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Sample records for foliar nitrogen content

  1. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  2. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in trees in environmentally toxic plastic industry area.

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    Sett, Rupnarayan; Soni, Bhawna

    2013-04-01

    In plants, nitrogen deficiency causes stunted growth and chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves due to decreased levels of chlorophyll, while excess nitrogen uptake may cause dark green overly vigorous foliage which may have increased susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Phosphorus is an important nutrient in crop production, since many soils in their native state do not have sufficient available phosphorus to maximize crop yield. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic moldable organic solids that are organic polymers of high molecular mass, most commonly derived from petrochemicals; these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Plastic is a non- biodegradable major toxic pollutant. It pollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. Merely there is any safe way to dispose the hazardous plastic wastes. The study was targeted to estimate foliar level of NPK content of three plant species, viz. Cassia tora (Herb), Ailanthus excelsa (Tree) and Dalbergia sissoo (Tree) from polluted areas associated to polythene-industries as well as control areas having least pollution, where all the parameters were found to be higher than the control experiments.

  3. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

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    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  4. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

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    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality.

  5. Effect of foliar feeding on nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants at insufficient molybdenum supply.

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    Hristozkova, Marieta; Geneva, Maria; Stancheva, Ira

    2009-06-01

    The influence of foliar feeding on the nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants under conditions of Mo shortage was studied. It was established that foliar fertilization with 0.3% solution of Agroleaf® resulted in increase of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen assimilation in the absence of Mo. Insufficient molybdenum supply leads to significant reduction of plant Mo content and nitrogen-fixing activity, while stress induced amino acids as alanine, GABA, threonine, proline and serine increased repeatedly. The negative effect of Mo deficiency on the enzyme activities related to the primary nitrogen assimilation (NR, GS, GOGAT) and plant growth diminished due to the foliar absorbed nutrients.

  6. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2.

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    Wicklein, Haley F; Ollinger, Scott V; Martin, Mary E; Hollinger, David Y; Lepine, Lucie C; Day, Michelle C; Bartlett, Megan K; Richardson, Andrew D; Norby, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance.

  7. Foliar δ15N is affected by foliar nitrogen uptake, soil nitrogen, and mycorrhizae along a nitrogen deposition gradient.

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    Vallano, Dena M; Sparks, Jed P

    2013-05-01

    Foliar nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) composition patterns have been linked to soil N, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. However, few studies have examined the potential importance of the direct foliar uptake of gaseous reactive N on foliar δ(15)N. Using an experimental set-up in which the rate of mycorrhizal infection was reduced using a fungicide, we examined the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ(15)N in potted red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along a regional N deposition gradient in New York State. Mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ(15)N values in red maple seedlings from 0.06 to 0.74 ‰ across sites. At the same sites, we explored the predictive roles of direct foliar N uptake, soil δ(15)N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ(15)N in adult stands of A. rubrum, American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Multiple regression analysis indicated that ambient atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration explained 0, 69, 23, and 45 % of the variation in foliar δ(15)N in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for the influence of soil δ(15)N. There was no correlation between foliar δ(13)C and foliar %N with increasing atmospheric NO2 concentration in most species. Our findings suggest that total canopy uptake, and likely direct foliar N uptake, of pollution-derived atmospheric N deposition may significantly impact foliar δ(15)N in several dominant species occurring in temperate forest ecosystems.

  8. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

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    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  9. Aplicação foliar de nitrogênio em videira: avaliação do teor na folha e das reservas nitrogenadas e de carboidratos nas gemas dos ramos do ano Nitrogen foliar spraying in grapevine: content in leaves and reserve of nitrogen and carboihydrates in shoots buds

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    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Rio Grande do Sul (RS, as aplicações foliares de nitrogênio, quando necessárias, têm sido usadas para complementar a adubação via solo. Entretanto, carece-se de informações dos efeitos da freqüência e da quantidade de N aplicado sobre a sua dinâmica na folha e de reservas nitrogenadas e de carboidratos nas partes perenes da videira, que compõem o objetivo deste trabalho. O trabalho foi conduzido em um vinhedo da cultivar Chenin Blanc, safra 2004/05, na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves (RS, sobre um Neossolo Litólico. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma, duas e três aplicações foliares de 0 (água; 1,11; 2,23; 3,31 e 4,41g de N planta-1. Após cada aplicação de nitrogênio, foram coletadas folhas inteiras (limbo+pecíolo no terço médio dos ramos do ano, no interior e exterior dos diferentes lados da planta, secas, moídas e preparadas para a análise de N total. Na última época de coleta de folhas, foram coletados três ramos do ano em cada planta, retiradas seis gemas em cada ramo, as quais foram submetidas à análise de amido, carboidratos solúveis totais, carboidratos redutores, aminoácidos totais e proteínas totais. As aplicações foliares de N aumentaram o teor do nutriente na folha inteira, de forma destacada, nas épocas de coletas próximas às aplicações; entretanto, essas aplicações diminuíram os teores de amido e carboidratos solúveis totais nas gemas dos ramos do ano e não afetaram os teores de carboidratos redutores e os totais de aminoácidos e proteínas.Leaf nitrogen application is used in grapevines in Southern Brazil as complement to soil fertilization. On the other hand, there is no information about its affects on nitrogen content in the leaves and nitrogen and carbohydrates reserves in the perennial parts. The experiment was carried out in 2004/2005, with the objective to evaluate the effect of nitrogen foliar spraying on leaves and nitrogen and carbohydrates reserves in shoots buds

  10. Diagnóstico do estado nutricional de N em porta-enxertos de citros, utilizando-se de teores foliares de clorofila Diagnostic of nitrogen nutritional level in citrus rootstocks using foliar chlorophyll content

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    ANTÔNIO DECARLOS NETO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os teores foliares de clorofila total (a+b em porta-enxertos de citros cultivados em tubetes, como índices no diagnóstico do estado nutricional de N, de acordo com adição das doses de N (0; 400; 800; 1.600; 3.200 e 4.800 mg/dm³ de N no substrato. Os teores foliares de clorofila total apresentaram alta correlação positiva com a altura, diâmetro do caule, massa da matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes, área foliar e teor de N-NO3 da parte aérea dos porta-enxertos, indicando a possibilidade de serem utilizados como índices para o diagnóstico de N em porta-enxertos cultivados em tubetes. Aos 120 dias após a semeadura, os teores foliares máximos de clorofila total dos porta-enxertos 'Tangelo-Orlando', 'Cravo', 'Volkameriano', 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' ocorreram quando foram aplicadas as doses 1.461; 2.386; 2.494 1.444; e 2.284 mg/dm³ de N no substrato, respectivamente. Os teores foliares adequados de clorofila total do porta-enxerto 'Tangelo-Orlando' devem estar compreendidos na faixa de 1,80 a 3,00 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha, aos 120 dias após a semeadura. Para o limoeiro-'Cravo' esta faixa deve ser de 2,46 a 3,94 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha, sendo que, para o limoeiro-'Volkameriano', esta faixa deve ser de 2,27 a 4,23 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha. Para a tangerineira 'Cleópatra', a faixa adequada dos teores foliares de clorofila total deve ser de 3,29 a 4,00 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha, sendo que, para a tangerineira-'Sunki', esta faixa deve ser de 1,80 a 3,16 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha.The objective of this work was to evaluate chlorophyll content (a+b on 'Cravo', 'Cleópatra', 'Sunki', 'Volkameriano' and 'Tângelo Orlando' rootstocks in tubes using as indicator on diagnosis by increasing N doses (0; 400; 800; 1,600; 3,200; 4,800 mg N/dm³ of substrate. The chlorophylls content presented righ positive correlation to height, diameter, aerial portion and

  11. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

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    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela . Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  12. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M;

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11...... foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations. Together, these results suggest that warm, dry ecosystems have the highest N availability, while plants with high N concentrations, on average, occupy sites with higher N availability than plants with low N concentrations. Global-scale comparisons of other components...

  13. Accounting for the effect of temperature in clarifying the response of foliar nitrogen isotope ratios to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

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    Chen, Chongjuan; Li, Jiazhu; Wang, Guoan; Shi, Minrui

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in plants. However, both negative effect and positive effect have been reported. The effects of climate on plant δ(15)N have not been corrected for in previous studies, this has impeded discovery of a true effect of atmospheric N deposition on plant δ(15)N. To obtain a more reliable result, it is necessary to correct for the effects of climatic factors. Here, we measured δ(15)N and N contents of plants and soils in Baiwangshan and Mount Dongling, north China. Atmospheric N deposition in Baiwangshan was much higher than Mount Dongling. Generally, however, foliar N contents showed no difference between the two regions and foliar δ(15)N was significantly lower in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. The corrected foliar δ(15)N after accounting for a predicted value assumed to vary with temperature was obviously more negative in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. Thus, this suggested the necessity of temperature correction in revealing the effect of N deposition on foliar δ(15)N. Temperature, soil N sources and mycorrhizal fungi could not explain the difference in foliar δ(15)N between the two regions, this indicated that atmospheric N deposition had a negative effect on plant δ(15)N. Additionally, this study also showed that the corrected foliar δ(15)N of bulk data set increased with altitude above 1300m in Mount Dongling, this provided an another evidence for the conclusion that atmospheric N deposition could cause (15)N-depletion in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

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    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  15. Variation in Foliar Nitrogen and Albedo in Response to Elevated Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide

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    Wicklein, H. F.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. M.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bartlett, M. K.; Richardson, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that foliar nitrogen (N) is positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo over a broad range of plant functional types. However, the mechanism(s) driving the N- albedo relationship remain elusive, and it is unknown whether factors affecting N availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we investigated leaf spectral properties from three deciduous broadleaf species subjected to either N (Harvard Forest, MA and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO2 fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN), and compared results to measured chemical and structural properties. We measured reflectance and transmittance along with foliar N, leaf mass per unit area, and water content for stacks of 1, 2, 4, and 8 leaves. For the Oak Ridge, TN site, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible / infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no significant differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO2 or N treatments, despite changes in N concentration caused by N fertilization. Although foliar N was significantly correlated with leaf shortwave and near infrared reflectance across species, the slope of both relationships was negative, which ran counter to our expectations. These results do not support the hypothesis that the canopy-level pattern is driven by leaf-level relationships. In contrast to leaf-level observations, remote sensing data from Oak Ridge did indicate an increase in NIR reflectance with N fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered N availability may have an effect on canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve stem or canopy level processes rather than changes in leaf structure.

  16. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: II. Leaf gas exchange and nitrogen content Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: II. Troca gasosa e conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar

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    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, two weeds found in pastures and crop areas in the Brazilian Amazonia, Brazil, were grown in controlled environment cabinets under high (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ and low (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ light regimes during a 40-day period. The objective was to determine the effect of shade on photosynthetic features and leaf nitrogen content of I. asarifolia and S. cayennensis. High-irradiance grown I. asarifolia leaves had significantly higher dark respiration and light saturated rates of photosynthesis than low-irradiance leaves. No significant differences for these traits, between treatments, were observed in S. cayennensis. Low-irradiance leaves of both species displayed higher CO2 assimilation rates under low irradiance. High-irradiance grown leaves of both species had less nitrogen per unit of weight. Low-irradiance S. cayennensis had more nitrogen per unit of leaf area than high-irradiance plants; however, I. asarifolia showed no consistent pattern for this variable through time. For S. cayennensis, leaf nitrogen content and CO2 assimilation were inversely correlated to the amount of biomass allocated to developing reproductive structures. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, duas plantas invasoras encontradas em pastagens e áreas agrícolas da Amazônia brasileira, foram cultivadas durante 40 dias, em câmaras de crescimento sob alto (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ e baixo (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ regime de luz. O objetivo foi estudar o efeito do sombreamento nas características fotossintéticas e no teor de nitrogênio de I. asarifolia e S. cayennensis. As folhas de I. asarifolia cultivadas sob regime de luz alta apresentaram valores de respiração no escuro e taxa m

  17. Reconciling In Situ Foliar Nitrogen and Vegetation Structure Measurements with Airborne Imagery Across Ecosystems

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    Flagg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next 30 years the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor environmental and ecological change throughout North America. NEON will provide a suite of standardized data from several ecological topics of interest, including net primary productivity and nutrient cycling, from 60+ sites across 20 eco-climatic domains when fully operational in 2017. The breadth of sampling includes ground-based measurements of foliar nitrogen and vegetation structure, ground-based spectroscopy, airborne LIDAR, and airborne hyperspectral surveys occurring within narrow overlapping time intervals once every five years. While many advancements have been made in linking and scaling in situ data with airborne imagery, establishing these relationships across dozens of highly variable sites poses significant challenges to understanding continental-wide processes. Here we study the relationship between foliar nitrogen content and airborne hyperspectral imagery at different study sites. NEON collected foliar samples from three sites in 2014 as part of a prototype study: Ordway Swisher Biological Station (pine-oak savannah, with active fire management), Jones Ecological Research Center (pine-oak savannah), and San Joaquin Experimental Range (grass-pine oak woodland). Leaf samples and canopy heights of dominant and co-dominant species were collected from trees located within 40 x 40 meter sampling plots within two weeks of aerial LIDAR and hyperspectral surveys. Foliar canopy samples were analyzed for leaf mass per area (LMA), stable isotopes of C and N, C/N content. We also examine agreement and uncertainty between ground based canopy height and airborne LIDAR derived digital surface models (DSM) for each site. Site-scale maps of canopy nitrogen and canopy height will also be presented.

  18. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of three wetland plants distributed along an elevation gradient in Dongting Lake, China.

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    Li, Feng; Gao, Han; Zhu, Lianlian; Xie, Yonghong; Yang, Guishan; Hu, Cong; Chen, Xinsheng; Deng, Zhengmiao

    2017-06-06

    We examined foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of 3 wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and Carex brevicuspis) distributed along an elevation gradient in the Dongting Lake, China, and how this stoichiometry is related to soil physico-chemical characteristics, elevation, and flooding days. Plant and soil samples were collected from 3 lakeshore sites. Total N and P concentrations of plants and six physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were measured, in addition to the elevation and flooding days. P. arundinacea and M. sacchariflorus had higher total N and P concentrations than C. brevicuspis. The foliar N:P ratio decreased with increasing elevation, and only increased with increasing foliar total N concentration. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the foliar stoichiometry was primarily regulated by soil water content, followed by soil nutrient concentration. The foliar N and P stoichiometry of the 3 wetland plants was insignificantly correlated with soil total P concentration. However, foliar stoichiometric characteristics and soil total N concentration significantly differed among the 3 species. These results demonstrate that spatial variation of foliar stoichiometry in wetland plants exists along an elevation gradient, with this information being useful for the conservation and management of wetland plants in this lake.

  19. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

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    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations.

  20. Increasing sennoside yields in tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: effects of drought, foliar nitrogen spray and crop type.

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    Ratnayaka, H; Meurer-Grimes, B; Kincaid, D

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields.

  1. Can the foliar nitrogen concentration of upland vegetation be used for predicting atmospheric nitrogen deposition? Evidence from field surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W K; Leith, I D; Woodin, S J; Fowler, D

    2000-03-01

    The deposition of atmospheric nitrogen can be enhanced at high altitude sites as a consequence of cloud droplet deposition and orographic enhancement of wet deposition on hills. The degree to which the increased deposition of nitrogen influences foliar nitrogen concentration in a range of upland plant species was studied in a series of field surveys in northern Britain. A range of upland plant species sampled along altitudinal transects at sites of known atmospheric nitrogen deposition showed marked increases in foliar nitrogen concentration with increasing nitrogen deposition and altitude (and hence with decreasing temperature). For Nardus stricta L., Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Erica cinerea L. and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Br. Eur. on an unpolluted hill, foliar nitrogen increased by 0.07, 0.12, 0.15, 0.08 and 0.04% dry weight respectively for each 1 kg ha(-1) year(-1) increase in nitrogen deposition. Most species showed an approximately linear relationship between foliar nitrogen concentration and altitude but no trend with altitude for foliar phosphorus concentration. This provided evidence that the tissue nutrient status of upland plants reflects nutrient availability rather than the direct effects of climate on growth. However, differences in the relationship between foliar nitrogen concentration and atmospheric nitrogen deposition for N. stricta sampled on hills in contrasting pollution climates show that the possibility of temperature-mediated growth effects on foliar nitrogen concentration should not be ignored. Thus, there is potential to use upland plant species as biomonitors of nitrogen deposition, but the response of different species to nitrogen addition, in combination with climatic effects on growth, must be well characterised.

  2. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  3. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  4. Phenylalanine and urea foliar applications to grapevine: effect on wine phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Santamaría, P; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in the organoleptic properties of wines. Viticultural practices may influence grape and wine phenolic content, thus determining their quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on wine phenolic composition. Grapes were harvested at their optimal technological maturity and their respective wines were elaborated at small scale. Wine detailed phenolic composition was determined. Results revealed that the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols was enhanced by the application of both phenylalanine doses and by the application of the low dose of urea. In contrast, flavanols and non-flavonoid compounds were less affected by the foliar treatments. The findings seem to be related to the time of application, since anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated after veraison. In conclusion, nitrogen foliar fertilization increased the phenolic content of Tempranillo wines. This could be of interest since anthocyanins and flavonols are associated with wine quality, especially with its color.

  5. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are

  6. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzi, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, H.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam

  7. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzi, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, H.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delt

  8. Foliar Spray of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Raised Bed Increases Yield of Transplanted Aman Rice over Conventional Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. M. Bhuyan; Mst. R. Ferdousi; Iqbal, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Bed planting with foliar nitrogen fertilizer application of rice production systems is very new, and research on it is still at introductory phase. Influence of foliar application of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of transplanted aman rice and evaluation of water and fertilizer application efficiency of rice-fallow-rice cropping system were investigated under raised bed cultivation method. Results showed that foliar spray in bed planting method increased grain yield of transplanted a...

  9. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-01

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha‑1yr‑1) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P bamboo and P concentrations of mature bamboo but decreased mature bamboo foliar N:P ratios (P bamboo plantations, but the positive effects were diminished when the addition rate exceeded 60 kg N ha‑1yr‑1. Nitrogen increased foliar N concentrations but aggravated P deficiency in CM bamboo plantations. The positive effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  10. Temporal variability of foliar nutrients: responses to nitrogen deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha C.; Hou, Shuang-Li; Hu, Yan-Yu; Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Fu-Mei; Cui, Qiang; Han, Xing Guo

    2017-01-01

    Plant nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry drive fundamental ecosystem processes, with important implications for primary production, diversity, and ecosystem sustainability. While a range of evidence exists regarding how plant nutrients vary across spatial scales, our understanding of their temporal variation remains less well understood. Nevertheless, we know nutrients regulate plant function across time, and that important temporal controls could strongly interact with environmental change. Here, we report results from a 3-year assessment of inter-annual changes of foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and stoichiometry in three dominant grasses in response to N deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe of northern China. Foliar N and P concentrations and their ratios varied greatly among years, with this temporal variation strongly related to inter-annual variation in precipitation. Nitrogen deposition significantly increased foliar N concentrations and N:P ratios in all species, while fire significantly altered foliar N and P concentrations but had no significant impacts on N:P ratios. Generally, N addition enhanced the temporal stability of foliar N and decreased that of foliar P and of N:P ratios. Our results indicate that plant nutrient status and response to environmental change are temporally dynamic and that there are differential effects on the interactions between environmental change drivers and timing for different nutrients. These responses have important implications for consideration of global change effects on plant community structure and function, management strategies, and the modeling of biogeochemical cycles under global change scenarios.

  11. Vegetation Indices for Mapping Canopy Foliar Nitrogen in a Mixed Temperate Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing serves as an effective tool for estimating foliar nitrogen using a variety of techniques. Vegetation indices (VIs are a simple means of retrieving foliar nitrogen. Despite their popularity, few studies have been conducted to examine the utility of VIs for mapping canopy foliar nitrogen in a mixed forest context. In this study, we assessed the performance of 32 vegetation indices derived from HySpex airborne hyperspectral images for estimating canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N in the Bavarian Forest National Park. The partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed for comparison. These vegetation indices were classified into three categories that are mostly correlated to nitrogen, chlorophyll, and structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI. %N was destructively measured in 26 broadleaf, needle leaf, and mixed stand plots to represent the different species and canopy structure. The canopy foliar %N is defined as the plot-level mean foliar %N of all species weighted by species canopy foliar mass fraction. Our results showed that the variance of canopy foliar %N is mainly explained by functional type and species composition. The normalized difference nitrogen index (NDNI produced the most accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.79, RMSECV = 0.26. A comparable estimation of %N was obtained by the chlorophyll index Boochs2 (R2CV = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.27. In addition, the mean NIR reflectance (800–850 nm, representing canopy structural properties, also achieved a good accuracy in %N estimation (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 0.30. The PLSR model provided a less accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.69, RMSECV = 0.32. We argue that the good performance of all three categories of vegetation indices in %N estimation can be attributed to the synergy among plant traits (i.e., canopy structure, leaf chemical and optical properties while these traits may converge across plant species for evolutionary reasons. Our

  12. Regional patterns in foliar 15N across a gradient of nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Pardo; Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs; Sara Duke

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural abundance 15N can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation, because as nitrification and nitrate loss increase, d15N of foliage and soil also increases. We measured foliar d15N at 11 high-elevation spruce-fir stands along an N deposition gradient...

  13. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  14. Soil nitrogen affects phosphorus recycling: foliar resorption and plant-soil feedbacks in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Craig R; Yanai, Ruth D; Fisk, Melany C; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Quintero, Brauuo A; Fahey, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have attempted to link foliar resorption of nitrogen and phosphorus to their. respective availabilities in soil, with mixed results. Based on resource optimization theory, we hypothesized that the foliar resorption of one element could be driven by the availability of another element. We tested various measures of soil N and P as predictors of N and P resorption in six tree species in 18 plots across six stands at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Phosphorus resorption efficiency (P resorption also increased with soil P content, which is difficult to explain basdd on single-element limitation, butfollows from the correlation between soil N and soil P. The expected single-element relationships were evident only in the 0 horizon: P resorption was high where resin-available P was low in the Oe (P resorption was high where potential N mineralization in the Oa was low (P resorption. The striking effect of soil N content on foliar P resorption is the first evidence of multiple-element control on nutrient resorption to be reported from an unmanipulated ecosystem.

  15. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-07

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1)) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  16. Foliar Uptake of Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Pollution Along an Urban-Rural Gradient in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) pollution in terrestrial ecosystems, and when soil N is limiting, foliar N uptake can be a source of plant-available N. A proxy for pollution derived N, and in particular foliar assimilated N, would be useful to quantify the impact of the foliar uptake pathway on plant metabolism. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (15N/14N) are practical for this purpose because forms of plant-available N often have varying isotopic compositions. However, the mechanisms driving differences in foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) are still unresolved. Current understanding of foliar δ 15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of the soil water solution δ15N, direct foliar uptake of atmospheric reactive N, within-plant fractionations, and fractionation due to the fungus to root transfer in mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the influence of direct foliar uptake, soil solution δ 15N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in seedlings of two dominant Northeastern tree species, red maple (Acer rubrum) and red oak (Quercus rubra), along an N deposition gradient in New York State. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we compared foliar δ15N values directly to soil solution δ15N values while controlling for mycorrhizal associations. Both species showed higher foliar δ15N when exposed to fractionation by mycorrhizal associations. Overall, A. rubrum showed higher foliar δ15N than Q. rubra across all sites. In both species, patterns of foliar δ15N values were coupled with soil solution δ15N values across the N deposition gradient. Additionally, increasing atmospheric N deposition was correlated with higher foliar δ15N values in Q. rubra, but not in A. rubrum. Using a mixing model, we estimated that Q. rubra seedlings incorporated up to 7% of their assimilated N via direct foliar uptake of atmospheric N pollution. However, foliar uptake was not detectable in A. rubrum seedlings. Results

  17. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook watershed in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvir, J.A. [National School of Forest Science, Comayagua (Honduras); Rustad, L. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Durham, NH (United States). Forest Service Northeastern Research Station; Wiersma, G.B.; White, A.S. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecosystem Science; Fernandez, I. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Plant, Soil and Environmental Studies; White, G.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances have been noted in trees growing in controlled nitrogen-fertilization experiments over areas of different nitrogen deposition rates and along N deposition gradients. Long-term foliar nutrient concentration data is not generally available because of a lack of long-term nitrogen studies and systematic measurements. This study at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) focused on temporal changes in the foliar nutrient concentrations in sugar maple, American beech, and red spruce. The foliar chemistry was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the paired-watershed forest ecosystem of the BBWM study in which 1 watershed was treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate at a rate of about 25 kg of nitrogen per hectare per year. Foliar nitrogen concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in the foliage were found to be lower in the American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. Potassium concentrations did not vary between the 2 watersheds and the differences in phosphorous and manganese concentrations were inconsistent from one year to another. The differences in nitrogen concentrations in the foliage of sugar maple declined over time between the 2 watersheds. Differences in foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, mostly due to the steady decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. There was no noted temporal trend in sugar maple foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the watersheds. It was concluded that the watersheds of the BBWM may be in the later stages of nitrogen saturation, where the supply of nitrogen exceeds the nitrogen demand of plants and microorganisms in the ecosystem. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Physiological mechanisms drive differing foliar calcium content in ferns and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Amatangelo, Kathryn L

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence points to ferns containing significantly lower contents of foliar calcium and other cations than angiosperms. This is especially true of more ancient 'non-polypod' fern lineages, which predate the diversification of angiosperms. Calcium is an important plant nutrient, the lack of which can potentially slow plant growth and litter decomposition, and alter soil invertebrate communities. The physiological mechanisms limiting foliar calcium (Ca) content in ferns are unknown. While there is a lot we do not know about Ca uptake and transport in plants, three physiological processes are likely to be important. We measured transpiration rate, cation exchange capacity, and leaching loss to determine which process most strongly regulates foliar Ca content in a range of fern and co-occurring understory angiosperm species from a montane Hawaiian rainforest. We found higher instantaneous and lifetime (corrected for leaf lifespan) transpiration rates in angiosperms relative to ferns. Ferns preferentially incorporated Ca into leaves relative to strontium, which suggests that root or stem cation exchange capacity differs between ferns and angiosperms, potentially affecting calcium transport in plants. There were no differences in foliar Ca leaching loss between groups. Among the physiological mechanisms measured, foliar Ca was most strongly correlated with leaf-level transpiration rate and leaf lifespan. This suggests that inter-specific differences in a leaf's lifetime transpiration may play a significant role in determining plant nutrition.

  19. Canopy foliar nitrogen retrieved from airborne hyperspectral imagery by correcting for canopy structure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco; Latifi, Hooman; Hearne, John

    2017-02-01

    A statistical relationship between canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N) and canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, the interaction between leaf properties and canopy structure confounds the estimation of foliar nitrogen. The canopy scattering coefficient (the ratio of BRF and the directional area scattering factor, DASF) has recently been suggested for estimating %N as it suppresses the canopy structural effects on BRF. However, estimation of %N using the scattering coefficient has not yet been investigated for longer spectral wavelengths (>855 nm). We retrieved the canopy scattering coefficient for wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm from airborne hyperspectral imagery, and then applied a continuous wavelet analysis (CWA) to the scattering coefficient in order to estimate %N. Predictions of %N were also made using partial least squares regression (PLSR). We found that %N can be accurately retrieved using CWA (R2 = 0.65, RMSE = 0.33) when four wavelet features are combined, with CWA yielding a more accurate estimation than PLSR (R2 = 0.47, RMSE = 0.41). We also found that the wavelet features most sensitive to %N variation in the visible region relate to chlorophyll absorption, while wavelet features in the shortwave infrared regions relate to protein and dry matter absorption. Our results confirm that %N can be retrieved using the scattering coefficient after correcting for canopy structural effect. With the aid of high-fidelity airborne or upcoming space-borne hyperspectral imagery, large-scale foliar nitrogen maps can be generated to improve the modeling of ecosystem processes as well as ecosystem-climate feedbacks.

  20. Evidence for foliar endophytic nitrogen fixation in a widely distributed subalpine conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Kueppers, Lara M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Carper, Dana L; Vandehey, Nick; O'Neil, James; Frank, A Carolin

    2016-04-01

    Coniferous forest nitrogen (N) budgets indicate unknown sources of N. A consistent association between limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and potential N2 -fixing acetic acid bacteria (AAB) indicates that native foliar endophytes may supply subalpine forests with N. To assess whether the P. flexilis-AAB association is consistent across years, we re-sampled P. flexilis twigs at Niwot Ridge, CO and characterized needle endophyte communities via 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing. To investigate whether endophytes have access to foliar N2 , we incubated twigs with (13) N2 -enriched air and imaged radioisotope distribution in needles, the first experiment of its kind using (13) N. We used the acetylene reduction assay to test for nitrogenase activity within P. flexilis twigs four times from June to September. We found evidence for N2 fixation in P. flexilis foliage. N2 diffused readily into needles and nitrogenase activity was positive across sampling dates. We estimate that this association could provide 6.8-13.6 μg N m(-2)  d(-1) to P. flexilis stands. AAB dominated the P. flexilis needle endophyte community. We propose that foliar endophytes represent a low-cost, evolutionarily stable N2 -fixing strategy for long-lived conifers. This novel source of biological N2 fixation has fundamental implications for understanding forest N budgets.

  1. Seasonal variability of leaf area index and foliar nitrogen in contrasting dry-mesic tundras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Michelsen, Anders; Lemeur, Raoul;

    2009-01-01

    Assimilation and exchange of carbon for arctic ecosystems depend strongly on leaf area index (LAI) and total foliar nitrogen (TFN). For dry-mesic tundras, the seasonality of these characteristics is unexplored. We addressed this knowledge gap by measuring variations of LAI and TFN at five...... contrasting subarctic heaths during the growing season 2007, from about 2 weeks after bud burst until about 2 weeks before senescence. The communities generally showed an early season LAI and TFN increase, owing to leaf development of deciduous shrubs, and limited variations later on, owing to concurrent leaf...

  2. Non-destructive estimation of foliar carotenoid content of tree species using merged vegetation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, Fabian E; Stenzel, Stefanie; Gitelson, Anatoly A

    2015-03-15

    Leaf pigment content is an important indicator of plant status and can serve to assess the vigor and photosynthetic activity of plants. The application of spectral information gathered from laboratory, field and remote sensing-based spectrometers to non-destructively assess total chlorophyll (Chl) content of higher plants has been demonstrated in earlier studies. However, the precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content with non-destructive spectral measurements has so far not reached accuracies comparable to the results obtained for Chl content. Here, we examined the potential of a recently developed angular vegetation index (AVI) to estimate total foliar Car content of three tree species. Based on an iterative search of all possible band combinations, we identified a best candidate AVIcar. The identified index showed quite close but essentially not linear relation with Car contents of the examined species with increasing sensitivity to high Car content and a lack of sensitivity to low Car content for which earlier proposed vegetation indices (VI) performed better. To make use of the advantages of both VI types, we developed a simple merging procedure, which combined the AVIcar with two earlier proposed carotenoid indices. The merged indices had close linear relationship with total Car content and outperformed all other examined indices. The merged indices were able to accurately estimate total Car content with a percental root mean square error (%RMSE) of 8.12% and a coefficient of determination of 0.88. Our findings were confirmed by simulations using the radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5. For simulated data, the merged indices again showed a quasi linear relationship with Car content. This strengthens the assumption that the proposed merged indices have a general ability to accurately estimate foliar Car content. Further examination of the proposed merged indices to estimate foliar Car content of other plant species is desirable to prove the general

  3. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Plants Under Nitrogen Stress Determined with Active and Passive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; Chappelle, E. W.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation productivity is driven by nitrogen (N) availability in soils. Both excessive and low soil N induce physiological changes in plant foliage. In 2001, we examined the use of spectral fluorescence and reflectance measurements to discriminate among plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of optimal N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight daily). Three types of steady state laser-induced fluorescence measurements were made on adaxial and abaxial surfaces: 1) fluorescence images in four 10 nm bands (blue, green, red, far-red) resulting from broad irradiance excitation; 2) emission spectra (5 nm resolution) produced by excitation at single wavelengths (280,380 or 360, and 532 nm); and 3) excitation spectra (2 nm resolution), with emission wavelengths fixed at wavelengths centered on selected solar Fraunhofer lines (532,607,677 and 745 nm). Two complementary sets of high resolution (less than 2 nm) optical spectra were acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces: 1) optical properties (350-2500 nm) for reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; and 2) reflectance spectra (500-1000 nm) acquired with and without a short pass filter at 665 nm to determine the fluorescence contribution to apparent reflectance in the 650-750 spectrum, especially at the 685 and 740 nm chlorophyll fluorescence (ChIF) peaks. The strongest relationships between foliar chemistry and optical properties were demonstrated for C/N content and two optical parameters associated with the red edge inflection point. Select optical properties and ChIF parameters were highly correlated for both species. A significant contribution of ChIF to apparent reflectance was observed, averaging 10-25% at 685 nm and 2 - 6% at 740 nm over all N treatments. Discrimination of N treatment

  4. Effect of water stress and foliar boron application on seed protein oil fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of water stress and foliar boron (FB) application on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition and nitrogen metabolism have not been well investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress and FB on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, nitra...

  5. Interspecific divergence in foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in a temperate forest in response to chronic nitrogen inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.D.; Burdette, S.B.; Gilliam, F.S. [Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Adams, M.B. [USDA Forest Service, Timber and Watershed Laboratory, Parsons, WV (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in deciduous forests can act as a fertilizer initially. However, at chronic elevated deposition levels, the nitrogen levels may exceed the demands of biota. This study examined the ecosystem response to nitrogen saturation. In particular, the effects of excessive nitrogen fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth was examined in 3 tree species in a mixed deciduous forest at Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia. Two watersheds were used. The first acted as a control which did not receive any treatments, and the second received 3 aerial applications of ammonium sulfate annually since 1989. Foliage of red maple, tulip poplar and black cherry were sampled in 1992, 1997 and 2000. Stem diameter growth, foliar nitrogen concentrations, nitrogen-phosphorous ratios and nutrient resorption were studied. In the earliest study, foliar nitrogen concentration of all 3 species was 11 per cent higher in the fertilized watershed compared to the control watershed. By 2000, that was no longer the case. Nitrogen concentration and nitrogen-phosphorous ratios were higher in the control watershed. Nitrogen resorption efficiencies in red maple and black cherry were 30 per cent lower in the treated watershed. Stem diameter growth in the treated watershed was 55 per cent lower in the red maple and 30 per cent lower in the tulip poplar and black cherry compared to that of the control watershed. The results suggest that the fertilized watershed had slower growth in red maple and to a lesser extent, black cherry and tulip poplar. It was concluded that increasing nitrogen saturation can lead to changes in species composition. 32 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Nitrate transporters in leaves and their potential roles in foliar uptake of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo eHu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While plant roots are specialized organs for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients, the absorption of gaseous or liquid mineral elements by aerial plant parts has been recognized since more than one century. Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient which generally absorbed either as nitrate (NO3- or ammonium (NH4+ by plant roots. Gaseous nitrogen pollutants like N dioxide (NO2 can also be absorbed by plant surfaces and assimilated via the NO3– assimilation pathway. The subsequent NO3– flux may induce or repress the expression of various NO3–-responsive genes encoding for instance, the transmembrane transporters, NO3–/NO2– (nitrite reductase, or assimilatory enzymes involved in N metabolism. Based on the existing information, the aim of this review was to theoretically analyze the potential link between foliar NO2 absorption and N transport and metabolism. For such purpose, an overview of the state of knowledge on the NO3– transporter genes identified in leaves or shoots of various species and their roles for NO3– transport across the tonoplast and plasma membrane, in addition to the process of phloem loading is briefly provided. It is assumed that a NO2-induced ac-cumulation of NO3–/NO2– may alter the expression of such genes, hence linking transmembrane NO3– transporters and foliar uptake of NO2. It is likely that NRT1/NRT2 gene expression and spe-cies-dependent apoplastic buffer capacity may be also related to the species-specific foliar NO2 uptake process. It is concluded that further work focusing on the expression of NRT1 (NRT1.1, NRT1.7, NRT1.11 and NRT1.12, NRT2 (NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 and chloride channel family genes (CLCa and CLCd may help us elucidate the physiological and metabolic response of plants fumigated with NO2.

  7. Impact of elevated CO(2) and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO(2) and fertilization (two CO(2) treatments, elevated CO(2) and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO(2) enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO(2) and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio.

  8. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  9. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  10. Impact of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinari, Sara [Department of Agrochemistry and Agrobiology (DABAC), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I.01100 Viterbo (Italy)]. E-mail: marinari@unitus.it; Calfapietra, Carlo [Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); De Angelis, Paolo [Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia [Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Grego, Stefano [Department of Agrochemistry and Agrobiology (DABAC), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I.01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO{sub 2} and fertilization (two CO{sub 2} treatments, elevated CO{sub 2} and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO{sub 2} enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO{sub 2} enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar.

  11. Absorção e redistribuição do nitrogênio aplicado via foliar em videiras jovens Uptake and redistribution of nitrogen in foliar application in young grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de nitrogênio via foliar antes da senescência das folhas da videira pode ser uma estratégia para aumentar as reservas deste nutriente nas partes perenes, uma vez que as mesmas são disponibilizadas no início do crescimento vegetativo dos órgãos anuais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estimar a absorção e a redistribuição do N adicionado via foliar em videiras jovens. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na EMBRAPA-Uva e Vinho, no município de Bento Gonçalves (RS. Foram utilizadas as variedades Chardonnay e Riesling Itálico com porta-enxerto 101-14 Mgt. Foi cultivada uma planta por vaso contendo 10kg de solo Neossolo Litólico. A aplicação do N via foliar foi parcelada em três vezes, durante três dias sucessivos. Foram aplicados 84,84mg N planta-1 na forma de (15NH42SO4 . As plantas foram colhidas em sete épocas diferentes. Após a colheita, as plantas foram fracionadas em folhas, enxerto, porta-enxerto, raízes grossas (>2mm e raízes finas (The foliar application of nitrogen before the leaves senescence may be a strategy to increase the nutrient reserves in the perennial parts, being available in the beginning of the vegetative growth of the annual parts. The objective of this work was to estimate the uptake and redistribution of N applied by foliar way in young grapevines. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at EMBRAPA-Grape and Wine, Bento Gonçalves Southern Brazil. The cultivars used were Chardonnay and Riesling Italic grafted on rootstock 101-14 Mgt. It was cultivated one plant by vase with 10kg of soil Udorthent. The foliar application of N was parceled in three times during three successive days. It was applied 84,84mg N plant-1 using (15NH42SO4 . The plants were collected in seven times, during vegetative growth. The plants were fractionated in leaves, graft, carry-graft, thick roots (>2mm and fine roots (<2mm, oven-dried, weighted, and analyzed N-total and 15N contents. The

  12. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  13. Corn Yield and Foliar Diagnosis Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Shintate Galindo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biological nitrogen fixation (BNF process in grasses is caused by diazotrophic bacteria, particularly Azospirillum brasilense. However, studies are lacking on BNF efficiency to define how much mineral nitrogen (N can be applied to achieve more sustainable high yields. Furthermore, there should be an analysis of whether urea with the urease enzyme inhibitor NBPT is less harmful, benefiting BNF in grasses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N sources and N rates associated with inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense regarding foliar diagnosis and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI, agronomic efficiency (AE, and corn grain yield in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna region. The experiment was conducted in a no-tillage system in a Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Oxisol. A randomized block experimental design was used with four replications in a 2 × 5 × 2 factorial arrangement as follows: two N sources - urea and Super N, urea with urease enzyme inhibitor NBPT [N - (n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide]; five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1 applied in topdressing; and two seed inoculation treatments, one with and one without A. brasilense. N rate positively influenced the LCI and concentrations of N, S, and Mn in leaves, and may increase the concentrations of P, Cu, and Fe; however, higher N rates can reduce AE. The N sources had similar effects, and therefore urea is recommended for N fertilization. Inoculation with A. brasilense decreased leaf concentration of Fe and increased LCI, leaf concentration of P, AE, and corn grain yield; the use of this diazotrophic bacterium is therefore viable even when high rates of N are applied.

