRAL LIDAR BASED ON FEATURE WEIGHTING FOR ESTIMATION OF LEAF NITROGEN CONTENT IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm – 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVMs based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC

  8. Effects of a combination of elicitation and precursor feeding on grape amino acid composition through foliar applications to Garnacha vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Vine foliar applications of phenylalanine (Phe) or methyl jasmonate (MeJ) could improve the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there are no reports focusing on the effects of elicitation supported by precursor feeding on must amino acid composition in grapevines. The aim of this research was to study the effect of the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) supported by phenylalanine (Phe) as a precursor feeding (MeJ+Phe) and its application individually on must amino acid composition. Results showed that foliar Phe and MeJ treatments decreased the concentration of most of the studied amino acids with respect to the control (p≤0.05). MeJ+Phe treatment did not affect must nitrogen content. Musts obtained from MeJ+Phe showed higher concentration of several amino acids than samples from Phe and MeJ applications. Therefore, other sources of precursor feeding could support elicitation, to improve amino acid composition and be considered as a tool for viticulture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  10. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  11. Effects of foliar selenite on the nutrient components of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Li, Boqun; Yang, Yongping

    2018-03-01

    We administered foliar applications of 50, 100 and 200 mg L‑1 selenium (Se, selenite) on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.) and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (Ⅳ) positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. Se (Ⅳ) treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L‑1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 µg person‑1 day‑1) and its favourable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  12. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Schmidt, Inger K.; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades...... on forest floor C and N content was primarily attributed to large differences in turnover rates as indicated by fractional annual loss of forest floor C and N. The C/N ratio of foliar litterfall was a good indicator of forest floor C and N contents, fractional annual loss of forest floor C and N...

  14. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  15. Effect of barley and its amylopectin content on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A E; Hristov, A N; Melgar, A; Ropp, J K; Etter, R P; Zaman, S; Hunt, C W; Huber, K; Price, W J

    2006-11-01

    The effect of type of grain (corn vs. barley) and amylopectin content of barley grain (normal vs. waxy) on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and utilization of ruminal ammonia nitrogen for milk protein synthesis was studied in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design trial with 6 lactating dairy cows. The experimental treatments were (proportion of dietary dry matter): CORN, 40% corn grain, NBAR, 30% normal Baronesse barley:10% corn grain, and WBAR, 30% high-amylopectin (waxy) Baronesse barley:10% corn grain. All grains were steam-rolled and fed as part of a total mixed ration. The NBAR and WBAR diets resulted in increased ruminal ammonia concentrations compared with CORN (8.2, 7.4, and 5.6 mM, respectively), but other ruminal fermentation parameters were not affected. Ruminal digestibility of dietary nutrients and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen were also not affected by diet. Corn grain had greater in situ effective ruminal dry matter degradability (62.8%) than the barley grains (58.2 and 50.7%, respectively), and degradability of the normal barley starch was greater than that of the waxy barley (69.3 and 58.9%, respectively). A greater percentage of relative starch crystallinity was observed for the waxy compared with the normal barley grain. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter were decreased by WBAR compared with CORN and NBAR. Total tract starch digestibility was greater and milk urea nitrogen content was lower for CORN compared with the 2 barley diets. In this study, the extent of processing of the grain component of the diet was most likely the factor that determined the diet responses. Minimal processing of barley grain (processing indexes of 79.2 to 87.9%) reduced its total tract digestibility of starch compared with steam-rolled corn (processing index of 58.8%). As a result of the increased ammonia concentration and reduced degradability of barley dry matter in the rumen, the utilization of ruminal ammonia

  16. Parametric investigation on the effect of nitrogen to reduce SF6 content in spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Avinash; Khaidir, Nur; Ishak, Sanuri; Ghani, Basri Abdul; Chakrabarty, Chandan; Permal, Navitharshaani; Ahmad, Harizan

    2017-03-01

    Almost all the MV and HV switchgears used by power utilities for interrupting faults are Sulphur Hexaflouride SF6 gas circuit breakers as this gas has the best dielectric properties to quench the onset of an arc in the event of fault. However due to strong dissociating properties of this gas when in contact with air that can release fluorine into the atmosphere, the Kyoto protocol has mandated to reduce the usage of SF6 in the future. SF6 is a greenhouse gas and it's about 3000 more severe than CO2. And that's the reason for replacing this gas. A close match in the quenching properties to SF6 that is now being intensively researched is nitrogen N2. This gas is considered to be an inert gas, and its release into the atmosphere has no harmful effects (except for asphyxiation - which can be easily handled with awareness). As the need for a replacement of SF6 becomes critical in the near future, the urgency to find the right gas is immediate. Hence the proposed work in this paper is to make a comprehensive parametric investigation of N2 gas in vacuum spark-gap. The spark-gap is chosen due to flexibility in changing the gap distance and easily be housed in vacuum. The parameters to be investigated are pure N2 and N2/ SF6 mix. The settling-time of the electrical break-down voltage and current are measured using voltage probe and Pearson probe. This time is paramount as it determines the speed of breaking the circuit. A faster breaking time ensures the safety of other HV equipment in the circuit. A comparative study between the various parameters will be conducted to obtain the best recipe (gas mix and gap distance) that gives the shortest settling time the breakdown using N2/ SF6/Mixture gas was successfully conducted and a Paschen curve has been established.

  17. The Effect of Zinc Sulfate Different Amount Soil and Foliar Application on Correlated Grain Characters in Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmoodi,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects different concentrations of zinc sulfate applications at different growth stages on sweet corn at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch in 2012. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were seven levels of zinc sulfate application methods: (control, soil application, foliar application at 6-8 leaf growth stage, tasseling, grain filling stage, foliar application at three stages, soil application with foliar application at three stages as main plot, three levels of foliar and soil application of zinc sulfate: (0.003, 0.005 and 0.007 for foliar application and 15, 25 and 35 kg/ha for soil application as sub plot. Results showed that the highest grain yield correlated characters were obtained in foliar application at three stages and soil application with foliar application at three stages. In these conditions increasing of dry grain yield and ear were more than 50%. The higher values for grain production were obtained in Zn foliar application with 0.005 concentration (25 kg/ha soil application. Zinc sulfate increased Zn content of grains produced more than 100%. Thus, using Zn not only increases sweet corn grain and ear yield but also increased quality of products.

  18. Short-term contributions of cover crop surface residue return to soil carbon and nitrogen contents in temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wu, Hanwen; Li, Guangdi; Chen, Chengrong

    2016-11-01

    Cover crop species are usually grown to control weeds. After cover crop harvest, crop residue is applied on the ground to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little information is available about quantifying the contributions of cover crop application to soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents in temperate Australia. Here, we selected eight cover crop treatments, including two legume crops (vetch and field pea), four non-legume crops (rye, wheat, Saia oat, and Indian mustard), a mixture of rye and vetch, and a nil-crop control in temperate Australia to calculate the contributions of cover crops (crop growth + residue decomposition) to soil C and N contents. Cover crops were sown in May 2009 (autumn). After harvest, the crop residue was placed on the soil surface in October 2009. Soil and crop samples were collected in October 2009 after harvest and in May 2010 after 8 months of residue decomposition. We examined cover crop residue biomass, soil and crop total C and N contents, and soil microbial biomass C and N contents. The results showed that cover crop application increased the mean soil total C by 187-253 kg ha -1 and the mean soil total N by 16.3-19.1 kg ha -1 relative to the nil-crop treatment, except for the mixture treatment, which had similar total C and N contents to the nil-crop control. Cover crop application increased the mean soil microbial biomass C by 15.5-20.9 kg ha -1 and the mean soil microbial biomass N by 4.5-10.2 kg ha -1 . We calculated the apparent percentage of soil total C derived from cover crop residue C losses and found that legume crops accounted for 10.6-13.9 %, whereas non-legume crops accounted for 16.4-18.4 % except for the mixture treatment (0.2 %). Overall, short-term cover crop application increased soil total C and N contents and microbial biomass C and N contents, which might help reduce N fertilizer use and improve sustainable agricultural development.

  19. Manipulation of Contents of Nitrate, Phenolic Acids, Chlorophylls, and Carotenoids in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) via Contrasting Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer When Grown in a Controlled Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Othman; Siervo, Mario; Seal, Chris J; Brandt, Kirsten

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to use different nitrogen fertilizer regimes to produce Butterhead lettuce with such large differences in nitrate content that they could be used as treatment and placebo to study the effect of inorganic nitrate on human health. Plants were grown under controlled conditions at 27/23 °C day/night with a relatively low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 150 μmol m -2 s -1 for 14 h day -1 and nitrogen supplies ranging from 26 to 154 ppm of N as ammonium nitrate in the fertigation solution. This resulted in contrasting high (∼1078 mg nitrate 100 g -1 FW) or low (∼6 mg 100 g -1 ) nitrate contents in the leaves. Contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls in fresh weight did not differ significantly between the highest and the lowest N-supply levels. However, increased nitrogen supply reduced contents of phenolic compounds from 154 to 22 mg 100 g -1 FW, dry matter content from 8.9% to 4.6%, and fresh weight per plant from 108.52 to 47.57 g/plant FW (all P < 0.001). Thus, while fertilizer treatments can provide lettuce with substantially different nitrate contents, maintaining similar pigment contents (color), they also strongly influence the contents of phenolic acids and flavones.

  20. Mid-Season Leaf Glutamine Predicts End-Season Maize Grain Yield and Nitrogen Content in Response to Nitrogen Fertilization under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Goron

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After uptake in cereal crops, nitrogen (N is rapidly assimilated into glutamine (Gln and other amino acids for transport to sinks. Therefore Gln has potential as an improved indicator of soil N availability compared to plant N demand. Gln has primarily been assayed to understand basic plant physiology, rather than to measure plant/soil-N under field conditions. It was hypothesized that leaf Gln at early-to-mid season could report the N application rate and predict end-season grain yield in field-grown maize. A three-year maize field experiment was conducted with N application rates ranging from 30 to 218 kg ha−1. Relative leaf Gln was assayed from leaf disk tissue using a whole-cell biosensor for Gln (GlnLux at the V3-V14 growth stages. SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index measurements were also performed. When sampled at V6 or later, GlnLux glutamine output consistently correlated with the N application rate, end-season yield, and grain N content. Yield correlation outperformed GreenSeekerTM NDVI, and was equivalent to SPAD chlorophyll, indicating the potential for yield prediction. Additionally, depleting soil N via overplanting increased GlnLux resolution to the earlier V5 stage. The results of the study are discussed in the context of luxury N consumption, leaf N remobilization, senescence, and grain fill. The potential and challenges of leaf Gln and GlnLux for the study of crop N physiology, and future N management are also discussed.

  1. Nitrogen and amino acids content in lake Drukshyaj plancton organisms biocenoses grown in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsh, A.V.; Budrene, S.F.; Yankyavichyus, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Biocenoses growth in lake Drukshyaj (from 1984 water reservoir of the Ignalina NPP) collected in July 1985 and grown in 2 various in composition culture media: in medium close in composition of main minerals to water of high capacity reservoir (medium 1) and in medium Fitzjarld (medium 2), has shown that the medium affects the component composition of plancton, as well as dominating types of algae. Phytoplancton was dominating component in biomass in both media. In medium 1 dominate green and diatoms, in medium 2 - blue-green algae. Content of proteins and amino acids in biomass changed depending on duration of biocenoses growth when dominating green and diatoms in biocenoses mass grown in medium 1, it reached maximum on the 15th day, and when dominating blue-green algae in biocenoses biomass grown in medium 2 - on the 30th day

  2. The effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on the nitrogen and phosphorus content and pH of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in 2011 – 2013 in Poland. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM on the mineral nitrogen (Nmin and available phosphorus (P content of soil and the soil pH. Changes in the content of NH4+-N, NO3--N and available P in soil were affected by MBM dose, experiment duration, weather conditions and crop species. Soil amended with MBM was more abundant in mineral N and available P. The lowest concentration of NO3--N and the highest concentration of NH4+-N were noted in the first year of the study, because the nitrification process requires a longer time. MBM had no influence on the accumulation of Nmin in soil, whereas the concentration of available P increased significantly throughout the experiment. The soil pH decreased with increasing MBM doses. After the application of the highest MBM doses soil pH classification was changed from neutral to slightly acidic.

  3. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Sharafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a valuable medicinal plant and is used as spice and herbal medicine. Application of agronomical methods has important role in increasing quantitative and qualitative traits of this medicinal plant. Fertilizer management is an important factor in successful cultivation of medicinal plants, which could have positive effects on their quantitative and qualitative indices. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of plant density and nitrogen (N fertilizer on dry flower yield and essential oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla using factorial randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three N rates from urea source (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha and three plant densities (28.6, 40 and 66.7 plants per m2 were considered. The results showed that the highest single plant yield was produced in the lowest plant density (28.6 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N. The highest dry flower yield of 474.1 kg/ha and essential oil content of 0.2% was produced in 25 cm row width and fixed plant spacing of 10 cm (40 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N.

  4. Sulphur, nitrogen and carbon content of Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in the Naples urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation ability of the major elements sulphur, nitrogen and carbon by the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in Naples urban area,was investigated. Bags were exposed at the beginning of July 1999 and gathered in two subsequent moments: at the end of the dry season (after 10 weeks of exposure) and during the wet season (after 17 weeks of exposure), to include the effects of rainy conditions. Sulphur and N content of the lichen increased all over the exposure period, while the level of C did not change significantly either after 10 or 17 weeks of exposition. For the moss the S accumulation was limited to the dry period of exposure, whereas N and C content decreased with exposure. Results, in contrast with those obtained in a previous study on trace elements bioaccumulation [Adamo et al., Environmental Pollution, (2003) 122, 91-103], suggest that accumulation of gaseous pollutants is strongly influenced by biomonitor vitality and that lichen bags are a more reliable and effective tool for monitoring S, N and C atmospheric depositions in urban areas compared to moss bags, because of greater lichen resistance to dry and stressing conditions of urban environment. - The lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea is more effective than the moss Sphagnum capillifolium as S and N pollutants biomonitor

  5. Foliar water uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an atmosphere of high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Xiao, Hong-lang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mao-Xian; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH) was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants.

  6. Foliar Water Uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an Atmosphere of High Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants.

  7. Effects of cow diet on the microbial community and organic matter and nitrogen content of feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, P C J; Reijs, J W; Bloem, J; Dijkstra, J; de Goede, R G M

    2007-11-01

    Knowledge of the effects of cow diet on manure composition is required to improve nutrient use efficiency and to decrease emissions of N to the environment. Therefore, we performed an experiment with nonlactating cows to determine the consequences of changes in cow rations for the chemical characteristics and the traits of the microbial community in the feces. In this experiment, 16 cows were fed 8 diets, differing in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and net energy content. These differences were achieved by changing dietary ingredients or roughage to concentrate ratio. After an adaptation period of 3 wk, fecal material was collected and analyzed. Observed results were compared with simulated values using a mechanistic model that provides insight into the mechanisms involved in the effect of dietary variation on fecal composition. Feces produced on a high-fiber, low-protein diet had a high C:N ratio (>16) and had lower concentrations of both organic and inorganic N than feces on a low-fiber, high-protein diet. Fecal bacterial biomass concentration was highest in high-protein, high-energy diets. The fraction of inorganic N in the feces was not significantly different between the different feces. Microbial biomass in the feces ranged from 1,200 to 8,000 microg of C/g of dry matter (average: 3,700 microg of C/g of dry matter). Bacterial diversity was similar for all fecal materials, but the different protein levels in the feeding regimens induced changes in the community structure present in the different feces. The simulated total N content (N(total)) in the feces ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 times the observed concentrations, whereas the simulated C:N(total) of the feces ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 times the observed C:N(total). However, bacterial biomass C was not predicted satisfactorily (simulated values being on average 3 times higher than observed), giving rise to further discussion on the definition of microbial C in feces. Based on these observations, it

  8. Microbial degradation of high nitrogen contents (primarily nitrate) in industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Kutzner, H.J.

    1984-04-01

    This study deals with the denitrification of industrial waste water of high nitrate content, including waste water from the recovery process for nuclear material. At first the autotrophic process employing Thiob. denitrificans was investigated: kinetics, stoichiometry, application of a packed bed reactor; effect of nitrate concentration, retention time, loading and height of the reactor on denitrification. The system proved to be useful for waste water with nitrate up to 4.5 g/L; the highest rate of denitrification achieved was 1.5 g/L.h when the retention time was 2.5 h and the nitrate concentration (in-flow) 4.3 g/L (i.e. reactor loadung 41 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d). Equally good results were obtained by the heterotrophic process: ethanol allowed a reactor loading of 60 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d; however, in this case bacterial growth tended to clog the column. - Enrichments made with ethanol yielded Ps. aeruginosa as main component of the population; in contrast, those with methanol resulted in a mixture of Hyphomicrobium spec. and Paracoccus denitrificans; this bacterial culture was used to determine the stoichiometry of denitrification in continuous culture; it was also employed to denitrify a diluted solution of nitric acid (0.1 ml HNO 3 /L) which could be achieved in continuous culture using a retention time of 25 h. (orig.) [de

  9. Soil warming alters nitrogen cycling in a New England forest: implications for ecosystem function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S M; Melillo, J M; Johnson, J E; Mohan, J; Steudler, P A; Lux, H; Burrows, E; Smith, R M; Vario, C L; Scott, L; Hill, T D; Aponte, N; Bowles, F

    2012-03-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystems in a variety of ways. Some of the more well-studied effects include the biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system that can either increase or decrease the atmospheric load of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Less well-studied are the effects of climate change on the linkages between soil and plant processes. Here, we report the effects of soil warming on these linkages observed in a large field manipulation of a deciduous forest in southern New England, USA, where soil was continuously warmed 5°C above ambient for 7 years. Over this period, we have observed significant changes to the nitrogen cycle that have the potential to affect tree species composition in the long term. Since the start of the experiment, we have documented a 45% average annual increase in net nitrogen mineralization and a three-fold increase in nitrification such that in years 5 through 7, 25% of the nitrogen mineralized is then nitrified. The warming-induced increase of available nitrogen resulted in increases in the foliar nitrogen content and the relative growth rate of trees in the warmed area. Acer rubrum (red maple) trees have responded the most after 7 years of warming, with the greatest increases in both foliar nitrogen content and relative growth rates. Our study suggests that considering species-specific responses to increases in nitrogen availability and changes in nitrogen form is important in predicting future forest composition and feedbacks to the climate system.

  10. The correlation between plant growth and intercepted radiation: an interpretation in terms of optimal plant nitrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthesis of leaves is commonly observed to have a saturating response to increases in their nitrogen (N) content, while the response of plant maintenance respiration is more nearly linear over the normal range of tissue N contents. Hence, for a given amount of foliage, net primary productivity (NPP) may have a maximum value with respect to variations in plant N content. Using a simple analytically-solvable model of NPP, this idea is formulated and its broad implications for plant growth are explored at the scale of a closed stand of vegetation. The maximum-NPP hypothesis implies that NPP is proportional to intercepted radiation, as commonly observed. The light utilization coefficient (ε), defined as the slope of this relationship, is predicted to be ε = αY g (1−λ) 2 , where α is the quantum yield, Y g is the biosynthetic efficiency, and λ is a dimensionless combination of physiological and environmental parameters of the model. The maximum-NPP hypothesis is also consistent with observations that whole-plant respiration (R) is an approximately constant proportion of gross canopy photosynthesis (A c ), and predicts their ratio to be R:A c = 1−Y g (1−λ). Using realistic parameter values, predicted values for ε and R:A c are typical of C 3 plants. ε is predicted to be independent of plant N supply, consistent with observations that long-term growth responses to N fertilization are dominated by increased light interception associated with increased growth allocation to leaf area. Observed acclimated responses of plants to atmospheric [CO 2 ], light and temperature are interpreted in terms of the model. (author)

  11. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Castelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to estimate the N-status in flue-cured tobacco. The aims was to verify if a relationship exists between SPAD readings and leaf N content, and if a single leaf, in a well defined stalk position, could represent the nitrogen content of the whole plant. During the years 1995 and 1996, a pot experiment was conducted using two flue-cured tobacco varieties. SPAD values, total chlorophyll, total N contents and leaf area were measured throughout the growing season, on each odd leaf stalk position. SPAD values were well-correlated with both total chlorophyll and total N leaf concentration, and the regression coefficients were higher when relationships were calculated on a leaf-area basis. For both relationships, SPAD-total chlorophyll and SPAD-total N, the best fittings were obtained with quadratic equations. One leaf stalk position alone is able to monitor the N-status of the whole plant during the first six weeks after transplanting, without distinction of year and variety effects. The SPAD measurement of one leaf per plant, throughout the vegetative growing season, is therefore a valid tool to test the N-status of the crop in a period when a required N supply is still effective.