  14. Soil Fauna Affects Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen in Foliar Litter in Alpine Forest and Alpine Meadow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN are generally considered important active biogeochemical pools of total carbon and nitrogen. Many studies have documented the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition, but the effects of the soil fauna on labile substances (i.e., DOC and TDN in litter during early decomposition are not completely clear. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was carried out from 13th November 2013 to 23rd October 2014 in an alpine forest and an alpine meadow located on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Litterbags with different mesh sizes were used to provide access to or prohibit the access of the soil fauna, and the concentrations of DOC and TDN in the foliar litter were measured during the winter (the onset of freezing, deep freezing and thawing stage and the growing season (early and late. After one year of field incubation, the concentration of DOC in the litter significantly decreased, whereas the TDN concentration in the litter increased. Similar dynamic patterns were detected under the effects of the soil fauna on both DOC and TDN in the litter between the alpine forest and the alpine meadow. The soil fauna showed greater positive effects on decreasing DOC concentration in the litter in the winter than in the growing season. In contrast, the dynamics of TND in the litter were related to seasonal changes in environmental factors, rather than the soil fauna. In addition, the soil fauna promoted a decrease in litter DOC/TDN ratio in both the alpine forest and the alpine meadow throughout the first year of decomposition, except for in the late growing season. These results suggest that the soil fauna can promote decreases in DOC and TDN concentrations in litter, contributing to early litter decomposition in these cold biomes.

  15. Do foliar, litter, and root nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations reflect nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical wet forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alvarez-Clare

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P] and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation--as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization--based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba had 9% higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community.

  16. Do foliar, litter, and root nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations reflect nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical wet forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Mack, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient limitation of net primary productivity (NPP) is critical to predict how plant communities will respond to environmental change. Foliar nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their ratio, have been used widely as indicators of plant nutritional status and have been linked directly to nutrient limitation of NPP. In tropical systems, however, a high number of confounding factors can limit the ability to predict nutrient limitation--as defined mechanistically by NPP responses to fertilization--based on the stoichiometric signal of the plant community. We used a long-term full factorial N and P fertilization experiment in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica to explore how tissue (foliar, litter and root) [N] and [P] changed with fertilization, how different tree size classes and taxa influenced the community response, and how tissue nutrients related to NPP. Consistent with NPP responses to fertilization, there were no changes in community-wide foliar [N] and [P], two years after fertilization. Nevertheless, litterfall [N] increased with N additions and root [P] increased with P additions. The most common tree species (Pentaclethra macroloba) had 9% higher mean foliar [N] with NP additions and the most common palm species (Socratea exohrriza) had 15% and 19% higher mean foliar [P] with P and NP additions, respectively. Moreover, N:P ratios were not indicative of NPP responses to fertilization, either at the community or at the taxa level. Our study suggests that in these diverse tropical forests, tissue [N] and [P] are driven by the interaction of multiple factors and are not always indicative of the nutritional status of the plant community.

  17. Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) select vegetation patches in local-scale responses to foliar nitrogen but not phosphorus in native grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviana Loaiza; Jayne L. Jonas; Anthony Joern

    2011-01-01

    Key elements such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are often limiting relative to the nutritional needs of herbivores that feed on them. While N often limits insect herbivores in natural terrestrial ecosystems, the effect of P is poorly studied in the field, even though compelling hypotheses from the ecological stoichiometry literature predict its importance. We evaluated small-scale spatial distributions of, and herbivory by, grasshoppers among neighboring plots that vary in foliar-N and -P in tallgrass prairie.Grasshopper densities were 67% greater in N-fertilized plots but detected no effect to grasshopper densities from P-fertilizer. Leaf damage to the dominant grass Andropogon gerardii was 32% greater in N-fertilized plots, but no response to foliar-P was detected.Herbivore damage to a common forb, goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis), was not strongly linked by fertilizer treatments, although there was increased leaf damage in N-fertilizer treatments when no P was applied (a significant N × P interaction). Under field conditions at local scales, we conclude that spatially heterogeneous distributions of grasshoppers are primarily affected by foliar-N in host plants with little evidence that P-levels contribute to the spatial patterns.

  18. Differentiation among effects of nitrogen fertilization treatments on conifer seedlings by foliar reflectance: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J A; Mitchell, A K; Goodmanson, G; Stockburger, K A

    2000-10-01

    Analysis of reflectance can be used to estimate foliar concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, thus providing information on the physiological status of green plants. We compared several methods of reflectance analysis for the capacity to differentiate among effects of fertilization treatments across different irradiances on seedlings of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanii Parry ex Engelm.). Seedlings were grown in two light treatments (0 and 60% shade) and three nitrogen (N) treatments (10, 25 and 100 mg N l-1) for one growing season, after which foliar reflectance of the needles was measured. Five indices were tested: R550 (% reflectance at 550 nm); red edge position; the ratio R698:R760; the structure independent pigment index (SIPI); and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI). Both the light and nutrient treatments significantly affected foliar chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid concentrations. Among the indices tested, R550, red edge position and R698:R760 ratio were related to chlorophyll concentration, and were significantly affected by both light and N treatments. Both SIPI and PRI were related to chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Among these relationships, PRI was affected by both treatments, whereas SIPI was sensitive to N treatment but not to light treatment. All five indices were weakly but significantly correlated with growth as measured by dry weight.

  19. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.

  20. Non-destructive estimation of foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid contents: Focus on informative spectral bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Oz; Linker, Raphael; Gitelson, Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    Leaf pigment content provides valuable insight into the productivity, physiological and phenological status of vegetation. Measurement of spectral reflectance offers a fast, nondestructive method for pigment estimation. A number of methods were used previously for estimation of leaf pigment content, however, spectral bands employed varied widely among the models and data used. Our objective was to find informative spectral bands in three types of models, vegetation indices (VI), neural network (NN) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, for estimating leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) contents of three unrelated tree species and to assess the accuracy of the models using a minimal number of bands. The bands selected by PLS, NN and VIs were in close agreement and did not depend on the data used. The results of the uninformative variable elimination PLS approach, where the reliability parameter was used as an indicator of the information contained in the spectral bands, confirmed the bands selected by the VIs, NN, and PLS models. All three types of models were able to accurately estimate Chl content with coefficient of variation below 12% for all three species with VI showing the best performance. NN and PLS using reflectance in four spectral bands were able to estimate accurately Car content with coefficient of variation below 14%. The quantitative framework presented here offers a new way of estimating foliar pigment content not requiring model re-parameterization for different species. The approach was tested using the spectral bands of the future Sentinel-2 satellite and the results of these simulations showed that accurate pigment estimation from satellite would be possible.

  1. The effect of common Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens L.), as a green manure, on biomass production, allometric growth and foliar nitrogen of two willow clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Carmela Bahiyyih M.; Drew, Allan P.; Volk, Timothy A. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Faculty of Forest and Natural Resources Management, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2005-07-01

    There is potential for soil erosion and non-point source pollution during the establishment of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) in northern climates as a limited amount of cover remains on soils from the time of site preparation until SRWC occupies the site early in the second growing season. To counteract these impacts, green manure crops may be established and turned under early in the growing season. The effects of a green manure crop, white clover (Trifolium repens L.), on growth rates, biomass allocation, and foliar nitrogen concentrations of two willow clones (Salix sachalinensis and S. discolor) were compared in a field experiment to nitrogen fertilizer and control treatments over a period of 4 months. Willows were grown in rooting envelopes and harvested four times during the growing season to assess differences in allometric growth. White clover was found to increase the foliar nitrogen concentration of willow without compromising above ground biomass. Fertilizer induced a 24% increase in total biomass of willow relative to the control. The rate of biomass allocation above ground was greater relative to below ground under all treatments, and allometric coefficients were greater than 1.0. The differences in nitrogen uptake patterns and nitrogen use efficiencies of willow corresponded to the differences in biomass and foliar nitrogen concentrations between clones. (Author)

  2. Long-term trends of changes in pine and oak foliar nitrogen metabolism in response to chronic nitrogen amendments at Harvard Forest, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Long, Stephanie; McDowell, William H; Minocha, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term (1995-2008) trends in foliar and sapwood metabolism, soil solution chemistry and tree mortality rates in response to chronic nitrogen (N) additions to pine and hardwood stands at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Common stress-related metabolites like polyamines (PAs), free amino acids (AAs) and inorganic elements were analyzed for control, low N (LN, 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N (HN, 150 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) treatments. In the pine stands, partitioning of excess N into foliar PAs and AAs increased with both N treatments until 2002. By 2005, several of these effects on N metabolites disappeared for HN, and by 2008 they were mostly observed for LN plot. A significant decline in foliar Ca and P was observed mostly with HN for a few years until 2005. However, sapwood data actually showed an increase in Ca, Mg and Mn and no change in PAs in the HN plot for 2008, while AAs data revealed trends that were generally similar to foliage for 2008. Concomitant with these changes, mortality data revealed a large number of dead trees in HN pine plots by 2002; the mortality rate started to decline by 2005. Oak trees in the hardwood plot did not exhibit any major changes in PAs, AAs, nutrients and mortality rate with LN treatment, indicating that oak trees were able to tolerate the yearly doses of 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1). However, HN trees suffered from physiological and nutritional stress along with increased mortality in 2008. In this case also, foliar data were supported by the sapwood data. Overall, both low and high N applications resulted in greater physiological stress to the pine trees than the oaks. In general, the time course of changes in metabolic data are in agreement with the published reports on changes in soil chemistry and microbial community structure, rates of soil carbon sequestration and production of woody biomass for this chronic N study. This correspondence of selected metabolites

  3. Impacts of limestone and nitrogen top dressing application on the potassium content in the soil profile and marandu-grass leaf concentration Impactos da aplicação de calcário e nitrogênio em cobertura no teor de potássio no perfil do solo e na concentração foliar do capim-marandu

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    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen doses (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1, with or without dolomitic lime covering application, on the potassium (K soil content at depths varying form 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 20 cm, and the potassium concentration in the plant. The experiment was carried out in a rhodic ferralsol with a slightly rolling relief, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, in a complete randomized block design, with four replications. Nitrogenated fertilization caused a linear increase in the potassium concentration in the plant and also in the mineral content in the 0-5 cm soil layer. An effect of competitive inhibition occurred between the potassium and calcium absorption, and potassium and magnesium absorption. Although a significant fraction of potassium returned to the soil surface layer through the forage residue due to the increase in dry matter production caused by nitrogenated fertilization, the increase in the potassium concentration in the plant due to the doses of nitrogen demonstrated the importance of considering the potassium supply to the plant, when the forage mass is intensified through nitrogenated fertilization.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg/ha.ano, com ou sem aplicação de calcário dolomítico em cobertura, sobre o teor de potássio (K do solo nas profundidades de 0 a 5; 5 a 10; e 10 a 20 cm e a concentração de potássio na planta. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de relevo suavemente ondulado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A adubação nitrogenada promoveu aumento linear na concentração de potássio na planta e no teor desse mineral na camada de 0 a 5 cm do solo. Ocorreu efeito de inibição competitiva entre a absorção de potássio e cálcio e entre potássio e magnésio. Embora uma fração significativa de potássio retorne

  4. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2011-10-01

    Although there is unambiguous evidence for vascular epiphytic plants to be limited by insufficient water and nutrient supply under natural conditions, it is an open debate whether they are primarily phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) limited. Plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry of a tank epiphyte (Vriesea sanguinolenta), and its response to combined N-P fertilization, were studied under semi-natural conditions over 334 d to clarify the type of nutrient limitation. Plants collected in the field and experimental plants with limited nutrient supply showed significant plant (15) N fractionation (mean 5‰) and plant N : P ratios of c. 13.5. Higher relative growth rates and declines in plant (15) N fractionation (0.5‰) and in foliar N : P ratios to 8.5 in the high N-P treatment indicated that these epiphytes were P limited in situ. The critical foliar N : P ratio was 10.4, as derived from the breakpoint in the relationship between plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P. We interpret the widespread (15) N depletion of vascular epiphytes relative to their host trees as deriving from (15) N fractionation of epiphytes as a result of P limitation. High foliar N : P ratios (> 12) corroborate widespread P limitation (or co-limitation by N and P) of epiphytic bromeliads and, possibly, other epiphyte species.

  5. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Corn and Soybean Plants Under Nitrogen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We are investigating the use of spectral indices derived from actively induced fluorescence spectra and passive optical spectra. We examined the influence of photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the spectral fluorescence and passive optical property characteristics of mature, upper leaves from plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of recommended N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight. Steady state laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra (5 nm resolution) were obtained from adaxial and abaxial surfaces resulting from excitation at single wavelengths (280, 380 or 360, and 532 nm). For emission spectra produced by each of these excitation wavelengths, ratios of emission peaks were calculated, including the red far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) ratio (F685/F740) and the far-red/green (F740/F525) ratio. High resolution (< 3 nm) optical spectra (350-2500 nm) of reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance were also acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Species differences were demonstrated for several optical parameters. A 'red edge' derivative ratio determined from transmittance spectra [as the maximum first deivative, between 650-750 nm, normalized to the value at 744 nm, or Dmax/D744], was strongly associated with the C/N ratio (r(exp 2) = 0.90, P +/- 0.001). This ratio, calculated from reflectance spectra, was inversely related to chlorophyll b content (r(exp 2) = 0.91, P +/- 0.001) as was the ChlF (F685/F740) ratio obtained with 532 nm excitation (r(exp 2) = 0.76, P +/- 0.01). Discrimination of N treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380 nm excitation). Higher ChlF and blue-green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces

  6. Gap locations influence the release of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in two shrub foliar litter in an alpine fir forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhang, Danju; Xu, Zhenfeng; Tan, Bo; Zhao, Yeyi; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-02-24

    Gap formation favors the growth of understory plants and affects the decomposition process of plant debris inside and outside of gaps. Little information is available regarding how bioelement release from shrub litter is affected by gap formation during critical periods. The release of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the foliar litter of Fargesia nitida and Salix paraplesia in response to gap locations was determined in an alpine forest of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau via a 2-year litter decomposition experiment. The daily release rates of C, N, and P increased from the closed canopy to the gap centers during the two winters, the two later growing seasons and the entire 2 years, whereas this trend was reversed during the two early growing seasons. The pairwise ratios among C, N, and P converged as the litter decomposition proceeded. Compared with the closed canopy, the gap centers displayed higher C:P and N:P ratio but a lower C:N ratio as the decomposition proceeded. Alpine forest gaps accelerate the release of C, N, and P in decomposing shrub litter, implying that reduced snow cover resulting from vanishing gaps may inhibit the release of these elements in alpine forests.

  7. Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p fertilization at both the vegetative and pod-filling stages. P uptake and growth parameters of cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage.

  8. Aplicação foliar de cálcio em pessegueiro na Serra Gaúcha: avaliação do teor de nutrientes na folha, no fruto e produção Foliar application of calcium in peach in Serra Gaúcha: evaluation of content of nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield

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    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-06-01

    calcium in Peach tree in the Southern Brasil is used during productive cycle, without any information about calcium content and other nutrients in the leaves, fruits and yield. Two experiments were carried out in 2003/2004 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different sources of calcium in its content and other nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield of peach trees, Chimarrita cultivar, at an Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Pinto Bandeira city. The treatments in the experiment 1 were three foliar applications of calcium chloride, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%.Experiment 2 were three foliar applications of calcium nitrate, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications and three plants for treatment. Leaves were collected, oven-dried and analyzed total calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. In the maturation, fruits were collected and determined the mass, yield and total content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. The results showed that foliar applications of calcium in the form of chloride and nitrate in peach tree, increase calcium content in the leaves, but did not affect the content of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the leaves, content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the fruit and yield.

  9. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

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    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  10. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein conten...

  11. Effects of Foliar Application with Biogas Slurry on Rape Yield, Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency%沼液叶面喷施对油菜产量、品质和氮素利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钦平; 刘本生; 李吉进; 高利娟; 许俊香; 邹国元; 刘宝存

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment with seven treatments was conducted to study the effects of foliar application with biogas slurry on rape yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The treatments included biogas slurry foliar application with 3 different contents (Low, middle and high) , chemical fertilizer foliar application (same N,P,K content as high biogas slurry content) , chemical fertigation, as well as blank control. The results showed that the rape yield could be increased by 35.5% through reasonable biogas slurry application compared with the control. The treatment with middle content biogas slurry application got the highest yield,but still have no significant difference with the two chemical fertilizer treatments. And the crop from higher biogas slurry content application treatment got the lowest yield because of seedling injury. The SPAD of all the fertilized treatments were higher than the control, and no significant difference among them. The nitrate content of rape leaves from the biogas slurry foliar application treatments were higher than the control, but lower than the chemical fertigation treatment. The NUE from low biogas slurry content foliar application was 33. 3% , which was higher than others. And the NUE with high biogas slurry content foliar application treatment had the lowest level of only 11.0%.%为探讨沼液不同浓度的叶面喷施对油菜产量、品质和氮素利用效率(NUE)的影响,本研究通过调节沼液电导率设定了沼液低中高三个水平,并设有与高浓度沼液相同氮磷钾浓度的化肥处理(分为喷施和浇施),以及空白等共计7个处理.研究发现:适量叶面施用沼液能够大幅度的提高油菜产量,并与施用化肥处理没有显著性差异;产量最高处理为ZY中浓度处理,较不施用沼液的处理增加35.5%,而高浓度的沼液叶面喷施后引起了油菜烧苗,大幅度降低其油菜产量.沼液的叶面追施也提高了油菜叶片SPAD值,但各施肥处理间

  12. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein content in the plants under examination constitutes 18 to 25%o of dry matter. Albumins and glutelins are the most abundant protein fractions.

  13. Nitrogen availability, leaf life span and nitrogen conservation mechanisms in leaves of tropical trees Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, longevidade foliar e mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio em folhas de espécies arbóreas tropicais

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    Guilherme Nascimento Corte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen species of temperate regions are dominant in low-nutrient soils. This feature is attributed to more efficient mechanisms of nutrient economy. Nevertheless, the cashew (Anacardium occidentale- Anacardiaceae, a deciduous species, is native to regions in Brazil with sandy soil, whilst the annatto (Bixa orellana- Bixaceae, classified as an evergreen species native to tropical America, grows spontaneously in regions with more humid soils. Evergreens contain robust leaves that can resist adverse conditions for longer. The physical aspects of the leaves and mechanisms of nutrient economy between the two species were compared, in order to verify whether the deciduous species had more efficient mechanisms that might explain its occurrence in regions of low soil fertility. The mechanisms of nitrogen economy were also compared for the two species at available concentrations of this nutrient. The following were analysed: (i leaf life span, (ii physical leaf characteristics (leaf mass per area, and rupture strain, (iii nitrogenous compounds (nitrogen, chlorophyll, and protein, (iv nitrogen conservation mechanisms (nitrogen resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, and use efficiency, and (v nitrogen conservation mechanisms under different availability of this mineral. The higher values of leaf mass per area and leaf rupture strain found in A. occidentale were related to its longer leaf life span. A. occidentale showed lower concentrations of nitrogen and protein in the leaves than B. orellana. Under lower nitrogen availability, A. occidentale had higher nitrogen resorption proficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and leaf life span than B. orellana. These characteristics may contribute to the adaptation of this species to sandy soils with low nitrogen content.Perenifólias de clima temperado são dominantes em solos pouco férteis. Essa característica é atribuída a mecanismos mais eficientes de economia de nutrientes. O cajueiro (Anacardium

  14. Assessment of crop foliar nitrogen using a novel dual-wavelength laser system and implications for conducting laser-based plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Magney, Troy S.; Vierling, Lee A.; Dittmar, Günter

    2014-11-01

    Advanced technologies for improved nitrogen (N) fertilizer management are paramount for sustainably meeting future food demands. Green laser systems that measure pulse return intensity can provide more reliable information about foliar N than can traditional passive remote sensing devices during the critical early crop growth stages (e.g., before canopy closure when vegetation and soil signals are spectrally mixed) when further decisions regarding N management can be made. However, current green laser systems are not designed for agricultural applications and only employ a single green laser wavelength, which may limit applications because many factors that require normalization techniques can affect pulse return intensity. Here, we describe the design of a tractor-mountable, green (532 nm)- and red (658 nm) dual wavelength laser system and evaluate the potential of an additional red reference wavelength to improve laser based estimates of foliar N by calculating laser spectral indices based on ratio combinations of green laser return intensity (GLRI) and red laser return intensity (RLRI). We hypothesized that such laser spectral indices aid in accounting for factors that confound laser based foliar N estimates including variations in leaf angle, measurement distance, soil returns, and mixed edge returns. Leaf level measurements in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) revealed that the two laser spectral indices improved the relationship with foliar N (r2 > 0.71, RMSE foliar N and laser spectral indices observed when employing the laser system under field conditions. In fact, the strongest relationship at the field canopy level was shown for GLRI (r2 = 0.65, RMSE = 0.37%) alone. Laboratory measurements suggest that the better performance of GLRI compared to ratio-based laser spectral indices may result from pronounced differences in the leaf-level bidirectional reflectance distribution factor (BRDFleaf) between the green and red laser wavelengths, thus confounding leaf

  15. Microbial Biofertilizer Decreases Nicotine Content by Improving Soil Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cui; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Guiqiu; Li, Huanke; Guan, Song; He, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Biofertilizers have been widely used in many countries for their benefit to soil biological and physicochemical properties. A new microbial biofertilizer containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Bacillus thuringiensis was prepared to decrease nicotine content in tobacco leaves by regulating soil nitrogen supply. Soil NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, nitrogen supply-related enzyme activities, and nitrogen accumulation in plant leaves throughout the growing period were investigated to explore the mechanism of nicotine reduction. The experimental results indicated that biofertilizer can reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves, with a maximum decrement of 16-18 % in mature upper leaves. In the meantime, the total nitrogen in mature lower and middle leaves increased with the application of biofertilizer, while an opposite result was observed in upper leaves. Protein concentration in leaves had similar fluctuation to that of total nitrogen in response to biofertilizer. NO3(-)-N content and nitrate reductase activity in biofertilizer-amended soil increased by 92.3 and 42.2 %, respectively, compared to those in the control, whereas the NH4(+)-N and urease activity decreased by 37.8 and 29.3 %, respectively. Nitrogen uptake was improved in the early growing stage, but this phenomenon was not observed during the late growth period. Nicotine decrease is attributing to the adjustment of biofertilizer in soil nitrogen supply and its uptake in tobacco, which result in changes of nitrogen content as well as its distribution in tobacco leaves. The application of biofertilizer containing P. chrysosporium and B. thuringiensis can reduce the nicotine content and improve tobacco quality, which may provide some useful information for tobacco cultivation.

  16. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  17. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  18. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  19. Leaf and sidedressing nitrogen application on wheat crop in savannaAplicação foliar e em cobertura de nitrogênio na cultura do trigo no cerrado

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    Marcelo Andreotti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen in wheat is essential for obtaining high yields, not only the dose but also the time and the way of application are critical, reducing potential leaching and the cost of production. The objective is evaluating leaf and sidedressing nitrogen application on wheat crop in years of 2006 and 2007. A randomized blocks design in a factorial scheme 5x3x2 was used. The treatments consisted of five doses of nitrogen in the solution (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10%, three application times (at tillering: 30 days after plant emergency (DAE, at full flowering (50 DAE + in the beginning of grain formation (70 DAE and at tillering + in the beginning of grain formation, with and without sidedressing nitrogen applied at 40 DAE, using urea as source. They were evaluated: chlorophyll and nitrogen content in leaf, number of spikelets per ear, number of grains per ear, mass of grains per ear, number of grains per spikelet, mass hectolitric, mass of 100 grains and productivity of grains. The application of nitrogen topdressing in both years, influenced the yield characteristics of wheat. The times of leaf nitrogen only affected the leaf N content. The leaf nitrogen concentrations increased linearly the number of grains per spikelets, grains per spike, chlorophyll content, grain weight per ear and grain yield, and reduced mean weight per hectoliter, only in 2007.A adubação nitrogenada na cultura do trigo é essencial para a obtenção de altas produtividades da cultura, não somente a dose, como também a época e o modo de aplicação são fundamentais no rendimento, reduzindo possíveis problemas de lixiviação e o custo de produção. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura e foliar em diferentes estádios sobre as características produtivas da cultura do trigo em dois agrícolas, em condições irrigadas no cerrado. Os tratamentos foram originados do fatorial 5x3x2 e consistiram de cinco concentrações de

  20. Estimation of rice leaf nitrogen contents based on hyperspectral LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Zhu, Bo; Song, Shalei

    2016-02-01

    Precision agriculture has become a global research hotspot in recent years. Thus, a technique for rapidly monitoring a farmland in a large scale and for accurately monitoring the growing status of crops needs to be established. In this paper, a novel technique, i.e., hyperspectral LIDAR (HL) which worked based on wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector was introduced, and its potential in vegetation detection was then evaluated. These spectra collected by HL were used to classify and derive the nitrogen contents of rice under four different nitrogen content levels with support vector machine (SVM) regression. Meanwhile the wavelength selection and channel correction method for achieving high spectral resolution were discussed briefly. The analysis results show that: (1) the reflectance intensity of the selected characteristic wavelengths of HL system has high correlation with different nitrogen contents levels of rice. (2) By increasing the number of wavelengths in calculation, the classification accuracy is greatly improved (from 54% with 4 wavelengths to 83% with 32 wavelengths) and so the regression coefficient r2 is (from 0.51 with 4 wavelengths to 0.75 with 32 wavelengths). (3) Support vector machine (SVM) is a useful regression method for rice leaf nitrogen contents retrieval. These analysis results can help farmers to make fertilization strategies more accurately. The receiving channels and characteristic wavelengths of HL system can be flexibly selected according to different requirements and thus this system will be applied in other fields, such as geologic exploration and environmental monitoring.

  1. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  2. Concentração foliar de nutrientes em cultivares de Coffea arabica L. sob espaçamentos adensados Foliar nutrient contents in cultivars of Coffea arabica L. at condensed spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Silva Augusto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios adensados de café proporcionam melhor reciclagem de nutrientes e conseqüentemente reduzem a perda de nutrientes do solo por erosão, lixiviação e oxidação da matéria orgânica. Avaliaram-se as influências de diferentes espaçamentos na concentração de macro e micronutrientes em folhas de cafeeiro das cultivares IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 e UFV 3880. Ao início do experimento o solo foi arado para incorporação do calcário. As mudas foram plantadas em covas de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,40 m, espaçadas entre si em 0,75 m na fileira. Na adubação de plantio aplicou-se 200 g de Fosfato Natural de Araxá, 50 g de Superfosfato Simples por cova, e 15 dias após o plantio 2L/cova de esterco em cobertura. As demais adubações foram realizadas segundo o recomendado para a cultura do café. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados num esquema fatorial 6 x 4 (seis cultivares x quatro espaçamentos, com seis repetições. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro fileiras de 4,50 m de comprimento, espaçadas entre fileiras em 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 m. Amostras de folhas foram retiradas aos 21 e 34 meses para avaliação dos teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes. O adensamento não influenciou na concentração de nutrientes nas folhas aos 21 meses após o plantio, mas influenciou as concentrações foliares de P, K e Mg aos 34 meses após o plantio.Coffee-tree condensed plantings provide reduction in the loss of the soil nutrients by erosion, lixiviation and oxidation of the organic matter, and even increase nutrient recycling. This experiment aimed evaluates the influence of different spacing among rows on the nutrient foliar contents of coffee-tree varieties, and was performed in randomized blocks with 24 treatments and six replications. The employed varieties IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 and UFV 3880 were planted with a spacing of 0,75 m among plants and 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 and 2,5m among rows. Each plot was composed

  3. Models for Estimating Foliar NPK Content of Armeniaca vulgaris 'Luntaibaixing' Using Spectral Reflectance%轮台白杏叶片氮磷钾含量光谱估算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡珍珠; 潘存德; 王世伟; 郭志超; 王清涛; 丁凡; 栗媛

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Spectral sensitive bands and models used for estimating foliar NPK content were explored by analyzing correlation between foliar nitrogen(N) content, phosphorus(P) content, potassium(K) content and leaf spectral reflectance of Armeniaca vulgaris ' Luntaibaixing' at various phenological stages of fruit development under diverse NPK fertilization levels to provide approach for developing effective, timely and nondestructive nutrition diagnosis. [ Method] Based on "3414" fertilizer effect field experiments, using correlation analysis and regression analysis. [ Result ] The spectral sensitive bands of foliar N, P, and K element were different in fruit enlargement stage, fruit hard core stage, fruit coloring stage and fruit maturity stage of A. vulgaris ' Luntaibaixing'. The spectral sensitive bands of foliar N element at four phenological stages of fruit development were 564 -664, 499 -574 and 735 - 1067, 310 - 1031, 310 -419 and 518 -606 nm respectively. The spectral sensitive bands of foliar P element at four phenological stages of fruit development were 424 -656, 519 -652, 511 -617 and 512 -610 nm respectively. The spectral sensitive bands of foliar K element at four phenological stages of fruit development were 425 - 701 and 721 -1113, 475 - 733 , 500 - 721, 539 - 673 and 719 - 1058 nm respectively. The relation of power function and exponential function existed between the foliar NPK content and the leaf spectral reflectance or its derived variables at four phenological stages of A. vulgaris ' Luntaibaixing' fruit development. [ Conclusion ] The spectral sensitive bands of N, P and K element were not the same at various phenological stages of A. vulgaris ' Luntaibaixing' fruit development. The models for estimating foliar NPK content of A. vulgaris ' Luntaibaixing' were able to be established with power function or exponential function according to spectral reflectance of the sensitive bands or its derived variables.%[目的]通过分析不同氮(N)

  4. Improvement of grape and wine phenolic content by foliar application to grapevine of three different elicitors: Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Baroja, Elisa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in grape and wine organoleptic properties, being therefore a key parameter in wine quality. Elicitor application constitutes an interesting field of research since it is indirectly involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of three different elicitors on both grape and wine phenolic content. Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and a commercial yeast extract were applied to the canopy at veraison and one week later. Results showed that foliar treatments carried out with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract achieved the best results, increasing grape and wine anthocyanin content when compared to the control. Moreover, the application of the yeast elicitor also enhanced grape stilbene content. In contrast, the chitosan treatment did not have a substantial impact on the phenolic compounds. The results of this study indicate that methyl jasmonate and yeast extract applications could be a simple practice to increase grape and wine phenolic content.

  5. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  6. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas

  7. Deconvolution Method for Determination of the Nitrogen Content in Cellulose Carbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose carbamates (CC) were synthesized with microcrystalline cellulose as raw materials. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of CC with different nitrogen content were recorded. The accurate results of the nitrogen content for CC can be obtained by using the deconvolution method when the nitrogen content is less than 3.5%. The relationship between the nitrogen content and the absorption intensity ratio of the corresponding separated absorption peaks in FTIR spectra has been expressed by an equation precisely.

  8. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  9. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil available nitrogen forms and their contents in typical temperate forest stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-xin; Duan, Wen-biao

    2011-08-01

    An indoor experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the soil available N in typical temperate forest stands. During the experiment period, nitrogen deposition increased the soil NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, and available N contents, as compared with the control, but the increments differed with stand types, soil layers, nitrogen treatment types, and treatment duration. Mixed forest soil had weaker responses in its available N contents to the nitrogen deposition than broad-leaved forest soil but stronger responses than artificially pure coniferous forest soil, and soil A horizon was more sensitive to nitrogen deposition than soil B horizon. Ammonium nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NH4+ -N content, nitrate nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NO3- -N content, while mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition increased the contents of both soil NH4+ -N and soil NO3- -N, and the increments were higher than those of ammonium nitrogen deposition and nitrate nitrogen deposition, suggesting the additive effects of the mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition on the forest soil available N.

  10. Supplemental foliar nickel and copper applications do not reduce kernel necrosis in pecan trees receiving excess nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] fruit developed necrotic tissue at the basal end of the kernels (cotyledons) in an orchard receiving unusually high amounts of nitrogen (N) from nitrate contaminated irrigation water. It was hypothesized that increasing canopy nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) ...

  11. Fertilização foliar de nitrogênio para laranjeira em estágio de formação Foliar nitrogen supply to young citrus plants

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Enedi Boaretto; Plácido Schiavinato Neto; Takashi Muraoka; Mauro Wagner Oliveira; Paulo César Ochezue Trivelin

    1999-01-01

    Laranjeiras em estágio de formação receberam adubação foliar com uréia (15N). As folhas absorveram, nas 48 horas após a adubação foliar, 52% do N aplicado. Em relação ao N aplicado nas folhas das mudas, 38, 39, 23 e 15% foram recuperados nas plantas coletadas aos 75, 120, 180 e 360 dias após o transplante para os vasos, respectivamente. A adubação foliar das mudas não teve efeitos significativos no peso de matéria seca e no acúmulo de N durante o primeiro ano após o transplante.Young orange p...

  12. Long-term effect of tillage, nitrogen fertilization and cover crops on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record No-till practices, in conjunction with cover crops and nitrogen fertilization, have been shown to augment soil organic carbon content and total nitrogen content. However, interactions between these components in a no-till system are not well-known. This study offers a long-term (1993-2008) comparative analysis of conventional versus no-till practices as well as a some insight regarding the synergies between no-till, nitrogen fertilization, and cover crops. Maize, wheat...

  13. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  15. Nitrogênio em cobertura e molibdênio foliar no feijoeiro de inverno = Side dressing nitrogen and leaf molybdenum in the winter common bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Feliciani Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo sendo uma planta capaz de realizar a fixação de nitrogênio em simbiose com o Rhizobium, várias pesquisas mostram que a fixação não supre as necessidades do feijoeiro em relação a esse nutriente. A aplicação de molibdênio visa melhorar a simbiose Rhizobium-feijoeiro,pela importância no metabolismo desse nutriente, e pode, com isso, diminuir a aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados. Assim, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do feijão de inverno irrigado, em sistema plantio direto, a doses crescentes de nitrogênio em cobertura (zero, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 e sua interação com a adubação molíbdica foliar (zero e 80 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados dispostos em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, comquatro repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido em Selvíria, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, em área anteriormente ocupada com a cultura do milho. As doses crescentes de nitrogênio aplicadas em cobertura mostraram-se consistentes quanto aos seus efeitos sobre alguns dos componentes de produção, bem como sobre a massa seca de plantas, proporcionando melhor desenvolvimento do feijoeiro irrigado cultivado em sistema plantio direto. A aplicação de molibdênio foliar nãoinfluenciou significativamente a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados.The common bean has the capacity of nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with Rhizobium, but it is not enough to supply the necessities of the plant in relation to this nutrient. Molybdenum application aims to improve symbiosis in the Rhizobium-common bean plant, given its importance in the metabolism of this nutrient, thus being able toreduce the application of N fertilizer. Thus, the objective of the work was to evaluate the performance of irrigated winter beans, in a no-tillage system, with increasing levels of side dressing nitrogen application (zero, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 and its interaction with leaf application of Mo (zero and 80 g ha-1. The experimental

  16. 叶面尘对作物反射光谱及氮营养监测的影响%Influence of Foliar Dust on Crop Reflectance Spectrum and Nitrogen Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 刘洋; 吴海云; 左月明

    2012-01-01

    More researches were carried out to investigate the application of spectral technology on crop nutrition diagnosis. However, the complex conditions in the field results in the uncertainty of spectrum. In this paper, the influence of foliar dust on spectral of the crop beside the nation road was studied, the differences of the raw spectral reflectance and first derivative spectral reflectance between the foliar with dust and the foliar washed with deionised water were analyzed, nitrogen prediction models were built on the disturbance of foliar dust. Result showed that the dust foliar spectral reflectance increased in the visible light (350~720 run) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) (1 360~2 500 nm) regions whereas the spectral reflectance in the near infrared (NIR) (720~1360 nm) wavelength regions decreased. There were no change rules for blue edge position, yellow edge position, red edge position, blue edge slope and yellow edge slope on the effect of foliar dust, but red edge slope, blue edge area, yellow edge area, red edge area decreased. Determinate coefficient(R2) of nitrogen prediction models reduced in the condition of foliar dust The primary research work about the condition of foliar dust was studied which helps to provide foundation for evaluating effect of foliar dust and proposing foliar dust modification model in the future.%光谱检测技术已成为作物营养诊断的重要手段,但复杂的大田环境也增加了光谱的不确定性.以叶面尘对国道旁玉米反射光谱的影响为研究内容,分析了除尘前后叶片反射率及一阶导数光谱的差异,进而考察了叶面尘干扰下的氮营养光谱监测模型预测精度.结果表明:相对于无尘叶片,叶面尘使得叶片在可见光和短波红外光区的反射率增加,而在近红外光区的反射率减少;三边位置、蓝边斜率和黄边斜率在除尘前后无变化,而有尘叶片的红边斜率和三边面积均较无尘叶片减小;叶面尘干扰下的全

  17. Influência do extrato pirolenhoso na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes em limoeiro 'Cravo' Effect of pyroligneous acid in the spraymg solutions on foliar nutrients content of 'Rangpur' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zanetti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença do extrato pirolenhoso (EP na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, foi desenvolvido um experimento com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, em blocos ao acaso, em ambiente protegido. Os tratamentos constituíram da pulverização das soluções: T0 = água; T1 = solução de micronutrientes sem EP; T2 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (1cm³ dm-3; T3 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (2 cm³ dm-3; T4 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (5cm³ dm-3; T5 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (10 cm³ dm-3. A solução de micronutrientes foi preparada com sulfatos de Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (250 mg dm-3 do elemento e ácido bórico (42,5 mg dm-3 de B. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes cônicos de 0,280 dm³, com substrato sem a adição de micronutrientes na formulação. As soluções foram pulverizadas uma única vez, aos 140 dias após o plantio (DAP, momento em que as plantas apresentavam aproximadamente 20 cm de altura. Ao final do experimento (160 DAP, quantificaram-se a massa seca e os teores de macro e micronutrientes da parte aérea e sistema radicular. A presença do extrato pirolenhoso na solução de micronutrientes não interferiu na concentração foliar de B, Fe e Zn em mudas de limoeiro 'Cravo'. Entretanto, na concentração de 10 cm³ dm-3, aumentou a concentração foliar de Cu e Mn. Observou-se também que as plantas pulverizadas com soluções contendo EP (1 a 10 cm³ dm-3 + micronutrientes apresentaram menor teor de Fe e maior teor de Ca no sistema radicular.This research studied the effect of pyroligneous acid (PA presence in the micronutrient solution sprayed on leaves on the foliar nutrient content of 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osbeck0 seedlings, under screen house. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replicates was set up. Treatments consisted of leaf spraying with

  18. Spatial variability of leaf nutrient contents in a drip irrigated citrus orchard Variabilidade espacial dos teores foliares de nutrientes em um pomar de citros sob irrigação localizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson A. Armindo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of leaf content of macro and micronutrients. The citrus plants orchard with 5 years of age, planted at regular intervals of 8 x 7 m, was managed under drip irrigation. Leaf samples were collected from each plant to be analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analyzed using the software R, version 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, along with geostatistics package GeoR. All contents of macro and micronutrients studied were adjusted to normal distribution and showed spatial dependence.The best-fit models, based on the likelihood, for the macro and micronutrients were the spherical and matern. It is suggest for the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur the minimum distances between samples of 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 and 15 m respectively, while for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc, the distances suggests are 29; 9; 113; 35 and 14 m, respectively.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de macro e micronutrientes foliares. O pomar com plantas de 5 anos de idade, plantado com espaçamento regular de 8 x 7 m, foi manejado sob irrigação localizada. Foram coletadas amostras foliares de cada planta do pomar para serem analisadas em laboratório. Os dados foram analisados por meio do programa computacional R, versão 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, juntamente com o pacote GeoR. Todos os teores de macro e micronutrientes estudados ajustaram-se à distribuição normal e apresentaram dependência espacial. Os modelos de melhor ajuste, com base na verosimilhança, para os macro e micronutrientes, foram esférico e matern. Para os macronutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre, sugerem-se distâncias mínimas entre amostras de 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 e 15 m, respectivamente, enquanto para os micronutrientes boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco, essas distâncias são de 29; 9; 113; 35 e 14 m, respectivamente.

  19. Foliar carbohydrates content and invertase activity in vines at São Francisco River Valley - Brazil Teores foliares de carboidratos e atividade de invertases em videiras no Vale do Rio São Francisco- Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara França Dantas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The irrigated agriculture at the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast Brazil, shows an increasing production of grapes for winery. Among the wines produced there the one obtained from Vitis vinifera L., cultivar Syrah, stands out due to its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the region. However, little is known about carbohydrates metabolism of vines cultivated in this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate sugar and starch contents and the invertase activity in vines leaves during two consecutive growing seasons. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Árido and at Santa Maria Winery, respectively located in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, Pernambuco-Brazil. Leaves were collected weekly from January to December of 2003 and assessed for reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents, as well as for acid (AI and neutral invertases (NI. The results showed that reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased during fruit maturation and are influenced by temperature, radiation and insolation variations. The second growing season showed higher reducing sugars and total soluble sugars content and lower starch content in the leaves than the first one. AI activity was higher than NI activity and these also varied according to weather conditions. During berries ripening, leaves showed higher sugar content and invertase activity, suggesting a higher sugar metabolism and transport during this phase.O pólo de agricultura irrigada do Vale do Rio São Francisco apresenta um crescente aumento na produção de uvas para vinificação. Entre os vinhos finos produzidos na região, destaca-se aquele obtido da cultivar Syrah, que se adaptou bem às condições climáticas da região. Pouco se conhece, no entanto, sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos das videiras nessa região. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de açúcares e de amido, bem como a atividade de invertases durante dois ciclos de

  20. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  1. Effects of Uniconazole on Nitrogen Metabolism and Grain Protein Content of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Zu-fen; YANG Wen-yu; REN Wan-jun; WANG Xiao-chun

    2005-01-01

    The effects of uniconazole by soaking seeds and spraying leaves at booting stage with different concentrations (0, 20 and40 mg/kg) on the nitrogen metabolism of flag leaf and grains after flowering, and rice grain protein content and yield were studied withhybrid rice combination Shanyou 63. Under uniconazole treatment, the soluble protein content in flag leaf was increased in early andmiddle period of grain filling, but this content was nearly the same as or even lower than that of control at maturity; Glutaminesynthetase activity in superior and inferior grains and non-protein nitrogen content in superior grains at early stage of graindevelopment were promoted, and moreover, the transforming speed from non-protein nitrogen to protein nitrogen was accelerated;Non-protein nitrogen content was lower than that of control at maturity, but protein nitrogen content at each stage was higher thanthose of control; Protein nitrogen content in superior and inferior grains and protein nitrogen absolutely accumulative content in agrain both were enhanced and protein content and yield in rice grain were raised. The application of uniconazole by soaking seedsand spraying leaves raised crude protein content by an average of 7.2% and 8.3%, and protein yield by an average of 13.1% and13.4%, respectively.

  2. Faixas críticas de teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. produzidas em tubetes Critical ranges of macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. grown in plastic pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Moraes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar os teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro produzidas em tubetes. O experimento foi conduzido em viveiro localizado no Setor de Cafeicultura do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, no período de maio de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial simples 6 x 3 com quatro blocos, sendo seis níveis de adubação do substrato (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 e 200% da dose padrão de Osmocote por m³ de substrato e três estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas: 3, 4 e 5 pares de folhas. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura de planta (cm, diâmetro de caule (mm, área foliar (cm², massa seca de raiz (g, massa seca de caule (g, massa seca das folhas (g, massa seca de parte aérea (g, massa seca total (g e concentrações foliares de: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S. As faixas críticas de teores obtidas para macronutrientes são as seguintes: nitrogênio (2,26 a 2,62 dag/Kg; fósforo (0,22 a 0,25 dag/Kg; potássio (2,59 a 2,92 dag/Kg; cálcio (0,69 a 0,76 dag/Kg; magnésio (0,11 a 0,12 dag/Kg; enxofre (0,15 a 0,24 dag/Kg. Além disso, constatou-se que o estádio de 4 pares de folhas verdadeiras é o ideal para a coleta de folhas visando à avaliação do estado nutricional das mudas.The aim of this study was to determinate the macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings grown in plastic pots. The experiment was carried out at a greenhouse located in the coffee research area at the Agronomy Department of Lavras Federal University from May 2003 to January 2004. We used a block design in a sample factorial 6 x 3 with four blocks, where the substrate was treated with six levels of fertilization (50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 200% of standard fertilization with Osmocote for m³ substrate and the evaluations were performed at three stages of development (sampling times: three, four, and five pairs of

  3. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ; T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA; SN JIMENEZ-GARCIA; AA FEREGRINO-PÉREZ; F GAUTIER; RG GUEVARA-GONZÁLEZ

    2017-06-01

    Capsinoids are non-pungent analogues of capsaicinoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). The absence of pungency, inaddition to their biological activities similar to that of capsaicinoids such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, andantioxidant properties, makes capsinoids an excellent option for increasing use in human and animal nutrition, as wellas health and pharmaceutical industries. There are only few sources of pepper producing capsinoids, and one of them(accession 509–45-1), Capsicum annuum L., is a potential source for increasing capsinoids content using strategies ascontrolled elicitation during plant production in the greenhouse. In this research we evaluated the effect of weekly andone-day-before-harvest foliar applications of hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide onthe concentration of capsiate in fruits of this pepper accession, as well as the gene expression of phenylalanineammonia-lyase (pal), putative aminotransferase (pamt), capsaicin synthase (at3) and β-keto acyl synthase (kas).Results showed that the two tested concentrations of H2O2 significantly increased capsiate content and geneexpression associated with capsaicinoids (pamt, at3 and kas) and the phenylpropanoids (pal) pathways. Plant yieldwas not affected using this induction strategy. Our results indicated that the pre-harvest and weekly application ofhydrogen peroxide and xyloglucan oligosaccharide improved production of capsiate in C. annuum L.

  4. Effects of soil moisture content on upland nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Xu, Xueting; Hao, Zengchao; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, nitrogen (N) loss from upland fields has become one of the most important sources for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the relationships between soil hydrological processes and N loss in NPS pollution is vital for controlling the agricultural NPS pollution in upland fields. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of N loss with different moisture conditions in the freeze-thaw zone. The semi-distributed hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used in this study to simulate runoff and different forms of N loss, which provided a basis for analyzing characteristics of N loss in the study region. Results showed that the soil moisture content was an important factor affecting N loss in the study region. Different forms of N loss were also analyzed and it was found that N loss occurred primarily in the form of organic-N, which is likely due to the dominant role of erosion-induced pollution. This study provides useful information for preventing NPS pollution within the study region.

  5. Integrating species composition and leaf nitrogen content to indicate effects of nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has been increasing globally and has arisen concerns of its impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological indicators play an important role in ecosystem monitoring, assessment and management in the context of an anthropogenic transformation of the global N cycle. By integrating species composition and leaf N stoichiometry, a new community N indicator was defined and validated in the understory plots of an N enrichment (as NH4NO3) experiment in an old-growth boreal forest in Northeast China. Three-year N additions showed no significant effect on the understory species richness, but an obvious shift in species composition occurred. The response of leaf N content to N additions was generally positive but varied by species. Overall, the community N indicator increased significantly with higher N addition level and soil available N content, being in the shape of a non-linear saturation response curve. The results suggest that the community N indicator could be an effective tool to indicate changes in ecosystem N availability. Critical values of the community N indicator for specific vegetation type could potentially provide useful information for nature conservation managers and policy makers.

  6. Nitrogênio em cobertura e molibdênio via foliar no feijoeiro irrigado cultivado em solo de cerrado=Nitrogen sidedressing and molybdenum leaf application on irrigated common bean in cerrado soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Antonio Roseiro Goulart Junior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O nitrogênio é o nutriente exigido em maior quantidade pelo feijoeiro e, mesmo quando suprida adequadamente desse nutriente, a planta de feijão pode ter sua produtividade limitada pela deficiência de molibdênio, pela participação deste no metabolismo do nitrogênio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar ‘BRS Pontal’, irrigado, à aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura e molibdênio via foliar, quando cultivado em Neossolo Quartzarênico, no município de Cassilândia, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 aplicados em cobertura, utilizando como fonte a ureia, e pela aplicação ou não de molibdênio (80 g ha-1 via foliar, na forma de molibdato de amônio. O índice relativo de clorofila nas folhas do feijoeiro foi aumentado pela aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura e molibdênio via foliar. A aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura proporcionou aumento na produtividade de grãos do feijoeiro apenas quando combinado com o fornecimento de molibdênio via foliar. O fornecimento de 80 g ha-1 de molibdênio via foliar aumentou a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio pelo feijoeiro.Nitrogen is the nutrient required in greatest quantities by the common bean, and even when that nutrient is properly supplied, the yield of common bean plant may be limited by molybdenum deficiency, due to molybdenum participation in nitrogen metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of the irrigated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar ‘BRS Pontal’, affected by nitrogen sidedressing and molybdenum leaf application, when grown in Typic Quartzipsamment, in Cassilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used, in a 4 x 2 factorial

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Content and Austenitization Temperature on Precipitation in Niobium Micro-alloyed Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei CAO; Zhong-min YANG; Ying CHEN; Hui-min WANG; Xiao-li ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    The influences of nitrogen content and austenitization temperature on Nb(C,N)precipitation in niobium micro-alloyed steels were studied by different methods:optical microscopy,tensile tests,scanning electron mi-croscopy,transmission electron microscopy,physicochemical phase analysis,and small-angle X-ray scattering. The results show that the strength of the steel with high nitrogen content is slightly higher than that of the steel with low nitrogen content.The increase in the nitrogen content does not result in the increase in the amount of Nb(C,N) precipitates,which mainly depends on the niobium content in the steel.The mass fraction of small-sized Nb(C,N) precipitates (1-10 nm)in the steel with high nitrogen content is less than that in the steel with low nitrogen con-tent.After austenitized at 1 150 ℃,a number of large cuboidal and needle-shaped particles are detected in the steel with high nitrogen content,whereas they dissolve after austenitized at 1 200 ℃ and the Nb(C,N)precipitates become finer in both steels.Furthermore,the results also show that part of the nitrogen in steel involves the formation of al-loyed cementite.

  8. Limited fungicide applications affect foliar and fruit disease severity and phytochemical content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry rot diseases cause significant reductions in yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but these losses may be reduced significantly by fungicide applications. Four studies were conducted to explore the relationship between yield, disease control, berry quality, and phytochemical content followin...

  9. Influence of Different Foliar Fertilizers Application on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content in Tea%叶面肥喷施对茶叶中GABA含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琴燕; 杨敬辉; 陈宏州; 陈露; 庄义庆

    2013-01-01

    Influence of three foliar fertilizers (Monosodium Glutamate, CaCl2 and VB6) by spraying tea plants on GABA content in fresh tea leaves and black tea were investigated. The result showed that: the three foliar fertilizers could increase significantly the GABA content in fresh tea leaves. The GABA content in fresh leaves maximum reach 0.77, 0.51, 0.48 mg/g at three foliar fertilizers concentration of 5, 5,0.3 g/L, respectively, Which made from black tea, the GABA content significantly reduced to 0.45, 0.1, 0.08 mg/g. It was found that the foliar fertilizers (Monosodium Glutamate, CaCl2 and VB6) could promote the GABA enrichment of tea, while the processing operations of black tea may result in a substantial loss of GABA.%采用谷氨酸钠、CaCl2和VB 6三种叶面肥喷施茶树,调查三种叶面肥喷施对茶鲜叶和产品红茶中GABA含量的影响。结果表明,三种叶面肥均可显著提高茶鲜叶中GABA含量,在浓度分别为5、5、0.3 g/L时,茶鲜叶中GABA含量最高分别为0.77、0.51、0.48 mg/g,制成的产品红茶中GABA含量显著降低至0.45、0.1、0.08 mg/g。说明三种叶面肥喷施均可促进茶叶中GABA的富集,而红茶加工工序可造成GABA大量损失。

  10. Effects of nitrogen content on structure and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jian-rong; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped fluorinated diamond-like carbon (FN-DLC) films were prepared on single crystal silicon substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) under different deposited conditions with CF4,CH4 and nitrogen as source gases.The influence of nitrogen content on the structure and electrical properties of the films was studied.The films were investigated in terms of surface morphology,microstructure,chemical composition and electrical properties.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results revealed that the surface morphology of the films became smooth due to doping nitrogen.Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometry (FTIR) results showed that amouts of C=N and C≡N bonds increased gradually with increasing nitrogen partial pressure r (r=p(N_2)/p(N_2+CF_4+CH_4)).Gaussian fit results of C 1s and N 1s in X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) showed that the incorporation of nitrogen presented mainly in the forms of β-C_3N_4 and a-CN_x (x=1,2,3) in the films.The current-voltage (I-V) measurement results showed that the electrical conductivity of the films increased with increasing nitrogen content.

  11. Changes on grape phenolic composition induced by grapevine foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, J; López-Alfaro, I; Gómez-Alonso, S; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Grapevines may require the input of nitrogen to grow and to guarantee an appropriate grape composition. Recently there has been a growing interest in foliar fertilization, which entails a fast and efficient assimilation of the products. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on grape anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later at doses of 0.9 and 1.5 kg N/ha. The results showed that the synthesis of phenolic compounds was favoured by foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea. The application of the lowest dose of urea was the most effective treatment, increasing the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols. Moreover, none of the foliar treatments worsened the grape phenolic composition. In conclusion, foliar application of phenylalanine and especially urea, could be an interesting management tool for improving grape quality and their health-promoting properties.

  12. Effect of Different Foliar Dust Contents on Reflectance Spectroscopy of Euonymus japonicus%叶面滞尘量对大叶黄杨反射光谱的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春燕; 王雪峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The dust on the surface of the leaves of trees can reflect the around environmental pollution in a certain extent. With the increasing of the degree of atmospheric pollution,the harm of haze weather becomes more severe. Therefore,haze becomes a high-profile word in modern society. Haze is mainly formed by atmospheric particles floating and crowding in the air. Atmospheric particles fall on the leaf surfaces through dry or wet deposition. After that,the foliar dust formed. The foliar dust has an impact on the spectra reflection of the leaves of trees and the plant physiological ecology. In this paper,we explored the relationship between foliar dust contents and reflection spectra of Euonymus japonicas. The prevention control strategy of haze and the correct remote sensing inversion were also introduced.[Method]The leaves of Euonymus japonicus growth at the academy of forestry were used as raw materials. The collecting leaves were fresh-keeping and took to indoors quickly. The weight of the leaves before and after cleaning was tested using a 1/10 000 high precision electronic analytical balance. The differences of the weight are the weight of the foliar dust. The reflection spectrum of the leaves before and after cleaning was measured using a FieldSpec3 Portable NIR spectrometer produced by the company of ASD (Analytical Spectral Device) of USA. The differences of the reflection spectrum were compared and analyzed. The differences of leaf reflectance before and after cleaning, and the first derivative spectrum and red edge parameter characteristics were compared and analyzed. The differences of leaf spectral reflectance between different amounts of dust was also compared,The relation model between foliar dust content and leaf spectral reflectance was established.[Result]Spectral reflectance of leaves before and after cleaning the dust is different. In the range of 520 - 560 nm,the leaf reflectance of dust leaves was higher than that of clean leaves. While

  13. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  14. Nitrogen fertilization and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments affected amino acid content of cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Atilla; Yildirim, Ertan; Ekinci, Melek; Turan, Metin; Kul, Raziye; Karagöz, Fazilet P.

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of a nitrogen fixing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation (seed coating and seedling dipping) and 6 doses of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) application on amino acid contents of cabbage. Coating and seedling dipping applications caused a significant increase in values histidine, glycine, thionin, arginine and alanine of cabbage. Highest glutamate, serine, asparagines and glutamine contents were obtained from 160-200 kg ha-1 nitrogen dose applied plants. As a result, the use of bacteria treatments provides means of improving amino acid contents in cabbage.

  15. Predicting leaf gravimetric water content from foliar reflectance across a range of plant species using continuous wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Rivard, Benoit; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo G; Féret, Jean-Baptiste; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Ustin, Susan L

    2012-08-15

    Leaf water content is an important variable for understanding plant physiological properties. This study evaluates a spectral analysis approach, continuous wavelet analysis (CWA), for the spectroscopic estimation of leaf gravimetric water content (GWC, %) and determines robust spectral indicators of GWC across a wide range of plant species from different ecosystems. CWA is both applied to the Leaf Optical Properties Experiment (LOPEX) data set and a synthetic data set consisting of leaf reflectance spectra simulated using the leaf optical properties spectra (PROSPECT) model. The results for the two data sets, including wavelet feature selection and GWC prediction derived using those features, are compared to the results obtained from a previous study for leaf samples collected in the Republic of Panamá (PANAMA), to assess the predictive capabilities and robustness of CWA across species. Furthermore, predictive models of GWC using wavelet features derived from PROSPECT simulations are examined to assess their applicability to measured data. The two measured data sets (LOPEX and PANAMA) reveal five common wavelet feature regions that correlate well with leaf GWC. All three data sets display common wavelet features in three wavelength regions that span 1732-1736 nm at scale 4, 1874-1878 nm at scale 6, and 1338-1341 nm at scale 7 and produce accurate estimates of leaf GWC. This confirms the applicability of the wavelet-based methodology for estimating leaf GWC for leaves representative of various ecosystems. The PROSPECT-derived predictive models perform well on the LOPEX data set but are less successful on the PANAMA data set. The selection of high-scale and low-scale features emphasizes significant changes in both overall amplitude over broad spectral regions and local spectral shape over narrower regions in response to changes in leaf GWC. The wavelet-based spectral analysis tool adds a new dimension to the modeling of plant physiological properties with

  16. Nitrogen-doped graphene: effect of graphite oxide precursors and nitrogen content on the electrochemical sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Monica; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdenek; Klímová, Kateřina; Pumera, Martin

    2017-06-21

    Graphene, produced via chemical methods, has been widely applied for electrochemical sensing due to its structural and electrochemical properties as well as its ease of production in large quantity. While nitrogen-doped graphenes are widely studied materials, the literature showing an effect of graphene oxide preparation methods on nitrogen quantity and chemical states as well as on defects and, in turn, on electrochemical sensing is non-existent. In this study, the properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials, prepared via hydrothermal synthesis using graphite oxide produced by various classical methods using permanganate or chlorate oxidants Staudenmaier, Hummers, Hofmann and Brodie oxidation methods, were studied; the resulting nitrogen-doped graphene oxides were labeled as ST-GO, HU-GO, HO-GO and BR-GO, respectively. The electrochemical oxidation of biomolecules, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, nicotinamide adenine nucleotide and DNA free bases, was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The nitrogen content in doped graphene oxides increased in the order ST-GO doped graphene followed this trend, as shown in the cyclic voltammograms. This is a very important finding that provides insight into the electrocatalytic effect of N-doped graphene. The nitrogen-doped graphene materials exhibited improved sensitivity over bare glassy carbon for ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine detection. These studies will enhance our understanding of the effects of graphite oxide precursors on the electrochemical sensing properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials.

  17. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silicon Oxynitride MCM-41 with High Nitrogen Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cunman; XU Zheng; LIU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 were synthesized successfully. The resulting materials not only have high nitrogen contents and good structural characteristics of MCM-41 (high surface area, narrow pore size distribution and good order), but also are amorphous. The composition and structure of the materials were investigated by CNH element analysis, XPS, Si MAS NMR, XRD, HRTEM and N2 sorption, respectively. Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 with a high nitrogen content are still non-crystal (amorphous).

  19. Influence of the initial nitrogen content in titanium films on the nitridation and silicidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Perez-Casero, R.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Perez-Rigueiro, J. [Dpto. Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L.; Fernandez, M. [Instituto Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-08-15

    The rapid thermal annealing of Ti films on silicon in a nitrogen atmosphere seems to be a very promising method to obtain the Si/TiSi{sub 2}/TiN structure. We have tried to increase the final nitrogen content (i.e. TiN thickness) by incorporating nitrogen during the deposition of the initial Ti films. The influence of the nitrogen present in the titanium film on the silicidation process has been studied by comparison with the silicidation of pure titanium. The evolution of the nitrogen content with thermal treatment conditions has been established by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The nitrogen initially incorporated in the Ti film plays a passive role during the nitridation process, since its initial presence does not strongly influence the further incorporation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The final nitrogen content of the N-doped samples is the addition of the nitrogen incorporated from the atmosphere during the thermal treatment in pure titanium samples and the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. The silicidation process has been studied using complementary techniques. The sheet resistances, Rutherford backscattering spectra and grazing X-ray diffraction (GXRD) diagrams have allowed us to establish the evolution of the reaction. Silicidation is not affected by the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. No differences have been found due to the presence of nitrogen. Nevertheless, changes in the surface morphology were found by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ti(N{sub 2}) samples are characterized by lower root mean square (rms) surface roughness values and different features. (orig.) 14 refs.

  20. Effect of Foliar Application of S on Se Content in Rice%叶面喷硒对水稻含硒量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 李向民; 孙晶

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Sodium selenite was sprayed on the leaves of rice to study the effect of Se content in each parts of rice. [ Method] Different concentrations of sodium selenite were sprayed to rice leaves in filed randomized block experiments; AFS method was used for the determination of selenium in rice's various parts at different periods. [ Result] The results showed that foliar application of selenium can significantly increase Se content in rice, and with the increasing of sprayed Se concentration, Se content in rice also increased. Se content in leaves were increased 544.7% from 0. 85 mg/kg to 5.48 mg/kg, stems were increased 842. 8% from 0.14 mg/kg to 1.32 mg/kg, paddy were increased 1 575.0% from 0.12 mg/kg to 2.01 mg/kg, rice were increased 4 466.7% from 0.03 mg/kg to 1.37 mg/kg. But after treated,Se content of leaves in low concentration treatment (50 mg/kg) decreased in the early stage and increased little in late stage. Se content of leaves in other treatments decreased with the delay of sampling time. Se content in the stems and grain increased during the early stage, then reduced during in late stage. [Conclusion] It can satisfy the requirement of rich Se rice by spraying 100 mg/kg sodium selenium.%[目的]研究叶面喷硒对水稻不同部位含硒童的影响.[方法]采用随机区组试验,向水稻叶面喷施不同浓度亚硒酸钠溶液;采用原子荧光光谱法测定不同时期水稻茎、叶、穗的含硒量.[结果]叶面喷硒可明显提高水稻中硒含量,大米硒含量随喷硒浓度的增加而增加.水稻叶、茎、稻谷和大米的硒含量分别从对照的0.85、0.14、0.12、0.03 mg/kg上升至5.48、1.32、2.01、1.37 mg/kg,分别增加了544.7%、842.8%、1575.0%、4466.7%.经施硒处理的水稻,低硒处理(50 mg/kg)叶的含硒量随采样时间的延迟前期降低,后期略有上升,其他处理叶的含硒量随采样时间的延迟而逐渐降低;茎和稻谷的含硒量均为随采样时间的延迟前期上

  1. Dynamics of nitrogenous substances content in the diet of the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Čepelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation of nitrogenous substances in the stomach content of Apodemus sylvaticus was determined using the NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy method. Out of the total of 247 examined stomachs, 66 were male and 181 female. Sampling of study material was conducted in 2003–2010 at three isolated forest sites in South Moravia with different habitat conditions and different type of management (old semi-natural forest with dominance of English Oak (Quercus robur; production forest with dominant Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia; pheasantry with variable mixture of forest plots. The determined nitrogenous substances content ranged from 9.5–64.4% of dry matter. With respect to nitrogenous substances content, the habitat, site and sex factors were assessed as statistically insignificant. On the other hand, the factor of a given year (χ2 = 31.14; p < 0.000 and that of sexual activity (χ2 = 7.86; p = 0.005 showed significant differences. In relation to season, both the average nitrogenous substances content in diet and the standard deviation oscillated. The highest average nitrogenous substances content was determined in winter months, when the most significant dispersion in values was determined as well. In years following mast years (2004 and 2007 high values of standard deviations in dietary nitrogenous compounds content were determined.

  2. Impact of foliar application of seaweed extract on growth, yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasim Haider, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Habat Ullah Asad, Abdul Manan, Syed Ali Raza and Irfan Ashraf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in 2010 to investigate the effect of foliar application of seaweed extract “Primo” as an organic biostimulant on potato cv. ‘Sante’. Foliar application of seaweed extract was carried out at different growth stages of the crop (i.e. 30 days; 45 days; 60 days; 30 and 45 days; 30 and 60 days; 45 and 60 days; 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing. Control plants were sprayed with water without seaweed extract. A significant improvement in growth, yield and tuber quality of potato was observed where treatment was applied. The highest tuber yield was recorded with applications of seaweed extract at 30 + 60 days interval after planting. The treatment also improved nitrogen, total soluble solids and protein contents of the potato tubers. The results of the study concluded a positive response of potato plant growth and yield to the foliar application of seaweed extract.

  3. Adubação foliar e via solo de nitrogênio em plantas de milho em fase inicial de desenvolvimento Leaf fertilization and via soil nitrogen suplementation in maize plants at initial developmental stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Deuner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerado o nutriente mais importante, tanto no incremento da produção de grãos como no teor protéico destes, o nitrogênio (N é também o elemento que mais onera a cultura do milho. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se a aplicação foliar de nitrogênio influencia o acúmulo de proteínas e parâmetros de crescimento de plantas jovens de milho em comparação com a aplicação de uréia via solo. Para tanto, plantas jovens do híbrido de milho BR 206 receberam aplicações de uréia como fonte de N via foliar e via solo nas concentrações de zero; 0,5% e 1,0%. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação sendo realizadas três aplicações de N, a primeira aos seis dias após a emergência (DAE num volume de 10 mL por planta e as duas seguintes aos 10 e 14 DAE com 20 mL cada. Aos 18 DAE as plantas foram coletadas e as análises procedidas. Para altura de plantas, volume radicular, área foliar, matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes, observou-se maior eficiência da adubação foliar, principalmente ao nível de 0,5% de uréia. O fornecimento de uréia a 1,0% via solo proporcionou aumento significativo no teor de proteínas nas folhas. Tais resultados sugerem que a adubação foliar pode ser uma maneira eficiente para complementar o que é absorvido pelas raízes, no entanto não deve ser utilizada como fonte única de N inorgânico às plantas.Consider the most important nutrient in the increment of grain gield and also the proteic level, nitrogen (N, in addition of this fact, this nutrient is the component that most increases the production cost of maize crop. This study aimed to verify whether the application of leaf nitrogen influences the accumulation of proteins and parameters of growth of young plants of maize compared to the application of urea via soil. For both, young plants of the hybrid maize BR 206 received applications of urea as a source of N via leaf and soil at concentrations of zero, 0.5% and 1.0%. The

  4. Determination of nitrogen and chlorophyll levels in bean-plant leaves by using spectral vegetation bands and indices Discriminação de teores de nitrogênio e clorofila foliares do feijoeiro por meio de bandas e índices de vegetação espectrais

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    Selma Alves Abrahão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop classifiers based on different combinations of spectral bands and vegetation indices from original, segmented and reflectance images in order to determine the levels of leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll in the bean, and to define the best time and best variables. A remote-sensing system was used, consisting of a helium balloon and two small-format digital cameras. Besides the individual spectral bands, four vegetation indices were tested: simple ratio, normalized difference, normalized difference in the green band, and modified-chlorophyll absorption. The classifiers proved to be efficient in determining levels of leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll. The best time for determining leaf N content was at 13 DAE (stage V4. The best classifiers for that time used as input variables two indices from segmented reflectance images, one index related to the canopy structure and the other related to chlorophyll, with a Kappa ranging from 0.26 to 0.31. The best time to discriminate leaf chlorophyll content was 21 DAE (stage V4. The best classifier used as input variables two original images, one in the red band and one in the blue with a Kappa of 0.47.Objetivou-se desenvolver classificadores com base em diferentes combinações de bandas e índices de vegetação espectrais de imagens originais, segmentadas e reflectâncias, para discriminação de teores de nitrogênio e clorofila foliares do feijoeiro, definindo a melhor época e as melhores variáveis. Foi utilizado um sistema de sensoriamento remoto constituído por um balão a gás hélio e duas câmeras digitais de pequeno formato. Além das bandas isoladamente, foram testados quatro índices de vegetação: da razão simples, da diferença normalizada, da diferença normalizada utilizando a banda do verde e o da absorção de clorofila modificado. Os classificadores demonstraram serem eficientes na discriminação de teores de nitrogênio e clorofila foliares. A melhor época para

  5. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

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    Mostafa GHASEMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  6. Quantitative inverse modeling of nitrogen content from hyperion data under stress of exhausted coal mining sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xia; HU Zhen-qi; GUO Li

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating the nutritional status of vegetation under stress from exhausted coal mining sites by hy-per-spectral remote sensing is important in future ecological restoration engineering. The Wangpingcun coal mine, located in the Mentougou district of Beijing, was chosen as a ease study. The ecological damage was analyzed by 3S technology, field investiga-tion and from chemical data. The derivative spectra of the diagnostic absorption bands are derived from the spectra measured in the field and used as characteristic spectral variables. A correlation analysis was conducted for the nitrogen content of the vegetation samples and the first derivative spectrum and the estimation model of nitrogen content established by a multiple stepwise linear regression method. The spatial distribution of nitrogen content was extracted by a parameter mapping method from the Hyperion data which revealed the distribution of the nitrogen content. In addition, the estimation model was evaluated for two evaluation indicators which are important for the precision of the model. Experimental results indicate that by linear regression and parameter mapping, the estimation model precision was very high. The coefficient of determination, R2, was 0.795 and the standard deviation of residual (SDR) 0.19. The nitrogen content of most samples was about 1.03% and the nitrogen content in the study site seems inversely proportional to the distance from the piles of coal waste. Therefore, we can conclude that inversely modeling nitrogen content by hyper-speetral remote sensing in exhausted coal mining sites is feasible and our study can be taken as reference in spe-cies selection and in subsequent management and maintenance in ecological restoration.

  7. [Effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate on wheat yield and soil nitrate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Yan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Xu, Zhen-Zhu

    2011-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate on wheat yield and soil nitrate content. With the increase of irrigation amount, the soil nitrate content in 0-200 cm layer at the same nitrogen fertilization rates had a trend of decrease -increase-decrease. Under irrigation, the soil nitrate content was significantly lower in 0-80 cm layer while significantly higher in 80-200 cm layer, compared with the control. As the irrigation amount increased, the translocation of soil nitrate nitrogen to deeper layers accelerated dramatically, with the content decreased in 0-80 cm layer, increased in 120-200 cm layer, and peaked in 120-140 cm layer. When the nitrogen fertilization rate increased from 210 kg x hm(-2) to 300 kg x hm(-2) the soil nitrate content at the same irrigation amounts increased significantly through anthesis, filling, and maturity stages. With the increase of irrigation amount, the grain yield decreased after an initial increase, being the highest when the irrigation amount in whole growth period was 60 mm. The grain yield, grain protein content, and grain protein yield all increased significantly with increasing nitrogen fertilization rate. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the treatment with nitrogen fertilization rate 210 kg N x hm(-2) and irrigation amount 60 mm (split into two times) had the highest grain yield, grain protein content, grain protein yield, and harvest index but the least NO3(-)-N leaching, being the more available irrigation and nitrogen fertilization mode for wheat production in the study area.

  8. Environmentally Friendly Nitrogen Fertilizers Appplication for Winter Cereals Considering the Mineral Nitrogen Content in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Timbare, R.; Bušmanis, M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve nitrogen fertilizers application recommendations for cereals, the soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) investigations (1995 – 2000) were carried out on sod – podzolic and brown – lesssive loamy sand and loamy soils in co-operation with other research institutions. The soil samples for determination of NO3 – N and NH4 – N were taken in depth 0 - 20, 21 – 40 and 41 – 60 cm in spring before the start of growth on winter cereals fields, but in 2001,2002- also in autumn before the sowi...

  9. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

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    Hao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  10. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  11. RESPONSE OF SOILD FOLIAR APLICATION OF SILICON AND MICRO NUTRIENTS ON LEAF NUTRIENT STATUS OF SAPOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. LATHIYA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted to know the response of soil and foliar application of silicon and micronutrients on nutrient status of sapota at College of Horticulture Mudigere, Chikamagalur district during the year 2010- 2012. Silicon sources like potassium silicate and calcium silicate and micronutrient contents like solubor and kiecite –G were used. Macro nutrients like nitrogen (1.583 %, phosphorous (0.175 % and the potassium (1.20 % and silicon content (1.20 % in leaf were recorded highest with potassium silicate spray with 8 ml per litre. Whereas micronutrient content has not increased considerably with respect to application of silicon sources. The maximum content of iron (179.89 ppm, copper (7.61 ppm, zinc (35.13 ppm and manganese (91.16 ppm was recorded in the leaf due to foliar spray of micronutrients at 4 ml per litre. As macro nutrient and silicon content was more in the treatment with foliar application of potassium silicate at 8 ml per litre resulted in more yield and quality of fruits.

  12. Effect of different nickel soil contents on cock’s-foot yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuziemska Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of liming and waste organic materials on the yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in cock’s-foot (Dactylis glomerata L. grown on nickel-contaminated soil in the third year of a pot culture experiment. In the experiment, the following factors were taken into consideration: (1 nickel soil contamination (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg Ni·kg−1 of soil; (2 liming (0 Ca and Ca according to 1 Hh of soil and (3 organic materials (no waste organic materials added, brown coal from a coal mine in Turów and rye straw. Introducing nickel into the soil, regardless of its amount, caused a significant decrease in the total yield of cock’s-foot and increased the nitrogen and potassium contents. Liming caused a significant increase in the yield of cock’s-foot and decrease its potassium content, but it did not clearly differentiate the nitrogen and phosphorus content. The used organic materials (straw and brown coal caused a decrease in the phosphorus content in the grass biomass.

  13. THE EFFECT OF AGROTECHNICAL INTERVENTIONS ON SEASONAL CHANGES OF INORGANIC NITROGEN CONTENT IN THE SOIL

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    Peter Ondrišík

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We researched the influence of soil cultivation and fertilization on changes of nitrate, ammonium and inorganic nitrogen content in soil during the monitored vegetation periods (2004/2005 – 2005/2006. This experiment was realized on experimental bases of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra – Dolná Malanta on the winter/summer wheat (Triticum aestivum, variety Bonita, with red clover as its before-crop. In the field trial we used two types of tillage, B1 – conventional tillage up to the depth of 0,25 m and B2 – disc ploughing up to 0,15 m, with three variants of fertilization, 0 – unfertilized control, PH – fertilization according to its content in soil and PZ – fertilization according to its content in soil + plough down of post harvest residues. Samples of the soil were taken from the two soil depth (0,0- 0,3 m and 0,3-0,6 m and in each vegetation period there were 8 takings of soil samples in four repetitions. During monitored vegetation period this dynamics was changeable. The content of nitrate nitrogen in the soil in autumn was about 40 % higher than content of ammonium nitrate. This tendency changed in spring, when the average content of ammonium nitrogen was higher than the content of nitrate nitrogen on average about 60 %. The cultivation had significant influence on dynamics of inorganic nitrogen. The average content of inorganic nitrogen in conventional tillage up to the depth of 0,25 m was 8,43 mg.kg-1 and in disc ploughing it was 7,60 mg.kg-1. The influence of fertilization on changes of inorganic nitrogen was significantly important. Monitored ways of fertilization within the content of nitrates in the soil had the following averages: in unfertilized soil 7,48 mg.kg-1, in fertilized soil NPK 8,20 mg.kg-1 and in the soil fertilized with plough down of post harvest residues 8,37 mg.kg-1. In the first and second variety of soil cultivation we found out a low increase of average concentration of nitrates in the

  14. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  15. Determination of nitrogen content in thick TiN layers by proton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Kvitek, J. (Nuclear Physics Inst., Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Rez (Czechoslovakia)); Musil, J.; Poulek, V. (Inst. of Physics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1990-06-01

    Non-Rutherford proton backscattering has been employed for the determination of the nitrogen content in TiN layers of a thickness of several micrometres deposited on a steel backing. The required proton scattering cross section has been measured using standards comprising thin TiN films on a light substrate. The scattering cross section of 2 MeV protons of nitrogen for {theta}{sub lab}=160deg was found to be 5.7 times the Rutherford value. Nitrogen detection limits in thick TiN samples are discussed. (orig.).

  16. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  17. Thermomechanical and Isothermal Fatigue Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel with Varying Nitrogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Nagesha, A.; Sandhya, R.; Sankaran, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2015-02-01

    Thermomechanical (TMF) and isothermal (IF) fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel alloyed with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.22 wt pct nitrogen is presented in this manuscript. In the TMF tests with temperature cycling in the range of 573 K to 873 K (300 °C to 600 °C), life decreased with increasing nitrogen content for both in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) cycling, with a peak at 0.07 wt pct N. In contrast, 0.14 wt pct N yielded maximum life under IF cycling carried out at 873 K (600 °C). Cyclic lives are seen to follow the sequence, IP-TMF < IF < OP-TMF cycling, and it remained same irrespective of the nitrogen content in 316LN SS. Lives under IP-TMF are lower than those in OP cycling by a factor of 2 to 2.5, in spite of the higher cyclic stress response in OP cycling. At all the nitrogen contents in the present study, nitrogen and dynamic strain aging induced slip localization in the form of planar slip bands both in IP and OP-TMF, in comparison to IF deformation wherein complete planar slip mode of deformation is evidenced only at 0.22 wt pct N. In TMF studies, increasing nitrogen content promoted strong slip localization ( i.e., increase in slip band density with a decrease in interband spacing) in combination with high tensile cyclic stresses that marred the beneficial effect of nitrogen content on TMF life.

  18. Response of Iron Content in Milled Rice to Nitrogen Levels and Its Genotypic Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-yan; ZHANG Hong-cheng; DAI Qi-gen; MA Qun; LI Jie; ZHANG Qing; HUO Zhong-yang; XU Ke

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) level on iron (Fe) content in milled rice, a field experiment was carried out under three N application levels including 0, 150 and 300 kg/hm2 by using 120 rice genotypes. In addition to the genotypic differences of iron content in milled rice, grain yield, 1000-grain weight and N content in grains under the same N level, there were also variations in the response of Fe content in milled rice to N levels. Based on the range and variation coefficient of Fe content in milled rice under the three N levels, the response of Fe content in milled rice to N levels could be classified into four types including highly insensitive, insensitive, sensitive and highly sensitive types. A significant quadratic correlation was found between the Fe content in milled rice and 1000-grain weight or the N content in grains. However, no significant correlation between the Fe content in milled rice and grain yield was detected. In conclusion, there are genotypic differences in the effects of N levels on Fe content in milled rice, which is favorable to breeding of Fe-rich rice under different N environments. Furthermore, high yield and Fe-rich rice could be grown through the regulation of nitrogen on Fe content in milled rice, 1000-grain weight and N content in milled rice.

  19. 15N Content Reflects Development of Mycorrhizae and Nitrogen Dynamics During Primary Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, E. A.; Jumpponen, A.