  12. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON PINEAPPLE QUALITY AND YIELD ADUBAÇÃO FOLIAR NA QUALIDADE E PRODUTIVIDADE DE ABACAXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are just a few studies using foliar sprays with micronutrients on pineapple crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the B and Zn effect, as chelate, acid or salt, via foliar feeding, on fruit yield and quality. The experiment was carried out in Guaraçaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a loamy medium texture soil, by using Smooth Cayenne (Hawaiian pineapple seedlings. A randomized block design with four replications was adopted, with 110 g ha-1 of B and 250 g ha-1 of Zn for each application. Two foliar sprays were applied, at 7 and 9 months after planting. The B and Zn sources did not affect the total soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, average fruit diameter, fruit length without crown, and maturity index. Only the B, Zn, and K concentrations in the leaves were influenced by the application of micronutrients.

    Poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos com a aplicação via foliar de micronutrientes, na cultura do abacaxi. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de B e Zn, em forma de quelato, ácido ou sal, via foliar, buscando-se obter respostas sobre os efeitos na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos. O experimento foi realizado em Guaraçaí (SP, em solo com textura média. Foram utilizadas mudas tipo filhote, da cultivar Smooth Cayenne (Havaiano. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se fontes para fornecer, em cada aplicação, 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn. Foram realizadas duas pulverizações foliares, aos 7 e 9 meses após o plantio. As fontes de B e Zn não exerceram efeito nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, diâmetro médio do fruto, comprimento do fruto sem coroa e índice de maturação. Apenas os teores de B, Zn e K, na

  13. A one-step carbonization route towards nitrogen-doped porous carbon hollow spheres with ultrahigh nitrogen content for CO 2 adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu; Zou, Houbing; Zeng, Shangjing; Pan, Ying; Wang, Runwei; Wang, Xue; Sun, Qingli; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun

    2015-01-01

    -formaldehyde nanospheres as hard templates and nitrogen sources. The N-PCHSs were completely characterized and were found to exhibit considerable CO2 adsorption performance (4.42 mmol g-1).

  14. Foliar application of pyraclostrobin fungicide enhances the growth, rhizobial-nodule formation and nitrogenase activity in soybean (var. JS-335).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Juhie; Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2014-09-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of the fungicide pyraclostrobin (F500 - Headline®; a.i. 20%) on the activity of nitrogenase in soybean (var. JS-335). Pyraclostrobin (F500) was applied on the leaves of soybean plants at 10 and 20 days after emergence (DAE) of seedlings at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1%. Leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogenase activity in root nodules were analyzed at 45(th)day after emergence of seedlings indicated a remarkable increase in Lb content and enhanced activity of nitrogenase in the root nodules of pyraclostrobin treated plants. The fungicide also enhanced the number of nodules along with weight of nodules, root biomass and growth of shoot and leaves. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in the root nodules by pyraclostrobin improves the growth of the plant in soybean before flowering and pod formation which ultimately resulted in yield and yield attributes. These results suggest that pyraclostrobin (F500) can be successfully employed as a foliar spray under field conditions to enhance the growth, nitrogen assimilation and hence yield of soybean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaf nutrient contents of rangpur lime rootstock as afected by N, P, K, Ca and S fertilization Concentrações foliares do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'cravo' em função da adubação N, P, K, Ca e S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ruschel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of leaf nutrient contents can demonstrate plant nutritional status, identify symptoms of deficiency and toxicity, and evaluate the need to adjust fertilization programs. This research determined N:P:K:Ca:S rates for optimal nutrition of Rangpur lime - RL (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock, in an experiment arranged in a fractional factorial design of the (¹/25 5(4 type, with 25 treatments distributed within five blocks. Seedlings of RL were transplanted into 3.8-dm³ containers filled with commercial growing media, when plant height = 10 cm, in a nursery. Treatments consisted of the following nutrient rates (g per plant: N = 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; K = 0.4, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; P = 0.35, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0; and Ca = 3.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0. Phosphorus and Ca were applied to the compost before transplant of seedlings, while N and K were applied later and total amounts were split into 20 weekly applications via fertigation. Nutrient sources were triple super phosphate, gypsum, NH4NO3 and KCl. Leaf nutrient concentrations of five-mo-old plants were high or in excess for N, P, K and S. Calcium and Mg concentrations were low. Greater dry mass of plants were observed at nutrient rates of N = 3.5, P = 2.7, K = 2.0, and Ca = 6.5 g per plant.A determinação das concentrações foliares representa o estado nutricional das plantas, identifica deficiências e/ou excessos e avalia a necessidade de ajustar as adubações. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a melhor combinação de doses NPKCa e S que proporcione a concentração foliar responsável pela maior quantidade de matéria seca total das plantas de porta-enxerto limoeiro `Cravo', em um experimento fatorial fracionário (¹/25 5(4, com 25 tratamentos, repartidos em cinco blocos de cinco tratamentos. As mudas do limoeiro `Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb. foram transplantadas para recipientes (3,8 dm³ com substrato comercial, em viveiro telado, quando atingiram 10 cm. Os tratamentos

  17. The effect of environmental conditions on the content of selected micronutrients in spelt grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapowski Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of application of small amounts of nitrogen to the soil together with foliar application of micronutrients on the content of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.. The study was based on a two-factor field experiment conducted in 2009–2011 on very good rye complex soil. Nitrogen was applied in the form of ammonium nitrate (34% N, and manganese and copper were applied to the leaves in the form of the fertilisers Adob Mn (1.5 l∙ha−1 and Adob Cu (1.0 l∙ha−1, respectively. The results indicated that the nitrogen fertilisation, the foliar application of micronutrients and the interaction of these factors significantly determined the contents of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain. The highest content of Cu and Mn in the material was obtained following the application of 50 kg N·ha−1, and an increase in nitrogen application (to 50 kg·ha−1 caused a decrease in the content of zinc in the grain. Foliar application of Cu, Mn and both elements together resulted in significant changes in the concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn in the plant material as compared to treatment without the application of micronutrients. The mineral fertilisers at the rates applied had a beneficial effect on the chemical composition of the grain, and thus on its quality, and this was achieved with substantially lower consumption of agrochemicals than that in the case of agrotechnical procedures for traditional cereals. It can, therefore, be concluded that this practice is environment friendly and can significantly reduce the negative impact of agricultural activity.

  18. Teores de nutrientes e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão em resposta à adubação foliar com manganês e zinco Nutrient contents and physiological quality of common bean seeds in response to leaf fertilization with manganese and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Rosa Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os teores de nutrientes minerais e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em resposta à adubação foliar com manganês e zinco. O experimento foi desenvolvido a campo em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico fase cerrado, em Ijaci (MG. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos formados pela combinação de cinco doses de Mn (0, 75, 150, 300 e 600 g ha-1 e cinco de Zn (0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 g ha-1, fracionadas em duas pulverizações foliares, sendo metade aplicada aos 25 e o restante aos 35 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Avaliaram-se os teores de nutrientes minerais presentes nas sementes e sua qualidade fisiológica pelos testes padrão de germinação e de vigor, incluindo a primeira contagem, envelhecimento acelerado e da condutividade elétrica. Com a adubação foliar com manganês e zinco foram obtidos acréscimos lineares dos teores de Mn e Zn nas sementes de feijão. Os teores de N, P, B e Cu nas sementes foram influenciados pela adubação com manganês e zinco, não ocorrendo entretanto nenhum efeito destes micronutrientes sobre os teores dos demais nutrientes determinados nas sementes (K, Ca, Mg, Fe e S. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes mostrou-se influenciada pela adubação mangânica, quando estimada pelo teste de condutividade elétrica. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão não foi afetada pela adubação com zinco.The objective of this work was to evaluate the contents of nutrients and the physiological quality of seeds from common bean that had leaf application of manganese and zinc. The experiment was carried out at Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol 'cerrado' phase, in Ijaci, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A randomized block design with four replicates was analyzed in a factorial arrangement, being the treatments formed by the combination of five rates of Mn (0, 75, 150

  19. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F -  g -1 ). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  20. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  1. Seasonal Changes in the Character and Nitrogen Content of Dissolved Organic Matter in an Alpine/Subalpine Headwater Catchment

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    Eran W. Hood

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We are studying the chemical quality of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON in a high-elevation watershed in the Colorado Front Range. Samples were collected over the 2000 snowmelt runoff season at two sites across an alpine/subalpine ecotone to understand how the transition between the lightly vegetated alpine and forested reaches of the catchment influences the chemical character of DON. Samples were analyzed approximately weekly for dissolved organic material (DOM content and chemical character. A subset of samples was analyzed for the elemental content of fulvic and hydrophilic acids. Concentrations of DON at both sites were highest in the spring at the initiation of snowmelt, decreased during snowmelt, and increased again during the late summer and fall. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC peaked on the ascending limb of the hydrograph and declined to seasonal minima on the descending limb of the hydrograph. The ratio of DOC:DON showed a seasonal shift at both sites with high values (40 to 55 during peak runoff in early summer and lower values (15 to 25 during low flows late in the runoff season. These results indicate that there was a seasonal change in the relative N content of DOM at both sites. Chemical fractionation of DOC showed that there were temporal and longitudinal changes in the chemical character of DOC. At the alpine site, the fulvic acid content of DOC decreased from 57% in June to 35% in September. The change in fulvic acid was less pronounced at the forested site, from 66% in June to 54% in September. Elemental analysis of fulvic and hydrophilic acids indicated that hydrophilic acids were N rich compared to fulvic acids. Additionally, fulvic and hydrophilic acids isolated at the alpine site had a lower C:N ratio than those isolated at the forested site. Similarly, the C:N ratio of organic acids at both sites was lower in September than in June during peak runoff. These differences appear to be a result

  2. Produção, composição da uva e teores de nitrogênio na folha e no pecíolo em videiras submetidas à adubação nitrogenada Grapes yield, composition and nitrogen content in leaf and leaf petioles in grapevine with nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-12-01

    , especially nitrogen (N ones, which affects the productivity and the composition of the grapes. Its nutritional state can be evaluated by the N content in the foliar lamina and petiole. Two experiments were carried out in 2006/07 to evaluate the effect of the N fertilization in the N content of the foliar lamina and petiole, which is used for the N recommendation, yield and grape composition of vine, at Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Planalto city. Bordô vines of the experiment 1 and Couderc 13 ones of the experiment 2 were submitted to applications of 0, 30, 60 and 90kg ha-1 of N as follow: 50% was applied after the beginning of bud burst, 25% during bud burst and 25% during the flowering. Samples of the foliar lamina and petiole were collected in the flowering and verasion. The samples were dried, grinded and prepared to the total N analysis. By the time of the grape maturation, five bunches were collected randomly in the center and in the external part of the plant, which were weighted and submitted to length and wide measurements. Sequentially, 100 grapes were taken from these bunches, weighted and reserved. Following, the other bunches were collected and weighted, in order to determine the yield per plant and per hectare. Berries reserved were triturated and N-total, P and K were evaluated. The results clearly showed that the samples of foliar lamina collected in the flowering of the 'Bordô' and 'Courdec 13' cultivars were suitable to evaluate the availability of N in the plant. The N fertilization had increased the yield of grape in the Bordô cultivar and the total N in the grapes of both cultivars.

  3. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Bermejo, V.; Muntifering, R.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.; Gimeno, B.S.; Elvira, S.; Alonso, R.

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O 3 and three N levels. Increased O 3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O 3 -induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: → Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. → The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. → Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O 3 -induced increase in senescence biomass. → Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  4. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA 9 ) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg -1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg -1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Herbage Production and Quality of Shrub Indigofera Treated by Different Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on fodder legume Indigofera sp. was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer concentration on forage yield and quality, and to identify optimum concentrations among the fertilizer treatments on herbage yield, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, and in vitro dry matter (IVDMD as wll as organic matter (IVOMD digestibility in goat’s rumen. Randomized block design was used for the six concentration of fertilizer treatments; control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/10 l with 3 replicates. Leaves were sprayed with foliar fertilizer at 30, 34, 38, and 42 days after harvest. Samples were collected at 2 harvest times with 60 days cutting interval. Application of the foliar fertilizer up to 30 g/10 l significantly increased herbage DM yield, twig numbers, tannin, saponin, Ca and P content, as well as herbage digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD. The lower and higher concentration of foliar fertilizer resulted in lower value of those parameters, but NDF and ADF contents had the opposite patterns. The optimum level of foliar fertilizer that resulted the highest herbage yield and quality was 30 g/10 l, and the highest in vitro digestibility and Ca concentration was 20 g/10 l.

  6. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  7. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil Content of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. with the Use of Nitrogen and Vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pazoki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmenal problems resulting from application of nitrogen fertilizers in the production plant materials led agricultural specialists to use clean and alternative methods to towards the organic farming and use of organic fertilizers. In this study, thus, the effect of nitrogen and vermicompost fertilizer rates on yield, yield components, essential oil content and some morphological traits of marigold was studied in a split plot experiment based on completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications in Shahr-e-Rey region during 2013 growing season. Nitrogen rates with 3 levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 were assigned to main plots and vermicompost with 3 levels (0, 10, and 20 t.ha-1 to the sub plots. Mean comparison of simple effects indicated that the plants treated with 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 20 t.ha-1 organic fertilizer vermicompost produced higher trait values under study than control (non application of vermincompost. Interaction effect of experimented factors was significant on all traits under evaluation. Thus, highest seed yield (1567 kg.ha-1, biological yield (6664 kg.ha-1 and essential oil yield (8.85 kg.ha-1 obtained by the application of 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 20 t.ha-1 varmicompost. Based on the results obtained it could be said that nitrogen and vermicompost may improve seed and biological yield and yield components of marigold.

  8. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  9. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile - Marine sources and diagenetic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lucassen

    Full Text Available Seabird excrements (guano have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic

  10. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e retardamento da senescência foliar em girassol de vaso (Helianthus annuus L.: fontes e doses de nitrogênio Growth, development and delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: sources and rates of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O girassol é a quarta oleaginosa em produção de grãos no mundo e alguns genótipos são usados com finalidade ornamental para flor de corte e de vaso (girassol de vaso. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de nitrogênio sobre alguns parâmetros de crescimento, desenvolvimento e no retardamento da senescência das folhas basais em girassol de vaso. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram: uréia, nitrato de amônio e nitrato de cálcio nas doses de 0, 50, 100 e 150mg L-1 de N na solução de fertirrigação, com duas aplicações semanais. O experimento foi um bi-fatorial (fontes e doses de N no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Cada repetição foi um vaso no 15 (1,3L, 15cm de altura com uma planta por vaso. As variáveis analisadas foram: número final de folhas, altura final de plantas, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no ponto de venda, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no final de vida de vaso, área foliar total da planta, filocrono e a soma térmica acumulada da emergência ao botão visível e da emergência ao ponto de venda. A fonte de N tem influência sobre a área foliar do girassol de vaso, sendo a uréia recomendável para o maior crescimento das folhas. A dose de N em torno de 100mg L-1 aplicada duas vezes por semana via fertirrigação favorece características desejáveis para a comercialização, como precocidade e retardamento da senescência das folhas.Sunflower is the fourth oil grain crop grown worldwide and some genotypes are used with ornamental purpose as cut and pot-grown flower. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and rates of nitrogen on some growth and developmental parameters, and on the delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower. An experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were: urea, ammonium nitrate and

  11. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  12. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nano tubes Using Injection-Vertical Chemical Vapor Deposition: Effects of Synthesis Parameters on the Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachimi, A.; Hakeem, A.; Merzougui, B.; Atieh, M. A.; Merzougui, B.; Atieh, M. A.; Laoui, A.; Swain, G.M.; Chang, Q.; Shao, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection-vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD) reactor. This type of reactor is quite useful for the continuous mass production of CNTs. In this work, the optimum deposition conditions for maximizing the incorporation of nitrogen were identified. Ferrocene served as the source of the Fe catalyst and was dissolved in acetonitrile, which served as both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen sources. Different concentrations of ferrocene in acetonitrile were introduced into the top of a vertically aligned reactor at a constant flow rate with hydrogen serving as the carrier. The effects of hydrogen flow rate, growth temperature, and catalyst loading (Fe from the ferrocene) on the microstructure, elemental composition, and yield of N-CNTs were investigated. The N-CNTs possessed a bamboo-like microstructure with a nitrogen doping level as high as 14 at.% when using 2.5 to 5 mg/m L of the ferrocene/acetonitrile mixture at 800 degree under a 1000 sccm flow of hydrogen. A production rate of 100 mg/h was achieved under the optimized synthesis conditions.

  13. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Using Injection-Vertical Chemical Vapor Deposition: Effects of Synthesis Parameters on the Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouelilah Hachimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped CNTs (N-CNTs were synthesized using an injection-vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD reactor. This type of reactor is quite useful for the continuous mass production of CNTs. In this work, the optimum deposition conditions for maximizing the incorporation of nitrogen were identified. Ferrocene served as the source of the Fe catalyst and was dissolved in acetonitrile, which served as both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen sources. Different concentrations of ferrocene in acetonitrile were introduced into the top of a vertically aligned reactor at a constant flow rate with hydrogen serving as the carrier. The effects of hydrogen flow rate, growth temperature, and catalyst loading (Fe from the ferrocene on the microstructure, elemental composition, and yield of N-CNTs were investigated. The N-CNTs possessed a bamboo-like microstructure with a nitrogen doping level as high as 14 at.% when using 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of the ferrocene/acetonitrile mixture at 800°C under a 1000 sccm flow of hydrogen. A production rate of 100 mg/h was achieved under the optimized synthesis conditions.

  14. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Marcus Schaub; Jonathan A. Ferdinand; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; James E. Savage

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gwv), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (NL) to tropospheric ozone (O3) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top...

  15. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  16. Foliar fertilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp): absorption and translocation of 15-N-labeled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Carvalho, J.G. de; Silva, A.Q. da; Primavesi, A.C.P.A.; Camacho, E.; Eimori, I.E.; Guilherme, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of foliar applied nitrogen as urea solution to sugar cane plants was evaluated. An experiment using the isotope dilution technique with 15 N labeled urea was carried out in green house condition. Seedlings of sugarcane variety IAC 53-150 were planted in pots with 5KG of top soil''latossolo vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa'' (Haplustox). (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Foliar and soil application of 15N-labelled fertilizers in the cultivation of common bean and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, E.P.; Skarlou, V.D.; Apostolakis, C.G.; Katranis, N.