    2004-05-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbionts on terrestrial plants that are particularly important for plant nitrogen nutrition. 15N content appears to be a useful marker of the mycorrhizal role in plant nitrogen supply because of an apparent fractionation against 15N during transfer of nitrogen from mycorrhizal fungi to host plants. Because plants developing during primary succession are gradually colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, such situations provide good opportunities to study interactions between mycorrhizal colonization and plant 15N content. Here, we present results of a study of nitrogen isotope patterns in ecosystem components during the first 100 years of ecosystem development after glacial retreat, and compare those patterns with those on adjacent mature terrain. Soils in primary succession were depleted in 15N relative to nitrogen-fixing plants. Nonmycorrhizal plants and plants generally colonized by ectomycorrhizal, ericoid, or arbuscular fungi showed similar 15N content very early in succession (-4 to -6‰ ), corresponding to low colonization levels of all plant species. Subsequent colonization of evergreen plants by ectomycorrhizal and ericoid fungi led to a 5-6‰ decline in 15N content, indicating transfer of 15N-depleted N from fungi to plants. The values recorded (-10 to -14‰ ) are among the lowest yet observed in vascular plants. Nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi did not decline in 15N content. Most ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were similar in 15N content in early succession (-1 to -3‰ ), with the notable exception of ectomycorrhizal fungi suspected of proteolytic capabilities, which were 15N enriched relative to all other fungi. 15N contents in both plants and soil from the mature site were 5‰ greater than in recently exposed sites. We conclude that 1) the primary nitrogen source to this ecosystem must be atmospheric deposition, 2) low plant 15N content generally corresponds with greater

  20. Nitrogen Contents and Fluxes in Sierra Nevada Forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D.

    2011-12-01

    Forest health and water quality depend on understanding water and nutrient budgets; this understanding is critical to inform forest restoration in California. The Kings River Experimental Watersheds (KREW) were established to characterize nitrogen (N) budgets before, during, and after tree thinning and prescribed fire to restore forests. The KREW watershed complex receives moderately high atmospheric inputs of N. Quantitative soil pit sampling shows that there are some differences in soil properties between the high elevation Bull site and the lower elevation Providence site. Soils are relatively high in inorganic N; however, N appears to be efficiently mobilized within the ecosystem, allowing very little loss via soil leaching or streamflow. We are measuring N deposition amounts using different techniques in an effort to compare methods and accurately quantify deposition in this area of steep terrain and dense forests. Five years of using passive samplers during the summer months show that the concentration of N components in air is moderate to moderately high. The Providence site experiences higher levels of both HNO3 and NH3 (summer averages 2.4 and 4.3 μg m-3) than the Bull site (1.2 and 4.2 μg m-3). Background levels of HNO3 in summer should not exceed 0.4 μg m-3, while those for NH3 in remote mountain locations in North America should be less than 1 μg m-3. Above-ground ion-exchange resin columns (2006-2009) show that total inorganic N deposition under the forest canopy ranged from 5.6 to 11.3 kg ha-1 in two forested areas of the Providence site with slightly more NO3- than NH4+. A smaller type of resin collector placed on the ground at 470 locations measured inorganic N deposition ranging from 5 to 11 kg ha-1 yr-1 during the 2004-2008 sampling period in the Bull watersheds and from 3 to 10 kg ha-1yr-1 in the Providence watersheds. Fluxes of inorganic N in the shallow mineral soil varied considerably by year, ranging from 2-3 kg ha-1 yr-1 in both Bull and

  1. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  2. The response of the foliar antioxidant system and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of white willow to low-level air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Tatiana; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Staelens, Jeroen; Asard, Han; Boeckx, Pascal; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2013-06-01

    In this study we aimed to determine and elucidate the effect of ambient air pollution on the foliar antioxidant system and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of white willow (Salix alba L.). We grew white willow in uniform potting soil in the near vicinity of sixteen air quality monitoring stations in Belgium where nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations were continuously measured. The trees were exposed to ambient air during six months (April-September 2011), and, thereafter, the degree of lipid peroxidation and foliar content of antioxidant molecules (ascorbate, glutathione, polyphenols, flavonoids), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase) and foliar stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes were measured. We found that lipid peroxidation was caused by air pollution stress, arising from high ambient NO2 concentrations, as shown by an increased amount of malondialdehyde. The antioxidant system was activated by increasing the amount of polyphenols at monitoring stations with a high atmospheric NO2 and low O3 concentration, while no increase of key enzymes (e.g., ascorbate, glutathione) was observed. The δ(13)C also decreased with increasing NO2 concentrations and decreasing O3 concentrations, probably reflecting a decreased net photosynthesis and/or a concomitant decrease of (13)CO2 in the atmosphere. Shade also influenced foliar δ(13)C and the content of leaf ascorbate and glutathione.

  3. Effect of Foliar Selenium Fertilizer on Total Selenium Content and Yield of Rice%叶面硒肥施用量对稻谷总硒含量及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益花; 袁卫明; 单建明; 许乃霞; 顾晖; 王勋

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out with mid-season Nanjing 46 , taking no selenium foliar spraying and fertilize selenium into the soil with special rice selenium fertilizer granules ( selenium content 0.15 g/kg, application 33.8 g/hm2 ) as the controls.The effects of liquid organic selenium fertilizer ( selenium content 10 g/L) application (7.5、 15.0 and 22.5 g/hm2 ) on total selenium content and yield of rice under foliar spraying was studied.The results showed that under the test conditions, the economic quantity of selenium foliar spraying was 15.0 g/hm2, it could increase the yield of rice by increasing the grain numbers per panicle and 1000-grain weights obviously, and the yield increasing rate was 7.4%.The total selenium content was increased with the increasing of foliage dressing selenium fertilizer, and the relationship between them was y =-0.168 6x2 +11.488x (R2 =0.796 5), the total selenium content was 134.39 μg/kg under the economic quantity of selenium spraying.When quantity of selenium foliar spraying reached 34.1 g/hm2 the total selenium content reached maximum 195.69 μg/kg.The efficiency of foliage dressing selenium fertilizer was obviously higher than fertilize selenium into the soil, the increased efficiency of selenium fertilizer under economic quantity of selenium foliar spraying was 5.2.%  在中熟晚粳稻南粳46上,分别以叶面不喷施硒肥和土壤撒施富硒水稻专用颗粒硒肥(硒含量0.15 g/kg,施用量33.8 g/hm2)为对照,研究了叶面施肥方式下液体有机硒肥(硒含量10 g/L)不同施用量(7.5、15.0和22.5 g/hm2)对稻谷总硒含量及产量的影响。结果表明:本研究条件下,叶面硒肥经济施用量为15.0 g/hm2,其通过显著增加穗粒数和千粒重,最终明显提高水稻产量,增产率为7.4%;稻谷总硒含量随叶面硒肥施用量的增大而增加,二者关系式为y=-0.1686x2+11.488x (R2=0.7965),经济施肥量(15.0 g/hm2)条件

  4. Some quantitative relationships between leaf area index and canopy nitrogen content and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Lantinga, Egvert A; Schapendonk, Ad H C M; Zhong, Xuhua

    2003-06-01

    In a previous study (Yin et al. 2000. Annals of Botany 85: 579-585), a generic logarithmic equation for leaf area index (L) in relation to canopy nitrogen content (N) was developed: L=(1/ktn)1n(1+ktnN/nb). The equation has two parameters: the minimum leaf nitrogen required to support photosynthesis (nb), and the leaf nitrogen extinction coefficient (ktn). Relative to nb, there is less information in the literature regarding the variation of ktn. We therefore derived an equation to theoretically estimate the value of ktn. The predicted profile of leaf nitrogen in a canopy using this theoretically estimated value of ktn is slightly more uniform than the profile predicted by the optimum nitrogen distribution that maximizes canopy photosynthesis. Relative to the optimum profile, the predicted profile is somewhat closer to the observed one. Based on the L-N logarithmic equation and the theoretical ktn value, we further quantified early leaf area development of a canopy in relation to nitrogen using simulation analysis. In general, there are two types of relations between L and N, which hold for canopies at different developmental phases. For a fully developed canopy where the lowest leaves are senescing due to nitrogen shortage, the relationship between L and N is described well by the logarithmic model above. For a young, unclosed canopy (i.e. L < 1.0), the relation between L and N is nearly linear. This linearity is virtually the special case of the logarithmic model when applied to a young canopy where its total nitrogen content approaches zero and the amount of nitrogen in its lowest leaves is well above nb. The expected patterns of the L-N relationship are discussed for the phase of transition from young to fully developed canopies.

  5. Nitrogen and sugar content variability in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

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    Terzić Sreten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nutritive values for tubers of 114 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus populations were evaluated during 2006. The used material is a part of wild sunflower species collection at the Institute of field and vegetable crops and it is situated in Rimski Šancevi, Novi Sad. The samples were analyzed as fresh tubers on 'Venema' automatic laboratory for alpha amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium content. Total sugar content was determined as the brix value on a refractometer. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method on dried samples. Significant variability was found for all analyzed traits. Total nitrogen varied from 0,695 to 2,179% dry weight (mean 1,23%, alpha amino nitrogen content 0,012 to 0,118% fresh weight (m. 0,07%, potassium 0,231 0,452% fresh weight (m. 0,403% and sodium 0,0003 - 0,0143% fresh weight (m. 0,007%. Total sugar content varied from 13,69 - 22,94% fresh weight (m. 19,14%. Alpha amino nitrogen is an essential nutrient for animals so that it's presence in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke as food is positive. The protein content is similar to the one in potato and as such satisfactory for nutrition. The K/Na ratio is high which is useful, because an increased content of potassium in food can positively affect the reduction of Na/K ratio and lower systolic blood pressure by a significant amount in adults with mild hypertension. Inulin makes up to 80% of the total sugar content in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, and as a dietary fiber and a fructose polymer it positively influences digestion and sugar blood levels. The obtained results suggest that selection of cultivars and populations with inappropriate nutritive values is possible. Further research is needed to estimate the share of genetic in total variability and to determine whether the selection for new cultivars is justified.

  6. Comparison of spectroscopic techniques for the determination of Kjeldahl and ammoniacal nitrogen content of farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemsley, E K; Tapp, H S; Scarlett, A J; Miles, S J; Hammond, R; Wilson, R H

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of determining the nitrogen content of farmyard manure using infrared spectroscopy was investigated. Fifteen samples each of cattle, pig, and turkey manure were analyzed by three infrared techniques: Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR), using attenuated total reflection (ATR); near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R); and near-infrared optothermal photoacoustic (NIR-OT). The near-infrared measurements were made at wavelengths determined respectively by four (NIR-OT) and five (NIR-R) band-pass filters. The total nitrogen (using the Kjeldahl method) and volatile (ammoniacal) nitrogen contents of all samples were measured by wet chemistry. Internally cross-validated (ICV) partial least-squares (PLS) regression was then used to obtain calibrations for the nitrogen content. The data sets obtained by each technique were treated separately. Within these sets, data from each manure type were treated both separately and combined: the best predictive ability was obtained by combining data from all three manure types. From the combined data set, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients for the ICV-predicted versus actual Kjeldahl nitrogen content were, respectively, 6772 mg/kg dry wt, 0.862 (MIR); 9434 mg/kg dry wt, 0.771 (NIR-OT); and 8943 mg/kg dry wt, 0.865 (NIR-R). For the ammoniacal nitrogen content, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients were 3869 mg/kg dry wt, 0.899 (MIR); 6079 mg/kg dry wt, 0.820 (NIR-OT); and 3498 mg/kg dry wt, 0.961 (NIR-R).

  7. Indirect and direct determination of the casein content of milk by Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M; Fleming, J R

    1998-01-01

    The classic method for determination of milk casein is based on precipitation of casein at pH 4.6. Precipitated milk casein is removed by filtration and the nitrogen content of either the precipitate (direct casein method) or filtrate (noncasein nitrogen; NCN) is determined by Kjeldahl analysis. For the indirect casein method, milk total nitrogen (TN; Method 991.20) is also determined and casein is calculated as TN minus NCN. Ten laboratories tested 9 pairs of blind duplicate raw milk materials with a casein range of 2.42-3.05% by both the direct and indirect casein methods. Statistical performance expressed in protein equivalents (nitrogen x 6.38) with invalid and outlier data removed was as follows: NCN method (wt%), mean = 0.762, sr = 0.010, sR = 0.016, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 1.287%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 2.146%; indirect casein method (wt%), mean = 2.585, repeatability = 0.015, reproducibility = 0.022, RSDr = 0.560%, RSDR = 0.841; direct casein method (wt%), mean = 2.575, sr = 0.015, sR = 0.025, RSDr = 0.597%, RSDR = 0.988%. Method performance was acceptable and comparable to similar Kjeldahl methods for determining nitrogen content of milk (Methods 991.20, 991.21, 991.22, 991.23). The direct casein, indirect casein, and noncasein nitrogen methods have been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  8. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  9. Assessment of nitrogen content in buffalo manure and land application costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Faugno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.

  10. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  11. Nitrogen isotope and content record of Mesozoic orogenic gold deposits surrounding the North China craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As an effective tracer, nitrogen isotopes have been used to determine the source of ore materials in recent years. In this study, the nitrogen isotopes and contents were measured on K- feldspar and sericite of gold deposits and some related granitic intrusions in Jiaodong, Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan, west Qinling, the west part of North Qilian and the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua district around the North China craton (NCC). Although the gold deposits around the NCC are hosted in Precambrian metamorphic rocks, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, mafic volcanic rocks or granite, comparison of which with the nitrogen contents and isotope data of previous studies on mantle-derived rocks, granites, metamorphic rocks and gold deposits indicates that those deposits are closely related to granitic rocks. In addition, mantle-derived materials may have been involved in the ore-forming processes to a certain degree. This conclusion is consistent with the result of previous hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic studies of those gold deposits.

  12. Teores foliares de nutrientes em mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘smooth cayenne’ em resposta à adubação Leaf nutrient contents on ´smooth cayenne´ planting material as response to fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘Smooth Cayenne’ obtidas por seccionamento de caule foram submetidas à adubação foliar com soluções em diferentes concentrações de uréia, KCl e H3BO3, em pulverizações semanais, num total de vinte e seis para a uréia e o KCl e aplicações mensais num total de quatro, para o H3BO3. Todos os tratamentos foram iniciados na nona semana após o plantio das secções. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial fracionado do tipo (1/553, com três tipos de adubo (uréia, KCl e H3BO3 e cinco concentrações num total de 25 tratamentos. Cada parcela constituiu-se de 50 secções. Os tratamentos consistiram nas combinações das seguintes concentrações em g L-1: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 para a uréia e o KCl, e 0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2,0 de H3BO3. Análises das amostras de folhas “D” revelam efeitos da uréia e H3BO3 sobre os teores foliares de S, Cl e B e efeito do KCL sobre K e Cl foliar. A uréia não apresentou efeito sobre o teor de N foliar, porém influencia significativamente o conteúdo de N nas mudas.‘Smooth Cayenne’ planting material obtained through stem sectioning were trea-ted with foliar fertilization with different concentrations of urea, KCl, in weekly pulverizations, and H3BO4, totalizing twenty-six for urea and KCL pulverizations and four for H3BO3, which was applied monthly The treatments were began nine weeks after planting thestem sections. The experimental scheme was a fractionated factorial (1/55³ with three types of fertilizers (urea, KCl and H3BO3 and five concentrations in a total of 25 treatments. There were 50 sections per plot. Treatments were a combination of concentrations in g L-1: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 of urea and KCl, and 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2,0 of H3BO3. Sample analyses of ‘D’ leaves showed urea and H3BO3 effect on S, Cl and B leaf contents whereas KCL affected leaf K and Cl contents. Urea did not affect N leaf content, however it strongly influenced N content in planting material.

  13. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  14. Spatial variability of chlorophyll and nitrogen content of rice from hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharana, Shreedevi; Dutta, Subashisa

    2016-12-01

    Chlorophyll and nitrogen are the most essential parameters for paddy crop growth. Spectroradiometric measurements were collected at canopy level during critical growth period of rice. Chemical analysis was performed to quantify the total leaf content. By exploiting the ground based measurements, regression models were established for chlorophyll and nitrogen aimed indices with their corresponding crop growth variables. Vegetation index models were developed for mapping these parameters from Hyperion imagery in an agriculture system. It was inferred that the present Simple Ratio (SR) and Leaf Nitrogen Concentration (LNC) indices, which followed a linear and nonlinear relationship respectively, were completely different from published Tian et al. (2011). The nitrogen content varied widely from 1 to 4% and only 2 to 3% for paddy crop using present modified index models and Tian et al. (2011) respectively. The modified LNC index model performed better than the established Tian et al. (2011) model as far as estimated nitrogen content from Hyperion imagery was concerned. Furthermore, within the observed chlorophyll range obtained from the studied rice varieties grown in the rice agriculture system, the index models (LNC, OASVI, Gitelson, mSR and MTCI) performed well in the spatial distribution of rice chlorophyll content from Hyperion imagery. Spatial distribution of total chlorophyll content varied widely from 1.77 to 5.81 mg/g (LNC), 3.0 to 13 mg/g (OASVI), 0.5 to 10.43 mg/g (Gitelson), 2.18 to 10.61 mg/g (mSR) and 2.90 to 5.40 mg/g (MTCI). The spatial information of these parameters will help in proper nutrient management, yield forecasting, and will serve as inputs for crop growth and forecasting models for a precision rice agriculture system.

  15. Crude Protein and Non-protein Nitrogen Content in Dairy Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruska Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is of prime economic importance for farmers. Milk total proteins are composed of casein, whey proteins and non-protein nitrogen. The objective of this work was to establish milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen (NPN and urea content in dairy cow milk produced in different farms in Latvia. Cow milk samples (n=30 were collected in September 2012 from four different farms breeding diverse cow breeds. Average crude protein, casein and urea content in milk varied significantly among farms. NPN content in cow milk varies among farms - from 0.194% to 0.232%. Average crude protein and casein content was significantly higher (p<0.05 for Latvia Brown breed cows, while NPN content did not differ significantly among breeds. Regression between NPN and urea content in milk was R² = 0.458. Correlation between NPN and urea content was significant (r = 0.677. This study allowed establishing that crude protein and NPN content in milk varied significantly (p<0.05 in farms with differing dairy cow housing and feeding technologies

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  17. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S. VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K. L. HEONG; HU Cui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages,and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determined in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the increase of nitrogen content in rice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuZhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YuXiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HuCui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determincd in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research institute (1RRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the in crease of nitrogen content inrice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury, of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility' to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer

  20. Aporphine alkaloid contents increase with moderate nitrogen supply in Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae) seedlings during diurnal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Castillo, José Agustín; Cruz-Ortega, Rocío; Martinez-Vázquez, Mariano; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Aporphine alkaloids are secondary metabolites that are obtained in low levels from species of the Annonaceae family. Nitrogen addition may increase the alkaloid content in plants. However, previous studies published did not consider that nitrogen could change the alkaloid content throughout the day. We conducted this short-term study to determine the effects of nitrogen applied throughout the diurnal period on the aporphine alkaloids via measurements conducted on the roots, stems and leaves of Annona diversifolia seedlings. The 60-day-old seedlings were cultured with the addition of three levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 mM), and alkaloid extracts were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest total alkaloid content was measured in the treatment with moderate nitrogen supply. Further, the levels of aporphine alkaloids changed significantly in the first few hours of the diurnal period. We conclude that aporphine alkaloid content increased with moderate nitrogen supply and exhibited diurnal variation.

  1. A one-step carbonization route towards nitrogen-doped porous carbon hollow spheres with ultrahigh nitrogen content for CO 2 adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nitrogen doped porous carbon hollow spheres (N-PCHSs) with an ultrahigh nitrogen content of 15.9 wt% and a high surface area of 775 m2 g-1 were prepared using Melamine-formaldehyde nanospheres as hard templates and nitrogen sources. The N-PCHSs were completely characterized and were found to exhibit considerable CO2 adsorption performance (4.42 mmol g-1).

  2. Novel Approach for Estimating Nitrogen Content in Paddy Fields Using Low Altitude Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberioon, M. M.; Gholizadeh, A.

    2016-06-01

    Concerns over the use of nitrogen have been increasing due to the high cost of fertilizers and environmental pollutions caused by excess nitrogen application in agricultural fields. Several methods are available to assess the amount of nitrogen in crops, however, they are expensive, time-consuming, inaccurate, and/or require specialists to operate the tools. Researcher recently suggested remote sensing and specifically Low Altitude Remote Sensing (LARS) system of chlorophyll content in crop canopies as a low-cost alternative to estimate plant nitrogen status. The main objective of this study was to develop and test a new Vegetation Index (VI) to determine the status of nitrogen and chlorophyll content in rice leaf by analysing and considering all Visible (Vis) bands. Besides, capability of introduced VI has compared with all known VIs in both Vis and Near Infrared (NIR) bands in canopy scale. To develop the VI, images from 6-pannel leaf colour chart were acquired using Basler Scout scA640-70fc under light-emitting diode lighting, in which principal component analysis was used to retain the lower order principal component to develop a new index called IPCA. A conventional digital camera mounted to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was also used to acquire images over the rice canopy in Vis bands. Simultaneously, Tetracam agriculture digital camera was employed to acquire rice canopy image in Vis-NIR bands. The results indicated that the proposed index at canopy (r = 0.78) scale could be used as a sensor to determine the status of chlorophyll content consequently for monitoring nitrogen in rice plant through different growth stages. Moreover, results confirmed that a lowcost LARS system would be suited for high spatial and temporal resolution images and data analysis for proper assessment of key nutrients in crop farming in a fast, inexpensive and non-destructive way.

  3. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Matos Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, percentage and rate of emergence, and dry matter weight of the shoots and roots. Nitrogen levels and chlorophyll content index were evaluated in leaves of the same four genotypes grown in a greenhouse under different nitrogen supply systems and methods of inoculation with A. brasilense. The genotypes differ with regard to inoculation with A. brasilense. The hybrids were responsive to inoculation with A. brasilense for root dry matter weight. The V2 variety had a lower performance as regards root dry matter weight, with the opposite being seen for the dry matter weight of the shoots. V4 displayed no significant differences when inoculated. The results of the chlorophyll content index were not significant. Each genotype under evaluation displayed a different response for leaf nitrogen levels. It is possible to infer that the hybrids responded better to inoculation with the bacteria, with the greater root development leading to a better utilisation of water and nutrients.

  4. Measuring foliar chemistry alongside airborne observations in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Meier, C. L.; Goulden, T.; Leisso, N.; Petroy, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of canopy foliage mediates key ecosystem processes including productivity, herbivory and nutrient export. However, long-term datasets that can reveal directional change in canopy foliar traits in response to environmental drivers are scarce. Advances in imaging spectroscopy have enhanced our ability to remotely sense canopy reflectance, and a better understanding of links between observed reflectance and measured foliar constituents will enhance our ability to map unsampled regions and predict foliar chemical change over time. In this talk, I will present the current canopy foliage sampling plan for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). NEON will analyze sun-lit canopy leaves and needles across all 47 terrestrial observation sites every 3-5 years throughout the 30-year lifetime of the observatory. Sampling will occur in plots adjacent to flux towers as well as those distributed across the landscape, with individuals targeted to represent locally dominant canopy species. Measured variables include leaf mass per area, chlorophyll content, carbon and nitrogen concentrations and stable isotopes, major and minor elements, and lignin. Sampling will coincide with overflights of the NEON Airborne Observation Platform in order to maximize the utility of ground-based observations for developing regressions with hyperspectral data, with algorithm development lead by the community. To demonstrate the kind of data that will be collected and made publicly available once the observatory becomes operational, results from three linked ground-aerial prototype campaigns from summer 2016 will be shown. Prototype data highlights strong taxonomic controls on foliar physical and chemical properties but also notable variation within species and genera across sites and environmental gradients. NEON's canopy sampling program will hopefully provide exciting, continental-scale opportunities to advance our understanding of the controls on foliar chemistry

  5. Determination of nitrogen content in milk by the Kjeldahl method using copper sulfate: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappin, R; Horwitz, W

    1988-01-01

    Copper sulfate was substituted for mercury as the catalyst in the International Dairy Federation (IDF) Standard 20A:1986 method for the determination of nitrogen content in milk. The substitution was supported by results obtained in an interlaboratory study by 24 laboratories in 12 countries. Each laboratory analyzed 12 test samples of milk as blind duplicates in a double split level design with high, medium, and low nitrogen concentrations. The method protocol requires the concurrent analyses of an ammonium salt solution and a tryptophan solution as internal quality control standards with a minimum nitrogen recovery between 99 and 100% for the former and at least 98% for the latter. The repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations are 0.5 and 1%, respectively, for the range 0.35-0.70 g N/100 g. The performance of the laboratories that did not meet the required quality control specifications was clearly poorer than that of those that did meet the specifications.

  6. Remote estimation of canopy nitrogen content in winter wheat using airborne hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Luo, Juhua; Chen, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Timely and accurate assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) provides valuable insight into rapid and real-time nitrogen status monitoring in crops. A semi-empirical approach based on spectral index was extensively used for nitrogen content estimation. However, in many cases, due to specific vegetation types or local conditions, the applicability and robustness of established spectral indices for nitrogen retrieval were limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal spectral index for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CNC estimation using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) airborne hyperspectral data. Data collected from two different field experiments that were conducted during the major growth stages of winter wheat in 2002 and 2003 were used. Our results showed that a significant linear relationship existed between nitrogen and chlorophyll content at the canopy level, and it was not affected by cultivars, growing conditions and nutritional status of winter wheat. Nevertheless, it varied with growth stages. Periods around heading stage mainly worsened the relationship and CNC estimation, and CNC assessment for growth stages before and after heading could improve CNC retrieval accuracy to some extent. CNC assessment with PHI airborne hyperspectra suggested that spectral indices based on red-edge band including narrowband and broadband CIred-edge, NDVI-like and ND705 showed convincing results in CNC retrieval. NDVI-like and ND705 were sensitive to detect CNC changes less than 5 g/m2, narrowband and broadband CIred-edge were sensitive to a wide range of CNC variations. Further evaluation of CNC retrieval using field measured hyperspectra indicated that NDVI-like was robust and exhibited the highest accuracy in CNC assessment, and spectral indices (CIred-edge and CIgreen) that established on narrow or broad bands showed no obvious difference in CNC assessment. Overall, our study suggested that NDVI-like was the optimal indicator for winter

  7. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  8. Foliar and fungal 15N:14N ratios reflect development of mycorrhizae and nitrogen supply during primary succession: testing analytical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Erik A; Jumpponen, Ari; Trappe, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N ratios, expressed as delta15N values) are useful markers of the mycorrhizal role in plant nitrogen supply because discrimination against 15N during creation of transfer compounds within mycorrhizal fungi decreases the 15N/14N in plants (low delta15N) and increases the 15N/14N of the fungi (high delta15N). Analytical models of 15N distribution would be helpful in interpreting delta15N patterns in fungi and plants. To compare different analytical models, we measured nitrogen isotope patterns in soils, saprotrophic fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, and plants with different mycorrhizal habits on a glacier foreland exposed during the last 100 years of glacial retreat and on adjacent non-glaciated terrain. Since plants during early primary succession may have only limited access to propagules of mycorrhizal fungi, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal plants would initially be similar to nonmycorrhizal plants in delta15N and then decrease, if mycorrhizal colonization were an important factor influencing plant delta15N. As hypothesized, plants with different mycorrhizal habits initially showed similar delta15N values (-4 to -6 per thousand relative to the standard of atmospheric N2 at 0 per thousand), corresponding to low mycorrhizal colonization in all plant species and an absence of ectomycorrhizal sporocarps. In later successional stages where ectomycorrhizal sporocarps were present, most ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal plants declined by 5-6 per thousand in delta15N, suggesting transfer of 15N-depleted N from fungi to plants. The values recorded (-8 to -11 per thousand) are among the lowest yet observed in vascular plants. In contrast, the delta15N of nonmycorrhizal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants declined only slightly or not at all. On the forefront, most ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were similar in delta15N (-1 to -3 per thousand), but the host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus Cortinarius tenebricus had values of up to 7

  9. Establishment of DRIS indices and foliar nutrient levels for corn plants fertilized with various nitrogen doses and source materials associated with marine alga Lithothamnium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. B. Bernardes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf nutrient status and to establish the rules of the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS in corn for different nitrogen doses and source materials associated with Lithothamnium. The experiment was carried out from December 2010 to February 2012 in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-split plots. The main plot treatments were nitrogen source materials (immediate release and controlled-release urea, the subplot treatments were doses of 60, 100 and 120 kg of N ha-1 and control (without N application, and the sub-sub plots were treatments with or without the use of Lithothamnium. The dose of Lithothamnium corresponded to 20% of the dose of urea. Calculations to establish the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS were made during the experiment. In the high-yield population the treatments with the highest nitrogen dose provided the highest grain yield. The use of the controlled-release source ensured greater nutritional balance of plants. No effect of Lithothamnium on improving the efficiency of urea applied via topdressing in corn was observed. According to the DRIS indices, in the high-yield population the nutrients showed deficiencies in the following descending order: Mg>Fe>Zn>S>B>Mn>P>Cu>Ca>K>N and excess: B>S>Fe>Ca>K>Zn>Mn>Cu>Mg>P>N. The low-yield population followed the following order: Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>N>B>P>S> Ca and excess: Zn>S>Cu>Mn>Ca>K> P>B>N>Mg>Fe.

  10. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.;

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... they have large scatter. The data sets that have been measured at low pressures extrapolate well towards the ideal equilibrium values. The two models show similar results, but differ at high pressure and/or temperature. CPA is shown to extrapolate well for methane-water to 1000 bar and 573 K, and our...

  11. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Matos Pereira; Elise de Matos Pereira; Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti; Sonia Marli Zingaretti; Gustavo Vitti Môro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, ...

  12. Seasonal changes in tannin and nitrogen contents of Casuarina equisetifolia branchlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua ZHANG; Gong-fu YE; Yi-ming LIN; Hai-chao ZHOU; Qi ZENG

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of total phenolics (TP),extractable condensed tannins (ECT),protein-bound condensed tannins (PBCT),fiber-bound condensed tannins (FBCT),total condensed tannins (TCT),and protein precipitation capacity (PPC) in young,mature and senescent branehlets of Casuarina equisetifolia were studied at Chishan Forestry Center of Dongshan County,Fujian Province,China.In addition,nitrogen contents of branehlets at the different developmental stages were also determined.The contents of TP and ECT,and PPC in young branchlets were significantly higher than those in mature and senescent branehlets through the season.However,PBCT contents were significantly higher in senescent branchlets than those in young and mature branchlets;FBCT fluctuated with season.Young branchlets had the highest N content,which decreased during branch maturity and senescence.The highest contents of TP and the lowest contents of TCT and N in young and mature branchlets were observed in summer.There was a significant negative correlation between TP and N contents.In contrast,TCT contents were positively correlated to N contents.Nutrient resorption during senescence and high TCT:N ratios in senescent branchlets are the important nutrient conservation strategies for C.equisetifolia.

  13. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  14. [Effects of nitrogen addition on available nitrogen content and acidification in cold-temperate coniferous forest soil in the growing season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao-Qi; Fu, Wa-Li; Luo, Ya-Chen; Gao, Wen-Long; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on a low-level and multi-form N addition control experiment, this study took cold-temperate coniferous forest in Daxing'an Ling as the research object. After long-term and continuous nitrogen addition in situ, the available nitrogen (NH4(+) -N & NO3(-) -N) contents and pH values of the soil (0-10 cm) were measured in the early growing season (May) and the peak growing season (August) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The results showed that, the available nitrogen in the early and peak growing seasons was mainly NH4(+) -N which accounted for over 96% of the inorganic nitrogen content, while the content of NO3(-) -N was very low. With the time extension of nitrogen addition, the effects of nitrogen addition on the NH4(+) -N content in 0-10 cm soil were more obvious in the early growing season than that in the peak growing season, and the NH4(+) -N content was mainly affected by the type of nitrogen addition. On the contrary, the NO3(-) -N content in 0-10 cm soil was higher in the peak growing season than that in the early growing season. The effect of N input was obvious on NO3(-) -N content in both early and peak growing seasons, and low nitrogen treatment tended to promote the enrichment of NO3(-) -N. As time went on, the response of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N content to N addition was changed from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. N addition had a significant impact on the pH value of the 0-10 cm soil in the early and peak growing seasons. The pH values of the soil with low nitrogen treatment and the soil in the peak growing season were relatively lower. With the extension of the nitrogen addition time, the response of pH value also turned from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. Because of the long-term and continuous nitrogen addition, the 0 - 10 cm soil in this cold-temperate coniferous forest was obviously acidified.

  15. Wood and foliar respiration of tropical wet forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, S.; Bedoya Arrieta, R.; Ryan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Wood and foliar respiration from tropical forests constitute major components of ecosystem respiration that may control their productivity and carbon storage. However, few estimates on tropical forests vary greatly. Furthermore, the trees in these forests respire great amounts of carbon, but impacts of individual tree species on respiration is not well known. We examined wood and foliar respiration in this environment in relation to individual tree species. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify how respiration rates relate to scaling variables for wood and foliage, 2) examine the effects of individual tree species on these relationships, 3) extrapolate the rates to the annual fluxes of the whole stands, and 4) determine if tree species differed in these fluxes. Established on an abandoned pasture in 1988 at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, the monodominant stands contained four native species in a complete randomized block design. Respiration rates based on tissue surface area ranged among dominant tree species from 0.6 to 1.0 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for small diameter wood (<10cm), 1.0 to 1.8 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for large diameter wood, and 0.7 to 0.8 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for foliage. Understory species had similar wood respiration rates, but foliage respiration rates were about half of those for canopy leaves. Among surface area, volume, or biomass, respiration rates scaled best with surface area for wood with small diameter, volume or biomass for large diameter wood, and leaf area for foliage. These relationships differed slightly among tree species and between canopy trees and understory species. Foliar respiration rate was generally related to leaf nitrogen content, and this relationship differed among dominant tree species. Temperature response of foliar respiration also differed among tree species and canopy class. However, daily and annual temperature fluctuations had less than 3% effect on annual flux. Annual respiratory fluxes from wood and foliage

  16. Effect of nitrification inhibitors on the content of available nitrogen forms in the soil under maize (Zea mays, L. growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PANAKOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (dicyandiamide and 1,2,4 triazole on the content of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in the soil and the effectiveness of nitrogen-sulphur nutrition of maize. The research was conducted in field small-plot experiment with maize on Haplic Luvisol with dominance of clay fraction in experimental years 2012 to 2015. The dose of nitrogen in all experimental treatments was 160 kg*ha-1 and was applied at one shot or split in three partial doses. Soil samples from all examined treatments were taken from three soil depths (0.0-0.3 m, 0.3-0.6 m and 0.6-0.9 m, respectively by probe rod in 4-5 week intervals. Achieved results indicate that on the average of four years and three depths of the soil profile, application of nitrification inhibitors contained in fertilizer ENSIN considerably reduced portion of nitrate nitrogen from the content of mineral nitrogen in the soil by 7-32 relative %. The application of fertilizer ENSIN considerably increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the soil by 10-59 relative %. A favourable effect on increase of ammonium nitrogen content and reduction of nitrate nitrogen content was found out in spite of the fact that in this treatment the total dose of fertilizer was applied at one shot.

  17. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.A.D.A. [USDA Forest Service, Pineville, LA (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Kaczmarek, D.J. [Mead Westvaco Forest Science and Technology, Summerville, SC (United States); Kane, M.B. [International Paper Corp., Ridgeland, MS (United States). Silviculture Research and Technology

    2004-10-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations on a converted agricultural field and a pine cutover site to biannual applications of three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates: 0, 5 6, and 112 kg N ha{sup -1}. The trees did not respond to treatment at any age on the agricultural field site, but the fertilized trees on the cutover site had about 60% greater biomass at ages 5 and 6. Fertilization doubled foliar biomass on the cutover site in the years fertilizer was applied. Stem biomass was directly related to foliar biomass, but the relationship was age-specific at both sites. Stem biomass was also related to the foliar N concentration. Foliar critical values of N were about 18 g N kg{sup -1}. Foliage phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were diluted by the N fertilization-induced growth responses at both sites. Fertilization of young intensive-culture sweetgum plantations is necessary for optimum foliar N concentrations and foliar and stem biomass production, but is site-specific. (author)

  18. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  20. Improved anaerobic digestion performance and biogas production from poultry litter after lowering its nitrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos

    2015-11-01

    Poultry litter (PL) was pre-treated in order to reduce its nitrogen content and to increase the C/N ratio. The pre-treatment consisted of a first anaerobiosis phase of about 60days in order to accumulate ammonia nitrogen, followed by an ammonia stripping phase by heating the substrate at 80°C for 24h. The digestion was performed with PL and pre-treated PL (TPL) after ammonia stripping as mono-substrate under four total solids loads, i.e. 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The TPL after ammonia stripping displayed lower ammonia (62-73%) and VFA (41-65%) concentrations compared to digesters with raw PL, while bio-methane yield increased about 8-124%. Bio-methane yields in the series with TPL after ammonia stripping were about 193, 196, 215 and 147 [Formula: see text] /kgCOD, based on the COD added, for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% TS load, respectively. The results indicate that lowering nitrogen content using the suggested process improves bio-methane yields significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Amount and Timing of Foliar Urea Application Effect on Maize and Forage Sorghum Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kheirabadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for investigating the effect of amount and timing of foliar urea in increasing silage yield and protein content of fodder, in a maize field in Neyshabour, Khorasan Razavi Province during 2011 summer crop season. A split plot design with factorial arrangement and three replications were used. Treatments were timing of foliar urea application (a week before tasselling, mid anthesis and early milk stage, urea levels (zero (check, five and 7.5 g.lit-1 and two hybrids of corn (Sc 704 and forage sorghum (speed feed. The results indicated that the concentration of nitrogen had significant effect to increase forage protein and silage yield (correcting by 280 g.kg-1 of dry matter. The highest forage protein concentrations for both crops and silage yield were achieved with 7.5 g.lit-1 of urea application, but the silage yield of sorghum was more than that of corn. The results showed that urea spraying can effectively increase the fodder nitrogen and silage protein, respectively, with the least possible cost, and in this respect it has an important role in providing quality and environmental safe forage for producer and consumer, meanwhile the adverse effects of excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer are reduced.   

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  3. A PUBLISHED KINETIC MODEL EXPLAINS THE VARIATION IN NITROGEN CONTENT OF Pichia guilliermondii DURING ITS BATCH CULTIVATION ON DIESEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORZANI W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in nitrogen content of Pichia guilliermondii during its batch cultivation on media containing diesel oil as the main carbon source may be explained by means of a kinetic model proposed earlier to interpret the kinetics of nitrogen consumption during the process.

  4. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Content on Deformation and Fracture of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Menapace

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of small differences in the content of carbon and nitrogen on the room temperature tensile deformation and fracture behaviour of an AISI 304 stainless steel was studied. In the steel containing the lower amount of carbon and nitrogen, a higher amount of strain induced alfa’ martensite is formed, which increases strain hardening rate and both uniform and total elongation at fracture. The presence of large martensitic areas in the cross section causes strain localization at the austenite/martensite interface, which promotes the nucleation of cracks and their propagation along the interface. This results in a decrease of Ultimate Tensile Strength. Strain induced transformation slightly reduces strain rate sensitivity, as well.

  5. In-line estimation of sulfur and nitrogen contents during hydrotreating of middle distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is analyzing whether it is possible to develop an empirical correlation for in-line estimation of the sulfur and nitrogen contents of the middle distillates Hydrotreating (HDT products for control purposes. Correlations are based only on readily available in-line information of specific gravity variation between feedstock and products, without considering any piece of information about the kinetic behavior of the catalyst. Experimental data were obtained in pilot plants under operating conditions that are representative of refinery operations. Results indicate that the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds during middle distillates HDT can be monitored in-line in real time, based on the available measurements of specific gravity. This allows for development and implementation of advanced in-line procedures for monitoring and control of the HDT process in real time.

  6. The influence of land use on soil organic carbon and nitrogen content and redox potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate organic matter status in the soil according to the organic carbon content, total and mineral nitrogen amounts, carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio and redox potential depending on land usage and plant spieces. Soil samples were taken from the fields under...... different farming systems (conventional and organic) as well as abandoned lands. We choose the plants of two botanical species (Poaceae and Fabaceae) in organic and conventional farming systems as well as abandoned lands. Experimental results show that the best soil organic matter status according...... to the investigated indexes is in the soils of conventional and orgaic farming systems occupied with mixtures of Poaceae and Fabaceae and the worst - in the soils of abandoned Poaceae meadowa. In the abandoned lands, Fabaceae (galega) had better influence on soil organic matter status than Poaceae....

  7. Effect of Nitrogen Content and Cooling Rate on Transformation Characteristics and Mechanical Properties for 600 MPa High Strength Rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong; Yang, Zhan-bing

    2016-10-01

    To obtain appropriate chemical composition and thermo-mechanical schedules for processing the V-N microalloyed 600 MPa grade high strength rebar, the microstructure analysis during dynamic continuous cooling and tensile tests of three experimental steels with different nitrogen contents were conducted. The results show that increasing nitrogen content promotes ferrite transformation and broadens the bainite transformation interval, when the nitrogen content is in the range of 0.019-0.034 mass%. Meanwhile, the martensite start temperatures decrease and the minimal cooling rate to form martensite increases. To achieve a good combination of strength and ductility, the cooling rates should be controlled in the range of 0.5-3°C/s, leading to the microstructure of ferrite, pearlite and less than 10% bainite (volume fraction). Furthermore, all the experimental steels satisfy the performance requirement of 600 MPa grade rebar and the rebar with nitrogen content of 0.034 mass% shows the highest strength through systematically comparative investigation.

  8. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  9. Characterization of thin Ta-Si-N {sub x} layers of different nitrogen content using XPS, UPS and STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, W. [University of Applied Science Zwickau, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2A, D-08056 Zwickau (Germany)]. E-mail: wieland.zahn@fh-zwickau.de; Hildebrand, D. [University of Applied Science Zwickau, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2A, D-08056 Zwickau (Germany); Menzel, S. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Oswald, S. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Heuer, H. [Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-09-30

    Reactively sputtered Ta-Si-N {sub x} barrier systems of different nitrogen content on copper were investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The measured photoelectron spectra (excitation He-I) showed a clear dependence of the electron state density near the Fermi edge on the content of nitrogen. These results correlate with the I(U) characteristics of the STM measurements and the electrical conductivity of these layers.

  10. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  11. High-throughput analysis of total nitrogen content that replaces the classic Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, T; Nokihara, K

    2001-10-01

    A high-throughput method for determination of total nitrogen content has been developed. The method involves decomposition of samples, followed by trapping and quantitative colorimetric determination of the resulting ammonia. The present method is rapid, facile, and economical. Thus, it can replace the classic Kjeldahl method through its higher efficiency for determining multiple samples. Compared to the classic method, the present method is economical and environmentally friendly. Based on the present method, a novel reactor was constructed to realize routine high-throughput analyses of multiple samples such as those found for pharmaceutical materials, foods, and/or excrements.

  12. [Nitrogen and protein content analysis of human milk, diurnality vs nocturnality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez López, C L; Hernández, A; Rodríguez, A B; Rivero, M; Barriga, C; Cubero, J

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk is changing with the progression of lactation and during a 24-h period. To determine the effect of diurnality or nocturnality on total nitrogen and protein content of the breast milk. We collected human milk samples from health mothers living throughout Community of Extremadura (Spain) from January 2008 to December 2008 with less than two months of lactation. We divided the samples in three groups: calostral group (1-5 days postpartum), transitional group (6-15 days postpartum) and mature group (> 15 days postpartum). All samples were stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. We considered as day period between 08:00-20:00 h and night period 20:00-08:00 h. Analysis of the human milk samples was based on the Kjeldahl method. Protein contents were calculated from total nitrogen x 6,25. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive (mean ± standard deviation) and inferential (T-Student test). No differences (P > 0,05) were found to exist among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: Total nitrogen of calostral, transitional and mature group was 0,30 ± 0,06 g/dL (night period), 0,29 ± 0,05 g/dL (day period); 0,26 ± 0,04 g/dL (night period), 0,25 ± 0,04 g/dL (day period); 0,22 ± 0,05 g/dL (night period), 0,20 ± 0,04 g/dL (day period) respectively, in this mature group with a statistical variation (P Protein content of calostral, transitional and mature group was 1,88 ± 0,4 g/dL (night period), 1,81 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period); 1,62 ± 0,3 g/dL (night period), 1,59 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period); 1,35 ± 0,3 g/dL (night period), 1,26 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period) respectively, in this mature group with a statistical variation (P protein content during the individual stages of lactation, it is just in the population of mature lactating women, where the components analyzed varied significantly between day and night.

  13. Nitrogen-fixing aerobic bacteria have higher genomic GC content than non-fixing species within the same genus

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan, Catriona E.; Gatherer, Derek; McEwan, Neil R.

    1998-01-01

    The genomic GC contents of both nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing members of eight genera of bacteria are investigated. Analysis by t-tests showed that in the two aerobic genera investigated (Aquaspirillum and Vibrio) there is a significantly higher GC content in the nitrogen-fixing members of the genus than in those unable to Fix nitrogen, whilst in anaerobic genera there is either no GC bias, or in the case of two genera (Rhodospirillum and Clostridium) there is a significantly higher GC conte...

  14. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization in yield and macronutrients contents of heliconia cv. Golden Torch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Z. Beckmann-Cavalcante

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N and potassium (K fertilization in yield and contents of macronutrients in heliconia plants (Heliconia psittacorum x Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeguieta cv. Golden Torch. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a 4 x 4 factorial, corresponding to N doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of N hole-1 and K doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of K2O hole-1 with four replicates and five rhizomes per plot, under field conditions. After one year of cultivation, yield (number of flower stems per square meter and the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were determined. The applied N doses did not influence either yield or the leaf contents of the evaluated macronutrients. K fertilization favored the increase in leaf K content and the decrease in the contents of P, Ca and Mg in leaves of heliconias. Under the conditions of this experiment, it is recommended to apply 161.46 g of K2O hole-1 for a maximum yield of 9.89 stems m-2 per month.

  15. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on fatty acid contents and composition in the green microalga, Chlorella sp. 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Dukhaeng; Luong, Thao Thanh; Park, Sora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate and generalize the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of and lipid production in Chlorella sp. 227, several nutritional combinations consisting of different carbon and nitrogen sources and concentrations were given to the media for cultivation of Chlorella sp. 227, respectively. The growth rate and lipid content were affected largely by concentration rather than by sources. The maximum specific growth was negatively affected by low concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There is a maximum allowable inorganic carbon concentration (less than 500~1,000 mM bicarbonate) in autotrophic culture, but the maximum lipid content per gram dry cell weight (g DCW) was little affected by the concentration of inorganic carbon within the concentration. The lipid content per g DCW was increased when the microalga was cultured with the addition of glucose and bicarbonate (mixotrophic) at a fixed nitrogen concentration and with the lowest nitrogen concentration (0.2 mM), relatively. Considering that lipid contents per g DCW increased in those conditions, it suggests that a high ratio of carbon to nitrogen in culture media promotes lipid accumulation in the cells. Interestingly, a significant increase of the oleic acid amount to total fatty acids was observed in those conditions. These results showed the possibility to induce lipid production of high quality and content per g DCW by modifying the cultivation conditions.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  17. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates and ratios of base and topdressing on wheat yield,soil nitrate content and nitrogen balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is one of the most important measures that increases grain yield and improves grain quality in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production.Presently,there is a large number of investigations (experiments) in the field on different nitrogen fertilizer application regimes.However,there still exists a serious problem of low nitrogen use efficiency,especially in winter wheat high yield conditions:unsuitable nitrogen fertilizer,which often leads to lower yield and large accumulation of nitrate in the soil,bringing a potential risk to the environment.In order to explore the optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer application suitable for environment and economy,a field experiment on the different rate and ratio of base and topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer at the different growth periods of winter wheat was conducted.The field experiment was undertaken from the fall of 2003 to the summer of 2004 in the village of Zhongcun in Longkou city,in the Shandong Province of China.The field experiment with three repeats for each treatment was designed in a split-plot.The major plot was applied with urea at a nitrogen fertilizer rate of three levels,namely,0 kg·hm-2 (CK),168 kg·hm-2 (A),and 240 kg·hm-2 (B).In the sub-plot,the ratios of base and topdressing nitrogen fertilizer at the different development periods of wheat were 1/2:1/2 (A1 and B1),1/3:2/3 (A2 and B2) and 0:1 (A3 and B3).Treatment B1 was under a regime used now in the local region.It was found that the amount of N accumulation in plants had no significant difference between treatments applied with nitrogen fertilizer.The grain yield and grain protein content were all elevated remarkably by applying nitrogen fertilizer compared with those of treatment CK.There was no significant difference in the grain yield and grain protein content between A2 and B2 and B3.However,when compared with those of B2 and B3,in A2 there was an increase in nitrogen use efficiency and residual soil

  18. Yield and Nicotine Content of Flue-Cured Tobacco as Affected by Soil Nitrogen Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiao-Tang; CHAO Feng-Chun; LI Chun-Jian; JIANG Rong-Feng; P.CHRISTIE; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply is the most important factor affecting yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco (FCT).A field experiment and an in situ incubation method were used to study the effects of soil N mineralization in the later stages of growth on yield and nicotine content of FCT in Fenggang and Jiusha,Guizhou Province.The yield and market value of FCT at Fenggang were much lower than those at Jinsha.However,the nicotine content of middle and upper leaves was much higher at Fenggang than at Jiusha when the same rate of fertilizer N was applied,which might be due to a higher N supply capacity at the Fenggang site.At later stages of growth (7-16 weeks after transplanting),the soil net N mineralization at Fenggang (56 kg N ha-1) was almost double that at Jiusha (30 kg N ha-1).While soil NHa-N and NO3-N were almost exhausted by the plants or leached 5 weeks after transplanting,the N taken up at the later growth stages at Fenggang were mainly derived from soil N mineralization,which contributed to a high nicotine content in the upper leaves.The order of soil N contribution to N buildup in different leaves was:upper leaves > middle leaves > lower leaves.Thus,soil N mineralization at late growth stages was an important factor affecting N accumulation and therefore the nicotine content in the upper leaves.

  19. Observations on carbon and nitrogen content of suspended matter in aheadwater stream in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R. Peart; GUAN Dong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The total carbon(C) and total nitrogen(N) content of suspended matter in a small undisturbed headwater drainage basin in the New Territories of Hong Kong has been monitored. Mean C and N contents were 12.85 % and 0.99% respectively for 132 samples. Samples collected under stableflow conditions had mean C and N contents of 12.81% and 1.06% respectively. Stormflow samples had mean C and N values of 12.86% and 0.97% respectively,which were very similar to the levels observed under stableflow conditions. The mean C:N ratios of 12.47 and 13.39for stableflow and stormflow also reveal little difference according to hydrologic conditions. When all the data is considered little difference is observed in C and N according to the season. However, in winter there is a significant difference in C and N content between stable and stormflow samples. When C and N are plotted against water level the scattergraphs suggested that as stage increases the percentage of C and N in the suspended matter declines.Scattergraphs of C and N against suspended sediment concentration reveal a negative association. Comparison has been made between fresh leaf C, N and C/N ratio for trees and shrubs and the suspended matter. Fresh leaves do not appear to contribute significantly to suspended matter. The C/N ratio of suspended matter would also seem to exclude woody material and algae as sources of suspended matter.

  20. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  1. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on micronutrient content in grain maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maňásek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year small-plot field experiment with the grain maize hybrid KWS 2376 was conducted on heavy soil with a low supply of available nutrients incl. potassium (K at Otrokovice, Czech Republic, during 2010–2011. The experiment included 4 treatments: unfertilized control; nitrogen (N fertilisation with urea (120 kg N/ha alone or combined with two forms of K fertiliser (potassium chloride (KCl or potassium sulphate (K2SO4; 125 kg K2O/ha. Biomass samples for determination of Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe were taken as the whole aboveground biomass in the DC 32 (first node stage, the ear-leaf in the DC 61 (flowering stage and grain during the harvest.Between the two years the content of micronutrients in the individual treatments varied irregularly. In DC 32 and DC 61 the order of the content of micronutrients was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu. The Fe content was significantly the highest in the unfertilised control and the Mn content after the application of N + K2SO4 in both samplings. In the grain the order was as follows: Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu (mg/kg DM: at the following contents: Zn: 19.20–23.19; Fe: 15.12–19.87; Mn: 0.85–3.60; Cu: 0.19–1.34. We can recommend fertilisation of maize with urea and with both potassium mineral fertilisers without any negative effects on the content of the micronutrients in the maize biomass.

  2. Assessment of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Phytotoxicity on Oats (Avena sativa L.) Biomass and Content of Nitrogen Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soil contamination with tri- and hexavalent chromium and soil application of compost, zeolite, and CaO on the mass of oats and content of nitrogen compounds in different organs of oats. The oats mass and content of nitrogen compounds in the crop depended on the type and dose of chromium and alleviating substances incorporated to soil. In the series without neutralizing substances, Cr(VI), unlike Cr(III), had a negative effect on the growth and development of oats. The highest doses of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) stimulated the accumulation of total nitrogen but depressed the content of N-NO3(-) in most of organs of oats. Among the substances added to soil in order to alleviate the negative impact of Cr (VI) on the mass of plants, compost had a particularly beneficial effect on the growth and development of oats. The application of compost, zeolite, and CaO to soil had a stronger effect on the content of nitrogen compounds in grain and straw than in roots. Soil enrichment with either of the above substances usually raised the content of nitrogen compounds in oats grain and straw, but decreased it in roots.

  3. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  4. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  5. Effect of Genetic Conditions, Foliar Fertilisation with Magnesium and Storage on the Content of Nitrates (V and (III in the Storage Roots in Carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wszelaczyńska Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2007-2009, studies were undertaken to determine the effect of genetic factors, magnesium fertilisation and storage on the content of nitrates (V and (III in carrot roots. After harvest as well as after storage, the cultivar ‘Perfekcja’ was characterised by the lowest content of NO3− and NO2−, while the greatest amounts were found in cultivar ‘Flacoro’. Magnesium was applied in doses of 0, 45 and 90 kg MgO ha-1 - in the form of 3% spraying during the vegetation season. The research items were cultivars: ‘Berjo’, Flacoro’, ‘Karotan’, ‘Koral’ and ‘Perfekcja’.

  6. Effects of Trace Element Fertilizer on Nutrient Content of Rubber Tree Buddings by Foliar Application%叶面喷施微肥对橡胶苗叶片营养含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥会; 华元刚; 罗微; 林钊沐

    2013-01-01

    Taking SCATC 7-33-97 as the experiment material,the effects of different levels of water-soluble trace element fertilizer (Trace element fertilizer) on the contents of N,P,K,Ca and Mg in rubber budding leaves were studied.The results showed that the content of N in the first and second canopy leaves reached extremely significant effect at different concentrations of trace fertilizer,and both reached its maximum at a trace element fertilizer concentration of 2.5 mg/kg.The P content of the first to third canopy leaves reached significant effect at different concentrations of trace fertilizer,and reached its maximum at a concentration of 2.5~3.5 mg/kg.The K content of the second and third canopy leaves reached significant effect,and reached its maximum at trace element fertilizer concentration of 2.5 mg/kg.In conclusion,foliar application of trace element fertilizer on rubber budding leaves could significantly promote the absorption of N,P,K,Ca and Mg,and the optimal foliar applied concentration of microelements was 2.5 mg/kg.%以长有两蓬叶的热研7-33-97橡胶芽接苗为材料,通过盆栽试验研究叶面喷施不同水平微量元素水溶肥料对橡胶苗叶片营养含量的影响.结果表明:不同浓度微肥处理下,第一、二蓬叶N养分含量极显著高于清水对照组,且都在2.5 mg/kg的处理下达到最大值;第一、二、三蓬叶P养分含量显著高于清水对照组,在2.5~3.5 mg/kg处理下达到最大值;第二、三蓬叶K养分含量显著高于清水对照组,在2.5 mg/kg处理下达到最大值;第二、三蓬叶Ca养分含量显著高于清水对照组;第一、二蓬叶Mg养分含量极显著高于清水对照组.表明橡胶幼苗叶面喷施微肥能显著促进N,P,K,Ca,Mg养分的吸收,最适宜浓度为2.5 mg/kg.

  7. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    mehdi naderi farsani; saeed meshkiniy; Ramin manaffar; zahra Asal pishe

    2015-01-01

      Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment) play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta), was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a per...

  8. Durum Wheat Roots Adapt to Salinity Remodeling the Cellular Content of Nitrogen Metabolites and Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Maria Grazia; Ciarmiello, Loredana F.; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Maximova, Eugenia; Fuggi, Amodio; Carillo, Petronia

    2017-01-01

    Plants are currently experiencing increasing salinity problems due to irrigation with brackish water. Moreover, in fields, roots can grow in soils which show spatial variation in water content and salt concentration, also because of the type of irrigation. Salinity impairs crop growth and productivity by inhibiting many physiological and metabolic processes, in particular nitrate uptake, translocation, and assimilation. Salinity determines an increase of sap osmolality from about 305 mOsmol kg−1 in control roots to about 530 mOsmol kg−1 in roots under salinity. Root cells adapt to salinity by sequestering sodium in the vacuole, as a cheap osmoticum, and showing a rearrangement of few nitrogen-containing metabolites and sucrose in the cytosol, both for osmotic adjustment and oxidative stress protection, thus providing plant viability even at low nitrate levels. Mainly glycine betaine and sucrose at low nitrate concentration, and glycine betaine, asparagine and proline at high nitrate levels can be assumed responsible for the osmotic adjustment of the cytosol, the assimilation of the excess of ammonium and the scavenging of ROS under salinity. High nitrate plants with half of the root system under salinity accumulate proline and glutamine in both control and salt stressed split roots, revealing that osmotic adjustment is not a regional effect in plants. The expression level and enzymatic activities of asparagine synthetase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, are analyzed. PMID:28119716

  9. Determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by the Kjeldahl method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanna M; Barbano, David M; Fleming, J Richard

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to determine interlaboratory performance statistics for a modified and optimized version of AOAC Method 920.123 for the determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis. Details included addressing the issues of material homogeneity, test portion size (1 g), quantitative transfer (weighing on to filter paper), ensuring system suitability (nitrogen recoveries), and using AOAC Method 991.20 as the basis for nitrogen analysis. Fifteen laboratories tested 18 pairs of blind duplicate cheese materials with a crude protein content between 18 and 36%. Materials represented hard, semihard, and processed commercial cheeses with a wide range of composition. Statistical performance parameters expressed as crude protein (nitrogen x 6.38), g/100 g, with invalid and outlier data removed were mean = 26.461, repeatability standard deviation (Sr) 0.111, reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) = 0.153, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 0.42%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) = 0.58%, repeatability (r) = 0.312, and reproducibility (R) = 0.428. The interlaboratory study results were acceptable and comparable to those for the milk Kjeldahl nitrogen method on a relative nitrogen basis. The Study Directors recommend that this modified method for the determination of total nitrogen in hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis be adopted First Action as an improved method to replace Method 920.123.

  10. Foliar carbohydrate differs betweenPicea crassifolia and Sabina przewalskii with the altitudinal variation of Qilian Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManXiao Zhang; HuiJuan Pei; YouFu Zhang; Tuo Chen; GuangXiu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen metabolism strongly influence growth and development in plants. The biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (structural carbohydrates, SC) depends largely on the supply of NSC. We desire to examine which hypothesis, carbon limitation or growth limitation, best fits the alpine plant response between NSC, SC, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and altitude. We compared the foliar concentrations of carbohydrates, C and N between the leaves ofPicea crassifolia (lower-elevation tree-line species) andSabina przewalskii (high-elevation tree-line species) in their response to changing elevation. Our site was located in the mid-northern area of Qilian Mountains, China. We found that foliar soluble sugar (SG)concentrations were significantly higher inP. crassifolia than inS. przewalskiiat the 2,700–3,400 m level. Foliar NSC levels inP. crassifolia increased at the 2,700–3,100 m level, indicating that growth was limited gradually resulting in a surplus of NSC (to conform to GLH), subsequently decreasing at the 3,100–3,400 m level, the assimilation declined leading to C deficit (to conform to CLH). SC (SC metabolism disorders at 3,100–3,400 m), C, N and starch were significantly lower inP. crassifolia than inS. przewalskii. Conversely, foliar SG concentration shows a fall-rise trend with increasing elevation forS. przewalskii. SC concentration inS. przewalskii leaves decreased with an increase of elevation and has a significantly positive correlation to N concentration marking the assimilation of plants. Therefore, the high-elevation tree-line species (S. przewalskii) utilize or store more foliar SG leading to a decrease of SG concentration for survival and growth/regrowth in an adverse environment, higher total C, N, SC, starch contents and lower NSC level. Also, their change trends along the elevational gradient in leaves ofS. przewalskii indicate better assimilation strategies for SG use under environmental stress compared to

  11. Measurement and analysis of soil nitrogen and organic matter content using near-infrared spectroscopy techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; SONG Hai-yan; PEREIRA Annia García; G(O)MEZ Antihus Hemández

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is as a rapid, convenient and simple nondestructive technique useful for quantifying several soil properties. This method was used to estimate nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM) content in a soil of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou County. A total of 125 soil samples were taken from the field. Ninety-five samples spectra were used during the calibration and cross validation stage. Thirty samples spectra were used to predict N and OM concentration. NIR spectra of these samples were correlated using partial least square regression. The regression coefficients between measured and predicted values of N and OM was 0.92 and 0.93, and SEP (standard error of prediction) were 3.28 and 0.06, respectively, which showed that NIR method had potential to accurately predict these constituents in this soil. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy could be a good tool for precision farming application.

  12. Effect of nitrogen on growth, nutrient assimilation, essential oil content, yield and quality attributes in Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple randomized pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of nitrogen (N on growth, biochemical, quality and yield attributes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. a medicinally important spice plant. Plants were supplied with five levels of basal nitrogen viz. 0 (Control, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N per ha. The performance of the crop was adjudged in terms of various parameters viz. plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of shoot and rhizome, total chlorophyll content, leaf and rhizome NPK content, rhizome carbohydrate and protein content, and analysed at 120 and 180 days after planting (DAP. The data revealed that nitrogen application significantly stimulated most of the studied attributes. Of the five N concentrations, 120 kg N per ha soil proved optimum for most of the parameters studied as compared to the control at both crop stages.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Foliar Photosynthesis,Nutrient Status and Nitrogen Metabolism of Torreya grandis Seedlings%氮素形态对香榧苗期光合作用、主要元素吸收及氮代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐辉; 李婷婷; 沈朝华; 胡渊渊; 吴家胜

    2014-01-01

    In this study,we measured the photosynthetic rate,the contents of primary inorganic elements,and nitrate reductase activity and leaf N content of Torreya grandis seedlings subjected to different inorganic nitrogen treatments. The results showed that the nitrogen forms and the ratio had significant impact on the photosynthetic rate,N,P,K content, and the nitrate reductase ( NR) activity of T. grandis seedlings. With the mixture of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N at the ratio of 1:1 and 3:1,the photosynthetic rate,and stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) were significant higher compared to plants fed with sole NH4 +-N or NO3 --N. However,there were no different significances in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) among the different inorganic nitrogen treatments. The sole NH4 +-N and NO3 --N fed plants had lower phosphorus ( P ) and potassium ( K ) content than that treated with mixed nitrogen of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N. Plants supplied with both forms of N ( NH4 +-N /NO3 --N =25/75 and 50/50 ) had higher NO3 - content and NR activity in comparison to the plants only fed with NO3 --N. Compared to the plants fed with NH4 +-N or NO3 --N alone,significant higher N content was observed in the plants fed with mixture of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N ( NH4 +-N /NO3 --N =50/50 and 25/75). It is concluded that Torreya grandis seedlings have no obvious preference to NH4 +-N or NO3 --N. The mixture of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N at the ratio of 1∶1 is able to boost the photosynthesis,nutrients absorption and nitrogen metabolism of T. grandis seedlings.

  14. Study on Effects of Compound Foliar Fertilizer on Reducing Nicotine Content, Improving Aroma and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L.)%烤烟复合型叶面肥对烟叶降碱增香提质的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文旭; 靳志丽; 李振武

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to grasp the effects of two types of foliar fertilizers on appearance and inter quality of flue-cured tobacco. [Method] Contrast test with foliar fertilizers in field was conducted. [Result] The results indicated that spraying tobacco leaves with compound foliar fertilizer twice could promote tobacco upper leaves spreading speed, upper leaves area growth rate was 7.9% - 20. 2% ; Tobacco leaves'appearance quality, such as structure, oil content, chromaticity and identify, were progressed evidently; Nicotine content of leaves was proper; harmony of chemistry component was improved; Leaves' key aroma matter content and suck quality were progressed evidently. [ Conclusion ] Tobacco compound foliar fertilizer is significantly superior to other alike products, which are recommended to further popularized in leave fertilizer production.%[目的]为了掌握2种叶面肥对烤烟(Nicotiana glauca L.)外观和内在品质的作用效果.[方法]进行烤烟叶面肥大田对比试验.[结果]烟株打顶后进行2次复合型叶面肥喷施处理,能够明显促进上部叶开片,上部叶面积增幅7.9% ~20.2%;烟叶结构、油分、色度、身份等外观质量得到明显改善;烟碱含量适宜,化学成分协调性得到改善,烟叶关键香味物质含量和评吸质量明显提高.[结论]烤烟复合型叶面肥的使用效果明显优于同类叶面肥,具有较高的推广应用价值.

  15. Teores de nitrogênio em fôlhas de cafeeiro, em relação à adubação química: I - Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto Effects of fertilization on the nitrogen content of the coffee leaves: I - Latosolic B "Terra roxa" and ortho Red-yellow Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de análises foliares obtidos durante cinco anos em ensaio de adubação química nitrogenada em café, cultivar Mundo Nôvo, instalado em Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto, revelaram, para amostras colhidas no verão, teores médios de 2,8% a 3% de nitrogênio total como indicativos de uma nutrição adequada. Produções elevadas de frutos estiveram associadas com teores da ordem de 500 ppm de nitrogênio nítrico nas fôlhas. A análise de fôlhas para ambas as formas de nitrogênio mostrou que a aplicação do adubo nitrogenado em pelo menos três parcelas, no período que vai de outubro a março, parece importante para prevenir a deficiência.Nitrogen is highly demanded by coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants, and previous survey, made by foliar analysis, indicated that most of them, grown in São Paulo State, suffer nitrogen deficiency. A study was made to observe the variation of the total and nitric nitrogen, as judged by foliar chemical analysis, in relation to the type, amount and the timing of the application of several different nitrogen fertilizers (Nitrocálcio, nitrate of soda from Chile, ammonium sulphate, and urea. The experiment, a factorial of 4x4x4, was installed in a mixture of Latosolic B "Terra Roxa" and Ortho Red-Yellow Latosol at Experimental Center of Campinas, SP. The amount of the fertilizer used was 45, 90, 135 and 180 g N/plant, subdivided in 1 to 4 applications throughout the year. P2O5 (120 g and K(20 (180 g were uniformly applied to all plants. Leaf samples were collected at 45 days intervals between October and March, and another at July, from 1964 to 1969. The results of the analysis indicated that: (a sampling during summer (January-March is better to evaluate nitrogen deficiency in coffee; (b total nitrogen content of 2.8-3% (and about 500 ppm of nitric N was correlated to a production of more than 2,500 kg/ha of treated beans; (c the subdivision of the fertilizers applied

  16. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi naderi farsani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta, was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a period of 12 days . Daily cell counting was done using Neubauer haemocytometer to determine the growth rate, cell density and exponential time. The grown cells were harvested in the stationary phase to determine fatty acid and protein content.   Results : The maximum growth rate ( 0.35 ± 0.09 day−1 and cell density ( 36.00 ± 1.01 ×105 cell.ml-1 was achieved in 2.5 mM of nitrogen concentration . The maximum level of PUFA, was 25.31 % of the total fatty acids under N-sufficient conditions (5 mM nitrogen compared to 17.01 % under N-free. The maximum precentage of protein content ( 36.81 % was found at 5 mM nitrogen content and minimum ( 11.14 % was seen at nitrogen free medium . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed that control of nutrients plays an important role in microalgae culture. Any increase or decrease, depending on the type of nutrient, causes metabolic changes as well as changes in physiology and the nutritional value of microalgae. The nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mM may be more beneficial than other concentrations, as cell number is sustained in exponential phase longer.

  17. Influence of welding parameters on nitrogen content in welding metal of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N austenitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Rui-dong; QIU Liang; WANG Cun-yu; WANG Qing-feng; ZHENG Yang-zeng

    2005-01-01

    The transfer behavior of nitrogen into the welding metal during gas tungsten arc welding process of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N steel was investigated. The effects of gas tungsten arc welding process variables, such as the volume fraction of nitrogen in shielding gas, arc holding time and arc current on the nitrogen content in the welding metal were also evaluated. The results show that the volume fraction of nitrogen in gas mixture plays a major role in controlling the nitrogen content in the welding metal. It seems that there exhibits a maximum nitrogen content depending on the arc current and arc holding time. The optimum volume fraction of nitrogen in shielding gas is 4% or so. The role of gas tungsten arc welding processing parameters in controlling the transfer of nitrogen is further confirmed by the experimental results of gas tungsten arc welding process with feeding metal.

  18. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  19. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  20. A facile approach towards increasing the nitrogen-content in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via halogenated catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombaka, L. M.; Ndungu, P. G.; Omondi, B.; McGettrick, J. D.; Davies, M. L.; Nyamori, V. O.

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized at 850 °C via a CVD deposition technique by use of three ferrocenyl derivative catalysts, i.e. para-CN, -CF3 and -Cl substituted-phenyl rings. The synthesized catalysts have been characterized by NMR, IR, HR-MS and XRD. The XRD analysis of the para-CF3 catalyst indicates that steric factors influence the X-ray structure of 1,1‧-ferrocenylphenyldiacrylonitriles. Acetonitrile or pyridine was used as carbon and nitrogen sources to yield mixtures of N-CNTs and carbon spheres (CS). The N-CNTs obtained from the para-CF3 catalysts, in pyridine, have the highest nitrogen-doping level, show a helical morphology and are less thermally stable compared with those synthesized by use of the para-CN and -Cl as catalyst. This suggests that fluorine heteroatoms enhance nitrogen-doping in N-CNTs and formation of helical-N-CNTs (H-N-CNTs). The para-CF3 and para-Cl catalysts in acetonitrile yielded iron-filled N-CNTs, indicating that halogens promote encapsulation of iron into the cavity of N-CNT. The use of acetonitrile, as carbon and nitrogen source, with the para-CN and -Cl as catalysts also yielded a mixture of N-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (CNFs), with less abundance of CNFs in the products obtained using para-Cl catalysts. However, para-CF3 catalyst in acetonitrile gave N-CNTs as the only shaped carbon nanomaterials.

  1. Spatial variation in foliar chemicals within radish (Raphanus sativus) plants and their effects on performance of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitendra; Tan, Ching-Wen; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2010-12-01

    Foliar chemicals are variable within a plant and this may affect herbivore feeding preference. This study was carried out to quantify concentrations of primary (nitrogen, water, and total nonstructural carbohydrates) and secondary substances (sinigrin) in young and old leaves of Raphanus sativus L. and to evaluate performance and survival of a generalist herbivore Spodoptera litura F. feeding on them. Forty to 50-d-old R. sativus plants were used in both foliar chemical analysis and insect performance bioassays. Leaves located on the third to the sixth node from the base of the plant were defined as old leaves and the remaining leaves (from seventh node to the plant apex) of the plant were referred as young leaves in this study. All foliar chemicals except water differed significantly between young and old leaves. Moreover, young leaves were more nutritious but much more defended, based on sinigrin content, against S. litura than old leaves. Performance and survival of S. litura were reduced on young leaves as compared with old leaves. Male and female larval duration only differed significantly on young leaves. Female larval development time was longer than male development time on young leaves, but not on older leaves. Therefore, this study revealed that defenses in young leaves have differential effects upon male and female S. litura.

  2. Fixação biológica de nitrogênio e teores foliares de nutrientes na soja em função de doses de molibdênio e gesso agrícola Biological nitrogen fixation and leaf nutrient concentration on soybean as a function of molybdenum and gypsum levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Gelain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade econômica da soja brasileira no mercado mundial se deve, em grande parte, aos benefícios da fixação biológica do nitrogênio na cultura. O trabalho foi conduzido a campo, sob sistema plantio direto, em condição de sequeiro, no Município de Maracaju-MS, com o objetivo de avaliar a nodulação, o crescimento, nutrição mineral e produtividade de grãos da soja submetida a diferentes doses de gesso agrícola e molibdênio. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas representadas por quatro doses de gesso agrícola (0, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 kg ha-1 e as subparcelas, por quatro doses de molibdênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 g ha-1. Não houve efeito da interação gesso x Mo sobre a produtividade da soja. O gesso agrícola não influencia no teor foliar de N e na produtividade. O Mo proporciona incrementos na produtividade e no teor de proteínas dos grãos.The economic competitiveness of Brazilian soybeans on the world market occurs, in large part, due to the benefits of biological nitrogen fixation in this crop. The field experiment was carried out in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, under no-tillage system, in rainfed condition. The aim was to evaluate nodulation, growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of soybeans under different doses of gypsum and molybdenum. The experimental design used was a randomized block with five replicates and arranged in a split-plot squeme, with the plot represented by four doses of gypsum (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 kg ha-1 and the subplots by four doses of molybdenum (0, 20, 40 and 60 g ha-1. There were no interaction effects of Mo x gypsum for grain yield. Gypsum has no influence in the N leaf content and grain yield. Mo increases grain yield and protein levels in the grain.

  3. Análise sazonal do potencial antimicrobiano e teores de flavonoides e quinonas de extratos foliares de Aloe arborescens Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae Seasonal analysis from the antimicrobial potency and flavonoid and quinone content from Aloe arborescens Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leite Cardoso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano e os teores de flavonoides e quinonas de extratos foliares de Aloe arborescens Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, produzidos em diferentes épocas do ano. Extratos etanólicos e clorofórmicos foram preparados a partir de folhas, os bioensaios de atividade antimicrobiana foram desenvolvidos pelo método de macrodiluição em caldo, e dosagens de flavonoides e quinonas foram realizadas nos extratos. Todos os extratos apresentaram ação inibitória sobre os microrganismos testados. O extrato clorofórmico de inverno apresentou a menor CIM (128 µg/mL sobre B. subtilis. Os extratos clorofórmicos de inverno, primavera e verão apresentaram maior atividade antimicrobiana em relação ao extrato clorofórmico de outono. O extrato etanólico de inverno apresentou a menor CIM (256 µg/mL e a menor CMM (512 µg/mL sobre K. pneumoniae. Os extratos etanólicos de verão e outono mostraram baixa atividade antimicrobiana. Os teores de quinonas das folhas foram maiores nos períodos mais quentes de coleta (verão e outono, enquanto os teores de flavonoides foram semelhantes nos quatro períodos de coleta.This work has the objective of evaluate the antimicrobial potency and the content of flavonoids and quinones from the Aloe arborescens Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, leaf extracts produced in the four seasons of the year. Ethanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from the leaves, the bioassays from antimicrobial activity were developed by the macrodilution method in broth, and dosages of flavonoids and quinones were performed in the extracts. The winter chloroform extract showed the lowest CIM (128 µg/mL on B. subtilis. The ethanol extract showed the lowest CIM (256 µg/mL and the lowest CMM (512 µg/mL on K. pneumoniae. The summer and fall ethanol extracts showed low antimicrobial activity. The quinones extracts showed inhibitory activity on the tested microorganisms. The winter, spring and summer

  4. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on the Content and Yield of DNJ of Mulberry Leaves in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LIU; Hao YIN; Wanhong TONG; Gaiqun HUANG; Li WANG; Ling WEI; Jichuan ZHENG; Xiaorong SHUAI; 无

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to scientifically improve the 1-deoxynojimycin (DNJ) yield of mulberry leaves in spring. [Method] "3414" experimental design was adopted to investigate the effects of different fertilizer application rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the DNJ content in mulberry leaves. The regression relationship was further simulated with DNJ yield as the objective function and fertil- izer application rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as the regulatory factors. [Result] The results showed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium all have great effects on the DNJ content in mulberry leaves at different parts of mulberry tree (Morus alba); the DNJ content in mulberry leaves increases with the increasing single-factor fertilizer application rate and reaches the maximum under N2P2K2 level; different fertilizer application rates and combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can significantly affect the DNJ content in mulberry leaves; according to the simulated fertilizer effect function, the optimal economic yield of total DNJ in mul- berry leaves was 23.23 kg/hm^2, the recommended fertilization indicators were 286.11 kg/hm^2 N, 95.22 kg/hm^2 P2O5 and 159.62 kg/hm^2 K20. [Conclusion] After confirmation in productive practice, this optimal fertilization program can provide reference for the construction of mulberry plantation with high yield and high quality of DNJ.

  5. Productivity, Oil Content, and Oil Composition of Sweet Basil as a Function of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were believed to be important nutrient management tools for the production of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'German') with desirable oil content and composition and also acceptable herbage yields. A multi-location research study was initiated to evaluate the effect of...

  6. Genotypic and environmental effects on cottonseed oil, nitrogen, and gossypol contents in eighteen years Regional High Quality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of environmental influence on seed traits is critical for genetic improvement of seed quality in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of environment and genotype (G) for seed oil, nitrogen (N), and gossypol content...

  7. Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae gracilaria tikvahiae and ulva species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; De Busk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva species were grown under three different nitrogen enrichment regimes producing plants of each species with three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular.

  8. Seeds inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen application in side-dressing and leaf in maizeInoculação de sementes com bactéria diazotrófica e aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura e foliar em milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Kappes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of nitrogen management and its biological fixation with diazotrophic bacteria, this study was carried out aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of maize, in response to seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen application in side-dressing and leaf. The experiment was conducted in Selvíria, Mato Grosso of Sul State, Brazil, during the growing season 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20’ S and 51º 24’ W, with altitude of 340 m. Sixteen treatments were established with four replications, in randomized blocks with the combination of the factors A. brasilense (with and without inoculante, nitrogen rate (0 and 90 kg ha-1, in V5 growth stage and urea leaf application (0, 4, 8 and 12%: application in V5 and V8 growth stage. The maize hybrid used was the DKB 390 YG®, sowed in the row spacing of 0.9 m. Parameters measured were productive and morphological components of culture and crop yield. Increase in maize yield by seed inoculation with A. brasilense was observed. The application of 90 kg ha-1 of nitrogen in side-dressing provided higher chlorophyll leaf index, stalk diameter and prolificacy, however, the yield not was increased. The application of urea leaf did not agronomic efficiency and, therefore, should not be used as the unique form of supply and alternative to nitrogen addition to crop. Considerando a importância do manejo do nitrogênio e da sua fixação biológica através de bactérias diazotróficas, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico do milho, em função da inoculação das sementes com Azospirillum brasilense e da aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura e foliar. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Selvíria – MS, durante o ano agrícola 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso (20º 20’ S e 51º 24’ W, com altitude de 340 m. Foram estabelecidos dezesseis tratamentos com quatro repeti

  9. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyanit, Ekkarut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathaumthani (Thailand). Failure Analysis and Surface Technology Lab; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkom University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering,; Phakpeetinan, Panyasak; Chianpairot, Amnuysak

    2016-08-01

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  10. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-06-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R2 of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R2 of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies.

  11. Relative chlorophyll contents in the evaluation of the nutritional status of nitrogen from xaraes palisade grass and determination of critical nitrogen sufficiency index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Ramos Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status of xaraes palisade grass with SPAD chlorophyll meter and the critical nitrogen sufficiency index (cNSI in the dry and rainy seasons were assessed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments (50, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1, three replicates and two seasons: dry and rainy. All variables had a high nonlinear relationship with their predictors (p < 0.001. Total nitrogen (TN reached a plateau at doses 262.0 and 514.8 kg of N ha-1 and the concentration of TN in the plant was 1.88 and 1.93% respectively during the rainy and dry season. Relative chlorophyll content (RCC reached a plateau at 46.05 and 53.65 SPAD units in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The production of dry matter (DM showed maximum response to nitrogen fertilization at 209.5 and 229.1 kg N ha-1 during the rainy and dry season respectively. The nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI reached the plateau at 0.85 and 0.99 in the rainy and dry season respectively. All variables showed high linear correlation (r = 0.71 to 0.99. The xaraés palisade grass’s cNSI is 0.85 and the chlorophyll meter may be used as a nutritional N management tool for the grass.

  12. [Effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in Eucalyptus plantations with different soil organic carbon content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Da; Zhang, Kai; Su, Dan; Lu, Fei; Wan, Wu-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Zheng, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen deposition on soil greenhouse gases fluxes has been well studied, while little has been piloted about the effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes and its discrepancy with different soil organic carbon content. In our study, we conducted field control experiment in a young Eucalyptus plantation in Southeast China. We compared the effects of 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (Control: 0 kg · hm(-2); Low N: 84.2 kg · hm(-2); Medium N: 166.8 kg · hm(-2); High N: 333.7 kg · hm(-2)) on soil GHGs fluxes from 2 sites (LC and HC) with significantly different soil organic carbon (SOC) content (P Fertilization had significant priming effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes. One month after fertilization, both CO2 and N2O had the flux peak and decreased gradually, and the difference among the treatments disappeared at the end of the growing season. However, fertilization had no significant effect on CH4 oxidation between the 2 sites. (2) Fertilization and SOC were two crucial factors that had significant effects on CO2 and N2O emission. Fertilization had a significant positive effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes (P 0.05). The CO2 and N2O emission fluxes were significantly higher in HC than those in LC (P Fertilization and SOC had great interactive effect on CO2 and N2O emission (P fertilization on soil GHGs fluxes were not only in connection with the intensify of nitrogen, but also closely tied to the SOC content. When we assess the effects of nitrogen on soil GHGs fluxes, the difference induced by SOC should not be ignored.