    1979-01-01

    In two field experiments (one with beans and one with soybeans) during 1977, the influence of soil application of different nitrogen fertilizers and also of foliar application of the Hanway nutrient solution (N-P-K-S) on nitrogen fixation, grain yield and fertilizer utilization was studied. The nodule data for soybeans indicated that urea applied as starter, topdress or foliar spray adversely affected nodule number and weight. Starter (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 had an effect similar to urea, while starter NH 4 NO 3 had slight or no adverse effect. Use of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 or NH 4 NO 3 in the Hanway solution had a strong adverse effect. Yield data of the soybean experiment indicated that urea, applied as starter or starter plus topdress, had no essential effect while foliar spray showed a clear adverse effect on the grain yield of soybean-nod. When (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 or NH 4 NO 3 were used in the foliar spray, the adverse effect was more evident. Non-nod soybean showed slight yield response to topdress N and significant positive response to Hanway foliar spray. In the bean experiment some evidence of positive response to topdress N plus Hanway foliar spray was observed in the non-nod crop, but it was not significant. The utilization coefficient of the applied fertilizers varied with the treatments. The highest utilization coefficient (50-70%), for both experiments, was observed when urea was applied as foliar spray. Application of urea as starter gave low utilization while topdress application gave high utilization in the soybean experiment and low in that of common bean. Under the experimental conditions starter urea was better utilized than starter ammonium sulphate or nitrate. (author)

  18. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  19. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...

  20. influence of foliar applications of calcium chloride and borax on fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A Rab

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and.

  1. Shifting Foliar N:P Ratios with Experimental Soil Warming in Tussock Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, B.; Mack, M. C.; Schuur, E.; Mauritz, M.; Walker, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    Warming temperatures in the Arctic and boreal ecosystems are currently driving widespread permafrost thaw. Thermokarst is one form of thaw, in which a deepening active soil layer and associated hydrologic changes can lead to increased nutrient availability and shifts in plant community composition. Individual plant species often differ in their ability to access nutrients and adapt to new environmental conditions. While nitrogen (N) is often the nutrient most limiting to Arctic plant communities, the extent to which plant available phosphorus (P) from previously frozen mineral soil may increase as the active layer deepens is still uncertain. To understand the changing relationship between species' uptake of N and P in a thermokarst environment, we assessed foliar N:P ratios from 2015 in two species, a tussock sedge (Eriophorum vaginatum) and a dwarf shrub (Rubus chamaemorus), at a moist acidic tussock tundra experimental passive soil warming site. The passive soil warming treatment increased active layer depth in warmed plots by 35.4 cm (+/- 1.1 cm), an 80% increase over the control plots. E.vaginatum demonstrated a 16.9% decrease (p=0.012, 95% CI [-27.99%, -5.94%]) in foliar N:P ratios in warmed plots, driven mostly by an increase in foliar phosphorus. Foliar N:P ratios of R.chamaemorus showed no significant change. However, foliar samples of R.chamaemorus were significantly enriched in the isotope 15N in soil warming plots (9.9% increase (p=0.002, 95% CI [4.45%, 15.39%])), while the sedge E.vaginatum was slightly depleted. These results suggest that (1) in environments with thawing mineral soil plant available phosphorus may increase more quickly than nitrogen, and (2) that species' uptake strategies and responses to increasing N and P will vary, which has implications for future ecological shifts in thawing ecosystems.

  2. Effects of canopy light distribution characteristics and leaf nitrogen content on efficiency of radiation use in dry matter accumulation of soybean [Glycine max] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, T.; Hashikawa, U.; Taka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of dry matter produced per photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by the canopy (EPAR) and factors which might affect EPAR were determined for various soybean cultivars, and their relationships were also analyzed in two field experiments. In 1989 and 1990, 11 cultivars and 27 cultivars respectively, were grown on an experimental field in shiga Prefectural Junior College. Changes of intercepted PAR, top dry matter weight, light extinction coefficient (KPAR), nitrogen content per leaf area (SLN) and nitrogen accumulation in the top (1990 only) were measured. EPAR averaged for all the cultivars was 2.48g MJ(-1) in both years and its coefficient of variance among cultivars was +- 9% in 1989 and +- 17% in 1990. In general, recent cultivars showed greater EPAR than older ones. The correlation coefficients between SLN and EPAR were 0.548 in 1989 and 0.651-- in 1990, while there was no correlation between KPAR and EPAR. Since SLN showed close correlation with SLW (r = 0.954 in 1989, r = 0.170-- in 1990), the difference in EPAR between old and new cultivars was considered to be attributable mainly to the improved leaf morphological trait and consequently greater leaf photosynthesis of newer cultivars. SLN further correlated with total top nitrogen content (r = 0.736-- in 1990) thus seemed to be limited by nitrogen accumulation

  3. variability in foliar phenolic composition of several quercus species in northern mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, J.A.A.; Antuna, E.M.; Abarca, N.A.; Alvarado, E.A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative composition of the foliar phenolic compounds were investigated in 81 individual specimens of several white oak species (Quercus spp.). The trees were growing in twelve locations in Durango, Mexico. The phenol profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD and a Folin-Ciocateuprocedure. The results revealed that: (i) the foliar phenol profiles of all species analysed were complex and formed by 6 to 30 compounds, (ii) the flavonols mostly quercetin glycoside, isorhamnetin glycoside, kaempferol glycoside and phenolic acids were the main identified compounds, (iii) there was a high intra and inter-specific variability in the foliar phenol profiles both at the quantitative and qualitative levels, and (iv) the foliar phenol profiles indicated a slight species-specific tendency for phenols to be accumulated, although this was not clearly distinguished. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the content and composition of the foliar flavonoids between species were observed due to the large environmental and soil conditions variability between localities. (author)

  4. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  5. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  6. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  7. Differential Effects of Legume Species on the Recovery of Soil Microbial Communities, and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents, in Abandoned Fields of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Hua; Jiao, Shu Mei; Gao, Rong Qing; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant-soil interactions are known to influence a wide range of ecosystem-level functions. Moreover, the recovery of these functions is of importance for the successful restoration of soils that have been degraded through intensive and/or inappropriate land use. Here, we assessed the effect of planting treatments commonly used to accelerate rates of grassland restoration, namely introduction of different legume species Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus suaveolens, on the recovery of soil microbial communities and carbon and nitrogen contents in abandoned fields of the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed effects were species-specific, and either positive, neutral or negative depending on the measure and time-scale. All legumes increased basal respiration and metabolic quotient and had a positive effect on activity and functional diversity of the soil microbial community, measured using Biolog EcoPlate. However, soil under Astragalus adsurgens had the highest activity and functional diversity relative to the other treatments. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and microbial biomass were effectively restored in 3-5 years by introducing Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens into early abandoned fields. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were retarded in 3-5 years and microbial biomass was retarded in the fifth year by introducing Melilotus suaveolens. Overall, the restoration practices of planting legumes can significantly affect soil carbon and nitrogen contents, and the biomass, activity, and functional diversity of soil microbial community. Therefore, we propose certain legume species could be used to accelerate ecological restoration of degraded soils, hence assist in the protection and preservation of the environment.

  8. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of organic carbon and nitrogen of lacustrine sediments from sub-arid northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzuka, A.N.N.

    2006-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Accelerate mass spectrometer (AMS) 14 C ages on total OM for sediments collected from the Ngorongoro Crater Lake indicate that the sedimentation rate is approximately 17 cm/ka. The δ 13 C values from the 20 cm long core (short core) show a downcore increase, whereas that of 500 cm long core (long core), show two peaks enriched in 13 C and three peaks depleted in 13 C. A general downcore increase in the δ 13 C values for the short core suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 fraction increasing downcore. Similarly, low and high peaks in the long core suggest changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 with low values having high proportion of C 3 type of material, probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. Deposition of OM depleted in 13 C took place during periods of high precipitation and high lake levels. Although high content of OC and nitrogen in some core sections are associated with elevated C/N ratio values, diagenetic alteration of isotope signature is unlikely to have caused OC and isotope enrichment in sections having high contents of OC and nitrogen. The OC isotope record from Lake Ndutu shows a general downcore decrease in δ 13 C values and contents of OC and nitrogen. (author)

  9. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  10. A leaf gas exchange model that accounts for intra-canopy variability by considering leaf nitrogen content and local acclimation to radiation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jorge A; Louarn, Gaëtan; Perez Peña, Jorge; Ojeda, Hernán; Simonneau, Thierry; Lebon, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the distribution of gas exchange within a plant is a prerequisite for scaling up from leaves to canopies. We evaluated whether leaf traits were reliable predictors of the effects of leaf ageing and leaf irradiance on leaf photosynthetic capacity (V(cmax) , J(max) ) in field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L). Simultaneously, we measured gas exchange, leaf mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen content (N(m) ) of leaves at different positions within the canopy and at different phenological stages. Daily mean leaf irradiance cumulated over 10 d (PPFD(10) ) was obtained by 3D modelling of the canopy structure. N(m) decreased over the season in parallel to leaf ageing while LMA was mainly affected by leaf position. PPFD(10) explained 66, 28 and 73% of the variation of LMA, N(m) and nitrogen content per area (N(a) ), respectively. Nitrogen content per unit area (N(a) = LMA × N(m) ) was the best predictor of the intra-canopy variability of leaf photosynthetic capacity. Finally, we developed a classical photosynthesis-stomatal conductance submodel and by introducing N(a) as an input, the model accurately simulated the daily pattern of gas exchange for leaves at different positions in the canopy and at different phenological stages during the season. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Determination of the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of alanine and their uncertainties using the certified reference material L-alanine (NMIJ CRM 6011-a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sato, Ayako; Yamazaki, Taichi; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) contents of alanine and their uncertainties were estimated using a CHN analyzer and the certified reference material (CRM) L-alanine. The CHN contents and their uncertainties, as measured using the single-point calibration method, were 40.36 ± 0.20% for C, 7.86 ± 0.13% for H, and 15.66 ± 0.09% for N; the results obtained using the bracket calibration method were also comparable. The method described in this study is reasonable, convenient, and meets the general requirement of having uncertainties ≤ 0.4%.

  12. RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF DIETARY NITROGEN BY GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS IN RELATION TO DIET FORMULATION AND ENERGY CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VOICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on the use of the dietary nitrogen by fattening steers between 300-450 kg using the method of in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Alfalfa and corn-based diets were used, in different forms of preservation and with different ratio of the bulk forage to the concentrate feeds; diet digestibility expressed as organic matter and protein varied between 72-76% and between 66- 75% respectively; the best performance produced by the corn silage diets were observed in diet 2 (with ammonia, while the best results produced by the alfalfa diets was noticed in diet 5 (haylage; nitrogen balance showed the highest values of the retained nitrogen in the alfalfa half-hay diet, the alfalfa hay diet having lower values.

  13. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zihai; Zhang, Baoxin; Liu, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Corn stover (CS) is an abundant source of feed for livestock in China. However, it is low in nutritional value that we have been seeking technologies to improve. Previous studies show that non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) might limit the utilization of a CS diet by lactating dairy cows. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the lactation performance and rumen fermentation characteristics in lactating cows consuming CS with two contents of NFC compared to an alfalfa hay-containing diet. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments: (1) low-NFC diet (NFC = 35.6%, L-NFC), (2) high-NFC diet (NFC = 40.1%, H-NFC), and (3) alfalfa hay diet (NFC = 38.9%, AH). Intake of DM was lower for cows fed H-NFC compared to L-NFC and AH, while the milk yield was higher in AH than in H-NFC and L-NFC ( P  contents of milk protein and lactose were not different among the groups ( P  > 0.11), but milk fat content was higher for cows fed H-NFC and L-NFC compared to AH ( P  rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration and the concentrations of urea nitrogen in blood and milk were lower for cows fed H-NFC and AH compared to L-NFC ( P  rumen propionate and total volatile fatty acids were different among groups ( P  content in a diet containing corn stover can improve the feed efficiency and benefit the nitrogen conversion.

  15. Malabsorption of mineral nutrients and effects of foliar fertilization on continuously cropped capsicum annuum l. var. annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.H.; Zhao, Z.L.; Zhao, Z.L.; Zhao, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Cayenne pepper (C. annuum var. annuum) cultivar known as line No. 5 was used to establish a reference baseline for fertilization experiments under conditions of continuous cropping versus crop rotation. The effects of continuous cropping on absorption of 11 essential nutrient elements and fruit yield were studied. Concurrently, we also examined the effects of foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ and Fe + B + Zn + Mn on nutrient absorption due to continuous cropping. The results showed that, compared with peppers grown in rotation soil, continuous cropping affected the uptake of eight elements (P, K, Mg, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu) and transport of these elements to the aerial parts of the plant, although the element concentrations in continuous cropping soil were not lower than those in rotation soil. Continuous cropping caused a decline in fruit yield. The impact of continuous cropping on the uptake of trace elements was greater than it was for macro elements. Foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ significantly improved the P, Mg, Fe, and Mo content of continuously-cropped pepper plants, but did not significantly improve the content of N and K, and there was an antagonistic effect on Zn uptake. Foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn, significantly increased the Fe, B, Zn, Mn, and P content in the plants; Ca uptake in the leaves and fruits was promoted to a certain degree, but there was obvious antagonism toward Mo and Cu uptake in the stems, leaves and fruits. Pepper fruit yields were significantly increased by foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ or foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn. However the effects of foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn on increased production were significantly better than the effects of foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/. (author)

  16. Complementary Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Root Responses to Assess the Effectiveness of Different Iron Foliar Applications for Chlorosis Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fuentes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency in plants is caused by a low availability of iron in the soil, and its main visual symptom is leaf yellowing due to a decrease in chlorophyll content, along with a reduction in plant growth and fruit quality. Foliar sprays with Fe compounds are an economic alternative to the treatment with expensive synthetic Fe-chelates applied to the soil, although the efficacy of foliar treatments is rather limited. Generally, plant response to Fe-foliar treatments is monitored by measuring chlorophyll content (or related parameters as SPAD index. However, different studies have shown that foliar Fe sprays cause a local regreening and that translocation of the applied Fe within the plant is quite low. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar applications of different Fe compounds [FeSO4, Fe(III-EDTA, and Fe(III-heptagluconate] on Fe-deficient cucumber plants, by studying the main physiological plant root responses to Fe deficiency [root Fe(III chelate reductase (FCR activity; acidification of the nutrient solution; and expression of the Fe deficiency responsive genes encoding FCR, CsFRO1, Fe(II root transporter CsIRT1, and two plasma membrane H+-ATPases, CsHA1 and CsHA2], along with SPAD index, plant growth and Fe content. The results showed that the overall assessment of Fe-deficiency root responses improved the evaluation of the efficacy of the Fe-foliar treatments compared to just monitoring SPAD indexes. Thus, FCR activity and expression of Fe-deficiency response genes, especially CsFRO1 and CsHA1, preceded the trend of SPAD index and acted as indicators of whether the plant was sensing or not metabolically active Fe due to the treatments. Principal component analysis of the data also provided a graphical tool to evaluate the evolution of plant responses to foliar Fe treatments with time.

  17. Relation between kinetic of alcoholic fermentation and must nitrogen content. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on Vitis vinifera cv Muscadelle with permanent grass cover. Nature and concentration levels of some amino acids of musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Larchevêque

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment concerning the introduction of nitrogen fertilization on permanent grass cover was undertaken in 1995. This was done in order to determine both the role and the influence of nitrogen on the fermentability of must. Located in the Sainte-Foy La Grande area, the plot studied has a deep silty soil. The cultivar Muscadelle was grafted on the 3309 C rootstock. Four tests with several N-fertilizations were compared : 1 (no-tillage and 0 kg N/ha/year, 2 (permanent grass cover without N-fertilization, 3 (permanent grass cover and 30 kg N/ha/year and 4 (permanent grass cover and 60 kg N/ha/year. Nitrogen was added at springtime, on the total interrow area as weIl as on the narrow strip around the vines. The grass cover (with or without N-fertilization had a great effect on yield : it decreased the latter by about 38 percent compared to the no-tillage trial. Moreover, the total acidity values were lower for the musts in trials 2,3 and 4 than in the control 1. Inversely, the initial sugar values were greater in the grass cover trials. The duration of alcoholic fermentation was very different with the no-tillage test and the others : 17 days were necessary for the first, and 42 to 50 for the other musts. This parameter was quite cIosely correlated to the content of nitrogen composites in the must and more particularly to amino acids. The global amino acid contents of must and wine were higher in test 1 than in the others. It is noteworthy that numerous kinds of amino acids were present but it seems likely that some of them were very important by virtue of their nature or their concentration levels. Among the principal amino acids, proline represented at least 20 percent of the global amino acids content for musts 2 and 4, and 14 to 19 percent for musts 3 and 1. Arginine was present only in the must of the grass-cover trials. Proline, arginine, alanine, asparagine/glutamine and aspartic acid represented about 50 to 60 percent of the global amino

  18. Behavior of Foliares Applications of Humus Mixed with the NPK in Rice Cultivation (Oryza Sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Saborit Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the observation of one green yellowsh clorosis in the plantations of rice, after the cold campaings and the disminishing of the agricultural efficiency of the cerial in areas of Saint Elena Land belonging to the fortified cooperatove of credits and service (FCCS Camilo Cienfuegos in Las Nuevas, La Sierpe, Province of Sancti – Spiritus, were done foliars aplications with mineral fertilizing as, N.P.K to different doses and moments of applications, in order to obtain alternative of nutrition for the cultivation, the work was done on a green yellowish ferralitic ground since 2009 to 2011, using LP-5 cultivation doing the sowing by the method of transplantation, fertilization. It was done mixing 49L. ha-¹ of liquid warm humus with 0.35 Kg. ha-¹ of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The results shown that the use of the foliar fertilization with liquid worm humus mixed with the N.P.K minerals, increased the efficiency, obtaining 5.3t. ha-¹ as an average in different variants used. The economic analysis showed that the treatment with 40% of nitrogen was reduced with seven foliars applications, it was highest to the witness N.P.K in 1.5t . ha-¹ of the grain obtaining a relative benefit of 4264.55 pesos by hectarea.

  19. Low-Temperature Nitriding of Deformed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Various Nitrogen Contents Obtained by Prior High-Temperature Solution Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, high nitrogen steels (HNS) have been regarded as substitutes for conventional austenitic stainless steels because of their superior mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the main limitation to their wider application is their expensive production process....... As an alternative, high-temperature solution nitriding has been applied to produce HNS from three commercially available stainless steel grades (AISI 304L, AISI 316, and EN 1.4369). The nitrogen content in each steel alloy is varied and its influence on the mechanical properties and the stability of the austenite...... investigated. Both hardness and yield stress increase and the alloys remain ductile. In addition, strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite is suppressed, which is beneficial for subsequent low-temperature nitriding of the surface of deformed alloys. The combination of high- and low...

  20. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C., E-mail: kdas@engr.uga.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo [Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-06-23

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  1. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  2. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  3. Controls over foliar N:P ratios in tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Asner, Gregory P; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between foliar nutrient concentrations and soil nutrient availability have been found in multiple ecosystems. These relationships have led to the use of foliar nutrients as an index of nutrient status and to the prediction of broadscale patterns in ecosystem processes. More recently, a growing interest in ecological stoichiometry has fueled multiple analyses of foliar nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratios within and across ecosystems. These studies have observed that N:P values are generally elevated in tropical forests when compared to higher latitude ecosystems, adding weight to a common belief that tropical forests are generally N rich and P poor. However, while these broad generalizations may have merit, their simplicity masks the enormous environmental heterogeneity that exists within the tropics; such variation includes large ranges in soil fertility and climate, as well as the highest plant species diversity of any biome. Here we present original data on foliar N and P concentrations from 150 mature canopy tree species in Costa Rica and Brazil, and combine those data with a comprehensive new literature synthesis to explore the major sources of variation in foliar N:P values within the tropics. We found no relationship between N:P ratios and either latitude or mean annual precipitation within the tropics alone. There is, however, evidence of seasonal controls; in our Costa Rica sites, foliar N:P values differed by 25% between wet and dry seasons. The N:P ratios do vary with soil P availability and/or soil order, but there is substantial overlap across coarse divisions in soil type, and perhaps the most striking feature of the data set is variation at the species level. Taken as a whole, our results imply that the dominant influence on foliar N:P ratios in the tropics is species variability and that, unlike marine systems and perhaps many other terrestrial biomes, the N:P stoichiometry of tropical forests is not well constrained. Thus any use of N

  4. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  5. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  6. Factors affecting levels of some phenolic compounds, digestibility, and nitrogen content of the mature leaves ofBarteria fistulosa (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, P G; Ross, J A; McKey, D B

    1984-03-01

    Levels of total phenolics, condensed tannins, acid detergent fiber, pepsin/cellulase digestibility, and nitrogen in mature leaves of 26 individuals of the ant-plant,Barteria fistulosa, have been determined. Analysis of the results in terms of the presence or absence of ants and the position of the branch from which the leaves were collected showed no relationship with concentrations of phenolics or fiber and only a weak relationship with digestibility and nitrogen. By contrast, light intensity strongly influenced levels of phenolics, notably condensed tannins, so that mature leaves of individuals growing in direct sunlight were less digestible and appeared to be of lower quality as food for herbivores than did mature leaves of individuals in shaded positions. Possible reasons for the variation in condensed tannin levels are discussed.

  7. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  8. Response of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars to Foliar Applications of Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiencies have been shown to be particularly dangerous to short cycled crops, both on sandy and clay soils. Such deficiencies may be corrected by foliar fertilisations, but in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no experimental data may be found to support this hypothesis. Therefore this paper was aimed at studying the effect of foliar Mg-applications (56, 112 and 224 g ha-1 in single application at flowering or splitted half dose at 4-leaf stage and half at flowering alone and with Zn (200 g ha-1 on yield and quality of two French bean genotypes (Bronco, Cadillac. Foliar Mg-applications significantly increased pod yield and, considering the highest rate with respect to the untreated, such an increase was 78% and 32% for Bronco and Cadillac, respectively. Split applications were also more effective, with yield increases of 109% and 50% for the two genotypes. Concerning quality, foliar Mg applications showed a significant effect particularly on sugars, calcium, phosphate, sulphate and Mg contents in pods. On the other hand, a significant effect on the accumulation of nitrates was noted, especially with split applications (144% increase vs. unfertilised and, in some cases, an antagonistic effect on K content (10-20% decrease on average. Foliar Mg fertilisation of French bean seemed to be a promising practice with reference to human health and nutrition, tough some care is needed to avoid the accumulation of nitrates in pods. Split applications seemed to be more effective, while the addition of Zn to the fertiliser mix did not give any relevant effect.

  9. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizeron Morphological Traits, Seed and Essential Oil Yield and Essential Oil Content of Ajowan (Carum copticum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ajowan (Carum copticum Benth. & Hook. is an annual herbaceous essential oil bearing plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, which grows in India, Iran, and Egypt. Ajowan seeds have essential oil as an active substance, which is used in pharmaceutical industry as a diuretic, antivomiting, analgesic, antiasthma, antispasmodic and a carminative. Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. Also, nitrogen is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis. Generally, proper agronomic management including suitable plant density has a high influence on growth and yield of medicinal plants. In this regard, Kloss et al., (2012 highlighted the need for strategies to improve crop growth, make irrigation more efficient and sustainable and conserve farmlands. In addition, yield is influenced by inter-row spacing and sowing density. Ghilavizadeh et al., (2013 have reported that application of suitable amount of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density of 25 plan/m2 increased seed yield, essential oil yield and essential oil content of ajowan. In another research, Borumand Rezazadeh et al., (2009 reported that the plant density of 50 plant/m2 have produced the highest seed yield, essential oil yield and essential oil content. Generally, with regard to importance of medicinal plants and the necessity of understanding their crop and the impact of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on the performance of these plants, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of these factors on some traits of ajowan. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on different traits of ajowan (Carum copticum L., an experiment was conducted using factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural and Natural

  10. Effect of Foliar Application of Iron, Zinc and Manganese on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Two Varieties of Grain Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of foliar application of Fe, Zn and Mn on yield, yield components and protein content of two varieties of grain millet an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University at 2010.  In this study two millet varieties including Bastan (Setaria italica and Pishahang (Panicum miliaceum, and six levels of foliar micronutrient fertilizer including control, Fe, Zn, Mn, (Fe+Zn, (Fe+Zn+Mn were investigated. The results indicated that, panicle length, 1000 grain weight and panicle number per m2 were higher in Pishahang than Bastan, but grain yield, number of seeds per panicle, harvest index and protein yield were higher in Bastan. Characteristics such as panicle length, biological yield and harvest index and protein percentage were affected by foliar micronutrient fertilizer but grain yield remained unchanged. Foliar application with (Fe+Zn+Mn increased protein content compared to the control, but it did not affect protein yield. According to the results of this experiment, Bastan millet variety and foliar application of Zn is potent to produce the maximum grain yield, albeit it warrants further studies.

  11. Concentração foliar de nutrientes e produtividade de tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes substratos e doses de ácidos húmicos Leaf nutrient content and yield of tomato grown in different substrates and doses of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional e a produtividade do tomateiro, híbrido Vênus, cultivado em substratos, com aplicação de ácidos húmicos (AH e fertirrigação. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de AH (0, 20, 40 e 80 L ha-1 e quatro substratos: S1 (fibra de coco (FC, S2 (FC + casca de café carbonizada (CC na proporção 1:3, S3 (FC + CC na proporção 2:3 e S4 (CC. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x4. As mudas foram transplantadas com 35 dias para sacolas plásticas com capacidade de 7,0 L. Os AH foram aplicados quatro vezes em um intervalo de oito dias, sendo a primeira aplicação oito dias após o transplantio. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos nos teores de N, K e S nas folhas e na produção de frutos não comerciais. No entanto, houve efeito significativo dos substratos nos teores de P, Ca, Mg e sobre a produção de frutos total e comercial. Doses crescentes de AH induziram redução de forma linear dos teores de B e Cu (em S1; porém, induziram aumento dos teores de Zn. Em doses de 31 a 49 L ha-1 de AH, ocorreu o máximo teor foliar de Fe, Cu e o mínimo de Mn. As maiores produtividades comerciais foram obtidas com a fibra de coco (S1 com média de 5,6 kg planta-1, apresentando incremento médio de produtividade de 22,9%, 38,7% e 49,7% em relação a S2, S3 e S4, respectivamente.We evaluated the nutritional status and yield of tomato hybrid "Vênus", grown on substrates, with application of humic acids (AH and fertigation. Four doses of AH (0, 20, 40 and 80 L-1 ha and four substrates: S1 (coconut fiber (CF, S2 (FC + carbonized coffee husk (CC in the ratio 1:3, S3 (CF + CC - in the ratio 2:3 and S4 (CC were evaluated following the randomized blocks design in factorial 4x4 scheme with four replications. The 35-day old seedlings were transplanted into plastic bags of 7 L. The humic acids were applied four times in eight

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Content on Physical and Chemical Properties of TiN Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering with Supported Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R.; Gunasekhar, K. R.; Rajashabala, S.

    2017-10-01

    Amorphous titanium nitride (TiN) thin films have been prepared on silicon (Si) and glass substrates by direct-current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering with a supported discharge (triode). Nitrogen gas (N2) at partial pressure of 0.3 Pa, 0.4 Pa, 0.5 Pa, and 0.6 Pa was used to prepare the TiN thin films, maintaining total pressure of argon and N2 of about 0.7 Pa. The chemical, microstructural, optical, and electrical properties of the TiN thin films were systematically studied. Presence of different phases of Ti with nitrogen (N), oxygen (O2), and carbon (C) elements was revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. Increase in the nitrogen pressure from 0.3 Pa to 0.6 Pa reduced the optical bandgap of the TiN thin film from 2.9 eV to 2.7 eV. Photoluminescence study showed that TiN thin film deposited at N2 partial pressure of 0.3 Pa exhibited three shoulder peaks at 330 nm, 335 nm, and 340 nm, which disappeared when the sample was deposited with N2 partial pressure of 0.6 Pa. Increase in the nitrogen content decreased the electrical resistivity of the TiN thin film from 3200 μΩ cm to 1800 μΩ cm. Atomic force microscopy studies of the TiN thin films deposited with N2 partial pressure of 0.6 Pa showed a uniform surface pattern associated with accumulation of fine grains. The results and advantages of this method of preparing TiN thin films are also reported.

  13. Growth response of Douglas-fir seedlings to nitrogen fertilization: importance of Rubisco activation state and respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel K. Manter; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; Cathy L. Rose

    2005-01-01

    High foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]) is associated with high rates of photosynthesis and thus high tree productivity; however, at excessive [N], tree productivity is reduced. Reports of excessive [N] in the Douglas-fir forests of the Oregon Coast Range prompted this investigation of growth and needle physiological responses to increasing foliar N concentrations in...

  14. High content of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-nitrogen-modified carbon nanotubes derived from blood biomass for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jie; Guo, Chaozhong; Chen, Chunyan; Fan, Mingzhi; Gong, Jianping; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhao, Tianxin; Sun, Yuelin; Xu, Xiaofan; Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Ran; Luo, Zhongli; Chen, Changguo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •An ORR electrocatalyst was fabricated from blood biomass and carbon nanotube. •The N-CNT catalyst exhibits good ORR activity, methanol resistance and stability. •The pyrolysis process produces high contents of pyridinic and pyrrolic N species. •The pyridinic-N group may play more important role in the active sites for ORR. -- Abstract: Here we present a facile synthetic route to design nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbon-based electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by the copyrolysis of blood biomass from pig and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high temperatures. The nitrogen-doped CNTs obtained at 800 °C not only results in excellent ORR activity with four-electron transfer selectivity in alkaline medium, but also exhibits superior methanol-tolerant property and long-term stability. It is confirmed that high-temperature pyrolysis processes can facilitate to produce higher contents of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-N binding groups in electrocatalysts, contributing to the enhancement of ORR performance in terms of onset potential, half-wave potential, and limited current density. We also propose that the planar-N configuration may be the active site that is responsible for the improved ORR electrocatalytic performance. The straight-forward and cheap synthesis of the active and stable electrocatalyst makes it a promising candidate for electrochemical power sources such as fuel cells or metal-air batteries

  15. A better way of representing stem area index in two-big-leaf models: the application and impact on canopy integration of leaf nitrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Butler, E. E.; Wythers, K. R.; Kattge, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Atkin, O. K.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Reich, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better estimate the carbon budget of the globe, accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in earth system models is critical. When upscaling leaf level photosynthesis to the canopy, climate models uses different big-leaf schemes. About half of the state-of-the-art earth system models use a "two-big-leaf" scheme that partitions canopies into direct and diffusively illuminated fractions to reduce high bias of GPP simulated by one-big-leaf models. Some two-big-leaf models, such as ACME (identical in this respect to CLM 4.5) add leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI) together when calculating canopy radiation transfer. This treatment, however, will result in higher fraction of sunlit leaves. It will also lead to an artificial overestimation of canopy nitrogen content. Here we introduce a new algorithm of simulating SAI in a two-big-leaf model. The new algorithm reduced the sunlit leave fraction of the canopy and conserved the nitrogen content from leaf to canopy level. The lower fraction of sunlit leaves reduced global GPP especially in tropical area. Compared to the default model, for the past 100 years (1909-2009), the averaged global annual GPP is lowered by 4.11 PgC year-1 using this new algorithm.

  16. Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia

    OpenAIRE

    SALATINO, ANTONIO; BLATT, CECÍLIA T.T.; SANTOS, DÉBORAH Y.A.C. DOS; VAZ, ANGELA M.S.F.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia were isolated and identified. All the compounds correspond to glycosides derived from kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and myricetin. Derivatives of the latter aglyconhe seem to be rare in Bauhinia. Derivatives of isorhamnetin are commonly found in species of subgenus Bauhinia and were not detected in the two species of subgenus Phanera. Flavonoid patterns of species of the former subgenus are in general more complex than those of the latter. ...

  17. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  18. The effect of water stress on nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen and phosphorus contents in cuminum cyminum l

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehr, M F [Islamic Azad University, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Biology; Amini, F [Tehran Shomal Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Biology

    2012-06-15

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a plant with great medicinal importance cultivated in many regions such as Iran, India, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In this research, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and nitrate reductase enzyme activity were studied in cumin under flooding stress. Cumin plants were cultivated in pots containing garden soil (in 1 cm depth, 15 -20 degree C, 14 h light and 10 h darkness). Germination took place after 2 weeks. Flooding stress was applied 6 weeks after germination on a number of pots according to their field capacity (FC) (2, 3, and 4 fold) for 1 week; a number of pots were also considered as controls with field capacity. Plants were then harvested and chemical analysis of the factors under study was done using roots and shoots of the plants exposed to flooding conditions and the control plants. The experiment had a completely randomized design in which four levels of water in the soil (2FC, 3FC, 4FC) were compared. Analysis of variance was carried out using SPSS software and means were compared by Duncan's test at [ greater or equal to = 0.05 significance level. The results showed that in comparison with control plants, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower in both shoots and roots of flooded plants. This decrease was more pronounced in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Nitrogen concentration in roots and shoots of treated plants showed a significant decrease in comparison with control plants and this was more noticeable in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Moreover, concentration of nitrite produced from nitrate reduction catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzyme in roots and shoots of treated plants had a significant increase in comparison with control plants. Treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions showed the most increase. Also the study showed that cumin seeds could survive in flooding environment for 14 days

  19. The effect of water stress on nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen and phosphorus contents in cuminum cyminum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehr, M.F.; Amini, F.

    2012-01-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a plant with great medicinal importance cultivated in many regions such as Iran, India, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In this research, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and nitrate reductase enzyme activity were studied in cumin under flooding stress. Cumin plants were cultivated in pots containing garden soil (in 1 cm depth, 15 -20 degree C, 14 h light and 10 h darkness). Germination took place after 2 weeks. Flooding stress was applied 6 weeks after germination on a number of pots according to their field capacity (FC) (2, 3, and 4 fold) for 1 week; a number of pots were also considered as controls with field capacity. Plants were then harvested and chemical analysis of the factors under study was done using roots and shoots of the plants exposed to flooding conditions and the control plants. The experiment had a completely randomized design in which four levels of water in the soil (2FC, 3FC, 4FC) were compared. Analysis of variance was carried out using SPSS software and means were compared by Duncan's test at [ greater or equal to = 0.05 significance level. The results showed that in comparison with control plants, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower in both shoots and roots of flooded plants. This decrease was more pronounced in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Nitrogen concentration in roots and shoots of treated plants showed a significant decrease in comparison with control plants and this was more noticeable in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Moreover, concentration of nitrite produced from nitrate reduction catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzyme in roots and shoots of treated plants had a significant increase in comparison with control plants. Treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions showed the most increase. Also the study showed that cumin seeds could survive in flooding environment for 14 days

  20. Assimilação foliar de enxofre elementar pela soja Foliar elementary sulfur assimilation by soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godofredo Cesar Vitti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a assimilação de enxofre elementar (S0, aplicado nas folhas de soja, e sua eficiência comparada à adubação feita ao solo, de acordo com a dose e a natureza da fonte do nutriente. O S0 aplicado às folhas, independentemente da dose e fonte, foi assimilado pela planta, o que acarretou em aumento no teor de proteína total na folha. Todas as fontes de S aplicadas às folhas aumentaram a produção de grãos, semelhantemente à aplicação ao solo. Observou-se uma mesma produtividade com o uso de 20 kg ha-1 de S0 no solo ou de 6 kg ha-1 via foliar. A eficiência da aplicação de S via foliar, com base no conteúdo de proteína solúvel total, foi superior à da aplicação ao solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the elementary sulfur (S0 assimilation applied on soybean leaves, and its efficiency compared to the fertilization done in the soil, according to the dose and nature of the nutrient source. The S0 applied to leaves, independently of the dose and source, was assimilated by the plant, what resulted in increase of total protein content in the leaf. All S sources applied to leaves increased the grain yield, similarly to the application to the soil. The same productivity was observed with the use of 20 kg ha-1 of S0 in the soil or 6 kg ha-1 applied to leaves. The elementary S application efficiency on leaves, based on the content of total soluble protein, was superior to application efficiency on soil.

  1. [Influence of simulated acid rain on nitrogen and phosphorus contents and their stoichiome-tric ratios of tea organs in a red soil region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Fei; Fang, Xiang Min; Chen, Fu Sheng; Zong, Ying Ying; Gu, Han Jiao; Hu, Xiao Fei

    2017-04-18

    A 25-year-old tea plantation in a typical red soil region was selected for an in situ simulated acid rain experiment treated by pH 4.5, 3.5, 2.5 and water (control, CK). Roots with different functions, leaves and twigs with different ages were collected to measure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents in the third year after simulated acid rain treatment. The N/P and acid rain sensitivity coefficient of tea plant organs were also calculated. The results indicated that with the increase of acid rain intensity, the soil pH, NO 3 - -N and available P decreased, while the absorption root N content increased. Compared with the control, the N content in absorption root was increased by 32.9% under the treatment of pH 2.5. The P content in storage root significantly decreased with enhanced acid rain intensity, and the acid rain treatment significantly enhanced N/P of absorption root. Young and mature leaf N, P contents were not sensitive to different intensities of acid rain, but the mature leaf N/P was significantly increased under pH 3.5 treatment compared with the control. The effects of acid rain treatments differed with tea twig ages. Compared with the control, low intensity acid treatment (pH 4.5) significantly increased young twig N content and N/P, while no signi-ficant differences in old twig N content and N/P were observed among four acid rain treatments. Acid rain sensitivity coefficients of absorption root, young leaf and twig N contents were higher than that of storage root, old leaf and twig, respectively. And the storage root and leaf P had higher acid rain sensitivity coefficient than other tea organs. In sum, tea organs N content was sensitive to acid rain treatment, and moderate acid rain could increase young organ N content and N/P, and change the cycle and balance of N and P in tea plantation.

  2. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-06-01

    The effects of CO(2) enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO(2) concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 microl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO(2) concentration, N concentration, and CO(2)xN interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO(2). However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO(2) had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO(2) concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO(2) concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO(2) condition.

  3. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition. PMID:19489111

  4. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  5. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Animal slurries are stored for a variable period of time before application in the field. The effect of cattle slurry storage time and temperature on the subsequent mineralization of C and N in soil was studied under laboratory conditions. Urine and faeces from a dairy cow were sampled separately...... and mixed to a slurry. After 4 weeks of storage under anaerobic conditions at 15 degrees C, the NH4+ N content exceeded the original urinary N content of the slurry; the NH4+ content increased only slightly during the following 16 weeks of storage. After 4 weeks of storage, the proportion of slurry C...... in volatile fatty acids (VFA) amounted to 10% and increased to 15% after 20 weeks. Straw addition to the slurry caused an increase of VFA-C in stored slurry, but had a negligible influence on the proportion of slurry N in the form of NH4+. Slurries subjected to different storage conditions were added...