  13. Evaluation of Leaf Total Nitrogen Content for Nitrogen Management in a Malaysian Paddy Field by Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Laboratory plant testing is usually time-consuming and high-costing. Hence, plant nutrient variability must be measured rapidly and the information made known to the farmers before the new season starts. Site-specific crop management, well-established in some developed countries, is now being considered in other places such as Malaysia. Approach: The application of site-specific management principles and techniques to diverse crops and small-scale farming systems in Malaysia will present new challenges. Describing within-field variability in typical Malaysian production settings is a fundamental first step toward determining the size of management zones and the inter-relationships between limiting factors, for establishment of site-specific management strategies. Results: Measurements of rice SPAD readings and nitrogen content were obtained in a Malaysian rice paddy field. SPAD reading data was manually collected on 80DAT and measured using a Minolta SPAD 502. Leaf samples were collected at 60 points at the same time to compare results from sampling with SPAD reading values. Samples nitrogen content was analyzed in a laboratory. Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of the measured parameters and also their relationship. SPAD reading and nitrogen content maps were created on the interpretation of the data was investigated. Conclusion/Recommendations: Finally the research indicated that SPAD readings are closely related to leaf N content which means the potential for technology of precision farming to understand and control variation in Malaysian production fields and also SPAD chlorophyll meter ability to monitor the N status of rice and recommend the amount of N fertilization. Additional research is needed to confirm the results with data from other fields and crops.

  14. Development of High Strength Steel Designed for Carbonitriding with High Nitrogen Content to Be Used for Automatic Transmission Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youichi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    To downsize and lighten automatic transmission components, the gears installed must be strengthened in terms of pitting endurance and/or wear resistance. The most important metallurgical factor affecting fractures is well known to be resistance to softening when steel is tempered at approximately 573 K. Carbonitriding with a high anount of nitrogen is a very effective production technique because nitrogen increases the resistance during tempering. However, structural anomalies begin to appear in the surface layer when the nitrogen content exceeds 0.6 mass% in the chromium steel generally used. To address this, we have developed new high-strength chromium steel with an optimized chemical composition that effectively inhibits anomalies even when carbonitriding with a nitrogen content of more than 0.6 mass%.We performed a drivetrain durability test on an automatic transmission component designed to have excellent contact fatigue strength and a tooth root bending impact and fatigue strength. We found that the developed steel that was carbonitrided with a content of about 0.9 mass%, and then shot peened hard, has a pitting life of roughly 4.5 times that of conventionally manufactured steel.

  15. Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae Gracilaria tikvahiae and Ulva sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; DeBusk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva sp. were grown under three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular. 18 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Leaf life span and nitrogen content in semideciduous forest tree species (Croton priscus and Hymenaea courbaril Duração da vida da folha e conteúdo de nitrogênio em espécies arbóreas (Croton priscus e Hymenaea courbaril de floresta semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Baptista Haddad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to deciduous species, evergreen plants have lower leaf nutrient contents and higher leaf life span, important mechanisms for nutrient economy, allowing the colonization of low fertility soils. Strategies to conserve nitrogen in two semideciduous tropical forest tree species, with different leaf life spans were analyzed. The hypothesis was the fact that the two species would present different nitrogen conservation mechanisms in relation to chemical (total nitrogen, protein, chlorophyll, and proteolytic activity, functional (leaf life span, N-use efficiency, and N-resorption efficiency, morphological (specific leaf mass leaf characteristics, and total nitrogen in the soil. Hymenaea courbaril L. presented lower nitrogen compounds in leaves, longer leaf life span, higher N-use efficiency, and higher specific leaf mass, while absorbing proportionally less nitrogen from the soil than Croton priscus Croizat. These characteristics can contribute for a better nitrogen economy strategy of H. courbaril. No relationship was found between leaf life span and N resorption efficiency, nor between leaf life span, protease activity and nitrogen mobilization. The electrophoretic profiles of proteolytic enzymes in young leaves of the two species presented more bands with enzymatic activity than other kinds of leaves.Comparadas a espécies decíduas, as sempre-verdes têm menos nutrientes nas folhas, que também são mais longevas. Estes mecanismos são importantes para economia de nutrientes, e permitem a colonização de solos com baixa fertilidade. Foram analisadas estratégias de conservação de nitrogênio em duas espécies de floresta semidecídua, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes. Para isto foram comparados mecanismos químicos (concentrações de nitrogênio total, de proteína e clorofila e atividade proteolítica, funcionais (duração de vida das folhas, eficiência do uso de nitrogênio e eficiência de

  17. High host-plant nitrogen content: a prerequisite for the evolution of ant-caterpillar mutualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, L; Rasmann, S; Litsios, G; Fiedler, K; Dubuis, A; Pottier, J; Guisan, A

    2012-08-01

    The amount of nitrogen required to complete an insect's life cycle may vary greatly among species that have evolved distinct life history traits. Myrmecophilous caterpillars in the Lycaenidae family produce nitrogen-rich exudates from their dorsal glands to attract ants for protection, and this phenomenon has been postulated to shape the caterpillar's host-plant choice. Accordingly, it was postulated that evolution towards myrmecophily in Lycaenidae is correlated with the utilization of nitrogen-rich host plants. Although our results were consistent with the evolutionary shifts towards high-nutrient host plants serving as exaptation for the evolution of myrmecophily in lycaenids, the selection of nitrogen-rich host plants was not confined to lycaenids. Butterfly species in the nonmyrmecophilous family Pieridae also preferred nitrogen-rich host plants. Thus, we conclude that nitrogen is an overall important component in the caterpillar diet, independent of the level of myrmecophily, as nitrogen can enhance the overall insect fitness and survival. However, when nitrogen can be obtained through alternative means, as in socially parasitic lycaenid species feeding on ant brood, the selective pressure for maintaining the use of nutrient-rich host plants is relaxed, enabling the colonization of nitrogen-poor host plants.

  18. Effects of chromium(III and VI) on spring barley and maize biomass yield and content of nitrogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of trivalent Cr(III) or hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) soil contamination on biomass yield and nitrogenous compound content of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the main crop and subsequently maize (Zea mays L.) grown successively, and (2) examine whether the neutralizing additives applied (compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide) may be effective in reducing adverse impact of chromium (Cr) on crops. Spring barley yield was markedly decreased by Cr compounds, particularly Cr(VI). In contrast, maize yield was significantly increased by Cr(VI). Hexavalent Cr exerted a greater effect than the Cr(III) form on nitrogen levels in spring barley. Chromium significantly increased ammonia nitrogen content in maize. The accumulation of NO(3)(-)-N in plants treated with Cr(VI) was lower than in controls. The application of compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide onto the soil increased yield of maize only in pots containing Cr(III). Neutralizing additives exerted a positive, increased effect on the N-total content of maize but not spring barley, which was apparent with calcium oxide. Accumulation of NH(4)(+)-N in maize in pots with Cr(VI) was increased by all additives applied. The content of nitrate nitrogen in spring barley was predominantly affected by addition of compost and calcium oxide into the soil, producing a significant rise in NO(3)(-)-N content. Chromium, especially Cr(VI), used at doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg soil exerted adverse effects in treated plants, particularly spring barley.

  19. Respostas do capim-Tifton 85 à aplicação de nitrogênio: cobertura do solo, índice de área foliar e interceptação da radiação solar Responses of the grass Tifton 85 to the application of nitrogen: soil cover, leaf area index, and solar radiation interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.P. Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre o crescimento do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85, em termos de ocorrência de plantas e altura do dossel, índice de área foliar e interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa. O estudo foi desenvolvido sobre um planossolo de ocorrência em campo experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de N (0; 150; 300; 450 e 600kg/ha de N-ureia, aplicados em duas vezes, arranjados em um desenho experimental de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, entre 10 e 40 dias após o corte. Tanto a ocorrência de plantas como a altura do dossel responderam à adubação nitrogenada, conforme um padrão de resposta que variou, sazonalmente, em função das doses de N em interação com as condições ambientais. A expansão da área foliar e a interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa associada, também foram controladas direta e proporcionalmente pelas doses de N aplicadas, sendo maximizadas a valores de índice de área foliar em torno de 4,0.The effects of nitrogen (N fertilization levels on the growth patterns of the grass Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv.Tifton 85 were studied in terms of occurrence of plants, sward height, leaf area index, and photosynthetically active radiation interception (PARint. The field trial was made in an experimental area. Treatments consisted of N levels (0; 150; 300; 450; and 600kg/ha N-urea, split in two applications arranged in an experimental design of entirely randomized blocks with four repetitions. Plots were weekly sampled, from the day 10th to 40th after cutting. Both occurrence of plants as well as sward height were responsive to nitrogen fertilization according to a response pattern that seasonally varied, depending on N rates and environmental conditions; thus, demonstrating their sensitivity as indicators of growth conditions and canopy structure. Leaf expansion

  20. Effect of chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide on collagen content in lung and skin of guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, M.; Kucharz, E.; Szyja, J.

    1977-06-01

    The influence of nitrogen dioxide on the connective tissue of guinea pigs was studied after 180 days (8 hours per day) of exposure at a concentration of 2 mg/m/sup 3/. The long-term exposure induced a decrease of total collagen content in lung tissue, and an increase in skin as well as an increase of collagen catabolite levels in blood serum and urine. The increase of soluble fractions of collagen and the decrease of insoluble ones was found in skin of the exposed animals. Morphological studies showed nitrogen dioxide-induced emphysema and damage in bronchioli of the lungs and some degenerative skin changes. The results obtained suggest the inhibition of collagen maturation and/or activation of its catabolism as the main mechanism of nitrogen dioxide-induced connective tissue damage.

  1. ASSOCIATION OF PESTICIDES WITH SOYBEAN LEAF MICRONUTRIENTS CONTENTS AND SEEDS YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY ASSOCIAÇÃO DE AGROTÓXICOS AOS TEORES FOLIARES DE MICRONUTRIENTES E À PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Glyphosate effects on leaf micronutrients contents of transgenic soybean have been widely reported, however, little is known about these effects associated with other pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologic quality and yield of soybean seeds, as well as leaf micronutrients contents, according to weed control methods. Ten RBD treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme with four replications. The application or non-application of endosulphan + tebuconazole was evaluated in the plots, while the weeds control methods were assessed in the subplots (weeded control; non-weeded control; single application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 and fomesafen + fluazifop-?-butil (180 + 225 g ha-1, both at 15 DAE; and sequential application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 at 15, 30, and 45 DAE. After harvesting, the soybean seeds were sampled, in order to evaluate their germination, vigor, and yield. Copper and manganese contents were only influenced by the sequential application of glyphosate, associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. The cold test germination was reduced in seeds of plants treated with fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. Among the treatments without endosulphan + tebuconazole, the sequential application of glyphosate promoted the highest 100-seeds weight, as well as, when associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole, reduced the leaf concentrations of Cu and Mn, however, it improved seeds germination and showed no effects on seeds vigor, when compared with the weeded soybean.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1 is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1 have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  3. Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Sung, Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu

    2014-04-22

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha⁻¹) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha⁻¹) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  4. Precipitation of aluminum nitride in a high strength maraging steel with low nitrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, G., E-mail: guillaume.jeanmaire@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Dehmas, M.; Redjaïmia, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Puech, S. [Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Fribourg, G. [Snecma Gennevilliers, 171 Boulevard de Valmy-BP 31, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, aluminum nitride (AlN) precipitation was investigated in a X23NiCoCrMoAl13-6-3 maraging steel with low nitrogen content (wt.% N = 5.5 ppm). A reliable and robust automatic method by scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was developed for the quantification of AlN precipitates. The first stage was to identify the solvus temperature and to develop a heat treatment able to dissolve the AlN precipitates. The experimental determination of equilibrium conditions and solvus temperature show good agreement with ThermoCalc® simulation. Then, from this AlN-free state, the cooling rate, isothermal holding time and temperature were the subject of an intensive investigation in the austenite region of this maraging steel. In spite of the high temperatures used during heat treatments, the growth kinetic of the largest AlN precipitates (> 1 μm) is slow. The cooling rate has a major effect on the size and the number density of AlN due to a higher driving force for nucleation at low temperatures. At last, quenching prior to isothermal annealing at high temperatures leads to fine and dense AlN precipitation, resulting from the martensite to austenite transformation. Experimental results will be discussed and compared with kinetic data obtained with the mobility database MobFe2 implemented in Dictra® software. - Highlights: • Slow dissolution kinetic of AlN precipitates due to both their large size and small chemical driving force • Significant effects of cooling rate prior isothermal heat treatment, holding time and temperature on AlN precipitation • Size of AlN precipitates can be reduced by quenching prior isothermal holding. • Fine precipitation of AlN related to the α → γ transformation.

  5. [Estimating total nitrogen content in wetland vegetation based on measured reflectance spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yi-hong; Sun, Yong-hua; Miao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSE(CV)). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that using Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (R2(CV) = 0.80, RMSE(CV) = 0.24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban

  6. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO2e·MJ(-1)MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional differences in the allometry of the water, carbon and nitrogen content of gelatinous organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl

    2015-05-19

    We have supplemented available, concurrent measurements of fresh weight (W, g) and body carbon (C, g) (46 individuals, 14 species) and nitrogen (N, g) (11 individuals, 9 species) of marine gelatinous animals with data obtained during the global ocean MALASPINA 2010 Expedition (totalling 267 individuals and 33 species for the W versus C data; totalling 232 individuals and 31 species for the N versus C data). We then used those data to test the allometric properties of the W versus C and N versus C relationships. Overall, gelatinous organisms contain 1.13 ± 1.57% of C (by weight, mean ± SD) in their bodies and show a C:N of 4.56 ± 2.46, respectively, although estimations can be improved by using separate conversion coefficients for the carnivores and the filter feeders. Reduced major axis regression indicates that W increases isometrically with C in the carnivores (cnidarians and ctenophores), implying that their water content can be described by a single conversion coefficient of 173.78 gW(g C)-1, or a C content of 1.17 ± 1.90% by weight, although there is much variability due to the existence of carbon-dense species. In contrast, W increases more rapidly than C in the filter feeders (salps and doliolids), according to a power relationship W = 446.68C1.54. This exponent is not significantly different from 1.2, which is consistent with the idea that the watery bodies of gelatinous animals represent an evolutionary response towards increasing food capture surfaces, i.e. a bottom-up rather than a top-down mechanism. Thus, the available evidence negates a bottom-up mechanism in the carnivores, but supports it in the filter feeders. Last, N increases isometrically with C in both carnivores and filter feeders with C:N ratios of 3.89 ± 1.34 and 4.38 ± 1.21, respectively. These values are similar to those of compact, non-gelatinous organisms and reflect a predominantly herbivorous diet in the filter feeders, which is confirmed by a difference of one trophic level

  8. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC SOIL FERTILIZERS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH SOME FOLIAR FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROAD BEAN (VICIA FABA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husain JASIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at the field of Agriculture College, Al-Qasim Green University at the agricultural season 2014/2015 to study the effect of two soil fertilizers (compound 18-18-18- at the rate of 200 kg.ha-1and sheep manure as organic fertilizer at the rate of 10 tons.ha-1 as well as control, and their interaction with foliar fertilizer of sea weed extract and urea as well as control (without the spray on broad bean plants. Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replication. The experimental unit contained 3 ridges (3m long and 80 cm apart, planted on both sides at distance of 25 cm in saline soil (9.6dS.m-1. The results showed that chemical or organic soil fertilization led to increase plant height, plant branches number, plant leaves, leaf chlorophyll content and leaf percentage content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium significantly compared to control treatment. Add compost Chemical. On the other foliar fertilizer caused a significant increase in all traits above compared to control (without spraying. The interaction between soil and foliar fertilizers had a significant effect on all traits above.

  9. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. This study aims to determine the influence of various fertilization treatments on biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves from two varieties of chili, Sakti (large chili and Fantastic (curly chili. The study was conducted in the village of Gatak, Karangnongko sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java in September 2006 to March 2007. The study used a complete block design with two factorial of chili varieties and fertilizer treatment. Fertilization treatments includes no fertilizer (control (P1; manure 2 kg/plant (P2, manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (ZA, SP-36, KCl = 2: 1: 1 + NPK (P3; and manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1:1 + liquid organic fertilizer (P4. Chlorophyll content was measured refers to Harborne (1987, whereas leaf nitrogen concentration was measured with Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by DMRT. The results showed that on the Fantastic chili fertilizer treatment affected the biomass and chlorophyll a, but gave no effect on chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen. On the curly chili fertilizer treatment effected plant fresh weight, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, but gave no effect on dry weight, fresh fruit weight, chlorophyll b and leaf nitrogen. It is, therefore, recommended to use the formulation of manure + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1: 1 + liquid organic fertilizer in the cultivation of chili.Key words: biomass, chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen, chili, Capsicum annum, fertilizing.Abstrak. Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomassa, kandungan klorofil dan nitrogen daun dua varietas cabai (Capsicum annum pada berbagai perlakuan pemupukan. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai perlakuan pemupukan terhadap biomassa

  10. A Sustainable Route from Biomass Byproduct Okara to High Content Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Sheets for Efficient Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhou; Qian, Tao; Wang, Mengfan; Shen, Xiaowei; Xu, Na; Sun, Zhouzhou; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-01-20

    A sustainable route from the biomass byproduct okara as a natural nitrogen fertilizer to high-content N-doped carbon sheets is demonstrated. The as-prepared unique structure exhibits high specific capacity (292 mAh g(-1) ) and extremely long cycle life (exceeding 2000 cycles). A full battery is devised for the practical use of materials with a flexible/wearable LED screen.

  11. Effects of Zinc Concentration on Growth, Ginsenoside Content and Zinc Content of Panax ginseng by Foliar Application%叶面喷施锌对农田人参锌营养、生长发育及皂苷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹤; 张浩; 郜玉钢; 张连学

    2012-01-01

    为确定适宜人参Panax ginseng叶面喷施的Zn浓度范围,采用田间试验的方法,研究喷Zn浓度对人参生长、皂苷含量及叶片吸收Zn速率的影响.结果表明,人参叶片可有效吸收叶面供给的无机态Zn2+,并可运至根部.在20~20000 mg/L质量浓度范围内,人参叶片吸收Zn的速率和数量与喷施浓度呈显著正相关(P<0.01,R2>0.9),而且随着喷施浓度的升高,从叶片向根部运输Zn的数量也升高.喷施适宜质量浓度(200和2000 mg/L)Zn2+可显著改善人参的Zn营养状况,促进人参生长和皂苷积累,增强叶片过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.喷施浓度过高,人参叶片受到伤害,丙二醛(MDA)含量增加,CAT活性降低,但人参根皂苷含量显著升高,可能与环境胁迫刺激次生代谢产物积累有关.适宜人参叶面喷施的Zn质量浓度范围是200~2000 mg/L.%In order to identify appropriate Zn concentration range of foliar spraying for ginseng, effects of zinc spraying concentration on growth, ginsenoside content and zinc absorption efficiency by leaves of ginseng were studied through field experiments. Results showed that ginseng leaves can efficiently uptake Zn2 + of foliar applied, and transformation of Zn from leaves to roots was found. The amount of Zn uptake by leaves had significant (P 0. 9) positive correlation with applied Zn mass concentration range from 20 - 20 000 mg/L. As spraying concentration increased, the amount of zinc transferred from leaves to roots was also enhanced. Increment of fresh mass and ginsenoside content of root were found when appropriate Zn nutrient solution(200 and 2 000 mg/L) was applied, and peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased when applied rate was 200 mg/L, but spraying 2 000 mg/L Zn2+ led to POD activity increase and CAT activity decrease compared to control. Although malondialdehyde ( MDA) content increased, CAT activity decrease and leaf burn were observed when 2 000 mg/L was

  12. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Alloyed with Varying Nitrogen Content. Part I: Cyclic Deformation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Sandhya, R.; Sankaran, S.; Mathew, M. D.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the influence of cyclic strain amplitude on the evolution of cyclic stress-strain response and the associated cyclic deformation mechanisms in 316LN stainless steel with varying nitrogen content (0.07 to 0.22 wt pct) is reported in the temperature range 773 K to 873 K (500 °C to 600 °C). Two mechanisms, namely dynamic strain aging and secondary cyclic hardening, are found to strongly influence the cyclic stress response. Deformation substructures associated with both the mechanisms showed planar mode of deformation. These mechanisms are observed to be operative over certain combinations of temperature and strain amplitude. For strain amplitudes >0.6 pct, wavy or mixed mode of deformation is noticed to suppress both the mechanisms. Cyclic stress-strain curves revealed both single and dual-slope behavior depending on the test temperature. Increase in nitrogen content is found to increase the tendency toward planar mode of deformation, while increase in strain amplitude leads to transition from planar slip bands to dislocation cell/wall structure formation, irrespective of the nitrogen content in 316LN stainless steel.

  13. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... study the response of canola to different nitrogen and zinc fertilizer levels under two doses ... moderately calcareous, low in nitrogen, low in organic matter and alkaline in reaction ...... Effect of foliar application of zinc, selenium ...

  14. Nitrogen Contents on Tribological Properties of Magnetron Sputtered SiCN Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIETUNSUN; Y.Q.FU; J.WEI; H.J.DU

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbonitride (SiCN) coatings were deposited on silicon and tungsten carbide substrates by co-sputtering silicon and carbon in argon and nitrogen mixture atmosphere using magnetron-sputtering system. The effect of the N2 concentration, RF substrate bias voltage and target current on film deposition rate, roughness, adhesion, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were investigated. The deposition rate was found to increase with the increasing nitrogen concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that high nitrogen concentration in the nitrogen-argon gas mixture enhanced the incorporation of C and N but reduced the incorporation of Si. SiCN coatings have good tribological properties at a N2 concentration of approximately 60%.

  15. Nitrogen Contents on Tribological Properties of Magnetron Sputtered SiCN Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIETUN SUN; Y.Q. FU; J. WEI; H. J. DU

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbonitride (SiCN) coatings were deposited on silicon and tungsten carbide substrates by co-sputtering silicon and carbon in argon and nitrogen mixture atmosphere using magnetron-sputtering system. The effect of the N2concentration, RF substrate bias voltage and target current on film deposition rate, roughness, adhesion, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were investigated. The deposition rate was found to increase with the increasing nitrogen concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that high nitrogen concentration in the nitrogen-argon gas mixture enhanced the incorporation of C and N but reduced the incorporation of Si. SiCN coatings have good tribological properties at a N2 concentration of approximately 60%.

  16. [Prediction of total nitrogen and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content in loess using hyperspectral data based on correlation analysis and partial least squares regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-ying; Wang, Li; Chang, Qing-rui; Wang, Xiao-xing; Shang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, where the vegetation recovering measures have been carried out for years, was taken as the study area. A total of 100 loess samples from 24 different profiles were collected. Total nitrogen (TN) and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AHN) contents of the soil samples were analyzed, and the soil samples were scanned in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) region of 350-2500 nm in the laboratory. The calibration models were developed between TN and AHN contents and VNIR values based on correlation analysis (CA) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Independent samples validated the calibration models. The results indicated that the optimum model for predicting TN of loess was established by using first derivative of reflectance. The best model for predicting AHN of loess was established by using normal derivative spectra. The optimum TN model could effectively predict TN in loess from 0 to 40 cm, but the optimum AHN model could only roughly predict AHN at the same depth. This study provided a good method for rapidly predicting TN of loess where vegetation recovering measures have been adopted, but prediction of AHN needs to be further studied.

  17. [Effects of high temperature on Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology in boll wall of Bt cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Abidallah, Eltayib H M A; Hua, Ming-ming; Heng, Li; Lyu, Chun-hua; Chen, De-hua

    2015-10-01

    Bt cotton cultivar Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar) and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar) from China, and 99B (a conventional cultivar) and Daiza 1 (a hybrid cultivar) from USA were selected as experimental materials, the ball wall Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology were investigated under different high temperature levels at peak boll stage. The results showed that the Bt protein content of boll wall decreased with the increasing temperature. Compared with the control (32 °C, the boll wall Bt protein content decreased significantly when the temperature was above 38 °C for the conventional cultivars and above 40 °C for the hybrid cultivars. The Bt protein contents of cultivar Sikang 1 and 99B decreased by 53.0% and 69.5% respectively with the temperature at 38 °C, and that of cultivar Sikang 3 and Daiza 1 decreased by 64.8% and 54.1% respectively with the temperature at 40 °C. Greater reductions in the boll wall soluble protein contents and GPT activities, larger increments for the boll wall free amino acid contents and proteinsase activities were also observed when the boll wall Bt protein content was significantly reduced. Therefore, high temperature resulted in the reduction of Bt protein synthesis and increase of the insecticidal protein degradation in the boll wall significantly, which caused the reductions in boll wall Bt protein content and insect resistance.

  18. Dynamics of the nitrogen content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter HRIC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to find out dynamics of the nitrogen (N content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried out in warm and dry conditions in the area of Nitra (Slovak Republic. There were included 7 treatments: 1. Without fertilization, 2. Saltpetre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer 15–3–8 (+ 3MgO + 0.8Fe + 18S, 4. Slow release fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S, 5. Controlled release fertilizer Duslocote NPK (S 13-9-18 (+ 6S, 6. Organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 and 7. Organic fertilizer Veget (3-2-1. In the begging of the seasons fertilizing by controlled release fertilizer Duslocote NPK (S 13-9-18 (+ 6S had a slow onset of action. The opposite trend had use of organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 on nitrogen content in aboveground turf phytomass. The nitrogen concentration was statistically higher in variants fertilized with inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 (33,727 mg*kg-1 – 36,737 mg*kg-1 as a non-fertilized turf (28,446 mg*kg-1. Higher nitrogen content in aboveground phytomass was after application of organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 into the turf in comparison with fertilization inorganic fertilizers.

  19. [Effects of soil fertility and nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and translocation, grain yield, and grain protein content of wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefu; Yu, Zhenwen; Li, Xiangxia; Yu, Songlie

    2003-11-01

    The results of this study showed that nitrogen application improved the nitrogen uptake by wheat, especially during its late growth stage. Although a higher nitrogen application rate could increase the amount of absorbed nitrogen, an excess of nitrogen would remain in vegetative organs at the stage after flowering, owing to the low translocation rate of nitrogen from these organs to the grain, and hence, the nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index were decreased. Compared with that on high fertility soil, the ratio of nitrogen absorbed from fertilizer to total absorbed nitrogen was higher when the wheat was grown on low fertility soil. On high fertility soil, wheat plant absorbed more nitrogen from top-dressed fertilizer than from basis fertilizer, and top-dressed fertilizer contributed more nitrogen to the grain. It was reversed on low fertility soil.

  20. [Estimating total nitrogen content in reclaimed water based on hyperspectral reflectance information from emergent plants: a case study of Mencheng Lake Wetland Park in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Gong, Zhao-ning; Zhao, Wen-ji

    2014-12-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance information is a crucial method to detect total nitrogen content in plant leaves, meanwhile, vegetation nitrogen content has a strong relationship with nitrogen in water. Taking Mencheng Lake Wetland Park supplied with reclaimed water as study area, the vegetation hyperspectral data (Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia), and the content of total nitrogen in water were detected to investigate the feasibility of estimating total nitrogen content in reclaimed water based on hyperspectral reflectance information from emergent plants. We established simple linear regression model, stepwise multiple linear regression model and partial least square regression model based on four hyperspectral indices (spectral indices, normalized difference indices, trilateral parameters, absorption feature parameters), respectively. The accuracy of these models was coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that stepwise multiple linear regression model and partial least square regression model predicted more accurately than simple linear regression model, and the accuracy of prediction models based on P. australis reflectance spectra was higher than those on T. angustifolia. Partial least square regression model was the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance of P. australis and total nitrogen content in water with R2 of 0.854 and RMSE of 0.647. 500-700 nm was the best band range for detecting water total nitrogen content. The reflectance ratio of green peak and red valley could be effectively predicted by the absorption feature parameters.

  1. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  2. [Transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur during thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of sludge with high solid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yang; Han, Yun; Cheng, Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong; Li, Yu-You

    2015-03-01

    The transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated after thermal hydrolysis pretreatment at 165 degress C for 50 min. The results showed that the hydrolysis efficiency of VSS could reach as high as 43.35%, 54.36% of protein and 65.12% of carbohydrate were transferred to dissolved organics, respectively, and the main component of dissolved organic matter in hydrolysate was dissolved protein (52.18% ), 54.23% of insoluble organic nitrogen was turned into dissolved nitrogen and 22.13% of dissolved nitrogen in hydrolysate was converted to ammonia. The transformation rate of insoluble phosphorus was 30.52%. Dissolved phosphorus was mostly transformed to phosphate (79.84%) as phosphorus-accumulating bacteria cells were crushed. 50.03% of insoluble organic sulfur was hydrolyzed, and little change was detected in sulfide (0.50%). The analysis results of the organic compounds transformation are valuable for treatment of the thermal hydrolysis pretreated sludge with high solid content.

  3. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. II. Lactose, nitrogen, and protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, B; Forsum, E; Gebre-Medhin, M; Hambraeus, L

    1976-10-01

    Breast milk from underprivileged and privileged Ethiopian mothers was collected at different stages of lactation and analyzed for total nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, and individual milk proteins (lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin, IgG and IgM). These values and the milk volume of one meal were compared to corresponding results from well-nourished Swedish mothers. No significant differences between the levels of these constituents or the milk volumes were found between the two groups of Ethiopian mothers. When comparison was made between breast milk from these two Ethiopian groups and the Swedish group, the former two showed significantly higher values for the iron-binding protein lactoferrin.

  4. Morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of gazania (Gazania rigens affected by foliar application of bio-stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Foroutan Nia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gazania (Gazania rigens, a member of the Asteraceae family, is an ornamental plant that is cultivated on a large scale in gardens and landscapes. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of bio-stimulants compounds on morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of gazania on the basis of randomized complete blocks designed (RCBD with three replications. The treatments included bio-stimulants of aminolforte, kadostim, fosnutren, humiforte (each of them at 2 and 4 L.ha-1, and control treatment (foliar spray with distillated water. Results: The effects of treatments were significant (p≤0.01 on all of the traits except for the number of leaves and capitula per plant, and capitula diameter. The maximum amount of the plant height and total dry weight was obtained in the treatment of kadostim at 2 L.ha-1. The largest collar diameter of the stem and total fresh weight was observed in the treatment of aminolforte at 4 L.ha-1. The greatest diameter of the flower and stem was observed in the treatment of aminolforte and fosnutren at 2 L.ha-1, respectively. Also, the highest quantity of SPAD value, chlorophylls a and b, and total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and nitrogen content were related to the foliar application of aminolforte at 4 L.ha-1, but the highest percentage of potassium content was attained in humiforte treatment at 4 L.ha-1. In comparison, the least amount of all traits was observed in control treatment. Conclusion: The findings showed that the foliar applications of bio-stimulants based on bio-active amino acid compounds with a mixture of nutrients have positive effects on the growth, morpho-physiological, and phytochemical traits of the gazania.

  5. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  6. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications. PMID:27488268

  7. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-04

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  8. Comparison of the soil carbon and nitrogen contents of Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior in the Mersin-Gulnar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yesilbudak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm under the Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior at an altitude of 1300-1500 m from the Kullin site at Gulnar-Mersin and were compared for their pH, CaCO3, nitrogen (N %, and carbon (C % contents. Balanced soils in natural forest ecosystems are known to be very rich in carbon content which increases with latitude and altitude and that the C/N ratio varies greatly between the soils of different plant species. We determined the values of the C/N rates in Q. cerris and F. excelsior soils of the Gulnar Gezende forest for the first time at this altitude. Material and Methods: A pH meter and Scheibler calcimeter were used to determine the soil pH and lime contents respectively. Percentage C was determined using the Anne method and the N% with the Kjeldahl method. Results: There was no difference in the pH values and nitrogen percentage contents between the two soils. Q. cerris soil was found to have medium levels of CaCO3, while the level of CaCO3 in F. excelsior soils was low. The C/N rates and carbon contents were higher in Q. cerris soil than F. excelsior soil (P<0.05. Conclusions: The higher carbon content of Q. cerris soil can be explained by higher amounts of organic matter compared with F. excelsior, which might depend on factors such as microclimate and their specific characteristics.

  9. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal wastes produced annually for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. The estimates are...

  10. Nitrogen fertilization effects on pasture photosynthesis, respiration, and ecosystem carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies have shown that increasing nitrogen (N) fertility can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration, whereas others suggest that N fertilization has no effect on sequestration. Increasing N fertilization typically increases annual photosynthetic C uptake (gross primary productivity or GPP) and...

  11. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  12. Red edge shift and biochemical content in grass canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Onisimo; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    The concentration of foliar nitrogen in tropical grass is one of the factors that explain the distribution of wildlife. Therefore, the remote sensing of foliar nitrogen contributes to a better understanding of wildlife feeding patterns. This study evaluated changes in the red edge position of the 680 nm continuum removed chlorophyll feature in the reflectance spectra of samples of Cenchus ciliaris grass grown in a greenhouse under three levels of nitrogen supply. Canopy spectral measurements from each treatment were recorded under controlled laboratory conditions over a four-week period using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer. Results indicate that the mean wavelength positions of the three fertilization treatments were statistically different. An increase in nitrogen supply yielded a shift in the red edge position to longer wavelengths. The red edge position, amplitude, slope at 713 nm and slope at 725 nm were significantly correlated to measured nitrogen concentration (bootstrapped r = 0.89, - 0.28, 0.63 and 0.75, respectively) even at canopy level. Based on these results, the red edge position is strongly correlated with biochemical concentration in plants compared to the other methods tested. The study provides conclusive evidence that confirms the strength of a red edge-nitrogen relationship that remains underused in remote sensing. This method is promising for estimating nutrient content in grasslands.

  13. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  14. [Change characteristics of rice yield and soil organic matter and nitrogen contents under various long-term fertilization regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Yang-Zhu; Qin, Dao-Zhu; Xu, Ming-Gang

    2013-07-01

    A long-term (1982-2010) field experiment was conducted in the Red Soil Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Qiyang County of Hunan Province, South-central China to investigate the dynamic changes of rice yield and soil organic matter (OM) and nitrogen contents under different fertilization treatments. The treatments included NPK, NPKM (M: manure), NPM, NKM, PKM, M, and CK. Fertilization increased the soil OM, total N, and alkaline-hydrolysable N contents and the rice yield. In treatment NPKM, the rice yield across the 28 years maintained at the highest level; while in treatment NPK, the yield showed a decreasing trend, being lower than that in other fertilization treatments. In the treatments applied with manure only or in combining with chemical fertilizers, the soil OM content increased rapidly in the first 16 years, and then fluctuated around a constant level (29.42-39.32 g x kg(-1)). In the treatments of chemical fertilization, the soil OM content only had a quicker increase in the first 8 years, and then fluctuated within a relatively stable range. Fertilization with manure increased the soil OM significantly, as compared to fertilization with chemical fertilizers only. The soil total N content in all fertilization treatments showed a rapid increase in the first 8 years, and the increment was the highest in treatment NPKM. The soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in all fertilization treatments had a slower increase in the first 12 years, with an average annual increment of 0.66-2.25 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1). In 1994-1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in fertilization treatments had a quicker increase, with an average annual increment of 6.45-32.45 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1); but after 1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content had a slight decrease. It was concluded that organic fertilization was the key measure to stably improve the physical and chemical properties and the productivity of red paddy soils by increasing their

  15. Commercial Application of the Second Generation RHT Catalysts for Hydroprocessing the Residue with Low Sulfur and High Nitrogen Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Zhicai; Zhao Xinqiang; Liu Tao; Dai Lishun; Nie Hong

    2014-01-01

    The RHT technology and the second generation RHT catalysts were applied in design of an 1.7Mt/a VRDS unit at the SINOPEC Changling Branch Co. The commercial application result demonstrated that the RHT catalysts showed good activity and stability in processing low-sulfur and high-nitrogen residue. The ifrst long period run of unit for processing high Fe and high Ca content residue was achieved. The reasons for excessive pressure drop of R-101 were ascribed to Fe and Ca deposition as well as coke formation.

  16. Dynamics of the nitrogen content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    HRIC, Peter; Ján JANČOVIČ; Peter KOVÁR; Ľuboš VOZÁR

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to find out dynamics of the nitrogen (N) content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried out in warm and dry conditions in the area of Nitra (Slovak Republic). There were included 7 treatments: 1. Without fertilization, 2. Saltpetre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer 15–3–8 (+ 3MgO + 0.8Fe + 18S), 4. Slow release fertilizer...

  17. Effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on phenolic content in Poa annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn Bezemer T; Hefin Jones T; E Newington J

    2000-11-01

    Different but partially overlapping hypotheses have been developed to predict the allocation of phenolics in elevated atmospheric CO(2). The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis predicts increased allocation to phenolics due to reduced relative availability of nitrogen. The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis states that allocation will depend on source and sink strength, while the protein competition model predicts that allocation will remain unchanged. We grew Poa annua at two CO(2) concentrations in soils of three different nutrient levels. Although plant-tissue nitrogen levels were reduced in high CO(2) and photosynthetic rate increased, phenolic concentration and biomass allocation remained unchanged. We discuss these data in the context of the three models' predictions of phenolic allocation in conditions of elevated CO(2).

  18. Phytoplankton growth rate and nitrogen content: Implications for feeding and fecundity in a herbivorous copepod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    at a concentration of 1.5 ppm. Over more than 2 orders of magnitude increase in algal growth rate, the ingested cell volume increased by less than a factor of 2, ingested carbon remained constant whereas ingested nitrogen as well as rate of egg production increased by a factor of ca 6. Variation in ingested cell......Observations of natural feeding and egg-production rates of planktonic copepods have revealed distinct responses, independent of phytoplankton biomass, to oceanographic processes that fertilize the photic layer. Are such responses caused by changes in phytoplankton growth rate, influencing feeding...... behaviour, and/or by changes in the chemical composition of the phytoplankton, influencing fecundity? The diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown in continuous cultures at different dilution rates and different nitrogen concentrations in the growth medium, was offered to the copepod Acartia tonsa...

  19. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program.

  20. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  1. Using hyperspectral remote sensing data for retrieving canopy chlorophyll and nitrogen content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant stress is often expressed as a reduction in amount of biomass or leaf area index (LAI). In addition, stress may affect the plant pigment system, influencing the photosynthetic capacity of plants. Chlorophyll content is the main driver for this primary production. The chlorophyll content is

  2. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.

  3. Effect of sulfur and nitrogen fertilization on the content of nutritionally relevant carotenoids in spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Constance; Arrigoni, Eva; Neuweiler, Reto; Baumgartner, Daniel; Nyström, Laura; Hurrell, Richard F

    2012-06-13

    Spinach is an important dietary source of lutein and β-carotene. Their synthesis is closely linked to chlorophyll synthesis and dependent upon an adequate supply of sulfur and nitrogen. Soils may become sulfur-deficient during winter because microorganisms convert atmospheric SO2 less efficiently to sulfate. The influence of sulfur and nitrogen fertilization on the carotenoid and chlorophyll contents of spinach grown in summer or winter was investigated. Carotenoid and chlorophyll levels were positively correlated. Lutein and β-carotene were 25% higher in summer than in winter. Winter levels were increased by 35-40% by sulfur fertilization in one location but not in the other, with the impact depending upon soil type, growing location, and atmospheric conditions. Carotenoids were little or not affected by nitrogen addition in winter or sulfur addition in summer. It is concluded that sulfur fertilization of spinach in winter may modestly increase carotenoids but high carotenoid levels are best assured with carotenoid-rich cultivars grown in summer.

  4. Red edge shift and biochemical content in grass canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of foliar nitrogen in tropical grass is one of the factors that explain the distribution of wildlife. Therefore, the remote sensing of foliar nitrogen contributes to a better understanding of wildlife feeding patterns. This study evaluated changes in the red edge position of the 68

  5. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen content of density fractions and effect of meadow degradation to soil carbon and nitrogen of fractions in alpine Kobresia meadow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted on the non-disturbed native alpine Kobresia meadow(YF) and the severely degraded meadow(SDL) of Dari County of Qinghai Province.By a density fractionation approach,each soil sample was divided into two fractions:light fraction(LF) and heavy fraction(HF).The obtained fractions were analyzed for organic carbon(OC) and nitrogen(N) concentrations.The results showed:(1) the OC concentration in HF and LF was 3.84% and 28.63% respectively while the nitrogen concentration in HF and LF was 0.362% and 1.192% respectively in 0-10 cm depth.C:N ratio was 10.6 in HF and 23.8 in LF respectively.(2) As far as the ratio of OC in given fraction to that in gross sample was concerned,dominance of OC in HF was obvious in the whole soil profile.OC in HF increased from 78.95% to 90.33%,while OC in LF decreased from 21.05% to 9.68% with depths.(3) Soil total OC amounted to 47.47 in YF while 17.63 g.kg-1 in SDL,in which the OC content in HF decreased from 37.31 to 16.01 g.kg-1 while OC content in LF decreased from 10.01 to 1.62 g.kg-1.In other words,results of OC and N content show meadow degradation led to the loss of 57% OC in HF and 84% OC in LF from originally native ecosystem on alpine meadow.In addition,meadow degradation led to the loss of 43% N in HF and 79% N in LF from originally native ecosystem on alpine meadow.(4) The main reason for loss of C and N in LF during meadow degradation was not attributed to the decrease of OC and N concentration in LF and LF,but to the decrease in LF dry weight.Loss of N was far lower than loss of C in HF.This may suggest that there is difference in protection mode of C and N in HF.