  6. Linking foliar chemistry to forest floor solid and solution phase organic C and N in Picea ahies [L.) Karst stands in northern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.; Alexander, J.E.; Albrechtová, J.; Krám, P.; Rock, B.; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, J.; Lhotáková, Z.; Huntley, R.; Oulehle, F.; Polák, T.; McDowel, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 283, 1-2 (2006), s. 187-201 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cellulose and nitrogen * dissolved organic carbon * dissolved organic nitrogen * forest floor C:N * foliar Iignin, * Picea abies [L.] Karst Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2006

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Rate and Regrowth Interval on Perennial Ryegrass Fatty Acid Content during the Growing Season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Wever, C.J.G.; Gort, G.; Elgersma, A.

    2008-01-01

    The content of fatty acids (FA) in herbage is important for forage quality and animal-source foods, but there is a lack of knowledge on effects of agronomic practices, and on environmental factors related to seasonal variation in FA concentrations and FA composition. This research investigated the

  8. Nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design for enhancing lipid content and lipid production of a newly isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31: implications for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-11-01

    Microalgae are recognized for serving as a sustainable source for biodiesel production. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design on the performance of lipid production and of CO(2) fixation of an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31. Comparison of single-stage and two-stage nitrogen starvation strategies shows that single-stage cultivation on basal medium with low initial nitrogen source concentration (i.e., 0.313 g/L KNO(3)) was the most effective approach to enhance microalgal lipid production, attaining a lipid productivity of 78 mg/L/d and a lipid content of 55.9%. The lipid productivity of C. vulgaris ESP-31 was further upgraded to 132.4 mg/L/d when it was grown in a vertical tubular photobioreactor with a high surface to volume ratio of 109.3 m(2)/m(3) . The high lipid productivity was also accompanied by fixation of 6.36 g CO(2) during the 10-day photoautotrophic growth with a CO(2) fixation rate of 430 mg/L/d. Analysis of fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid indicates that over 65% of fatty acids in the microalgal lipid are saturated [i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0)] and monounsaturated [i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)]. This lipid quality is suitable for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Intercomparison of Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices, Ground Spectroscopy, and Foliar Chemistry Data from NEON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulslander, D.; Warren, J. N.; Weintraub, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems can be used to produce spectral reflectance curves giving rich information about composition, relative abundances of materials, mixes and combinations. Indices based on just a few spectral bands have been used for over 40 years to study vegetation health, mineral abundance, and more. These indices are much simpler to visualize and use than a full hyperspectral data set which may contain over 400 bands. Yet historically, it has been difficult to directly relate remotely sensed spectral indices to quantitative biophysical properties significant to forest ecology such as canopy nitrogen, lignin, and chlorophyll. This linkage is a critical piece in enabling the detection of high value ecological information, usually only available from labor-intensive canopy foliar chemistry sampling, to the geographic and temporal coverage available via remote sensing. Previous studies have shown some promising results linking ground-based data and remotely sensed indices, but are consistently limited in time, geographic extent, and land cover type. Moreover, previous studies are often focused on tuning linkage algorithms for the purpose of achieving good results for only one study site or one type of vegetation, precluding development of more generalized algorithms. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a unique system of 47 terrestrial sites covering all of the major eco-climatic domains of the US, including AK, HI, and Puerto Rico. These sites are regularly monitored and sampled using uniform instrumentation and protocols, including both foliar chemistry sampling and remote sensing flights for high resolution hyperspectral, LiDAR, and digital camera data acquisition. In this study we compare the results of foliar chemistry analysis to the remote sensing vegetation indices and investigate possible sources for variance and difference through the use of the larger hyperspectral dataset as well as ground based spectrometer measurements of

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  12. Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-11

    Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by {sup 14}N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A {sup 252}Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

  13. Machine learning for the prediction of L. chinensis carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and understanding of mechanisms underlying grassland degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefen; Liang, Shuo; Zhao, Yiying; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-05-01

    The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels. The growth of L. chinensis was shown to be limited by either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both during different stages of degradation. The soil chemistry changed noticeably as degradation aggravated, which represents a destabilization of L. chinensis community homeostasis. Soil salinization aggravates soil nutrient loss and decreases the bioavailability of soil nutrients. This, along with the destabilization of C/N, C/P and N/P ratios, weakens the photosynthetic ability and productivity of L. chinensis. This conclusion was supported by observations that L. chinensis is gradually being replaced by a Chloris virgata, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Suaeda acuminate mixed community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repeated inoculation of cattle rumen with bison rumen contents alters the rumen microbiome and improves nitrogen digestibility in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Gabriel O.; Oss, Daniela B.; He, Zhixiong; Gruninger, Robert J.; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Forster, Robert J.; Yang, WenZhu; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2017-01-01

    Future growth in demand for meat and milk, and the socioeconomic and environmental challenges that farmers face, represent a ?grand challenge for humanity?. Improving the digestibility of crop residues such as straw could enhance the sustainability of ruminant production systems. Here, we investigated if transfer of rumen contents from bison to cattle could alter the rumen microbiome and enhance total tract digestibility of a barley straw-based diet. Beef heifers were adapted to the diet for ...

  15. Acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis in response to experimental warming in a temperate steppe in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis is critical for projection of changes in carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems under global warming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate foliar temperature (Tleaf by 2.07°C in a temperate steppe in northern China. Rd/Tleaf curves (responses of dark respiration to Tleaf, An/Tleaf curves (responses of light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates to Tleaf, responses of biochemical limitations and diffusion limitations in gross CO2 assimilation rates (Ag to Tleaf, and foliar nitrogen (N concentration in Stipa krylovii Roshev. were measured in 2010 (a dry year and 2011 (a wet year. Significant thermal acclimation of Rd to 6-year experimental warming was found. However, An had a limited ability to acclimate to a warmer climate regime. Thermal acclimation of Rd was associated with not only the direct effects of warming, but also the changes in foliar N concentration induced by warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warming decreased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the response of Rd/Ag ratio to Tleaf. Our findings may have important implications for improving ecosystem models in simulating carbon cycles and advancing understanding on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem functions.

  16. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  17. Induction of drought tolerance in zea mays l. by foliar application of triacontanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, S.; Iqbal, M.; Nawaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on various growth and physiochemical parameters of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (cv. MMRI-Yellow and cv. Hybrid S-515) under different irrigation levels i.e., normal watering (control) and watering at 60% of the field capacity (drought). Seeds of the two maize cultivars were sown in plastic pots filled with sandy loam soil (2 kg in each). Foliar application of TRIA (0, 2 and 5 micro M) was performed after two weeks of drought stress to 28-day-old plants. Data of 58-day-old maize plants was collected for analysis of various growth and physiochemical attributes. Drought stress significantly decreased growth and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity while increased the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and the contents of total phenolics, total soluble proteins, glycinebetaine (GB) and free proline. Foliar treatment with TRIA further increased CAT and POD activities whereas decreased the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolics and GB in the maize plants when under drought stress. Of the two maize cultivars, cv. MMRI-Yellow excelled the growth under both normal and drought stress (60% of the field capacity). Overall, TRIA (5 micro M) was much more effective in modulating various growth and physiochemical attributes, and thus improving drought tolerance in maize plants. (author)

  18. Foliar K application delays leaf senescence of winter rape-seed (Brassica napus L.) under waterlogging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wan; Chao Hu; Chang Chen; Liyan Zhang; Ni Ma; Chunlei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To better understand waterlogging effect on leaf senescence in winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) during flowering stage, experiments were designed to explore foliar K application influences on adverse effects of waterlogging stress. Winter rapeseed was sprayed with K after waterlogging at initial flowering stage. Results indicated that waterlog-ging significantly decreased leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr). It also declined maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (ΦPS II) and pho-tochemical quenching (qP), but increased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and minimal fluorescence (Fo). Interestingly, exogenous application of K significantly alleviated waterlogging-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Foliar K application increased RuBisCO activation, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, while significantly decreased MDA con-tent under waterlogging stress. Moreover, K supplementation improved accumulation of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, N, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ in leaves. In general, foliar K application is effective in alleviating deleterious effects of waterlogging stress and delays leaf senescence of winter rapeseed.

  19. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  20. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  1. Surface treatment of non-ferrous metal samples to be certified for their oxygen, nitrogen and carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.Y.; Quaglia, L.; David, D.; Pauwels, J.; Vanaudenhove, J.

    1977-01-01

    Surface treatment on non-ferrous metals is proposed in order to minimize or determine quantitatively the interference of gaseous contamination. Two types of surface treatment have been applied to the specimens; mechanical treatment (sawing, turning, polishing); chemical treatment (etching). Three main conditions govern the choice of treatment: it must give a minimum surface content of the elements to be determined; it must exhibit the reproducibility of the treatment; it must be easy to perform with the normal equipment in the analytical laboratories concerned. A table corresponding to each element gives the range of surface content liable to be used for corrections of determination in the mass, a mechanical treatment, a chemical etching. The elements concerned are: Ta, Mo, W, Ti, Zr, Nb, Cu, Cu/Zn, Al, Al/Mg, Al/Si, Pb, Pb/Sb, Si, Ge, GaAs. The proposals result from a large number of determinations of superficial contamination on several materials using microanalysis by nuclear reactions. (T.G.)

  2. Combination of inoculation methods of Azospirilum brasilense with broadcasting of nitrogen fertilizer increases corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for corn production. Thereby, the goal of the paper was to evaluate inoculation methods of Azospirillum brasilense in order to partially supply N required by the crop. The experiment was carried out in Guarapuava, PR, Brasil, in 2011/2012 growing season. Randomized blocks with factorial 3 inoculation methods (seed treatment, planting furrow and non-inoculated control x 5 doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300kg ha-1 x 8 replications was used as the experimental design. Leaf are index, foliar nitrogen content, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were evaluated. There was significant interaction between inoculation methods and nitrogen fertilization to leaf area index, but not for yield. Inoculation with the diazotrophic bacteria provided yield increase of 702kg ha-1 for inoculation in seeding furrow and 432kg ha-1 for inoculation in seed treatment compared to the control, but both treatments did not differ between each other. Furthermore, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were positively affected, with quadratic response, by the nitrogen fertilization in broadcasting

  3. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  4. Diagnose foliar em mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha Curcas L. produzidas com biossólido Foliar analysis of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. seedlings grown with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirio C. D. Maldonado Reginaldo de Camargo

    2013-03-01

    , and for the micronutrients B, Cu, Mn and Zn. The seed treatment had a significant effect for Zn. Leaves showed concentration of macronutrients in the following order: N > K > Mg > Ca > P > S. The accumulation of micronutrients presented the following order: Fe > Mn > Zn > B > Cu. There is a great contribution of biosolids for the contents of nitrogen, sulfur and micronutrients in leaves of jatropha plants.

  5. Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Carvalho, Patrícia; Marques, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Luís; Nunes, Mafalda; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit. Plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13%, 17% and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively. Inoculation with N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi has the potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increased grain protein content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eOstertag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow conventional wisdom that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  7. Influence of Nitrogen Partial Pressure on Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-Cu-V-N Composite Coatings with High Cu Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijuan Mei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings with high Cu content of ~18 at.% were deposited on 316L stainless steel and YT14 cemented carbide substrates by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in Ar–N2 gas mixtures. The influence of N2 partial pressure was investigated with respect to the microstructure and tribological properties of the coatings. The results indicated that the Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings exhibited FCC B1-MoN phase with a strong (200 preferred orientation, and Cu phase was found to exist as metallic species. As the N2 partial pressure increased from 0.11 to 0.35 Pa, the peak intensity of (200 plane decreased gradually and simultaneous peak broadening was observed, which was typical for grain refinement. With increasing the N2 partial pressure, the columnar microstructure became much coarser, which led to the decrease of residual stress and hardness. The Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings with high Cu content exhibited a relatively low wear rate of 10−8 mm3/N·m at 25 °C, which was believed to be attributed to the mixed lubricious oxides of MoO2, CuO and V2O5 formed during tribo-oxidation, which cannot be formed in the coatings with low Cu content. When the wear temperature was increased up to 400 °C, the wear rate increased sharply up to 10−6 mm3/N·m despite the formation of lubricious oxides of MoO3/CuMoO4 and V2O5. This could be due to the loss of nitrogen and pronounced oxidation at high temperatures, which led the wear mechanism to be transformed from mild oxidation wear to severe oxidation wear.

  8. Nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium nutrients uptake of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) on three levels of radiation intensities and soil moisture content of latosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahbuddin, H.; Apriyana, Y.; Heryani, N.; Darmijati, S.; Las, I.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was implemented from July to August 1994 in greenhouse of the Ecophysiology Division, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops using a split-split plot design with three replications. Radiation intensity levels as main plot were: without shelter, 25 percent shelter, and 67 percent shelter. Levels of available water in soil as sub-plot were: less than 25 percent soil water availability, content of soil water availability, and 125 percent soil water availability. Soybean varieties as sub-sub plots were: Wilis, Malabar, and Lokon. The experiment showed that nitrogen and phosphor uptake of Wilis was the highest, 41.228 mg and 1.225 mg per hill, especially under 100 percent light intensity and soil water availability more than 25 percent. Under 25 percent shade the potassium uptake of Wilis was 45.997 mg, this was higher than Malabar. The highest increased in seed dry weight, up to 0.733 g, occurred if soil water content changed from available water to 125 percent water content. One calory decreased in radiation caused 0.006 g decreased in seed dry weight per hill, Malabar variety produced an average of 0.892 g seed dry weight, where each millimeter of water will increased 2.0 mg of dry seed weight. Malabar variety had water use efficiency of 0.043 percent g/ml and radiation use efficiency 0.011 percent g/cal. Malabar variety produced the heaviest 100 good seed (7.293 g), followed by Wilis variety (5.520 g) and Lokon variety (4.597 g) [in

  9. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrog...

  10. Environmental controls over methane emissions from bromeliad phytotelmata: The role of phosphorus and nitrogen availability, temperature, and water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Werner, Florian A.

    2013-12-01

    bromeliads are common epiphytic plants throughout neotropical forests that store significant amounts of water in phytotelmata (tanks) formed by highly modified leafs. Methanogenic archaea in these tanks have recently been identified as a significant source of atmospheric methane. We address the effects of environmental drivers (temperature, tank water content, sodium phosphate [P], and urea [N] addition) on methane production in anaerobically incubated bromeliad slurry and emissions from intact bromeliad tanks in montane Ecuador. N addition ≥ 1 mg g-1 had a significantly positive effect on headspace methane concentrations in incubation jars while P addition did not affect methane production at any dosage (≤ 1 mg g-1). Tank bromeliads (Tillandsia complanata) cultivated in situ showed significantly increased effluxes of methane in response to the addition of 26 mg N addition per tank but not to lower dosage of N or any dosage of P (≤ 5.2 mg plant-1). There was no significant interaction between N and P addition. The brevity of the stimulatory effect of N addition on plant methane effluxes (1-2 days) points at N competition by other microorganisms or bromeliads. Methane efflux from plants closely followed within-day temperature fluctuations over 24 h cycles, yet the dependency of temperature was not exponential as typical for terrestrial wetlands but instead linear. In simulated drought, methane emission from bromeliad tanks was maintained with minimum amounts of water and regained after a short lag phase of approximately 24 h. Our results suggest that methanogens in bromeliads are primarily limited by N and that direct effects of global change (increasing temperature and seasonality, remote fertilization) on bromeliad methane emissions are of moderate scale.

  11. Morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata Gardiner (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Zefa Valdivina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Palicourea - tribo Psychotrieae - compreende cerca de 200 espécies e destaca-se por apresentar alcalóides indólicos muitas vezes tóxicos para bovinos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi contribuir para o conhecimento da família Rubiaceae, enfatizando os aspectos da morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata. O material foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso (RFMP, município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e amostras-testemunha foram depositadas no herbário VIC. Folhas provenientes do quarto nó foram fixadas em FAA50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. Seções transversais e longitudinais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar foram obtidas em micrótomo de mesa para montagem de lâminas permanentes, conforme metodologia usual. As folhas são simples, opostas, inteiras, ovais lanceoladas, dorsiventrais e hipoestomáticas. A epiderme do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar é uniestratificada, papilosa na face adaxial da folha e recoberta por cutícula delgada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e ocorrem no mesmo nível das demais células epidérmicas. O mesofilo é constituído por uma camada de parênquima paliçádico e de várias de parênquima lacunoso. Na face adaxial e abaxial da nervura mediana e no bordo da lâmina observa-se colênquima subepidérmico. Um feixe vascular do tipo colateral, em forma de "U", distribui-se ao longo do pecíolo e da nervura mediana, acompanhado, invariavelmente, por dois feixes menores localizados lateralmente. No córtex do pecíolo e da nervura mediana observa-se aerênquima. As características anatômicas seguem o padrão descrito para as Rubiaceae, e algumas delas são interpretadas como adaptações a ambientes úmidos e sombreados no qual a espécie ocorre.

  12. Foliar additional nutrition in the fruit growing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, M.; Borlan, Z.; Gavriluta, I.; Budoi, G.; Marinca, C.; Bandu, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents data concerning the influence of foliar application of some types of complex foliar fertilizers under the conditions of SCPP Caransebes (Caras-Severin district). The composition of these nutrients fulfils the nutritional needs of the fruit growing species on the fruit yield obtained in orchards. The application of different types of foliar nutrients on plants teguments resulted in some significant yield increases for the two species that were studied: apple and plum tree. The novelty of this paper is represented by the apparent degrees of productive use in yields of the macro and micronutrients from foliar fertilizers, as well as the productive use degrees of nutrients present in soil and of the nutrients applied in soil (we took into account the mean values for the studied years). The apparent degrees of productive use (in yield increases) of the nutrients from complex foliar fertilizers applied on apple-trees and plum-trees generally exceed 100 %. They determine high levels of productive use of the nutrients from soil and foliar nutrients applied. The experimental data emphasize the ecological protection effect of the supplementary foliar fertilization for the yield stimulation especially on soils with light texture and sloping soils. Refs. 6 (author)

  13. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity.

  14. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca G. Albano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as substrates, in the presence and absence of foliar fertilization. The materials used were: earthworm humus, carnauba residue + fresh rice husk; carnauba residue in powder; carnauba residue semi-decomposed and mixture of carnauba residues: carnauba residue + fresh rice husk + carnauba residue semi-decomposed + carnauba residue in powder, at the proportion 1:1:1. The agroindustrial residue of carnauba wax semi-decomposed can be used as substrates in the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings. The foliar fertilization increases the quality of papaya seedlings, leading to increment in leaf area, root volume and sulfur content in the leaves, thus becoming a necessary practice.

  15. Review of cleaning techniques and their effects on the chemical composition of foliar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Oliva, S.; Raitio, H.

    2003-07-01

    Chemical foliar analysis is a tool widely used to study tree nutrition and to monitor the impact and extent of air pollutants. This paper reviews a number of cleaning methods, and the effects of cleaning on foliar chemistry. Cleaning may include mechanical techniques such as the use of dry or moistened tissues, shaking, blowing, and brushing, or use various washing techniques with water or other solvents. Owing to the diversity of plant species, tissue differences, etc., there is no standard procedure for all kinds of samples. Analysis of uncleaned leaves is considered a good method for assessing the degree of air contamination because it provides an estimate of the element content of the deposits on leaf surfaces or when the analysis is aimed at the investigation of transfer of elements along the food chain. Sample cleaning is recommended in order (1) to investigate the transfer rate of chemical elements from soil to plants, (2) to qualify the washoff of dry deposition from foliage and (3) to separate superficially absorbed and biomass-incorporated elements. Since there is not a standard cleaning procedure for all kinds of samples and aims, it is advised to conduct a pilot study in order to be able to establish a cleaning procedure to provide reliable foliar data. (orig.)

  16. Zinc complexed chitosan/TPP nanoparticles: A promising micronutrient nanocarrier suited for foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj D; Paknikar, Kishore M; Rajwade, Jyutika M

    2017-06-01

    Cultivation of cereals in zinc deficient soils leads to declined nutritional quality of grain. Zinc deficiency in humans is a consequence of consumption of micronutrient deficient cereals as staple food. To achieve an increase in zinc density in grain, we evaluated zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) as a potential 'nanocarrier' suited for foliar fertilization. Zn-CNP were synthesized using tri-polyphosphate as a cross-linker. Spherical Zn-CNP (diameter 250-300nm) were positively charged (zeta potential, +42.34mV) and contained ∼20mg Zn/g (w/w). Plant growth in zinc deficient sand media, followed by foliar application of Zn-CNP (twice-a-week, for 5 weeks) after anthesis resulted in 27 and 42% increase in grain zinc content of MACS 3125 and UC1114 (durum wheat cultivars) respectively. Translocation of zinc ions from foliar applied Zn-CNP into the leaf and seed tissue was demonstrated using zinquin and dithizone stains, respectively. The study indicates the suitability of chitosan-based nanocarriers in agronomic biofortification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct estimation of aboveground forest productivity through hyperspectral remote sensing of canopy nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Louise Smith; Scott V. Ollinger; Mary E. Martin; John D. Aber; Richard A. Hallett; Christine L. Goodale

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of nitrogen in foliage has been related to rates of net photosynthesis across a wide range of plant species and functional groups and thus represents a simple and biologically meaningful link between terrestrial cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Although foliar N is used by ecosystem models to predict rates of leaf-level photosynthesis, it has rarely...

  18. Application of an argon-nitrogen inductively-coupled radiofrequency plasma (ICP) to the analysis of geological and related materials for their rare earth contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, I. B.; Watson, A. E.; Steele, T. W.; Jones, E. A.; Goncalves, M.

    An account is given of the development of a procedure for the determination of the rare earth (RE) elements in a large variety of geological materials employing a medium power argon-nitrogen ICP coupled with a 3.4m Ebert spectrograph. The effects of the carrier and intermediate gas flow rates, height of observation and power on RE spectral line intensities have been studied. The line-to-background ratio of the RE analyte was found to increase with observation height and passed through a maximum at 12-14 mm above the top of the work coil. The method eventually developed allows the direct determination of the lanthanides and yttrium at the 50-200 μg g -1 levels using a single solution prepared by fusing 0.2-1 g samples with Na 2O 2 or LiBO 2 and dissolving the melt in 4-10% (v/v) HNO 3, or by treating the samples with HF-HClO 4-HNO 3 mixtures. For lower contents of the RE elements, they can be separated from matrix concomitants by ion exchange employing AG50W-X8 resin. A large variety of silicate and phosphate reference materials was analysed using scandium as the internal standard. The relative standard deviations vary from about 1.5-15%. No matrix effects were observed despite the large compositional variation of the samples analysed.

  19. Cottonwood Response to Nitrogen Related To Plantation Age and Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.G. Blackmon

    1977-01-01

    When applied at plantation age 4,336 kg N/ha increased diameter growth of cottonwood on Sharkey clay by 33 percent over unfertilized controls. Fertilizing at ages 2 and 3 resulted in no response, nor was there any benefit from applying nitrogen fertilizer to cottonwood on Commerce silt loam. On both sites, foliar N levels were increased by fertilization regardless of...

  20. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the induction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the induction and repression of chitinase enzyme from Beauveria bassiana isolates. Priyanka Dhar, Gurvinder Kaur. Abstract. Beauveria bassiana a natural soil borne insect pathogen is being used effectively these days in integrated pest management system. Foliar application of ...

  1. [Assimilation of biological nitrogen by European beaver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecherskiĭ, M V; Naumova, E I; Kostina, N V; Umarov, M M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogenase activity, the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria, the structure and functional characteristics of the complex of microorganisms, and the content of nitrogen and carbon were determined in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of the European beaver. A high nitrogen-fixing activity in the large intestine correlated with an increase in nitrogen content in the chyme upon its transfer over the gastrointestinal tract. It is assumed that microbial nitrogen fixation plays a major role in nitrogen nutrition of the European beaver.

  2. Noise-resistant spectral features for retrieving foliar chemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar chemical constituents are important indicators for understanding vegetation growing status and ecosystem functionality. Provided the noncontact and nondestructive traits, the hyperspectral analysis is a superior and efficient method for deriving these parameters. In practical implementation o...

  3. Improvement of growth and productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. through foliar applications of naphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Parveen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators like naphthalene acetic acid (NAA positively affect the growth and yield of crop plants. An experiment was conducted to check the foliar application of NAA on growth and yield components of cotton variety Bt.121 under field condition at research area of agriculture farm near Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies (CIDS, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The experiment was comprised of foliar application of NAA (1% viz. T0 (control, T1 (One spray of NAA, T2 (Two sprays of NAA, T3 (Three sprays of NAA, T4 (Four sprays of NAA. The first foliar spray was applied at 45 days after sowing (DAS and later on it was continued with 15 days interval with skilled labour by hand pump sprayer. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and each treatment was replicated three times. Data recorded on growth, chlorophyll contents, yield and yield components showed a significant increase with the application of NAA. Furthermore, earliness index, mean maturity date and production rate index were also influenced with foliar application of NAA. On the basis of growth and yield parameters it can be concluded that four spray of NAA (1% can be applied commercially under field conditions.

  4. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. II. Nitrogen assimilation and translocation in relation to grain yield and protein content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Kostov, K.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study was carried out under greenhouse and field conditions and showed considerable genotype differences between the vrs. Enola, Karat, Svilena and Pliska (T. aestivum L.) with regard to N assimilation during heading, which played an important role in grain yield formation (0.852). Grain yield depends considerably on N translocation (NT) in the period heading-full maturity (0.864) and on its part affects the intensity of N uptake in grain during grain filling-full maturity. In both experiments cv. Svilena demonstrated high NR from the leaves, which was the reason for more than 52 % of N in grain. In the field experiment cv. Svilena confirmed this tendency, the NR being highest in the 2-3 leaf stage, followed by the flag leaf and the down leaves. The intensity of N uptake in grain during grain filling-full maturity was highest in the vrs. Enola and Karat. This intensity was in strong correlation with NA during heading, and with NT in V m during heading-full maturity. It also affected to a high degree the protein content in grain, as well as grain yield. In both experiments a strong negative correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio, and grain yield and nitrogen assimilation during heading; a positive correlation was determined with grain NHI. Under the conditions of increasing N dressing, the vrs. Enola, Karat, and Svilena had higher N expense for formation of a production unit, 63 up to 91 % of the N being used for formation of grain with high protein content. Protein yield correlated strongly not only with protein in grain, but also with the intensity of uptake in grain during grain filling - full maturity. The highest protein yield was registered in cv. Karat. By their N expense for production of 100 kg protein, the new varieties did not differ from the standard variety Pliska. The results from the study showed a higher genetic potential of the agrochemically promising varieties Karat, Enola and Svilena than the standard variety Pliska. Refs. 10

  5. Molecular mechanisms of foliar water uptake in a desert tree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Maoxian; Dong, Xicun; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Water deficits severely affect growth, particularly for the plants in arid and semiarid regions of the world. In addition to precipitation, other subsidiary water, such as dew, fog, clouds and small rain showers, may also be absorbed by leaves in a process known as foliar water uptake. With the severe scarcity of water in desert regions, this process is increasingly becoming a necessity. Studies have reported on physical and physiological processes of foliar water uptake. However, the molecul...

  6. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (Ψw) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

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    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of foliar water uptake in a desert tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Maoxian; Dong, Xicun; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-11-12

    Water deficits severely affect growth, particularly for the plants in arid and semiarid regions of the world. In addition to precipitation, other subsidiary water, such as dew, fog, clouds and small rain showers, may also be absorbed by leaves in a process known as foliar water uptake. With the severe scarcity of water in desert regions, this process is increasingly becoming a necessity. Studies have reported on physical and physiological processes of foliar water uptake. However, the molecular mechanisms remain less understood. As major channels for water regulation and transport, aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in this process. However, due to the regulatory complexity and functional diversity of AQPs, their molecular mechanism for foliar water uptake remains unclear. In this study, Tamarix ramosissima, a tree species widely distributed in desert regions, was investigated for gene expression patterns of AQPs and for sap flow velocity. Our results suggest that the foliar water uptake of T. ramosissima occurs in natural fields at night when the humidity is over a threshold of 85 %. The diurnal gene expression pattern of AQPs suggests that most AQP gene expressions display a circadian rhythm, and this could affect both photosynthesis and transpiration. At night, the PIP2-1 gene is also upregulated with increased relative air humidity. This gene expression pattern may allow desert plants to regulate foliar water uptake to adapt to extreme drought. This study suggests a molecular basis of foliar water uptake in desert plants. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  10. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

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    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  11. Effects of urea foliar application and of ammonium sulphate and urea applied to the soil on yield and N utilization by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Victoria, R.L.; Oliveira, J.P.; Boaretto, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen applied to the soil (as ammonium sulphate and urea) and foliar application of urea supplementing or not the soil application, on bean yield and nitrogen utilization are studied in a cerrado soil. Labelled ammonium sulphate is applied at the rate of 20Kg N/ha at seeding or 15 or 25 days after seeding and 40 Kg N/ha at seeding or in two different applications. Labelled urea is applied at the rate of 20kg N/ha at seeding and 40 Kg N/ha splitted. Foliar application is done at 15,22, 29,36 and 45 days after seeding, with 2% urea solution labelled with 10% 15 N. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Coping with gravity: the foliar water relations of giant sequoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cameron B; Reese Næsborg, Rikke; Dawson, Todd E

    2017-10-01

    In tall trees, the mechanisms by which foliage maintains sufficient turgor pressure and water content against height-related constraints remain poorly understood. Pressure-volume curves generated from leafy shoots collected crown-wide from 12 large Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindley) J. Buchholz (giant sequoia) trees provided mechanistic insights into how the components of water potential vary with height in tree and over time. The turgor loss point (TLP) decreased with height at a rate indistinguishable from the gravitational potential gradient and was controlled by changes in tissue osmotica. For all measured shoots, total relative water content at the TLP remained above 75%. This high value has been suggested to help leaves avoid precipitous declines in leaf-level physiological function, and in giant sequoia was controlled by both tissue elasticity and the balance of water between apoplasm and symplasm. Hydraulic capacitance decreased only slightly with height, but importantly this parameter was nearly double in value to that reported for other tree species. Total water storage capacity also decreased with height, but this trend essentially disappeared when considering only water available within the typical range of water potentials experienced by giant sequoia. From summer to fall measurement periods we did not observe osmotic adjustment that would depress the TLP. Instead we observed a proportional shift of water into less mobile apoplastic compartments leading to a reduction in hydraulic capacitance. This collection of foliar traits allows giant sequoia to routinely, but safely, operate close to its TLP, and suggests that gravity plays a major role in the water relations of Earth's largest tree species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of Sowing Date and Sulfur on Yield, Oil Content and Grain Nitrogen of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Autumn Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Safara

    2016-12-01

    by Kjeltec Analyzer Unit device. Grain oil was measured by PORIM procedure and finally the oil yield was calculated by multiplying oil content and the grain yield. Data from the experiment was analyzed using SAS software and mean comparison was carried out using LSD test at the 5% of probability. Results and Discussion Planting dates significantly affected grain number per head, biological yield, oil yield, grain yield, heads per plant and grain nitrogen. Sulfur fertilizer had a significant effect on grain number per head, oil yield, grain yield, heads per plant and grain nitrogen. There was a significant interaction between planting date and sulfur on grain yield, number of heads in plant and grain oil percentage. The late planting date resulted in plants exposed to high temperature and resulted in decreased safflower yield and yield components. Based on the results, the highest grain yield 4012.66 kg.ha-1 obtained in planting date 21 December. Late planting dates reduced grain yield to 50.28 percent. It was concluded that 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur increased grain yield through increasing the grain number per head and the number of heads in plant. Delayed planting decreased growth period length and resulted in reduced yield and its components. But the application of sulfur fertilizer by increasing yield components can compensate the loss of yield. Sulfur is sub-structure of fatty acid metabolism enzymes in fatty acid and bond formation reactions for the production of oil and involved in fat acids. Planting date and sulfur application in appropriate form increased grain and oil yield. Shortening the growing season due to a delay in planting and plant distance from the right conditions for growth reduced the grain yield. These factors limited the plant grow in optimal conditions, disrupted synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in plants and had a negative effect on seed oil percent. Conclusions Delay in planting date reduced, flowering, grain filling period

  14. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-11-15

    The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd+Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd+Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd+Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g(-1) DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leaf optical properties shed light on foliar trait variability at individual to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Serbin, S.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent syntheses of large trait databases have contributed immensely to our understanding of drivers of plant function at the global scale. However, the global trade-offs revealed by such syntheses, such as the trade-off between leaf productivity and resilience (i.e. "leaf economics spectrum"), are often absent at smaller scales and fail to correlate with actual functional limitations. An improved understanding of how traits vary among communities, species, and individuals is critical to accurate representations of vegetation ecophysiology and ecological dynamics in ecosystem models. Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms present a rich and widely available source of information on plant traits. Here, we apply Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT leaf radiative transfer model to a large global database of over 60,000 field spectra and plant traits to (1) comprehensively assess the accuracy of leaf trait estimation using PROSPECT spectral inversion; (2) investigate the correlations between optical traits estimable from PROSPECT and other important foliar traits such as nitrogen and lignin concentrations; and (3) identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in optical and non-optical foliar traits. Our work provides a key methodological contribution by validating physically-based retrieval of plant traits from remote sensing observations, and provides insights about trait trade-offs related to plant acclimation, adaptation, and community assembly.

  16. A model explaining genotypic and ontogenetic variation of leaf photosynthetic rate in rice (Oryza sativa) based on leaf nitrogen content and stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsumi, Akihiro; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hiroe; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Horie, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    Identification of physiological traits associated with leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) is important for improving potential productivity of rice (Oryza sativa). The objectives of this study were to develop a model which can explain genotypic variation and ontogenetic change of Pn in rice under optimal conditions as a function of leaf nitrogen content per unit area (N) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and to quantify the effects of interaction between N and g(s) on the variation of Pn. Pn, N and g(s) were measured at different developmental stages for the topmost fully expanded leaves in ten rice genotypes with diverse backgrounds grown in pots (2002) and in the field (2001 and 2002). A model of Pn that accounts for carboxylation and CO diffusion processes, and assumes that the ratio of internal conductance to g(s) is constant, was constructed, and its goodness of fit was examined. Considerable genotypic differences in Pn were evident for rice throughout development in both the pot and field experiments. The genotypic variation of Pn was correlated with that of g(s) at a given stage, and the change of Pn with plant development was closely related to the change of N. The variation of g(s) among genotypes was independent of that of N. The model explained well the variation in Pn of the ten genotypes grown under different conditions at different developmental stages. Conclusions The response of Pn to increased N differs with g(s), and the increase in Pn of genotypes with low g(s) is smaller than that of genotypes with high g(s). Therefore, simultaneous improvements of these two traits are essential for an effective breeding of rice genotypes with increased Pn.

  17. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-09-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO(2) and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO(2)] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C (day/night) and 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. Photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. When measured under a PAR >or=600 micromol m(-2) s(-1), elevated RZ [CO(2)] resulted in significantly higher A, lower g(s), and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO(2)], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO(2)] was greater at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C although the total biomass was higher at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO(2)] than under ambient RZ [CO(2)] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO(2)], NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO(2)], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO(2)] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO(2)] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between

  18. Effects of Foliar Spraying with Salicylic acid and Putrescine on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.

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    A Faraji-mehmany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual, herbaceous plant belonging to the Labiatae family. This plant is most often used as a culinary herb, but it also has marked medicinal benefits, especially upon the whole digestive system. The most important components of S. hortensis include volatile oils, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, tannins, mucus, resins, carotenoids and mineral components. Plant growth regulators are used to improve the quality and quantity of medicinal plant production. Salicylic Acid is one of this PGRs that involved in seed germination, photosynthesis, Stomatal opening and closure, Membrane Permeability, Ions Absorption and transmission and other growth processes. Polyamines are ubiquitous low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines that are involved in regulating plant growth processes. The most commonly found polyamines in higher plants, putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm may be present in free, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound forms. It has been demonstrated that PAs are important for the normal course of diverse plant ontogeny processes such as cell division and elongation, organogenesis and somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Karaj, Iran. Foliar spraying with SA (1, 2 and 3 mM.l and Putrecine (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg l-1 was performed in thrice in Savory growth period. Spraying was performed at 21, 35 (Budding Phase and 56 (flowering initiation phase day after seed germination. In flowering stage, some morphological traits such as plant height, weight, yield, canopy diameter, stem diameter, leaf area, essential oil content and efficiency were measured. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that the effects of salicylic acid and putrescine spraying on plant height, canopy diameter, stem diameter, number of axillary stems

  19. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

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    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  20. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Foliar Application of Some Micro nutrients on Growth and Yield Quality of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T. Sh.; Abo Elkhier, OH.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) cv Bronco under sandy-loam soil conditions in the farm of the Research Station of the Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Kalubia Governorate on October 15 th in the two successive growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiated seeds at the doses of 0, 40 and 80 Gy and foliar spray with Zn, Mn and Fe micro nutrients at the concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 ppm on vegetative growth, yield and chemical responses of common bean plants at age of 21 days. Three levels of application namely 0.0 (control), 25 and 50 ppm were sprayed twice during the growing seasons after two and four weeks of planting. Data analysis showed that all sprayed concentrations improved plant growth i.e plant height, number of branches and helped in earliness of flowering. Pod yield as well as pod quality parameters were also improved with the increase of concentration of sprayed materials. The improvement in plant growth and production were positively correlated with the doses and concentrations. The highest response recorded with the concentration 50 ppm with irradiated dose of 40 Gy after which the response started to decline but still significantly higher than control treatment. Pod yield was positively correlated with the applied concentration of the two substances with the highest effect recorded with 50 ppm of micro nutrients. The treatments resulted in higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control. Also treatments significantly improved chemical compositions of pod quality particularly total nitrogen and total sugar contents which responded more positively to all applied treatments. Mineral contents of Zn, Mn and Fe in un cracked seeds also showed similar trend to the applied concentrations. While the best results were in treated plants at 40 Gy and 50 ppm micro nutrient.

  2. The Effect of Percentage of Nitrogen in Plasma Gas on Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increase in nitrogen percent in the plasma gas results in increased content of dissociated nitrogen and molecular nitrogen possessing excess vibrational energy and therefore the increased solution of nitrogen in the liquid iron. It would appear that above 35% nitrogen in the plasma gas, frequency of collisions of species in ...