  6. Control of nitrogen content in boron-added medium carbon steel%中碳含硼钢氮含量的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭其春; 童志博; 陈立鹏; 杨柳; 彭明耀; 周春泉; 陈建新

    2013-01-01

    采用氧氮分析仪分析湖南华菱涟源钢铁集团有限公司中碳含硼钢A36-LB在生产各工序中氮含量的变化,研究其吸氮原因.结果表明,转炉终点碳含量控制不稳定是造成该厂钢中氮含量波动的主要因素;虽然转炉终点碳含量高可以降低钢中的氮含量,但同时也会导致钢中磷含量增高;在LF精炼整个过程中钢水增氮约11×10-6,增氮较多,其中原材料增氮并不是主要原因,主要原因是电弧加热过程增氮较为严重;连铸工艺段增氮较少,保护浇铸较好.%With oxygen and nitrogen analyzer, the change in nitrogen content in boron-added medium carbon steel produced by Valin Lianyuan Iron and Steel Corporation Limited in each stage of the process was analyzed and so was the nitrogen absorption mechanism. The results show that the insta-ble carbon content at BOF endpoint is the main factor for nitrogen content fluctuation. Though high carbon content at BOF endpoint may reduce the nitrogen content, it may lead to rephosphoration in BOF. Liquid steel nitrogen increase reaches 11×10-6 in LF refining process, which is rather significant. Yet the raw materials are not the main cause of nitrogen increase. Nitrogen increase mainly takes place during arc heating process. Nitrogen increase is comparatively small in CC process, which indicates protective casting is preferable.

  7. Organismic-Scale Remote Sensing of Canopy Foliar Traits in Lowland Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dana Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS holds great promise for bridging the gap between field studies of functional diversity, which are spatially limited, and satellite detection of ecosystem properties, which lacks resolution to understand within landscape dynamics. We use Carnegie Airborne Observatory HiFIS data combined with field collected foliar trait data to develop quantitative prediction models of foliar traits at the tree-crown level across over 1000 ha of humid tropical forest. We predicted foliar leaf mass per area (LMA as well as foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium for canopy emergent trees (R2: 0.45–0.67, relative RMSE: 11%–14%. Correlations between remotely sensed model coefficients for these foliar traits are similar to those found in laboratory studies, suggesting that the detection of these mineral nutrients is possible through their biochemical stoichiometry. Maps derived from HiFIS provide quantitative foliar trait information across a tropical forest landscape at fine spatial resolution, and along environmental gradients. Multi-nutrient maps implemented at the fine organismic scale will subsequently provide new insight to the functional biogeography and biological diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  8. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  9. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng; Hou, Yuyong

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  10. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  11. Foliar fertilization–induced injury and recovery of a creeping bentgrass putting green

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experimental objective was to evaluate early-response of putting green (PG) canopy quality parameters and rates of growth and nutrient use to rate and/or type of foliarly-applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In 2010, two independent fertility trials were conducted on a sand-based creeping bentgrass ...

  12. Covalent Triazine-Based Frameworks with Ultramicropores and High Nitrogen Contents for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keke; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Wang, Chang; Li, Jinping; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-05-03

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) are a class of porous materials composed of organic precursors linked by covalent bonds. The objective of this work is to develop POFs with both ultramicropores and high nitrogen contents for CO2 capture. Specifically, two covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) with ultramicropores (pores of width capture CO2 due to ultramicroporous nature. Especially, CTF-FUM-350 has the highest nitrogen content (27.64%) and thus the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (57.2 cc/g at 298 K) and selectivities for CO2 over N2 and CH4 (102.4 and 20.5 at 298 K, respectively) among all CTF-FUM and CTF-DCN. More impressively, as far as we know, the CO2/CH4 selectivity is larger than that of all reported CTFs and ranks in top 10 among all reported POFs. Dynamic breakthrough curves indicate that both CTFs could indeed separate gas mixtures of CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 completely.

  13. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  14. Mapping Foliar Traits Across Biomes Using Imaging Spectroscopy: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Singh, A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    One of the great promises of imaging spectroscopy - also known as hyperspectral remote sensing - is the ability to map the spatial variation in foliar functional traits, such as nitrogen concentration, pigments, leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity and secondary biochemistry, that drive terrestrial ecosystem processes. A remote-sensing approach enables characterization of within- and between-biome variations that may be crucial to understanding ecosystem responses to pests, pathogens and environmental change. We provide a synthesis of the foliar traits that can be mapped from imaging spectroscopy, as well as an overview of both the major applications of trait maps derived from hyperspectral imagery and current gaps in our knowledge and capacity. Specifically, we make the case that a global imaging spectroscopy mission will provide unique and urgent measurements necessary to understand the response of agricultural and natural systems to rapid global changes. Finally, we present a quantitative framework to utilize imaging spectroscopy to characterize spatial and temporal variation in foliar traits within and between biomes. From this we can infer the dynamics of vegetation function across ecosystems, especially in transition zones and environmentally sensitive systems. Eventual launch of a global imaging spectroscopy mission will enable collection of narrowband VSWIR measurements that will help close major gaps in our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and improve representation of vegetated biomes in Earth system process models.

  15. Plant yield and nitrogen content of a digitgrass in response to azospirillum inoculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schank, S.C.; Weier, K.L.; MacRae, I.C.

    1981-02-01

    Two Australian soils, a vertisol (pH 6.8, 0.299% N) and a sandy yellow podzol (pH 6.2, 0.042% N), were used with digitgrass, Digitaria sp. X46-2 (PI 421785), in a growth room experiment. Comparisons were made between plants inoculated with live and autoclaved bacterial suspensions of Australian and Brazilian isolates of Azospirillum brasilense. Seedlings were inoculated on days 10 and 35. Acetylene-reducing activity was measured five times during the experiment. Dry matter yields of the digitgrass on the podzol (low N) inoculated with liver bacteria were 23% higher than those of the controls. On the vertisol (high N), yield increases from inoculation with live bacteria were 8.5%. The higher-yielding plants had significantly lower precent nitrogen, but when total nitrogen of the tops was calculated, the inoculated plants had a higher total N than did the controls (P = 0.04). Acetylene-reducing activity was variable in the experiment, ranging from 0.5 to 11.9 mu mol of C2H2 core -1 day -1. Live bacterial treatment induced a proliferation of roots, possible earlier maturity, higher percent dry matter, and a higher total N in the tops. (Refs. 21).

  16. The effect of nitrogen limitation on acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression and fatty acid content in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-06-15

    Lipids from microalgae have become a valuable product with applications ranging from biofuels to human nutrition. While changes in fatty acid (FA) content and composition under nitrogen limitation are well documented, the involved molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the FA synthesis and elongation pathway. Plastidial and cytosolic ACCases provide malonyl-CoA for de novo FA synthesis in the plastid and FA elongation in the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO) and their impact on FA content and elongation level when grown under nitrogen-deplete conditions. In C. velia, plastidial ACCase was significantly upregulated during nitrogen starvation and with culture age, strongly correlating with increased FA content. Conversely, plastidial ACCase of I. aff. galbana was not differentially expressed in nitrogen-deplete cultures, but upregulated during the logarithmic phase of nitrogen-replete cultures. In contrast to plastidial ACCase, the cytosolic ACCase of C. velia was downregulated with culture age and nitrogen-starvation, strongly correlating with an increase in medium-chain FAs. In conclusion, the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase changed with growth phase and nutrient status in a species-specific manner and nitrogen limitation did not always result in FA accumulation.

  17. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  18. Response of maize to foliar application of zinc and azotobacter inoculation under different levels of urea fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Mohammadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of zinc and Azotobacter on maize production properties under different regime of urea as mineral fertilizer, an experiment was conducted at research field of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during the cropping season of 2014. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer in 100, 200 and 300 amounts of kg urea ha-1, Azotobacter (inoculation and non-inoculation and foliar application of zinc (Zn1 = 1000 mg l-1 zinc sulfate, Zn2 = 500 mg l-1 zinc sulfate and Zn3 = 0 mg l-1 were considered as the applied treatments. Grain yield, biological yield (dry matter, and total protein content of each treatment were assessed. Results indicated that foliar applications of Zn had a significant effect on all studied traits. The highest grain yield was related to Zn1 treatment in each urea application and also between biological fertilizer treatments the highest yield was observed in inoculation treatment. Between all studied treatments the maximum grain yield (with 10.23 ton ha-1 was obtained through non-inoculation treatment × Zn1 for 300 kg urea ha-1. The highest biological yield was observed in Zn1 + inoculation treatment. There were no significant differences between Azotobacter inoculation and non-inoculation for each level of zinc applications in 300 kg urea ha-1 treatment. Finally, it might be concluded that using of mineral fertilizer could be reduced by combining some management strategies in maize production.

  19. PRODUÇÃO DE MASSA SECA, NÚMERO DE PERFÍLIOS E ÁREA FOLIAR DO CAPIM MOMBAÇA CULTIVADO EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE NITROGÊNIO E FÓSFORO GROUWTH OF Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. MOMBAÇA UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS IN A GREEN HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beneval Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho avaliaram-se diferentes combinações de doses de nitrogênio e de fósforo na produção de massa seca foliar, número de perfilhos e expansão da área foliar de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Fez-se uso, como substrato de crescimento, de 7,0 dm3 de terra, acondicionado em vaso plástico de 9,0 dm3 proveniente de um Latossolo Vermelho-escuro distrófico coletado na Fazenda Samambaia no município de Goiânia, GO. Os tratamentos se constituíram da aplicação de quatro doses de nitrogênio na forma de uréia (0, 100, 200 e 400 mg/dm3 de N e quatro doses de fósforo na forma de superfosfato triplo (0, 250, 500 e 750 mg/dm3 de P em quatro repetições. Parcelaram-se as doses de nitrogênio em três aplicações com intervalos de dez dias para cada corte de avaliação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial completo 24 , sendo os fatores as doses de nitrogênio e fósforo. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, efetuou-se um corte de uniformização a 20 cm de altura do solo. Para fins de avaliações, realizaram-se mais três cortes (20 cm de altura a cada trinta dias. Concluiu-se que doses de nitrogênio entre 300 e 400 mg/dm3 de N combinadas com doses de fósforo entre 250 e 500 mg/dm3 de P são as mais indicadas para trabalhos em casa de vegetação com o capim-Mombaça.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Área foliar, capim-Mombaça, massa seca foliar, perfilhos, planta C4.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different combinations of nitrogen and phosphorous levels on leaf area, leaf dry matter and tillers number of Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv

  20. Carbon and nitrogen in Danish forest soils - Contents and distribution determined by soil order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Callesen, Ingeborg; Vesterdal, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and widespread deposition of N to terrestrial ecosystems has increased the focus on soil C and N pools. The aim of this study was to estimate the size and distribution of organic C and N pools in well-drained Danish forest soils. We examined 140 forest...... soil profiles from pedological surveys of Danish forest soils. We calculated total C and N pools in organic layers and mineral soils to a depth of 1 m. The profiles represent variations in texture (sandy to loamy), and soil order (USDA soil taxonomy Spodosols, Alfisols, Entisols,,and Inceptisols......)) and least in Spodosols (0.51 kg m(-2)). The main contributor to the high C content in Spodosols is the spodic horizons containing illuvial humus, and thick organic horizons. Carbon and N concentrations decreased with soil depth. Soil clay content was negatively correlated to C content and positively...

  1. Wavelength Selection of Hyperspectral LIDAR Based on Feature Weighting for Estimation of Leaf Nitrogen Content in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Mao, Feiyue

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm - 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVMs) based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I) wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II) The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC which can be

  2. Growth and characterization of BCN nanotubes with high boron and nitrogen content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Zhang; Zhiye Liu; Lianping Zhang; Liqiang Jing; Keying Shi

    2013-09-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with boron and nitrogen (BCNTs) have been synthesized by chemical vapour deposition at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 950°C. Their morphological and structural features have been studied by transmission electron microscope, which reveal that BCNTs have bamboo-like structure. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the atomic ratio of B, C and N of BCNTs is about 1:4:1, when temperature is 850°C. Electrooxidation performance of the BCNTs for NO at the modified electrodes was investigated. The results of cyclic voltammograms and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of BCNT-modified electrodes indicated that the activity of NO electrooxidation on 850°C-modified electrodes is much stronger than others and the charge transfer resistance of NO electroxidation BCNT-modified electrode is the least. By this means, BCNT-modified electrodes showed excellent electrode materials for NO detection and other potential applications.

  3. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  4. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alexandra M; Everman, Wesley J; Jordan, David L; Heiniger, Ronnie W; Smyth, T Jot

    2017-01-01

    Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N) is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and composted poultry litter (CPL) when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield.

  5. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Knight

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L. grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, sulfur-coated urea (SCU, and composted poultry litter (CPL when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L. was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield.

  6. Onsite and online FT-NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of total nitrogen and moisture content in poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, E; Castaldelli, G; Ferrari, G; Marchetti, M G; Pedrini, P; Aschonitis, V G

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen and moisture of manure are highly variable parameters and depend on animal type, husbandry techniques, environmental conditions and storage time. The precision in manure dose estimation for crops fertilization depends on the total nitrogen and moisture content just before its incorporation in the field. The aim of the study is to develop a Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy method to determine the total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN%) and moisture (M%) of different types of poultry manure prior to land application. Samples covering a wide range of poultry types and different husbandry conditions were obtained from farms of North-Eastern Italy in order to develop the method. The method was calibrated (R(2) = 0.94 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.99 for M%) and validated (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.95 for M%) in the laboratory. An external validation was also performed in situ with independent samples, of similar origin to the previous data set, which were collected just before application in the field. Spectra acquisitions for these samples were carried out using the same instrumentation which was placed in a special vehicle for monitoring campaigns. The results showed satisfactory prediction accuracy (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.93 for M%). Finally, an additional analysis was performed to discriminate the different types of poultry effluents. The TKN and M measurements in the disposal areas indicated that current agronomic practices lead to more than double poultry manure oversupply. The proposed FT-NIR methodology aims to improve the current fertilization management and environmental protection by providing fast and precise estimations of poultry manure doses prior to land application.

  7. Effect of nitrogen content on the degradation mechanisms of thin Ta-Si-N diffusion barriers for Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, R. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: rhuebner@uamail.albany.edu; Hecker, M. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Mattern, N. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, V. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Wetzig, K. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Heuer, H. [Dresden University of Technology, Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology Laboratory, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Wenzel, Ch. [Dresden University of Technology, Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology Laboratory, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Engelmann, H.-J. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Materials Analysis Department, D-01330 Dresden (Germany); Gehre, D. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Materials Analysis Department, D-01330 Dresden (Germany); Zschech, E. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Materials Analysis Department, D-01330 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-04-03

    The effect of the nitrogen content on the thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of Ta-Si-N diffusion barriers was studied using methods that prove Cu interdiffusion. On the one hand, glancing angle X-ray diffraction was applied to detect Cu{sub 3}Si formation after annealing of Cu/Ta-Si-N/Si layer stacks. On the other hand, a combined secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis of Ta-Si-N/Cu/Ta-Si-N/SiO{sub 2}/Si samples was performed. For a detailed investigation of the microstructure evolution, the crystallization behavior of both Cu-capped and uncapped Ta-Si-N/Si samples was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In the case of an uncapped Ta{sub 73}Si{sub 27} film, Si interdiffusion from the substrate precedes the layer crystallization. The substrate influence on the crystallization process decreases with increasing N content x {sub N} of the Ta-Si-N layer. Using Cu/Ta-Si-N/Si samples, a critical temperature for Cu silicide formation was determined. This temperature increases with increasing N content of the Ta-Si-N barrier. In the case of Ta-Si-N films with x {sub N} > 25 at.%, Cu interdiffusion into the substrate occurs before a significant barrier crystallization is observed. For Ta-Si-N layers with x {sub N} {<=} 25 at.%, no indications for Cu diffusion before crystalline phase formation were detected.

  8. Long-term multifactorial climate change impacts on mesofaunal biomass and nitrogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Mette; Dyrnum, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration accompanied by temperature increases and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these climatic changes on soil organisms that are essential for ecosystem functioning. In a long-term, full-factorial climate change...... microbial N content and enchytraeid biomass. The biomass of all mesofaunal groups was reduced by spring drought, especially when combined with warming. Enchytraeid and especially collembolan biomass suffered greater drought declines than mite biomasses. We conclude that under long-term elevated CO2 exposure...... field experiment, with factors elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming and prolonged summer drought, we assessed the responses of Collembola, oribatid and mesostigmatic mites and enchytraeid worms after 8 years of treatment. Both the biomasses and N content of oribatid and mesostigmatic mites...

  9. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of N-doped TiO 2 nanorods and nanotubes with high nitrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.; He, H. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Nano N-doped TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated by hydrothermally treating N-doped TiO2 nanorods in a 8 M NaOH solution at 110 °C for 20 h. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by a solvothermal process with precursor solution containing titanium sulfate, urea, and dichloroethane. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The nitrogen contents of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were reached to high values of 36.9 at.% and 25.7 at.%, respectively. The nitrogen doping narrowed the band gap of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes and introduced indirect band gap to the powders, which respectively extended the absorption edge to visible light and infrared region. The nanotubes showed larger specific surface area and greater degradation efficiency to methyl orange than the nanorods.

  10. Effect of dietary fiber and crude protein content in feed on nitrogen retention in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrás, P; Nitrayová, S; Brestenský, M; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Eight gilts (29.9 ± 1.7 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate effects of dietary (crude) fiber on N excretion via feces and urine at 2 levels of dietary CP. Pigs were fed 4 dietary treatments according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were low (14%) CP and low (3.25%) (crude) fiber (LPAA), low CP and high (4.46%) fiber (LPAABP), high (18.8%) CP and low fiber (HP), and high CP and high fiber (HPBP). Diets were based on soybean (Glycine max) meal, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays) and were supplemented with crystalline AA. High fiber diets contained 15% dried beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp. Pigs were housed in metabolic cages and fed 2 equal meals at 0700 and 1700 h at a daily rate of 90 g/kg BW(0.75). Water was offered ad libitum. Each experimental period consisted of a 6-d adaptation followed by a 4-d collection of feces and urine (bladder catheters). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Differences between means (P fiber (HP vs. HPBR). With added fiber, urinary N excretion (g/d) was reduced (P fiber diets irrespective of dietary CP content. Dietary fiber level did not affect DMI. Fecal DM excretion (g/d) was higher (P fiber content than in pigs fed diets with high CP and low fiber content. In conclusion, beet pulp fiber added to diets increased fecal N and reduced urinary N and in diets with higher CP content increased overall N retention.

  11. Effects of Nitrogen Nutrition and Salinity Stress on 1000-Grain Weight, Mucilage Content and Nutrient Uptake in Psyllium (Plantago ovata F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of salinity stress and three nitrogen fertilizers on some traits of psyllium (Plantago ovata plants, a factorial experiment, as completely randomized design with three replications, was carried out at University of Zabol, in 2010. Salinity at three levels (0, 100 and 200 mM sodium chloride was the main plot and three forms of nitrogen source (nitrate from calcium nitrate, ammonium from ammonium sulfate, and ammonium + nitrate (50: 50 were the sub-plot. Seeds were sown in pots containing clean sand. After germination, plants nutrition was by application of Hoagland solution, which was prepared according to the nitrogen treatments. Salinity stress was started at 2-leaf stage. Results showed that salinity significantly affected 1000-grain weight, spike length, mucilage content of grains, and swelling index of psyllium grains. By increasing salinity level, the spike length and 1000-grain weight were decreased 21.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Among the four mentioned traits, interaction of salinity and nitrogen treatment significantly affected only the spike length. Maximum spike length was obtained in non-saline treatment and ammonium fertilizer. Salinity stress increased the sodium and chlorine ions and decreased the potassium content in shoots. Nitrogen source and interaction between salinity and nitrogen significantly affected the content of these elements in plants. The highest concentration of sodium and potassium was obtained in 200 mM sodium chloride and non-saline treatments (control, respectively, along with application of ammonium fertilizer.

  12. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Using Injection-Vertical Chemical Vapor Deposition: Effects of Synthesis Parameters on the Nitrogen Content

    OpenAIRE

    Abdouelilah Hachimi; Belabbes Merzougui; Abbas Hakeem; Tahar Laoui; Swain, Greg M.; Qiaowan Chang; Minhua Shao; Muataz Ali Atieh

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection-vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD) reactor. This type of reactor is quite useful for the continuous mass production of CNTs. In this work, the optimum deposition conditions for maximizing the incorporation of nitrogen were identified. Ferrocene served as the source of the Fe catalyst and was dissolved in acetonitrile, which served as both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen sources. Different concentrations of ferrocene in ace...

  13. 结实期叶面施锌对扬麦16号和扬辐麦2号籽粒不同部位锌含量的影响%The Effect of Foliar Zn Application at Grain Filling Stage on Zn Content in Grain Fractions of Winter Wheat Yangmai 16 and Yangfumai 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐义涛; 张庆; 周三妮; 杨晓晨; 杨连新; 王云霞

    2013-01-01

    增加谷粒特别是人类食用部位胚乳中的锌浓度是当前生物强化领域一个挑战.2011年在土培条件下,以扬麦16号和扬辐麦2号两个当地高产品种为供试材料,于花后每隔l周喷施0.2%或0.4% ZnSO43次,以喷等量清水为对照,研究结实期叶面喷施锌肥对小麦籽粒不同部位锌含量的影响.结果表明,与对照相比,0.2%、0.4% ZnSO4处理使供试品种籽粒中的锌浓度平均分别增加58%和125%,达极显著水平.利用磨粉机Sedimat Laboratory Mill将小麦籽粒分为麸皮、次粉和面粉3个组分,测定数据表明,锌浓度为麸皮>次粉>面粉,最高和最低浓度相差约8倍.两品种平均,0.2% ZnSO4处理使小麦麸皮、次粉和面粉中锌浓度分别增加64%、54%和37%,0.4% ZnSO4处理使对应部位锌浓度分别增加117%、110%和92%,均达显著或极显著水平.结实期叶面施锌对籽粒各部位锌累积量的影响与锌浓度的响应趋势一致.与此不同,结实期叶面施锌对麸皮、次粉和面粉锌积累量占籽粒总锌积累量的比例没有影响.多数情况下,结实期锌处理对扬麦16号籽粒各部位锌浓度和锌累积量的影响大于扬辐麦2号.以上数据表明,通过选择适宜品种结合叶面施锌,可以经济有效地改善现代小麦品种面粉的锌营养水平.%Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in the world,especially in the developing regions where staple foods derived from cereals are the main source of daily micronutrients intake.Therefore,the increase of Zn content in the endosperm,which is consumed as wheat flour by human being,is the main challenge in the research area of biofortification.Winter wheat cultivar Yangmai 16 and Yangfumai 2,grown in a cement tank filled with clay loam soil,were treated by foliar Zn application at 3 rates of 0 (control),0.2% and 0.4% ZnSO4 at grain filling stage.The first Zn treatment was applied at 1 week after flowering

  14. Nitrogen content, {sup 15}N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solga, A. [Nees-Institute for Biodiversity of Plants, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: a.solga@uni-bonn.de; Burkhardt, J. [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Strasse 13, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Zechmeister, H.G. [Institute of Ecology and Conservation Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1091 Vienna (Austria); Frahm, J.-P. [Nees-Institute for Biodiversity of Plants, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence on {sup 15}N natural abundance ({delta}{sup 15}N values) and on productivity was examined. Annual increases of the mosses were used for all analyses. Significant relationships between bulk N deposition and nitrogen content were obtained for both species; {delta}{sup 15}N-values reflected the ratio of NH{sub 4}-N to NO{sub 3}-N in deposition. A negative effect of nitrogen input on productivity, i.e. decreasing biomass per area with increasing N deposition due to a reduction of stem density, was particularly evident with P. schreberi. Monitoring of N deposition by means of mosses is considered an important supplement to existing monitoring programs. It makes possible an improved spatial resolution, and thus those areas that receive high loads of nitrogen are more easily discernible. - Mosses are useful as monitors of nitrogen deposition.

  15. Effect of soil contamination with fluorine on the yield and content of nitrogen forms in the biomass of crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Radosław; Ciećko, Zdzisław

    2017-02-13

    The research was based on a pot experiment, in which the response of eight species of crops to soil contamination with fluorine was investigated. In parallel, some inactivating substances were tested in terms of their potential use for the neutralization of the harmful influence of fluorine on plants. The response of crops to soil contamination with fluorine was assessed according to the volume of biomass produced by aerial organs and roots as well as their content of N-total, N-protein, and N-NO3(-). The following crops were tested: maize, yellow lupine, winter oilseed rape, spring triticale, narrow-leaf lupine, black radish, phacelia, and lucerne. In most cases, soil pollution with fluorine stimulated the volume of biomass produced by the plants. The exceptions included grain and straw of spring triticale, maize roots, and aerial parts of lucerne, where the volume of harvested biomass was smaller in treatments with fluorine-polluted soil. Among the eight plant species, lucerne was most sensitive to the pollution despite smaller doses of fluorine in treatments with this plant. The other species were more tolerant to elevated concentrations of fluorine in soil. In most of the tested plants, the analyzed organs contained more total nitrogen, especially aerial organs and roots of black radish, grain and straw of spring triticale, and aerial biomass of lucerne. A decrease in the total nitrogen content due to soil contamination with fluorine was detected only in the aerial mass of yellow lupine. With respect to protein nitrogen, its increase in response to fluorine as a soil pollutant was found in grain of spring triticale and roots of black radish, whereas the aerial biomass of winter oilseed rape contained less of this nutrient. Among the analyzed neutralizing substances, lime most effectively alleviated the negative effect of soil pollution with fluorine. The second most effective substance was loam, while charcoal was the least effective in this respect. Our

  16. Parametric investigation on the effect of nitrogen to reduce SF6 content in spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Avinash; Khaidir, Nur; Ishak, Sanuri; Ghani, Basri Abdul; Chakrabarty, Chandan; Permal, Navitharshaani; Ahmad, Harizan

    2017-03-01

    Almost all the MV and HV switchgears used by power utilities for interrupting faults are Sulphur Hexaflouride SF6 gas circuit breakers as this gas has the best dielectric properties to quench the onset of an arc in the event of fault. However due to strong dissociating properties of this gas when in contact with air that can release fluorine into the atmosphere, the Kyoto protocol has mandated to reduce the usage of SF6 in the future. SF6 is a greenhouse gas and it's about 3000 more severe than CO2. And that's the reason for replacing this gas. A close match in the quenching properties to SF6 that is now being intensively researched is nitrogen N2. This gas is considered to be an inert gas, and its release into the atmosphere has no harmful effects (except for asphyxiation - which can be easily handled with awareness). As the need for a replacement of SF6 becomes critical in the near future, the urgency to find the right gas is immediate. Hence the proposed work in this paper is to make a comprehensive parametric investigation of N2 gas in vacuum spark-gap. The spark-gap is chosen due to flexibility in changing the gap distance and easily be housed in vacuum. The parameters to be investigated are pure N2 and N2/ SF6 mix. The settling-time of the electrical break-down voltage and current are measured using voltage probe and Pearson probe. This time is paramount as it determines the speed of breaking the circuit. A faster breaking time ensures the safety of other HV equipment in the circuit. A comparative study between the various parameters will be conducted to obtain the best recipe (gas mix and gap distance) that gives the shortest settling time the breakdown using N2/ SF6/Mixture gas was successfully conducted and a Paschen curve has been established.

  17. Rice Crop Field Monitoring System with Radio Controlled Helicopter Based Near Infrared Cameras Through Nitrogen Content Estimation and Its Distribution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop field monitoring system with radio controlled helicopter based near infrared cameras is proposed together with nitrogen content estimation method for monitoring its distribution in the field in concern. Through experiments at the Saga Prefectural Agricultural Research Institute: SPARI, it is found that the proposed system works well for monitoring nitrogen content in the rice crop which indicates quality of the rice crop and its distribution in the field in concern. Therefore, it becomes available to maintain the rice crop fields in terms of quality control.

  18. Foliar Water Uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an Atmosphere of High Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants.

  19. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, G; Jan, A; Arif, M; Jan, M T; Khattak, R A

    2007-10-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, Pakistan, during winter 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels and methods of nitrogen application on canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98) under rainfed conditions. Four levels of S (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg/ha) and three levels of N (40, 60, and 80 kg/ha) and a control treatment with both nutrients at zero level were included in the experiments. Sulfur levels were applied at sowing while N levels were applied by three methods (100% soil application, 90% soil+10% foliar application, and 80% soil +20% foliar application). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design having four replications. Oil content increased significantly up to 20 kg S/ha but further increase in S level did not enhance oil content. Glucosinolate content increased from 13.6 to 24.6 micromol/g as S rate was increased from 0 to 30 kg/ha. Protein content increased from 22.4% to 23.2% as S rate was increased from 0 to 20 kg/ha. Oil content responded negatively to the increasing N levels. The highest N level resulted in the highest values for protein (23.5%) and glucosinolate (19.9 micromol/g) contents. Methods of N application had no significant impact on any parameters under study.

  20. Variations of Microbial Communities and the Contents and Isotopic Compositions of Total Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Soil Samples during Their Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Qianye; LI Yumei; WANG Guo'an; QIAO Yuhui; LIU Tung-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Semi-sealed preservation of soil samples at difierent moisture of 4%and 23%,respectively, was simulated to observe the variations of soil microbiaI communities and determine the contents and isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen on the 7th and 30th day, respectively.The results show that during preservation,the quantity of microbial communities tended to increase first and then decrease,with a wider variation range at higher moisture(23%).At the moisture content of 23%,the microbial communities became more active on the 7th day.but less after 30 days,and their activity Was stable with little fluctuation at the moisture content of 4%.However. there were no significant changes in the contents and isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen.During preservation.the responses of soil microbes to the environment are more sensitive to changes in the total nitrogen and organic carbon contents.It is thus suggested that the variations of microbial communities have not exerted remarkable impacts on the isotope compositions of the total nitrogen and total organic carbon.

  1. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON PINEAPPLE QUALITY AND YIELD ADUBAÇÃO FOLIAR NA QUALIDADE E PRODUTIVIDADE DE ABACAXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are just a few studies using foliar sprays with micronutrients on pineapple crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the B and Zn effect, as chelate, acid or salt, via foliar feeding, on fruit yield and quality. The experiment was carried out in Guaraçaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a loamy medium texture soil, by using Smooth Cayenne (Hawaiian pineapple seedlings. A randomized block design with four replications was adopted, with 110 g ha-1 of B and 250 g ha-1 of Zn for each application. Two foliar sprays were applied, at 7 and 9 months after planting. The B and Zn sources did not affect the total soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, average fruit diameter, fruit length without crown, and maturity index. Only the B, Zn, and K concentrations in the leaves were influenced by the application of micronutrients.

    Poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos com a aplicação via foliar de micronutrientes, na cultura do abacaxi. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de B e Zn, em forma de quelato, ácido ou sal, via foliar, buscando-se obter respostas sobre os efeitos na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos. O experimento foi realizado em Guaraçaí (SP, em solo com textura média. Foram utilizadas mudas tipo filhote, da cultivar Smooth Cayenne (Havaiano. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se fontes para fornecer, em cada aplicação, 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn. Foram realizadas duas pulverizações foliares, aos 7 e 9 meses após o plantio. As fontes de B e Zn não exerceram efeito nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, diâmetro médio do fruto, comprimento do fruto sem coroa e índice de maturação. Apenas os teores de B, Zn e K, na

  2. Growth response of Douglas-fir seedlings to nitrogen fertilization: importance of Rubisco activation state and respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manter, Daniel K; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Rose, Cathy L

    2005-08-01

    High foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]) is associated with high rates of photosynthesis and thus high tree productivity; however, at excessive [N], tree productivity is reduced. Reports of excessive [N] in the Douglas-fir forests of the Oregon Coast Range prompted this investigation of growth and needle physiological responses to increasing foliar N concentrations in 1-year-old Douglas-fir seedlings. After 1 year of N fertilization, total seedling biomass increased with each successive increase in N fertilizer concentration, except in the highest N fertilization treatment. Of the many physiological responses that were analyzed, only photosynthetic capacity (i.e., Vcmax), respiration rates and leaf specific conductance (KL) differed significantly between N treatments. Photosynthetic capacity showed a curvilinear relationship with foliar [N], reaching an apparent maximum rate when needle N concentrations exceeded about 12 mg g(-1). In vitro measurements of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity suggested that photosynthetic capacity was best related to activated, not total, Rubisco content. Rubisco activation state declined as foliar [N] increased, and based on its significant correlation (r2= 0.63) with foliar Mn:Mg ratios, it may be related to Mn inactivation of Rubisco. Respiration rates increased linearly as foliar N concentration increased (r2= 0.84). The value of K(L) also increased as foliar [N] increased, reaching a maximum when foliar [N] exceeded about 10 mg g(-1). Changes in K(L) were unrelated to changes in leaf area or sapwood area because leaf area to sapwood area ratios remained constant. Cumulative effects of the observed physiological responses to N fertilization were analyzed by modeling annual net CO2 assimilation (Anet) based on treatment specific values of Vcmax, dark respiration (Rdark) and KL. Estimates of Anet were highly correlated with measured total seedling biomass (r2= 0.992), suggesting that long-term, cumulative

  3. Effect of different fertilizers on nitrogen isotope composition and nitrate content of Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuwei; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Zhiheng; Chen, Tianjin; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Qiang

    2012-02-15

    The effect of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N value, nitrate concentration, and nitrate reductase activity of Brassica campestris and the δ(15)N value of soil has been investigated through a pot experiment. The δ(15)N mean value of B. campestris at the seedling stage observed in the composted chicken treatment (+8.65‰) was higher than that of chemical fertilizer treatment (+5.73‰), compost-chemical fertilizer (+7.53‰), and control check treatment (+7.86‰). There were significantly different δ(15)N values (p fertilizer treatment. The similar results were also found at the middle stage and the terminal stage. The variation of δ(15)N value in soil for different treatments was smaller than that of B. campestris, which was +6.71-+8.12‰, +6.83-+8.24‰, and +6.85-8.4‰, respectively, at seedling stage, middle stage, and terminal stage. With the growth of B. campestris, the nitrate content decreased in all treatments, and the nitrate reductase activity in B. campestris increased except for the CK. Results suggested that the δ(15)N values of B. campestris and soil were more effected by the fertilizer than by the dose level, and the δ(15)N value analysis could be used as a tool to discriminate the B. campestris cultivated with composted manure or chemical fertilizer.

  4. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Alloyed with Varying Nitrogen Content. Part II: Fatigue Life and Fracture Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Sandhya, R.; Sankaran, S.; Mathew, M. D.

    2014-10-01

    Influence of nitrogen content on low cycle fatigue life and fracture behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) alloyed with 0.07 to 0.22 wt pct nitrogen is presented in this paper over a range of total strain amplitudes ( ±0.25 to 1.0 pct) in the temperature range from 773 K to 873 K (500 °C to 600 °C). The combined effect of nitrogen and strain amplitude on fatigue life is observed to be complex i.e., fatigue life either decreases/increases with increase in nitrogen content or saturates/peaks at 0.14 wt pct N depending on strain amplitude and temperature. Coffin-Manson plots (CMPs) revealed both single-slope and dual-slope strain-life curves depending on the test temperature and nitrogen content. 316LN SS containing 0.07 and 0.22 wt pct N showed nearly single-slope CMP at all test temperatures, while 316LN SS with 0.11 and 0.14 wt pct N exhibited marked dual-slope behavior at 773 K (500 °C) that changes to single-slope behavior at 873 K (600 °C). The changes in slope of CMP are found to be in good correlation with deformation substructural changes.

  5. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition at a Conifer Forest: Canopy Nitrogen Uptake and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, T.; Sievering, H.

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is known to impact forests in a variety of ways ranging from increased growth and photosynthesis to needle necrosis. More than half of the growing-season N deposition flux at the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research site's subalpine forest (Niwot Forest) is of anthropogenic origin. N fertilization studies investigating forest responses to increased N deposition have primarily dealt with deposition loading to the soil. However, some studies indicate that forest canopies (especially conifer forest canopies) retain a substantial portion of atmospherically-deposited N before this N reaches the soil in throughfall solutions. In the present study, canopy N uptake (CNU) and the influence of CNU on photosynthesis are investigated. At the Niwot Forest, growing-season throughfall fluxes of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) are markedly lower (~70% lower) than fluxes in wet plus dry deposition flux, indicating the forest canopy is taking up atmospherically-deposited N. This uptake was found to be driven by diffusion of NH4+ and NO3- into canopy tissues. Although the canopy is taking up atmospherically-deposited N, spruce foliar N content is still relatively low at the Niwot Forest. This low foliar N content contributes to low rates of light-saturated photosynthesis and maximum carboxylation (initial rate of CO2 reduction by RUBISCO). Further, a strong linear dependence of maximum carboxylation on needle N content was found and N solutions that had been directly applied to foliage at Niwot Forest spruce branches induced a 12% greater photosynthetic efficiency (i.e., proportion of absorbed light utilized by photosynthesis). The low foliar N content and dependence of photosynthetic parameters on foliar N content show that the Niwot Forest has yet to reach a state of N saturation. Noting the Niwot Forest has one of the largest N deposition fluxes in the Rockies, our CNU and photosynthetic parameter results characterizing pre

  6. Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wu-jun; WANG Shao-hua; WU Long-mei; DING Yan-feng; WENG Fei; WU Xiao-ran; LI Gang-hua; LIU Zheng-hui; TANG She; DING Cheng-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Lodging is an important factor limiting rice yield and quality by bending or breaking stem injaponica rice (Oryza sativaL.) production. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanism of lodging resistance injaponica rice as affected by carbohydrate components, especialy its related arrangement in culm tissue and response to top-dressing nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Field experiments were conducted in Danyang County, Jiangsu Province, China, by using twojaponica rice vari-eties Wuyunjing 23 (lodging-resistance variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety) with three top-dressing N fertilizer rates (0, 135 and 270 kg N ha–1) in 2013 and 2014. Lodging related physical parameters, morphological characteristics and stem carbohydrate components were investigated at 30 d after ful heading stage. Results showed that with increasing N fertilizer rates, the lodging rate and lodging index increased rapidly primarily due to signiifcant reduction of breaking strength in twojaponica rice varieties. Correlation analysis revealed that breaking strength was signiifcantly and positively correlated with bending stress, but negatively correlated with section modulus, except for signiifcant correlation at W3668 in 2014. Higher stem plumpness status and structural carbohydrate contents signiifcantly enhanced stem stiffness, despite of lower non-structural carbohydrate. With higher N fertilizer rate, the culm wal thickness was almost identical, and culm diameter increased slightly. The structural carbohydrates, especialy for lignin content in culm, reduced signiifcantly under high N rate. Further histochemical staining analysis revealed that high N treatments decreased the lignin deposition rapidly in the sclerenchyma cels of mechanical tissue, large vascular bundle and smal vascular bundle region, which were consistent with reduction of bending stress, especialy for W3668 and thus, resulted in poor stem strength and higher lodging index. These results suggested that

  7. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Contillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to estimate the N-status in flue-cured tobacco. The aims was to verify if a relationship exists between SPAD readings and leaf N content, and if a single leaf, in a well defined stalk position, could represent the nitrogen content of the whole plant. During the years 1995 and 1996, a pot experiment was conducted using two flue-cured tobacco varieties. SPAD values, total chlorophyll, total N contents and leaf area were measured throughout the growing season, on each odd leaf stalk position. SPAD values were well-correlated with both total chlorophyll and total N leaf concentration, and the regression coefficients were higher when relationships were calculated on a leaf-area basis. For both relationships, SPAD-total chlorophyll and SPAD-total N, the best fittings were obtained with quadratic equations. One leaf stalk position alone is able to monitor the N-status of the whole plant during the first six weeks after transplanting, without distinction of year and variety effects. The SPAD measurement of one leaf per plant, throughout the vegetative growing season, is therefore a valid tool to test the N-status of the crop in a period when a required N supply is still effective.