  3. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  4. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  5. Manejo da adubação nitrogenada de tensões hídricas sobre a produção de matéria seca e índice de área foliar de Tifton 85 cultivado no Cerrado Management of nitrogen fertilization and of water tension on the production of dry matter and leaf area index of Tifton 85 cultivated in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Régia Anasenko Marcelino

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina (DF, objetivando avaliar a influência de tensões hídricas (35, 60, 100 e 500 kPa e doses de nitrogênio (0 - Testemunha, 45, 90, 180, 360 kg/ha sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS, a taxa de produção de matéria seca (TPMS e o índice de área foliar (IAF do capim Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85. Empregou-se delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas em três repetições; nas parcelas foram distribuídas as tensões e nas subparcelas, as doses de nitrogênio (N. As doses de nitrogênio influenciaram a produção de matéria seca em todas as tensões, onde a maior produtividade (41,8 t/ha foi obtida na tensão de 35 kPa e na dose de 360 kg/ha de N e menor produtividade (17,3 t/ha, na tensão de 100 kPa sem adição de N. Nas tensões de 60, 100 e 500 kPa, a eficiência na utilização do N foi maior nas doses mais elevadas. As maiores TPMS foram observadas no período com temperaturas elevadas, enquanto as menores foram no período com temperaturas reduzidas. Durante o período de 16/03 a 09/08, não se observou efeito das doses de N. Nos demais períodos, a TPMS aumentou com o incremento das doses de N. Não foram observados efeitos das tensões hídricas sobre a TPMS. O IAF elevou-se com o aumento nas doses de N, principalmente no período de 21/09 a 10/01. Entretanto nos períodos de baixa temperatura não houve respostas do IAF às doses crescentes de N. As tensões hídricas não afetaram o IAF em nenhum dos períodos avaliados.This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of water tensions (35, 60, 100 and 500 kPa and nitrogen levels (0 - Control, 45, 90, 180, 360 kg/ha on the dry matter (DM yield, the dry matter yield rate (DMYR and the leaf area index (LAI of Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85 bermudagrass. A randomized blocks design in a split splot scheme with three replications was used, split plots were represented by the water tensions were and the plots

  6. Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America Longevidad foliar de algunas coníferas de los bosques templados de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific variation in leaf life span has wide-ranging implications for plant species sorting on resource availability gradients, and for ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Very little is known about leaf life spans of evergreen trees in the temperate forests of South America. Leaf life spans were estimated by static demographic methods, and associated leaf traits measured, for four conifers of this region. It was expected that leaf life span variation would correlate negatively with soil fertility of habitats normally occupied by each species. This prediction was upheld by the data. The mean leaf life span determined for Araucaria araucana (24 years is among the highest figures reported for any plant species. This extreme leaf longevity was associated with very robust construction (high leaf mass per unit area and very low nitrogen content. These aspects of the ecology of A. araucana may affect its fitness in two ways. Firstly, slow foliage turnover will reduce its annual nutrient requirements for crown maintenance, a trait that is thought to be crucial for survival on nutrient-poor sites. Secondly, the low decomposability of A. araucana leaf litter is likely to cause nutrient immobilisation, possibly favouring site retention by A. araucana in the face of competition from faster-growing but more nutrient-demanding species. Interspecific variation in leaf life span appeared to be systematically related to variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA and leaf nitrogen, in agreement with a large body of evidence that leaf evolution is constrained by a trade-off between trait combinations which optimise carbon gain and growth in resource-rich habitats, and those which favour persistence in chronically adverse environmentsLas diferencias específicas en longevidad foliar tienen importantes implicancias para la distribución de las plantas en relación con gradientes de recursos, y en procesos ecosistémicos tales como el ciclaje de

  7. Reduced abscisic acid content is responsible for enhanced sucrose accumulation by potassium nutrition in vegetable soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bingjie; Liu, Changkai; Tian, Bowen; Zhang, Qiuying; Liu, Xiaobing; Herbert, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seedling + 1% K 2 SO 4 foliar application at flowering (K2). Contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds were determined from 4 to 8 weeks after flowering. K fertilization increased the contents of IAA, GA, ZR, soluble sugar, sucrose and fresh pod yield, but reduced ABA content consistently. When the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose reached the highest level at 7 weeks after flowering for the 2 cultivars, the contents of IAA、GA、ZR all reached the lowest level in general. The content of ABA in seed was negatively correlated with the sucrose content (P abscisic acid content plays a critical role in enhancing sucrose content, which might be a partial mechanism involved in K nutrition to improve the quality of vegetable soybean.

  8. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  9. Effect of the foliar enrichment and herbicides on maize and associated weeds irrigated with drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy M.H. Tagour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, which were irrigated by drainage water which belong to salinity class (C3S1 to C4S2, to study the effect of the foliar enrichment namely (Anti-stress and weed management treatments (some pre and post-emergence herbicides and two-hand hoeing on maize growth, yield, yield components and chemical composition of maize grains and associated weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa colonum. The results illustrated that application of the foliar enrichment enhanced the dry weight of weeds and increased maize growth characters, yield and yield components and total crude protein and total oil percentage of grain maize, as compared with untreated treatment. All weed management treatments caused a significant reduction in total dry weight of weeds at 60 and 80 days after sowing in both seasons. Two-hand hoeing treatment exerted the highest decrease in total dry weight of weeds followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively at 60 and 80 days after sowing compared with other weed management treatments. While, the highest values of maize growth, yield, yield components and maize grains' content of protein and oil was obtained with two-hand hoeing followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively. While, two hands hoeing produced the maximum values of leaf area, ear length, the weight of kernels plant−1, but applying of metribuzin treatment gave the highest values of total oil percentage of grain maize when the foliar enrichment was used.

  10. A two-compartment exposure device for foliar uptake study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Q.; Lin, H.; Zhang, X.L.; Li, Q.L.; Liu, S.Z.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    An airtight two-chamber exposure devise was designed for investigating foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plants. The upper and the bottom chambers of the device were air-tightly separated by an aluminum foil and the plant aerial tissues and roots were exposed in the two chambers, respectively. The device was tested using maize exposed to several PAH species. Positive correlations between air and aerial tissue concentrations of the exposed PAH species were revealed. PAHs spiking in the culture solution had no influence on the leaf concentrations. -- A two-compartment gastight exposure device was developed for investigation of foliar uptake of PAHs by plants

  11. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@rub.de [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Castillo-Michel, Hiram, E-mail: castillo@esrf.fr [ESRF, Beamline ID21, Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sobanska@univ-lille1.fr [LASIR, UMR CNRS 8516, Université Lille 1, Bât C5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Cécillon, Lauric, E-mail: lauric.cecillon@irstea.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Bureau, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.bureau@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barthès, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.barthes@cea.fr [CEA/LITEN/DTNM/L2T, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ouerdane, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ouerdane@univ-pau.fr [LCABIE/IPREM-UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Carrière, Marie, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [UMR E3 CEA-UJF/LAN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sarret, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag{sup +} by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  12. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag + by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products

  13. Impact of Potassium Foliar Application in Alleviating the Harmful Effects of Salinity in Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhooshang jalali

    2017-02-01

    spinach with foliar application of K and 4 dS m-1 salinity was equaled 35300 kg ha-1 which had not significantly different from control treatment. Foliar application of K and 8 dS m-1 salinity, and also 8 dS m-1 salinity and without foliar potassium, had 20.2 and 38% yield reduction, respectively. In salinity 2.1, 4 and 8 dS m-1 plants m-2 were 40, 38.1 and 29.1, respectively. Leaf dry matter percent was improved with foliar application of K in 8 dS m-1 salinity. Effect of potassium, as modulators of salt in spinach, by researches of Shannon and Greve (24 and Kaya et al (14 have also been emphasized. Spinach leaves number was from 11.4 to 16.7 in different treatments. Foliar application of K in 4 and 8 dS m-1 salt treatment was increase in the number of leaves. This increased in treatment of 4 and 8 dS m-1 was 15.3 and 28.9 percent, respectively. In both saline treatments of 4 and 8 dS m-1, leaf length was positively affected by the application of potassium but in salinity 4 dS m-1 (unlike the eight salinity dS m-1 leaf width was not affected by the potassium spraying. The ability of plants to maintain intracellular potassium to sodium ratio leaves in certain extent is necessary for a salt tolerance. In fact, the application of potassium in salinity conditions by increasing the concentration of the K in organs is a kind of acclimation to the salt stress and activates repair mechanisms of the damage against of stress agent. The length of tail leaves in 4 dS m-1 salt was not significantly affected by the spraying of potassium while in 8 dS m-1 salinity, spraying potassium led to an increase of 28 percent in length of leaf tail. The effect of K application on the dry matter content in the 8 dS m-1 salinity was statistically significant. Potassium is the most abundant cation-forming in many plants (typically more than 10% of dry weight and less than 10 grams per kg-1 of dry weight appear deficiency symptoms in most plants. Conclusion: According to the results, in salinity

  14. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-31

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N{sub 19}, P{sub 19}, K{sub 19} fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana

  15. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim

    1996-01-01

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N 19 , P 19 , K 19 fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers was

  16. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic dynamics of subarctic soils and plants in southern Yukon Territory and its implications for paleoecological and paleodietary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Fred J.; Zazula, Grant; Bennett, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with a positive shift occurring with depth in two soil profiles analyzed. All plants analyzed have an average whole plant δ13C of −27.5 ± 1.2 ‰ and foliar δ13C of –28.0 ± 1.3 ‰, and average whole plant δ15N of −0.3 ± 2.2 ‰ and foliar δ15N of –0.6 ± 2.7 ‰. Plants analyzed here showed relatively smaller variability in δ13C than δ15N. Their average δ13C after suitable corrections for the Suess effect should be suitable as baseline for interpreting diets of Late Pleistocene herbivores that lived in eastern Beringia. Water availability, nitrogen availability, spacial differences and intra-plant variability are important controls on δ15N of herbaceous plants in the study area. The wider range of δ15N, the more numerous factors that affect nitrogen isotopic composition and their likely differences in the past, however, limit use of the modern N isotopic baseline for vegetation in paleodietary models for such ecosystems. That said, the positive correlation between foliar δ15N and N content shown for the modern plants could support use of plant δ15N as an index for plant N content and therefore forage quality. The modern N isotopic baseline cannot be applied directly to the past, but it is prerequisite to future efforts to detect shifts in N cycling and forage quality since the Late Pleistocene through comparison with fossil plants from the same

  17. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic dynamics of subarctic soils and plants in southern Yukon Territory and its implications for paleoecological and paleodietary studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Tahmasebi

    Full Text Available We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area. The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with a positive shift occurring with depth in two soil profiles analyzed. All plants analyzed have an average whole plant δ13C of -27.5 ± 1.2 ‰ and foliar δ13C of -28.0 ± 1.3 ‰, and average whole plant δ15N of -0.3 ± 2.2 ‰ and foliar δ15N of -0.6 ± 2.7 ‰. Plants analyzed here showed relatively smaller variability in δ13C than δ15N. Their average δ13C after suitable corrections for the Suess effect should be suitable as baseline for interpreting diets of Late Pleistocene herbivores that lived in eastern Beringia. Water availability, nitrogen availability, spacial differences and intra-plant variability are important controls on δ15N of herbaceous plants in the study area. The wider range of δ15N, the more numerous factors that affect nitrogen isotopic composition and their likely differences in the past, however, limit use of the modern N isotopic baseline for vegetation in paleodietary models for such ecosystems. That said, the positive correlation between foliar δ15N and N content shown for the modern plants could support use of plant δ15N as an index for plant N content and therefore forage quality. The modern N isotopic baseline cannot be applied directly to the past, but it is prerequisite to future efforts to detect shifts in N cycling and forage quality since the Late Pleistocene through comparison with fossil plants from

  18. Foliar applications of iron promote flavonoids accumulation in grape berry of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot grown in the iron deficiency soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Song, Changzheng; Chen, Haiju; Duan, Bingbing; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-07-01

    Flavonoids are important compounds for grape and wine quality. Foliar fertilization with iron compounds has been reported to have a substantial impact on grape composition in the grapevines growing in calcareous soil. However, much less is known about its real impact on flavonoid composition. In the present study, Ferric ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) was foliar applied to Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines growing in calcareous soil over two consecutive vintages in order to study its effect on grape flavonoid composition. Fe-EDDHA foliar supply tended to increase grape sugar, anthocyanin and flavonol content, decrease acid content and enhance the juice pH when compared to the control. Principal component analysis showed that the vintage also had influence on grape quality. The results suggested that Fe-EDDHA foliar application had an enhancement effect on grape secondary metabolism, and the effect increased the nutritional value of the consequent grapes and wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  20. Effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on fifth-year mineral soil carbon and nitrogen contents for sites across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks; J. Marty Kranabetter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert F. Powers; Paul T. Sanborn; William K. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the main treatment effects of organic matter removal and compaction and a split-plot effect of competition control on mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. Treatment effects on soil C and N pools are discussed for 19 sites across five locations (British Columbia, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Southwest, and Atlantic and Gulf coasts)...

  1. Synthesis of high Al content AlxGa1−xN ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of GaAs and Al targets assisted by nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Hu, Zhigao; Guo, Shuang; Yang, Xu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Al x Ga 1−x N films were synthesized by co-ablation of an Al target and a GaAs target. • Nitrogen plasma was used to assist the synthesis of Al x Ga 1−x N ternary films. • The Al x Ga 1−x N films are slightly rich in N with an Al content above 0.6. • The Al x Ga 1−x N films are hexagonal wurtzite in crystal structure. • The Al x Ga 1−x N films have an absorption edge of 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. - Abstract: We present the synthesis of Al x Ga 1−x N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of a polycrystalline GaAs target and a metallic Al target in the environment of nitrogen plasma which provides nitrogen for the films and assists the formation of nitride films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exposes the smooth surface appearance and dense film structure. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical characterization shows high optical transmittance with an absorption edge of about 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. Compositional analysis gives the Al content of about 0.6. The structure and optical properties of the Al x Ga 1−x N films are compared with those of binary GaN and AlN films synthesized by ablating GaAs or Al target with the same nitrogen plasma assistance

  2. Imaging spectroscopy of foliar biochemistry in forestry environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing estimates of leaf biochemicals provide valuable information on ecosystem functioning, vitality and state at local to global spatial scales. This paper aims to give an overview of the state of the art of foliar biochemistry assessment in general and, where possible, attention is given to: (1) Eucalyptus forest ...

  3. A preliminary survey of foliar sclerenchyma in neotropical Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, J.; Lye, D.

    2005-01-01

    The foliar sclerenchyma of all genera of neotropical Loranthaceae is surveyed by means of cleared leaves, using selected species. Three general categories of sclerenchyma are recognized. Fibers may form discontinuous or continuous bundles associated with veins or, more rarely, occur as individual

  4. Foliar micromorphology of Lippia javanica (Burm.F) Spreng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng is an aromatic indigenous South African plant with culinary and medicinal values. This study investigated the foliar morphology and elemental composition of the plant because not much data concerning the anatomical and micro-morphological features can be found in ...

  5. Foliar nutrition in apple production | Murtic | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of research papers dealing with the effect of foliar feeding on development parameters in apple trees in an attempt to obtain a more thorough insight into the advantages and disadvantages of this fertilization type and facilitate the potential use of this practice ...

  6. SE-ENRICHMENT OF CARROT AND ONION VIA FOLIAR APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kapolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.; Hillestrøm, Peter; Husted, Søren; Larsen, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selenium accumulation in carrot and onion plants using foliar application by sodium selenite and sodium selenate. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the Se species biosynthesised by onion and carrot plants. The results were used to prepare for production of 77Se enriched plants for an ongoing human absorption study.

  7. Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress impaired cowpea plant growth and decreased ion percentage and chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentration in the shoot as well as yield and its quality. Foliar-applied chitosan, in particular 250 mg/l, increased plant growth, yield and its quality as well as physiological constituents in plant shoot under stressed ...

  8. Does foliar application of salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to assess whether exogenous applied salicylic acid (SA) as a foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of virus infection in two maize cultivars (maize cv. sabaini and maize cv. Nab El-gamal). The plants were grown under normal field conditions for two weeks in sand clay soil, and ...

  9. Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...

  10. Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Foliar Uptake, Phytotoxicity, and Consequences for Sustainable Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Dumat, Camille; Dappe, Vincent; Vezin, Hervé; Schreck, Eva; Shahid, Muhammad; Pierart, Antoine; Sobanska, Sophie

    2017-05-02

    Throughout the world, urban agriculture supplies fresh local vegetables to city populations. However, the increasing anthropogenic uses of metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs) such as CuO-NPs in urban areas may contaminate vegetables through foliar uptake. This study focused on the CuO-NP transfer processes in leafy edible vegetables (i.e., lettuce and cabbage) to assess their potential phytotoxicity. Vegetables were exposed via leaves for 5, 10, or 15 days to various concentrations of CuO-NPs (0, 10, or 250 mg per plant). Biomass and gas exchange values were determined in relation to the Cu uptake rate, localization, and Cu speciation within the plant tissues. High foliar Cu uptake occurred after exposure for 15 days for lettuce [3773 mg (kg of dry weight) -1 ] and cabbage [4448 mg (kg of dry weight) -1 ], along with (i) decreased plant weight, net photosynthesis level, and water content and (ii) necrotic Cu-rich areas near deformed stomata containing CuO-NPs observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Analysis of the CuO-NP transfer rate (7.8-242 μg day -1 ), translocation of Cu from leaves to roots and Cu speciation biotransformation in leaf tissues using electron paramagnetic resonance, suggests the involvement of plant Cu regulation processes. Finally, a potential health risk associated with consumption of vegetables contaminated with CuO-NPs was highlighted.

  11. Spatial estimation of foliar phosphorus in different species of the genus Coffea based on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Assis Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information underlying analyses of coffee fertilization systems should consider both the soil and the nutritional status of plants. This study investigated the spatial relationship between phosphorus (P levels in coffee plant tissues and soil chemical and physical properties. The study was performed using two arabica and one canephora coffee variety. Sampling grids were established in the areas, and the points georeferenced. The assessed properties of the soil were levels of available phosphorus (P-Mehlich, remaining phosphorus (P-rem and particle size, and of the plant tissue, phosphorus levels (foliar P. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and probability tests. Geostatistical and trend analyses were only performed for pairs of variables with significant linear correlation. The spatial variability for foliar P content was high for the variety Catuai and medium for the other evaluated plants. Unlike P-Mehlich, the variability in P-rem of the soil indicated the nutritional status of this nutrient in the plant.

  12. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  13. Foliar uptake of zinc by vascular plants. Radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresova, J.; Remenarova, L.; Hornik, M.; Pipiska, M.; Augustin, J.; Lesny, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to obtain quantitative data of foliar uptake kinetics and long distance transport of zinc in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.) plants. Zinc was used as a model of microelement and toxic metal, tobacco and hop as a representatives of agriculturally important plants. A tip of leaf blade was immersed in the solution spiked with 65 ZnCl 2 and foliar uptake and translocation to other parts of the plant grown in nutrient solution was measured by gamma-spectrometry and autoradiography. We found that foliar zinc uptake by both plants is dependent on the initial metal concentration within the range C 0 = 10-100 μmol dm -3 ZnCl 2 . Zinc is immobilized mainly in immersed part of the contact leaf and only 0 = 0.1 mmol dm -3 ZnCl 2 concentrations >2.5 mg/g Zn and 4.8 mg/g Zn (dry wt.) in immersed part of tobacco and hop leaf plant, respectively were found after 5 days of exposure. Low mobility of zinc entering the plant via the leaf surface can be attributed to the immobilization of zinc into Zn-ligand complexes with high stability constants log K at pH 6.0-8.0, such as the reaction products of Zn 2+ ions with citric acid, histidine or phosphates. Zinc can be extracted from dried leaves by the solutions of inorganic salts, carboxylic acids, amino acids and synthetic complexing ligands such as EDTA. Anionic (SDS) and non-ionic (Tween 40) surfactants causes the decrease of the Zn foliar uptake, but not translocation of Zn from the contact leaf area. Obtained data are discussed from the point of view of possible limited efficiency of liquid formulations designed for practical applications as Zn foliar fertilizers. (author)

  14. Spring Barley Yield Parameters after Lignite, Sodium Humate and Nitrogen Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23, increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

  15. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Estimativa da área foliar de nabo forrageiro em função de dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo para estimar a área foliar de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg determinada por fotos digitais, em função do comprimento, ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura da folha. Aos 76 dias após a semeadura, foram coletadas 557 folhas da haste principal de 92 plantas, sendo mensurados o comprimento (C e a largura (L de cada folha, e calculado o produto comprimento × largura (C×L. Após, determinou-se a área foliar (Y, por meio do método de fotos digitais. Do total de folhas, separaram-se, aleatoriamente, 450 folhas para a construção de modelos do tipo quadrático, potência e linear de Y em função de C, da L, e/ou de C×L. 107 folhas foram usadas para a validação dos modelos. O modelo do tipo potência da área foliar obtida por meio do método de fotos digitais (Ŷ=0,6843x0,9221, R²=0,9862 em função do produto comprimento × largura é adequado para estimar a área foliar de nabo forrageiro.

  17. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  18. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  19. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed δ15N and δ13C dynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W - B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS - B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg · ha(-1) and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W - B, WS + B, and WS - B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS - B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ (15)N and δ (13)C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

  20. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed δ15N and δ13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W − B, well-watered with foliar B (W + B, water-stressed with no foliar B (WS − B, and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B. Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg·ha−1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W − B, WS + B, and WS − B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS − B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ15N and δ13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

  1. The effect of foliar feeding of potassium salts and urea in spinach on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a phytotron, the effectiveness of foliar feeding of different potassium salts, with and without the addition of 0.5% CO(NH22, in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. was investigated. Potassium was applied 3 times in the form of 1% solutions KCl, KNO3, K2SO4 and C6H5K3O7•H2O, compared to water as the control treatment. The obtained results show that foliar feeding of potassium salts in spinach is an efficient method of supplementing the level of K+ in plants during vegetation. Plants fed with KNO3 had the highest content of potassium in leaves, and those fertilized with K2SO4, C6H5K3O7 × H2O and KCl had an only slightly lower potassium content. The application of potassium salts resulted in more intensive gas exchange in leaves (stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration and, as a consequence of that, increased leaf yield. Potassium nitrate and citrate influenced most effectively the abovementioned processes. The treatment of spinach with potassium salts resulted in an increased content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and iron as well as a decreased content of vitamin C and calcium in leaves.

  2. Disturbance and topography shape nitrogen availability and ä15N over long-term forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven S. Perakis; Alan J. Tepley; Jana E. Compton

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance and long-term succession towards old-growth are thought to increase nitrogen (N) availability and N loss, which should increase soil ä15N values. We examined soil and foliar patterns in N and ä15N, and soil N mineralization, across 800 years of forest succession in a topographically complex montane...

  3. Foliar pH as a new plant trati: van it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctiv plant species and types?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Quested, H.M.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Diaz, S.; Callaghan, T.V.; Press, M.C.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes. Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates with biochemical and structural foliar traits that

  4. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... g Se g(-1) (dry mass). The speciation analyses showed that inorganic selenium was present in both roots and leaves. The predominant metabolised organic forms of selenium in the roots were selenomethionine and gamma-glutamyl-selenomethyl-selenocysteine, regardless of which of the inorganic species...

  5. Estimativa da área foliar da berinjela em função das dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dill Hinnah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora diferentes modelos não destrutivos de estimativa da área foliar de Solanum melongela L. através de medidas do comprimento (C e largura (L do limbo foliar. Para tanto, um cultivo de berinjela em estufa plástica foi conduzido no período de março a junho de 2007. Amostraram-se folhas de plantas em momentos aleatórios totalizando 186 folhas, sendo 98 utilizadas na estimativa dos parâmetros dos modelos e 88 para sua validação. As amostragens abrangeram amplo espectro de dimensões foliares, visando minimizar a raiz do quadrado médio do erro (RQME. Elas foram realizadas aos 71, 79, 81, 85, 92 e 99 dias após o transplante. Posteriormente obteve-se o maior número possível de discos foliares com o auxílio de um calador de 25 mm de diâmetro. Correlações foram realizadas entre a área foliar obtida pelo método dos discos com as dimensões lineares de L e C, o produto entre elas (CL e o quadrado do comprimento multiplicado pela largura (C²L. Análises de regressão para 20 modelos foram obtidas, entre quadráticos, exponenciais, lineares, logarítmicos e de potência, dos quais 12 apresentaram coeficiente de determinação (R² elevado. O modelo quadrático (Y = -5,78+0,4981CL-3,263.10-4CL² e o da potência (Y = 0,4395CL1,0055 apresentaram melhores estimativas, com R² de 0,964 para ambos e RQME de 33,2 e 34,4, respectivamente. Com a medida apenas de uma dimensão foliar, o modelo quadrático (Y = -63,5+10,492L+0,2822L²; R² = 0,937; RQME = 44,1 apresenta-se como alternativa, pouco afetando a precisão da estimativa.

  6. Improvement of wheat yield grown under drought stress by boron foliar application at different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Abdel-Motagally

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of boron foliar application and water stress on yield of wheat plant grown in calcareous soil during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The highest mean values obtained against boron application time were potential contributor to total grains mass by improving the plant height (99.42 and 98.32 cm, spike length (11.86 and 11.72 cm, number of spikelets m−2 (332.65 and 324.35, grain yield plant−1 (21.56 and 20.26 g, 1000-grain weight (35.2 and 37.4 g and grain yield (1.87 and 1.85 ton fed.−1, which were recorded at normal irrigation level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat with boron spraying at booting stage (B1 in the first and second seasons, respectively. Furthermore, boron application significantly enhanced all studied growth traits under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat compared to B-untreated plants. Boron spraying at booting stage enhances also plant pigments contents recording its highest mean values under normal water level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat. The reduction in stress markers (proline and H2O2 and the enhancement of plant pigments content under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat by B spraying suggests an alleviating effect of boron foliar application to water stress in the test plant. This alleviating effect was more pronounced when B applied at booting stage. Therefore, booting stage was found to be the best time for boron application to get higher grains production and consequently, better economic returns of wheat. Keywords: Wheat, Growth stages, Boron application time, Water stress, Crop yield, Plant pigments, Proline, H2O2

  7. Temperature sensitivity of nitrogen productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ladanai, Svetlana; Ågren, Göran

    2002-01-01

    Environmental conditions control physiological processes in plants and thus their growth. The predicted global warming is expected to accelerate tree growth. However, the growth response is a complex function of several processes. To circumvent this problem we have used the nitrogen productivity (dry matter production per unit of nitrogen in the plant), which is an aggregate parameter. Data on needle dry matter, production, and nitrogen content in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) from...

  8. Richness, biomass, and nutrient content of a wetland macrophyte community affect soil nitrogen cycling in a diversity-ecosystem functioning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Alicia R.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The development of soil nitrogen (N) cycling in created wetlands promotes the maturation of multiple biogeochemical cycles necessary for ecosystem functioning. This development proceeds from gradual changes in soil physicochemical properties and influential characteristics of the plant community, such as competitive behavior, phenology, productivity, and nutrient composition. In the context of a 2-year diversity experiment in freshwater mesocosms (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 richness levels), we assessed the direct and indirect impacts of three plant community characteristics – species richness, total biomass, and tissue N concentration – on three processes in the soil N cycle – soil net ammonification, net nitrification, and denitrification potentials. Species richness had a positive effect on net ammonification potential (NAP) through higher redox potentials and likely faster microbial respiration. All NAP rates were negative, however, due to immobilization and high rates of ammonium removal. Net nitrification was inhibited at higher species richness without mediation from the measured soil properties. Higher species richness also inhibited denitrification potential through increased redox potential and decreased nitrification. Both lower biomass and/or higher tissue ratios of carbon to nitrogen, characteristics indicative of the two annual plants, were shown to have stimulatory effects on all three soil N processes. The two mediating physicochemical links between the young macrophyte community and microbial N processes were soil redox potential and temperature. Our results suggest that early-successional annual plant communities play an important role in the development of ecosystem N multifunctionality in newly created wetland soils.

  9. Evaluating Maize Yield and the Quality of Response to Vermicompost, in Thiobacillus and Foliar Application of Fe and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Davaran Hagh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Half of the world's population suffers from micronutrients malnutrition. Use of bio-fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems is important in production and enables plants to absorb more water from soil and improves plant nutrient uptake and photosynthesis. Benefits of vermicompost application in agriculture is due to its content of organic matter, plant nutrients and plant growth promotion. Vermicompost increases the absorption and transition of nutrients from soil to roots and improves plant growth (Simsek-Ersahin, 2011. Zn and Fe application is highly important; foliar application causes faster and higher absorption rate and cures deficiencies symptoms (Ghaffari et al., 2010. Thiobacillus is a chemolithotroph bacterium, receiving energy from sulfur oxidation. This bacterium acidifies microcites in the rhizosphere, increasing the availability of nutrients to plant roots (Kaya et al., 2009. Regarding the benefits of integrated nutrient management, this experiment was conducted with the aim of testing the effects of Fe and Zn foliar spraying, Thiobacillu sthiooxidans inoculation and vermicompost application on growth, yield and bio fortification of popcorn maize. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in 2012 at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, Iran. The experiment was conducted in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and four factors: vermicompost application in soil (0 and 2 t.ha-1, applied in strip form below the seeds before cultivation, inoculation with Thiobacillus thiooxidans, with a population of 108cfu.g-1. Sulfur was inoculated with T. thiooxidans prior to application. Fe chelate foliar application (without spraying and two times spraying of 0.002 concentration of 13% Fe chelate and Zn chelate foliar application (without spraying and two times spraying of 0.002 concentration of 15% Zn chelate. Maize seeds (Zea mays L. var

  10. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  11. The variation of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in M4-generation seeds of an irradiated local sorghum variety originating from northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.; Buah, S.S.J.; Abdulai, M.S.; Nyamekye, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Natural genetic variability in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is very large, however, a number of attempts have been made to broaden its genetic base by induced mutations. Most authors refer to visible characters in plant and grain. Occasionally, effects on grain quality, e.g. high lysine/high protein, are reported. Sorghum in northern Ghana, commonly called 'guinea corn', is a widely cultivated cereal crop and can be found in three local races among which the caudatum race is represented by 'Naga White', an improved local variety originating from the Upper East Region of Ghana. It is characterized by short straw, earliness, good grain yield, a semi-loose head, and white grains, but with a relatively poor grain quality. The objective in several breeding programmes was the improvement of its grain quality, and an induced mutations programme was started at Nyankpala Agricultural Experiment Station (NAES) in 1988. About 10,000 seeds of Naga White were treated with 200Gy from a 60 Co gamma-rays source. The M 1 -generation was planted at NAES and multiplied up to M 4 in 1991, subject to selection for agronomic value. Protein contents (Nx5.7) varied from 9 to 10% for grains of parental genotype and from 8 to 12% in M 2 grains harvested in 1990. In 1992, the agronomically best 112 seed samples of M 4 lines were analyzed for N and P contents, 1000-grain weight (GW) and protein contents. Protein contents ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, phosphorus from 0.15 to 0.45%, and thousand grain weight varied from 11.8 to 19.0 g. The coefficient of the phenotypic correlation between N and P was + 0.337, and several lines with both high N and P contents could be identified. The coefficients of correlation between grain size and both N and P contents were slightly negative but not statistically significant. The coefficient of variation for the P content was twice as high as that for the N content. This might indicate a considerable microvariability in soil phosphorus due to

  12. Inferring foliar water uptake using stable isotopes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Lehmann, Marco M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Arend, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2017-08-01

    A growing number of studies have described the direct absorption of water into leaves, a phenomenon known as foliar water uptake. The resultant increase in the amount of water in the leaf can be important for plant function. Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. However, a careful inspection of our understanding of the fluxes of water isotopes between leaves and the atmosphere under high humidity conditions shows that there can clearly be isotopic exchange between the two pools even in the absence of a change in the mass of water in the leaf. We provide experimental evidence that while leaf water isotope ratios may change following exposure to a fog event using water with a depleted oxygen isotope ratio, leaf mass only changes when leaves are experiencing a water deficit that creates a driving gradient for the uptake of water by the leaf. Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes.

  13. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of zinc and calcium on yield and physiological traits of safflower under lead stress, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was performed in Kerman agricultural and natural resource research and education center in 2014-2015 with three replications. The first factorial included three levels (control, and 0.5 and 1 μM lead spraying, whereas the second and third factorials were spraying zinc sulfate at three concentrations (zero, and 10 and 20 μM and spraying calcium chloride at two levels (zero and 20 μM, respectively. According to the results, grain yield, the 1000-grain weight, leaf dry weight, number of seeds per head, head weight and chlorophyll content decreased. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes and amount of malondialdehyde in plants. Moreover, spraying zinc fertilizer in lead treatment resulted in a significant increase in activity of catalase enzyme, reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation, prevention of chlorophyll destruction and maintenance of grain yield. However, the effect of spraying calcium fertilize in lead treatment was only significant on chlorophyll content. According to the results of the research, it seems that spraying zinc fertilizer had more effects on improved growth of safflower under lead stress, compared to spraying calcium fertilizer. Therefore, in air pollution with heavy metals (lead, application of zinc sulfate fertilizer can be an effective approach to maintain the growth and production of plants. Among the various heavy metals, lead (Pb is a major anthropogenic pollutant that has been released to the environment since the industrial revolution and accumulated in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems These elements will transfer to leaves in polluted areas and will rapidly uptake and cause irreparable damages to the most

  14. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

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    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  15. Effects of Salinity and Nitrogen Application Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Farshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate interaction of salinity stress and nitrogen use methods on yield and yield components, in experiment was conducted in split plot in randomized complete block with 3 replications. Treatments included: salinity of irrigation water levels 1.5, 4.4 and 7.9 ds/m as main plots, and nitrogen treatments 1. using N fertilizer at 3 stage in soil, 2. using two third N fertilizer in soil at planting and tillering and heading and one third in form of foliar application of N at tillering, 4. using and one third in form of foliar application at heading, 3. Using two third of N fertilizer in soil at planting one third of N fertilizer in soil at planting and two third in form of foliar application at tillering and heading, as sub plots. Results this study showed that increased in salt stress significant decreased total yield components such that showed decrease 41/5 kg/h in yield with increase in per unite salinity. Also methods of nitrogen application in salinity condition, have significant effects on total yield components. At the tillering, one stage of foliar with soil application of urea could increase spike no. m-2 and kernels of spike compared with other treatments. Foliar application of urea at heading stage increased kernels weight.

  16. Improvement of antioxidant activities and yield of spring maize through seed priming and foliar application of plant growth regulators under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during reproductive and grain filling phases adversely affects the growth of cereals through reduction in grain’s number and size. However, exogenous application of antioxidants, plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants may be helpful to minimize these heat induced yield losses in cereals. This two year study was conducted to evaluate the role of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray on biochemical, physiological, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and quality of late spring sown hybrid maize. The experiment was conducted in the spring season of 2007 and 2008. We observed that application of AsA, SA and H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray improved the physiological, biochemical, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and grain quality of late spring sown maize in both years. In both years, we observed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activity in the plants where AsA, SA and H2O2were applied through seed priming or foliar spray than control. Membrane stability index (MSI, relative water contents (RWC, chlorophyll contents, grain yield and grain oil contents were also improved by exogenous application of AsA, SA and H2O2 in both years. Seed priming of AsA, SA and H2O2was equally effective as the foliar application. In conclusion, seed priming with AsA, SA and H2O2 may be opted to lessen the heat induced yield losses in late sown spring hybrid maize. Heat tolerance induced by ASA, SA and H2O2 may be attributed to increase in antioxidant activities and MSI which maintained RWC and chlorophyll contents in maize resulting in better grain yield in heat stress conditions.

  17. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Bresnahan, Rich C.

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N2 while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N2 and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 1016 to 3.8 × 1019 cm-3 were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1-2 × 1015 cm-3. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be addressed. Nonetheless, the dramatically enhanced growth rates demonstrate

  18. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan, E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bresnahan, Rich C. [Veeco Instruments, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N{sub 2} while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N{sub 2} and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10{sup 16} to 3.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be

  19. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Bresnahan, Rich C.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N 2 while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N 2 and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10 16 to 3.8 × 10 19 cm −3 were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10 15 cm −3 . The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be addressed. Nonetheless, the

  20. Effects of tillage on contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, water-stable aggregates and light fraction for four different long-term trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruschkewitsch, R.; Geisseler, D.; Koch, H.-J.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in tillage techniques as a factor affecting organic carbon (Corg) dynamics and stabilization mechanisms little is known about the underlying processes. Our objectives were (i) to quantify the impact of different tillage treatments on the amount and distribution of of labile Corg pools, on the water-stable macro-aggregate (>250 µm) contents and on organic carbon (Corg) storage and (ii) to quantify the ability of soils under different tillage treatments, light fraction (LF) inputs and clay contents in macro-aggregate formation. Therefore four long-term tillage trials on loess soil in Germany with regular conventional tillage (CT, to 30 cm), mulch tillage (MT, to 10 cm), and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Samples were taken in 0-5 cm, 5-25 cm and 25-40 cm depth after 18-25 years of different tillage treatments and investigated on free and occluded LF (fLF and oLF, respectively) and on macro-aggregate contents. Furthermore an incubation experiment for the quantifcation of macro-aggregate formation was conducted. Macro-aggregates in soils from CT and NT treatments (0-5 and 5-25 cm soil depth) were destroyed and different amounts of light fraction (LF) and clay were applied. The four long-term tillage trials, differing in texture and climatic conditions, revealed consistent results in Corg storage among each other. Based on the equivalent soil mass approach (CT: 0-40, MT: 0-38, NT: 0-36 cm) the Corg stocks in the sampled profile were significantly higher for the MT treatment than for the CT and NT treatments. Significantly lower Corg, fLF, oLF, and macro-aggregate contents for the soils under CT treatment in comparison with the soils under NT and MT treatments were restricted on the top 5 cm. The correlation of the macro-aggregate content against the fLF and oLF contents suggested that the macro-aggregate content is influenced to a lesser extent directly by the physical impact of the different tillage treatments but by the contents of available

  1. Crescimento e teores de clorofila em mudas de bananeira em função da supressão do pseudocaule, de doses de nitrogênio e de boro Growth and chlorophyll content of banana suckers in function of pseudostem suppression and doses of nitrogen and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência da eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e de doses de nitrogênio e boro, sobre a produção e o crescimento de mudas de bananeira. O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos da UFPB. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove plantas matrizes por parcela, sendo duas plantas úteis. Os fatores avaliados foram doses de N (0 a 240 g/planta e de B (0 a 2,2 g/planta combinados com a matriz experimental Composto Central de Box, originando nove combinações, arranjados fatorialmente com e sem eliminação da gema apical da planta matriz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. A supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com a eliminação da gema apical do rizoma aumentou o número de perfilhos, com maior crescimento, exceto do diâmetro do rizoma, o qual diminuiu. Os teores foliares de clorofila total e de B também foram diminuídos, nos perfilhos das bananeiras amputadas. Para a produção de mudas da bananeira ‘Pacovan’, recomenda-se a supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e aplicação do N.The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the removal in the pseudostem with elimination of the meristem apical of the rhizome and doses of nitrogen and boron, about the production and growth of banana suckers. The experiment was carried out at Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos - UFPB, State of Paraíba. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replications and nine mother plants for experimental unit, being two useful plants. The evaluated valued factors were doses of N (0 to 240 g plant-1 and of B (0 to 240 g plant-1 combined in agreement with the experimental matrix ‘Central Composite’, originating nine combinations, which were arranged factorially with suppression and without suppression of the pseudostem of the mother

  2. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of benefit microorganisms on yield and quality of soybean grains under conditions of reduced nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kristek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to reduce the application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers through the application of beneficial microorganisms (genus Bradyrhizobium, Azotobacter, bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus spp., etc.. Research was conducted during 2013 and 2014 on Eutric brown soil. The experiment was set up in a split-block scheme with