  8. Leaf nutrient contents of rangpur lime rootstock as afected by N, P, K, Ca and S fertilization Concentrações foliares do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'cravo' em função da adubação N, P, K, Ca e S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ruschel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of leaf nutrient contents can demonstrate plant nutritional status, identify symptoms of deficiency and toxicity, and evaluate the need to adjust fertilization programs. This research determined N:P:K:Ca:S rates for optimal nutrition of Rangpur lime - RL (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock, in an experiment arranged in a fractional factorial design of the (¹/25 5(4 type, with 25 treatments distributed within five blocks. Seedlings of RL were transplanted into 3.8-dm³ containers filled with commercial growing media, when plant height = 10 cm, in a nursery. Treatments consisted of the following nutrient rates (g per plant: N = 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; K = 0.4, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; P = 0.35, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0; and Ca = 3.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0. Phosphorus and Ca were applied to the compost before transplant of seedlings, while N and K were applied later and total amounts were split into 20 weekly applications via fertigation. Nutrient sources were triple super phosphate, gypsum, NH4NO3 and KCl. Leaf nutrient concentrations of five-mo-old plants were high or in excess for N, P, K and S. Calcium and Mg concentrations were low. Greater dry mass of plants were observed at nutrient rates of N = 3.5, P = 2.7, K = 2.0, and Ca = 6.5 g per plant.A determinação das concentrações foliares representa o estado nutricional das plantas, identifica deficiências e/ou excessos e avalia a necessidade de ajustar as adubações. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a melhor combinação de doses NPKCa e S que proporcione a concentração foliar responsável pela maior quantidade de matéria seca total das plantas de porta-enxerto limoeiro `Cravo', em um experimento fatorial fracionário (¹/25 5(4, com 25 tratamentos, repartidos em cinco blocos de cinco tratamentos. As mudas do limoeiro `Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb. foram transplantadas para recipientes (3,8 dm³ com substrato comercial, em viveiro telado, quando atingiram 10 cm. Os tratamentos

  9. Comparison of near infrared reflectance analysis of fecal fat, nitrogen and water with conventional methods, and fecal energy content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Neucker, A; Bijleveld, CMA; Wolthers, BG; Swaaneburg, JCJM; Kester, ADM; van Kreel, B; Forget, PP

    Objectives: To evaluate Near-Infrared Analysis (NIRA) method for determining fecal fat, water and nitrogen. Design and methods: The results of fecal fat, water and nitrogen by NIRA were compared with results of van de Kamer and Acid Steatocrit (AS), Dumas and vacuum drying methods for fat, nitrogen

  10. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  11. 低合金钢冶炼过程增氮行为分析%Behavior Analysis of Nitrogen Content Increasing in Low Alloy Steel Smelting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 范植金; 丁礼权

    2014-01-01

    为提高中厚板系列低合金钢氮含量控制水平,从热力学、动力学角度全面分析冶炼过程增氮行为,并结合相关试验对影响钢液增氮的因素进行分析。结果表明,氮在钢液中的溶解度与温度、氮分压以及合金成分有关;气泡—钢液面上的吸附化学反应为限制性环节;当钢液中w(O)≥0.04%或w(S)≥0.06%,钢液吸氮基本停止;当转炉全程底吹氮强度不超过0.025 m3/(min·t)时,转炉终点氮含量可控制在10×10-6以内。%In order to improve the level of nitrogen content control of low alloy steel, the paper analyzed the behavior of nitrogen content increasing from the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics, and illustrated the factors with related experiment. The results show that, the nitrogen solubility in liquid steel relate to temperature, nitrogen partial pressure and alloy composition;bubbles-liquid steel surface chemical reaction is restrictive link; when w(O) ≥0.04% or w(S) ≥0.06% , the increasing nitrogen process of liquid steel stopped; when the whole strength of bottom blowing nitrogen of BOF is no more than 0.025 m3/(min·t), nitrogen content of converter can be controlled within 10×10-6.

  12. Effects of Cycocel on Morphological Traits, Nitrogen and Potassium Content of Basil Plants under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei Estakhroeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Basil (Ocimum basilicum is an annual plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It used as a drug, spice and fresh vegetable. Drought stress is one of the important limiting factors of plant growth. Water stress has significant effects on morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple Basil. As the soil water content decreases, the plant height, stem diameter, number and area of leaves, leaf area index (LAI, herb yield and leaf chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll decrease, as well. However, the amounts of anthocyanin and proline increase. Cycocel (CCC which chemically called chlormequat chloride is an alkylating agent and a quaternary ammonium salt.. Cycocel is used as plant growth regulator. Application of Cycocel increases the number of siliques/ plant, seed yield and dry matter produced of oilseed rape. Cycocel application decreases the plant height and increases the yield level and protein percentage of seed in faba bean. This research was performed to investigate the effect of Cycocel on morphological characteristics, the percentage of nitrogen and potassium of basil plants under drought stress conditions Materials and Methods This research has been conducted in the research station of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with 56o 58' E longitude, 30o 15' N latitude, and 1753.8 altitudes. According to the regional information from 1952 to 2005, the average temperature was 17.1 o C, the average rainfall was 154.1 mm, the average annual relative humidity is 32%, and the climate of Kerman according to De Martonne method is semiarid. A split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was employed. Three levels of irrigation, including 50 (severe stress (I3, 75 (mild stress (I2 and 100 (full irrigation (I1 percent of crop water requirement were assigned to the main plots while five levels of Cycocel application (zero (control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 milligrams per litre were assigned to the sub

  13. The effects of foliar application of K, Ca and Mg on the contents of these elements in pericarp and its colouration of Feizixiao litchi%叶面K、Ca和Mg营养对妃子笑荔枝果皮相应元素含量和着色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓超; 苏阳; 高丹; 周开兵

    2015-01-01

    在妃子笑荔枝果皮着色的过程中,叶面喷施不同肥料均能提高果皮相应元素的含量.各施肥处理和CK(喷施清水)果皮的水溶性Ca含量与水溶性K含量、全Ca含量与水溶性K含量、全Mg含量与全Ca含量间的偏相关系数均呈显著正相关,且全K、全Ca、全Mg、水溶性K、水溶性Ca和水溶性Mg含量的复相关系数呈显著相关.喷施Mg肥解决了果皮"滞绿"的问题,喷施Ca和Mg的混合肥及K、Ca和Mg的混合肥解决了果肉"退糖"的问题.各施肥处理和CK果皮的花色素苷含量与其水溶性Mg、全Mg和全Ca含量均呈一元指数函数正相关,果皮叶绿素含量与其水溶性Mg和全Ca含量均呈一元指数函数负相关.可见,果皮Ca和Mg在促进果皮着色时相互增益.%In the course of pericarp colouration of Feizixiao litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Feizixiao) , foliar application with the nutrients all improved the contents of corresponding elements in pericarp. There existed significant positive partial correlations be-tween the contents of water-soluble Ca and water-soluble K, the contents of total Ca and water-soluble K, the contents of total Ca and water-soluble K, the contents of total Mg and total Ca. And there existed significant positive multiple correlations among total and water-soluble contents of K, Ca and Mg. Application of Mg prevented stay-green phenomenon of pericarp, and application of Ca+Mg and K+Ca+Mg prevented sugar-withdrawing phenomenon of the flesh. The contents of cyanin in pericarp positively correlated with the contents of water-soluble Mg, total Mg, total Ca in single element exponential fuction in all treatments( P<0.05) , while the content of chlorophyll in pericarp negtively correlated with the contents of water-soluble Mg and total Ca. These suggested that the contents of Ca and Mg in pericarp have a positive interaction for the colouration.

  14. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F(-) g(-1)). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  15. Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    2011-10-01

    do suficiente a aplicação do herbicida glifosato não requer a suplementação foliar de manganês em soja geneticamente modificada tolerante a esse herbicida.The yellowing of Roundup Ready soybean after glyphosate application, can be associated to a momentary manganese deficiency. Because of that, with the hypothesis that glyphosate tolerant soybean would need supplementary addition of manganese, the objective of this research was to evaluate different managements in the foliar application of manganese in some soybean parameters. It was developed two experiments, one at Taquaruçú do Sul and other at Boa Vista das Missões, RS in the year of 2009/2010. It was tested the following treatments: 1 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and without manganese foliar application (untreated check; 2 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and one manganese foliar application at 7 days after this manual weed control; 3 with glyphosate application and without manganese foliar application; 4 glyphosate application in mixture with manganese; 5 glyphosate application added of one manganese foliar application at 7 days after glyphosate application; 6 glyphosate application added of manganese foliar application split in two times, at 7 and 14 days after glyphosate application; 7 glyphosate application and one of manganese foliar application at 14 days after glyphosate application. The glyphosate application was realized in the V5 soybean stage, using 720g L-1 i.e, while the used dose of Mn was 2.0L ha-1 of a formulation with 14% (m/v of Mn. There were no significant difference among the treatments to plant height and height insertion of the first legume. The glyphosate application did not affect the absorption and the foliar amount of manganese and nitrogen in soybean crop. Even with the increase in foliar manganese amount, there was no increasing in soybean productivity. This shows that in soils with Mn levels above of the sufficient, it is not

  16. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  17. Dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of sugarcane with different fertilizer rates of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Villazón Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of determining the quantities of dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of the sugar cane fertilized with different phosphorus rates was carried out a in an experiment in blocks at random (8 treatments x 6 replications on a Chromic Vertisol. Five plants per plot at the 3rd replication and crop cycle were cut before harvesting. To the sugarcane top of the samples were determined the percentages of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; was carried out a count of sugarcane stalk in each plot to express the percentages in magnitudes of mass.An Analysis of Variance of simple classification and the test of multiple status of Duncan to 95 % of probability was executed. The yearly fertilizations with 50 and 25 kg ha-1 of phosphorus from the 1rst cycle and the application at the start of a cycle of 125 kg ha-1 showed the bigger dry matter contents and the second ratoons had the biggest influence in the matter production. It was appreciated that the influence of the crop cycle was bigger than that rates of phosphorus on the dry matter content. The rate of phosphorus and the crop cycle with bigger content of primary macroelements were those where the dry matter was in bigger quantities. In the interaction rates of phosphorus-crop cycle the bigger contents of phosphorus and potassium was obtained on the 2nd ratoon with yearly and to the start of crop cycle applications of phosphorus.

  18. Herbage Production and Quality of Shrub Indigofera Treated by Different Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on fodder legume Indigofera sp. was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer concentration on forage yield and quality, and to identify optimum concentrations among the fertilizer treatments on herbage yield, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, and in vitro dry matter (IVDMD as wll as organic matter (IVOMD digestibility in goat’s rumen. Randomized block design was used for the six concentration of fertilizer treatments; control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/10 l with 3 replicates. Leaves were sprayed with foliar fertilizer at 30, 34, 38, and 42 days after harvest. Samples were collected at 2 harvest times with 60 days cutting interval. Application of the foliar fertilizer up to 30 g/10 l significantly increased herbage DM yield, twig numbers, tannin, saponin, Ca and P content, as well as herbage digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD. The lower and higher concentration of foliar fertilizer resulted in lower value of those parameters, but NDF and ADF contents had the opposite patterns. The optimum level of foliar fertilizer that resulted the highest herbage yield and quality was 30 g/10 l, and the highest in vitro digestibility and Ca concentration was 20 g/10 l.

  19. Aplicación de urea foliar al cultivo de trigo en antesis bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico Wheat foliar urea application at anthesis under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Divito

    2008-07-01

    .141 kg ha-1.The foliar nitrogen (N applications in the period from leaf flag to anthesis enable yield optimization and/or to improve grain quality, but can generate phytotoxicity that impacts negatively on both parameters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of N rates, fertilization moments and the use of a urease activity inhibitor in foliar urea applications at anthesis under water stress conditions. The experiment was carried out during 2006 in Balcarce, Buenos Aires, in a wheat crop with 80 kg ha-1 of diamonic phosphate applied at planting and 120 kg ha-1 of urea applied at tillering. Three foliar N rates applied at anthesis (30, 40 and 50 kg ha-1; three application moments (morning, mid-day and afternoon and the addition or not of a urease inhibitor, n(n-butyl thiophosphoric tiamide (NBPT, were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement of the treatments. A check treatment without N and without NBPT was included in the experiment. The wheat crop suffered water stress after the foliar application period. The application of increasing foliar N rates generated reductions in the greenness index (IV values at 5, 8 and 14 days post fertilization (DPF. At 2 DPF, the addition of foliar urea caused reductions in the photosynthetically active radiation interception (RFAint due to phytotoxicity effects (80 and 67% reductions for the check and fertilized treatments, respectively, but at 28 DPF fertilized treatments surpassed the check (55 and 40%, respectively, being the rate of 50 kg ha-1 the one which intercepted the smallest proportion of radiation among fertilized treatments. Wheat yield and protein content of fertilized treatments were slightly greater than the check plots in spite of crop damage due to foliar fertilization coinciding with the critical period when yield is defined. Both parameters were not affected by the moment or rate of N fertilization although NBPT addition increased the yield slightly (4,027 and 4,141 kg

  20. sp sup 2 and sp sup 3 bonding configurations in low nitrogen content a-CN sub x thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzasalma, A M; Neri, F; Trusso, S

    2003-01-01

    The results of an electron spectroscopy study carried out on a set of pulsed laser deposited CN sub x films are reported. A progressive degree of graphitization, deduced from the continuous increase in the sp sup 2 bond fraction, has been found for x values up to 25%. The mass density values, deduced by a proper treating of both the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy data, are consistent with a material made up by two phases, namely a sp sup 2 threefold (graphite-like) and a sp sup 3 fourfold (diamond-like) coordinated one. The behaviour of the density of the samples as a function of the N content does not show any abrupt change in going from lower to higher nitrogen concentrations as found by other authors, this certainly being due to differences in the starting sp sup 3 /sp sup 2 ratio of the films at zero N concentration and to their different preparation parameters.

  1. [Sediment content and nitrogen and phosphorus load characteristics of surface runoff on bamboo forest slopes: a simulation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2012-04-01

    To understand the load characteristics and related mechanisms of surface runoff on two management types of bamboo forests (bamboo timber forest and bamboo shoot forest) slopes (gradient 20 degrees) in Zhejiang Province, this study measured the runoff volume, sediment yield, its total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of runoff under six artificial simulated rainfall intensity (31.8-114.0 mm x h(-1)). In bamboo timber forest, the total runoff volume and runoff coefficient were higher, but the runoff sediment content and the total sediment yield were far lower, as compared with those in bamboo shoot forest. The runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. Under the same rainfall intensity, the runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest was 5-6 times of that in bamboo timber forest. The runoff TP concentration was higher in bamboo timber forest than in bamboo shoot forest, but the TP loss from the sediment runoff in bamboo shoot forest was hundreds times of that in bamboo timber forest. During the processes of the TN and TP losses from the sediment runoff, the TN and TP concentrations at the prophase of runoff yield played a cardinal role, while the runoff volume and sediment yield at the anaphase played a decisive role.

  2. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg(-1) VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions.

  3. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co{sub 84}Zr{sub 16})N{sub x} nano-composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jitendra, E-mail: jitendra@ceeri.ernet.in; Akhtar, Jamil [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110001 (India); Shukla, Rishabh; Bagri, Anita; Dhaka, Rajendra S. [Novel Materials and Interface Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-01-15

    We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co{sub 84}Zr{sub 16})N{sub x} or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (M{sub s}) with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331) and fcc(422) phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  4. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16Nx nano-composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331 and fcc(422 phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  5. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  6. Fed-batch cultivation of baker's yeast followed by nitrogen or carbon starvation: effects on fermentative capacity and content of trehalose and glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B.

    2002-01-01

    An industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DGI 342) was cultivated in fed-batch cultivations at a specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1). The yeast was then exposed to carbon or nitrogen starvation for up to 8 h, to study the effect of starvation on fermentative capacity and content of protein...... of the yeast cells, and the fermentative capacity per gram dry-weight decreased by 40%. The protein content in the carbon-starved yeast increased as a result of starvation due to the fact that the content of glycogen was reduced. The fermentative capacity per gram dry-weight was, however, unaltered....

  7. Soil nitrogen drives community-level phosphorus resorption in a co-limited system: evidence from a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, C. R.; Yanai, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fertilization studies in northeastern forests suggest that forest productivity may be co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Foliar nutrient resorption is a crucial conservation mechanism for plants. Resorption controls litterfall nutrient concentration, and litterfall is the largest aboveground nutrient flux in this system. Previous studies have attempted to link the foliar resorption of P to soil P status with mixed results. We propose that in an N and P co-limited system, foliar resorption of P may be linked to N availability. Here we compare the foliar chemistry of six hardwood tree species to soil chemistry across 18 plots in 6 stands in Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Resorption efficiency was calculated by species as the percent difference between green and senesced leaves. We weighted the resorption efficiencies for dominant tree species in each plot by their litterfall mass to create a community-level estimate of resorption for each plot. Estimates of soil N content to 30 centimeters in the mineral soil were strongly correlated with community-level estimates of both P resorption efficiency (p=0.002) and proficiency (p=0.006). At the population level, this trend was observed in four of the six tree species sampled. Neither N nor P resorption was correlated with any of the soil P fractions we examined. If N availability drives biological P conservation, it would provide an important mechanism for the coupled cycling of N and P in co-limited systems.

  8. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  9. [Hyper spectral estimation method for soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content based on discrete wavelet transform and genetic algorithm in combining with partial least squares DWT-GA-PLS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Li, Xi-Can; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Yu-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Qihe County in Shandong Province of East China as the study area, soil samples were collected from the field, and based on the hyperspectral reflectance measurement of the soil samples and the transformation with the first deviation, the spectra were denoised and compressed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the variables for the soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen quantitative estimation models were selected by genetic algorithms (GA), and the estimation models for the soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content were built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The discrete wavelet transform and genetic algorithm in combining with partial least squares (DWT-GA-PLS) could not only compress the spectrum variables and reduce the model variables, but also improve the quantitative estimation accuracy of soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content. Based on the 1-2 levels low frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform, and under the condition of large scale decrement of spectrum variables, the calibration models could achieve the higher or the same prediction accuracy as the soil full spectra. The model based on the second level low frequency coefficients had the highest precision, with the model predicting R2 being 0.85, the RMSE being 8.11 mg x kg(-1), and RPD being 2.53, indicating the effectiveness of DWT-GA-PLS method in estimating soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content.

  10. Growth and Content of Spirulina Platensis Biomass Chlorophyll Cultivated at Different Values of Light Intensity and Temperature Using Different Nitrogen Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Danesi, Eliane Dalva; Oliveira Rangel-Yagui, Carlota; Sato, Sunao; Monteiro de Carvalho, João Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m−2 s−1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m−2s−1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L−1 d−1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m−2 s−1. PMID:24031643

  11. Nitrogen fractions and mineral content in different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus). Changes induced by the alpha-galactoside extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Jesus M; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2007-09-05

    The protein and mineral composition of different varieties of three different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus) and the effect of alpha-galactoside removal by means of a hydroalcoholic extraction process on such composition were studied in relationship to nutrient distribution among the different anatomical parts of the seed (embryo, cotyledon, and seed coat). The extent of processing-derived protein insolubilization was assessed by both chemical and electrophoretic techniques and related to the amount of nitrogen soluble in H(2)O, NaCl, ethanol, NaOH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate/beta-mercaptoethanol (SDS/BME). The alpha-galactoside extraction process caused a significant increase in the amount of total and insoluble nitrogen and decreased the amount of soluble protein nitrogen, without affecting the content of soluble nonprotein nitrogen. alpha-Galactoside extraction was not effective at decreasing the levels of Mn present in lupins, and processing caused an increase in the content of this mineral in all of the species studied with the exception of L. albus var. multolupa. In general, the effect of processing on mineral content varied with the different lupin species, and mineral losses were lower in L. luteus.

  12. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e retardamento da senescência foliar em girassol de vaso (Helianthus annuus L.: fontes e doses de nitrogênio Growth, development and delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: sources and rates of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O girassol é a quarta oleaginosa em produção de grãos no mundo e alguns genótipos são usados com finalidade ornamental para flor de corte e de vaso (girassol de vaso. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de nitrogênio sobre alguns parâmetros de crescimento, desenvolvimento e no retardamento da senescência das folhas basais em girassol de vaso. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram: uréia, nitrato de amônio e nitrato de cálcio nas doses de 0, 50, 100 e 150mg L-1 de N na solução de fertirrigação, com duas aplicações semanais. O experimento foi um bi-fatorial (fontes e doses de N no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Cada repetição foi um vaso no 15 (1,3L, 15cm de altura com uma planta por vaso. As variáveis analisadas foram: número final de folhas, altura final de plantas, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no ponto de venda, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no final de vida de vaso, área foliar total da planta, filocrono e a soma térmica acumulada da emergência ao botão visível e da emergência ao ponto de venda. A fonte de N tem influência sobre a área foliar do girassol de vaso, sendo a uréia recomendável para o maior crescimento das folhas. A dose de N em torno de 100mg L-1 aplicada duas vezes por semana via fertirrigação favorece características desejáveis para a comercialização, como precocidade e retardamento da senescência das folhas.Sunflower is the fourth oil grain crop grown worldwide and some genotypes are used with ornamental purpose as cut and pot-grown flower. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and rates of nitrogen on some growth and developmental parameters, and on the delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower. An experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were: urea, ammonium nitrate and

  13. Effects of Root Fertilizing with Nitrogen,Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizers on Foliar Optimal Light Energy Conversion Efficiency of Juglans regia ‘Xinwen185’%新温185号核桃根施氮磷钾肥的最大光能转换效率效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国俊; 潘存德; 陈虹; 常志帅

    2014-01-01

    以新温185号(J uglans regia ‘Xinwen185’)核桃为研究对象,采用“3414”肥料效应田间试验,检验根施氮(N)、磷(P)、钾(K)肥对新温185号核桃叶片的最大光能转换效率(Fv/Fm )效应.结果表明,新温185号核桃叶片的最大光能转换效率日均值以10为底的常用对数同 N 肥施用量(纯 N 量,N)、N 肥施用量 的 自 乘(N× N 或N2)、K 肥施用量(纯 K2 O 量,K)、K 肥施用量的自乘(K×K 或 K2)存在极显著(P <0.001)的线性相关关系.在中等土壤养分条件下,当 N 肥施用量(纯 N 量)小于2.6727 kg/株和/或 K 肥施用量(纯 K2 O 量)小于0.3218 kg/株时,对新温185号核桃叶片的 Fv/Fm 均存在正效应,反之则存在负效应.在新温185号核桃生产园田间土壤施肥管理中须根据土壤养分状况适度施用 N、K 肥.%Taking J uglans regia ‘Xinwen185 ’as the research object,based on “3414”fertilizer effect field experiments,the effects of the root fertilizing with nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P)and potassium (K) fertilizers on the foliar optimal light energy conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm )was tested to provide a scientif-ic basis for field fertilizing management of J .regia ‘Xinwen185’.The results showed that the denary log-arithm of the daily mean value of the foliar optimal light energy conversion efficiency of J .regia‘Xinwen185’had a highly significantly linear correlation relationship (P < 0.001)with the fertilizing a-mount of N fertilizer (pure N amount;N)and its square (N×N or N2 ),the fertilizing amount of K fertil-izer (pure K2 O amount;K)and its square (K×K or K2 ).Under the medium soil nutrient condition,when the fertilizing amount of N fertilizer (pure N amount)was less than 2.6727 kg per tree and/or the fertili-zing amount of K fertilizer (pure K2 O amount)was less than 0.3218 kg per tree,the fertilizer application a-mount had positive effect on Fv/Fm of J .regia ‘Xinwen185 ’leaves;Otherwise it had negative effect

  14. Use of radial basis function networks and near-infrared spectroscopy for the determination of total nitrogen content in soils from Sao Paulo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidêncio, Paulo H; Poppi, Ronei J; de Andrade, João C; de Abreu, Mônica F

    2008-07-01

    Total nitrogen has been determined by using a model developed between the conventional chemical measurements and diffuse reflectance spectra in the near-infrared region. Samples (244) from different types of soils with total nitrogen contents ranging from 0.20 to 13.60% (m/m) were modeled by partial least-squares regression (PLS), multi-layer perceptron feed-forward networks (MLP) and radial basis function networks (RBFN). The RBFN model produced a better square error of prediction (SEP) of 0.048 and R(2) = 0.93 in a procedure that is simpler, faster and less dependent on the initial conditions.

  15. 加氢汽油中总氮含量的测定%Determination of total nitrogen content in hydrogenated gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵春祺; 鲁卫平; 张爱民; 张锡娅

    2015-01-01

    介绍了化学发光法测定石油中总氮的原理,结合实际经验,讨论加氢汽油中总氮含量的测定条件及操作技巧。采用化学发光定氮法测定加氢汽油中总氮含量的方法分析简单、快速、准确。%This paper described the principle of determination of total nitrogen in petroleum by chemi-luminescence,discussed the determination conditions of total nitrogen content in hydrogenated gasoline and operation skills.

  16. Eutrophication of mangroves linked to depletion of foliar and soil base cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that increasing eutrophication causes degradation of coastal ecosystems. Studies in terrestrial ecosystems have shown that increasing the concentration of nitrogen in soils contributes to the acidification process, which leads to leaching of base cations. To test the effects of eutrophication on the availability of base cations in mangroves, we compared paired leaf and soil nutrient levels sampled in Nypa fruticans and Rhizophora spp. on a severely disturbed, i.e. nutrient loaded, site (Mahakam delta) with samples from an undisturbed, near-pristine site (Berau delta) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The findings indicate that under pristine conditions, the availability of base cations in mangrove soils is determined largely by salinity. Anthropogenic disturbances on the Mahakam site have resulted in eutrophication, which is related to lower levels of foliar and soil base cations. Path analysis suggests that increasing soil nitrogen reduces soil pH, which in turn reduces the levels of foliar and soil base cations in mangroves.

  17. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium manipulation on the Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Wan, Don-Ju; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Li-Ben; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2013-02-01

    The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a rice pest that is prone to outbreaks when high levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer are applied to rice. The larvae feed by scraping the mesophyll cells of leaves, which are mainly composed of chloroplasts containing significant levels of elemental magnesium (Mg). To determine the cause of N fertilizer-induced rice leaffolder outbreaks and the effects of Mg and Mg uptake on the rice leaffolder, the changes in the life history traits and biochemistry of C. medinalis larvae feeding on rice leaves treated with different Mg and N concentrations were investigated in this study. The results showed that foliar treatment using different Mg concentrations under hydroponic culture conditions significantly decreased the developmental duration (days) (DD) of the larvae and pupae but did not influence the pupation rate or adult emergence rate. The number of eggs laid by adult females and the protein content and total sugar content in the larvae and pupae significantly increased with increasing Mg concentrations. Under soil culture conditions, the DD for the larvae and number of eggs laid by adult females significantly increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels, but the applied fertilizer did not influence the DD in the pupae, pupation rate, or adult emergence rate. In contrast, the DD for adults decreased with increased fertilizer levels. In hydroponic culture, Mg in the culture solution and Mg foliar sprays significantly increased the Mg content in rice leaves. In soil cultures, the use of N fertilizer and Mg foliar spray did not significantly increase the leaf Mg content, except at a concentration of 12.5 g/L, indicating that the leaf Mg content may be related to the root uptake of Mg.

  18. Foliar zinc uptake processes and critical factors influencing foliar Zn efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Du

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in soils and plants is a global micronutrient deficiency problem in many cropping regions. Both soil and foliar application of Zn fertilizers have been commonly used to correct Zn deficiency and/or enhance Zn nutrition in crops. However, increasing foliar application of Zn fertilizers has been used to precisely deliver Zn when peak Zn demand could not meet by root Zn uptake at the late vegetative and early reproductive stages, where soil and climatic conditions inhibit adequate Zn uptake through roots. The present review has discussed key processes of foliar penetration of nutrient solutes and critical factors affecting the penetration rate of nutrient ions through the cuticular surfaces, including environmental factors, physiological status of leaves and plants, and physical and chemical properties of fertilizer chemicals used. In particular, the effects of leaf surface characteristics and chemical forms of foliar fertilizers on foliar nutrient uptake have been discussed in detail, with the aim to justify the potential of the newly developed nanocrystals of Zn compounds. Properties of different foliar Zn fertilizers have been compared and major shortcomings with traditional Zn foliar fertilizers have been identified, in relation to the justification to develop a new generation of foliar Zn technology.

  19. Effects of VA Mycorrhiza on Content of Nitrogen and Nitrogenous Matter of Amur Cork Tree%丛枝菌根对黄檗氮素及含氮物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方杰; 范继红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了研究丛枝菌根对黄檗叶片氮素及含氮代谢物质含量的影响.[方法]通过盆栽试验,用摩西球囊霉、幼套球囊霉、地表球囊霉、透光球囊霉4种丛枝菌根真菌接种黄檗一年生实生苗.[结果]黄檗幼苗形成丛枝菌根后,黄檗叶片氮素含量增加,接种摩西球囊霉的苗木叶片氮素含量比对照提高了1.28 ~1.60倍,植物体内硝酸还原酶的活性增强,可溶性蛋白含量、植物体内吲哚乙酸的含量增加.[结论]丛枝菌根能够增强黄檗氮素代谢能力,促进氮素吸收及含氮物质合成代谢,有利于黄檗生长发育.%[Objective] The research aimed to explore the effects of VA mycorrhiza on the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter of amur cork trees(Phellodendron amurense Rupr. ). [Method] The annual seedlings were inoculated with four arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi through potted experiments. [Result] VA mycorrhiza obviously increased the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter. The nitrogen content of the leaves increased significantly through infection by VA mycorrhizal fungi. With the inoculating with G. Mosseae, the nitrogen content of seedlings increased by 1.28 to 1. 60 times. VA mycorrhiza also enhanced the activity of nitric acid reductase of the plants, and the content of soluble protein and the proportion of the indole acetic acid. [ Conclusion ] VA mycorrhiza can enhance the metabolic ability of amur cork trees and the photosynthesis characteristics, and promote the growth of the whole plant.

  20. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola(Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, Pakistan, during winter 2003~2004 and 2004~2005 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels and methods of nitrogen application on canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98) under rainfed conditions. Four levels of S (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg/ha) and three levels of N (40, 60,and 80 kg/ha) and a control treatment with both nutrients at zero level were included in the experiments. Sulfur levels were applied at sowing while N levels were applied by three methods (100% soil application, 90% soil+10% foliar application, and 80% soil +20% foliar application). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design having four replications. Oil content increased significantly up to 20 kg S/ha but further increase in S level did not enhance oil content. Glucosinolate content increased from 13.6 to 24.6 μmol/g as S rate was increased from 0 to 30 kg/ha. Protein content increased from 22.4% to 23.2% as S rate was increased from 0 to 20 kg/ha. Oil content responded negatively to the increasing N levels. The highest N level resulted in the highest values for protein (23.5%) and glucosinolate (19.9 μmol/g) contents. Methods of N application had no significant impact on any parameters under study.

  1. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  2. Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cinti B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR. In 1995, the Italian Forest Service (CFS established the National Network for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR with the aim to study the ecological interactions among structural and functional components of forest stands. In the 31 permanent plots of the CONECOFOR Network, surveys are carried out including vegetation, trees crown condition, chemistry of leaves and soils, tree growth, atmospheric deposition, climate, microclimate, ozone and biodiversity. These surveys are carried out by CFS in collaboration with several scientific institutions. In such context, IBAF/CNR is specifically involved in the investigation of foliage chemical content. The foliar nutritional status was analyzed in 25 sites, taking as a reference the values published by the ICP-Forests and those published in the literature. The study involved 7 forest species (Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus and Picea abies investigating the concentrations of the major macronutrients as nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, sulfur (S and calcium (Ca and the N/P ratio. In beech, N, S and K were found in quite high concentrations, though without showing imbalances due to concentration excesses. Ca and Mg are present in very high concentrations, highlighting the possibility of imbalances, especially in relation to the other nutrients. For these two nutrients, spruce shows substantially balanced conditions as also for N/P ratio. For deciduous Oaks nutrients arewithin the parameters of normality, with the exception of Ca. This has been observed in 4 out of the 6 studied sites, with potential indication of nutritional imbalances related to Calcium. Nutrient concentrations in Holm oak are within the average of published data, except for Ca and Mg of site TOS-1, the former being slightly low, the latter being unusually high

  3. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  4. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB on growth and stevioside (ST yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  5. Unimolecular decomposition of tetrazine-N-oxide based high nitrogen content energetic materials from excited electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Guo, Y. Q.; Bernstein, E. R.

    2009-11-01

    Unimolecular excited electronic state decomposition of novel high nitrogen content energetic molecules, such as 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)-mixed N-oxides (DAATO3.5), 3-amino-6-chloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-2,4-dioxide (ACTO), and 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-1,4-dioxde (DATO), is investigated. Although these molecules are based on N-oxides of a tetrazine aromatic heterocyclic ring, their decomposition behavior distinctly differs from that of bare tetrazine, in which N2 and HCN are produced as decomposition products through a concerted dissociation mechanism. NO is observed to be an initial decomposition product from all tetrazine-N-oxide based molecules from their low lying excited electronic states. The NO product from DAATO3.5 and ACTO is rotationally cold (20 K) and vibrationally hot (1200 K), while the NO product from DATO is rotationally hot (50 K) and vibrationally cold [only the (0-0) vibronic transition of NO is observed]. DAATO3.5 and ACTO primarily differ from DATO with regard to molecular structure, by the relative position of oxygen atom attachment to the tetrazine ring. Therefore, the relative position of oxygen in tetrazine-N-oxides is proposed to play an important role in their energetic behavior. N2O is ruled out as an intermediate precursor of the NO product observed from all three molecules. Theoretical calculations at CASMP2/CASSCF level of theory predict a ring contraction mechanism for generation of the initial NO product from these molecules. The ring contraction occurs through an (S1/S0)CI conical intersection.

  6. Combined effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers on the contents of glucosinolates in rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Silbia; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Chung, Doug Young; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) are the most limiting factors in crop production. N often affects the amino acid composition of protein and in turn its nutritional quality. In Brassica plants, abundant supply of N fertilizer decreases the relative proportion of glucosinolates (GSLs), thus reducing the biological and medical values of the vegetables. Hence effort was made to evaluate the influence of different proportions of nutrient solutions containing N-P-K on the GSL profiles of rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.). Fifteen desulpho-(DS) GSLs were isolated and identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis. Rocket salad plants supplied with lesser amount of N, P or higher concentrations of K showed a typical improvement in total GSL contents. In contrast, total GSL levels were less at higher N supply. Furthermore, with N concentrations above 5 mM and K concentrations less than 2.5 mM, the GSL amounts were on average 13.51 and 13.75 μmol/g dry weight (DW), respectively. Aliphatic GSLs predominated in all concentrations of NPK while indolyl GSLs made up marginally less amount of the total compositions. Five and 2 mM N and P possessed much higher levels of several types of aliphatic GSLs than other concentrations, including glucoerucin, glucoraphanin and dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl GSL. From this perspective, it is contended that supply of less N results in enhancing the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of GSLs in rocket salad.

  7. Combined effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers on the contents of glucosinolates in rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Chun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P and potassium (K are the most limiting factors in crop production. N often affects the amino acid composition of protein and in turn its nutritional quality. In Brassica plants, abundant supply of N fertilizer decreases the relative proportion of glucosinolates (GSLs, thus reducing the biological and medical values of the vegetables. Hence effort was made to evaluate the influence of different proportions of nutrient solutions containing N–P–K on the GSL profiles of rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.. Fifteen desulpho-(DS GSLs were isolated and identified using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis. Rocket salad plants supplied with lesser amount of N, P or higher concentrations of K showed a typical improvement in total GSL contents. In contrast, total GSL levels were less at higher N supply. Furthermore, with N concentrations above 5 mM and K concentrations less than 2.5 mM, the GSL amounts were on average 13.51 and 13.75 μmol/g dry weight (DW, respectively. Aliphatic GSLs predominated in all concentrations of NPK while indolyl GSLs made up marginally less amount of the total compositions. Five and 2 mM N and P possessed much higher levels of several types of aliphatic GSLs than other concentrations, including glucoerucin, glucoraphanin and dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl GSL. From this perspective, it is contended that supply of less N results in enhancing the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of GSLs in rocket salad.

  8. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  9. Masting in Fagus crenata and its influence on the nitrogen content and dry mass of winter buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-08-01

    In Fagus, full-mast seeding years are invariably followed by at least one non-mast year. Both flower and leaf primordia develop during the summer within the same winter buds. Flower bud initiation occurs when the N content of developing seeds is increasing rapidly. We hypothesized that competition for nitrogen (N) between developing seeds and buds limits flower primordium formation in mast years and, hence, limits seed production in years following mast years. We tested this hypothesis in three Fagus crenata Blume forests at elevations of 550, 900 and 1500 m. Bud N concentration (N con), amount of N per bud (N bud) and dry mass per bud (DM) were compared between a mast year (2005) and the following non-mast year (2006), and between winter buds containing both leaf and flower primoridia (BF), which were formed during the non-mast year, and winter buds containing leaf primordia only (BL), which were formed in both mast and non-mast years. In addition, leaf numbers per shoot corresponding to the analyzed buds were counted, and the effect of masting on litter production was analyzed by quantifying the amounts of litter that fell in the years 2004 to 2007. The dry mass and N content of BF formed in 2006 by trees at both 550 and 1500 m were 2.1-3.4-fold higher than the corresponding amounts in BL, although the numbers of leaves per current-year shoot in 2007 that developed from the two bud types in the same individuals did not differ significantly. These results indicate that more N and carbohydrate are expended in producing BF than in producing BL. The amount of litter from reproductive organs produced in the mast year was similar to the amount of leaf litter at 900 and 1500 m, but three times as much at 550 m. Leaf numbers per shoot were significantly lower at all elevations in the mast year than in the non-mast years (and the amount of leaf litter at 550 and 1500 m tended to be lower in the mast year than in the non-mast years. In conclusion, preferential allocation

  10. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  11. Effect of Foliar Fertilizer on Antiaging Characters and Yield of Wheat Xinong 2000%叶面施肥对小麦品种西农2000抗衰老特性及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军飞; 郑炜君; 孙现军; 李英; 柴守诚

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Foliar Fertilizer on Antiaging Characteristics and Yield of Wheat variety Xinong 2000 was investigated to delay the flag leaf senescence and increase yield. Four treatments were taken. CK: foliar spraying water; T1: foliar application nitrogen content of 46% urea (15 kg · hm-2); T2: foliar application of a purity of 96 % potassium dihydrogen phosphate (2. 25 kg · hm-2); T3 : foliar spraying 46% urea (15 kg · hm-2) and 96% potassium dihydrogen phosphate (2. 25 kg · hm-2). Foliar spray solution volume of each treatment are 750 L · hm~2. The treatments were conducted in the fifth and tenth day after flowering. The chlorophyll mass fraction,MDA molality.SOD and POD activities in the flag leaves and yield were investigated for each treatment. Results showed that three kinds of foliar fertilizer treatments significantly improve the yield of xinong 2000,T1, T2 and T3 process increased the yields by 6. 4% .5. 3%and 8. 4%respectively, The yield-increasing effect by the increase in 1000-grain weight and grains/spike. Foliar fertilizer could increase the chlorophyll contents, SOD , POD activities, and reduce MDA contents. T3 process is better than Tl, T2. These features help to delay leaf senescence access, thereby increasing production, which has been output results of this study clearly demonstrated.%旨在研究叶面肥对小麦品种西农2000旗叶叶片衰老及产量的影响.设置4个施肥处理:CK(叶面喷清水750 L·hm-2)、T1(w=46%尿素15 kg·hm-2)、T2(w=96%磷酸二氢钾2.25 kg· hm-2)、T3(w=46%尿素15 kg· hm- 2+(w)=96%磷酸二氢钾2.25 kg·hm-2),分别在花后5d和10d各喷1次.测定分析各处理下西农2000旗叶叶绿素质量分数和丙二醛(MDA)质量摩尔浓度、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性及产量构成因素等指标的变化规律.结果表明,与对照相比,3种叶面肥喷施处理均能显著提高西农2000的产量,T3、T1和T2的平均增产率分别为8.4%、6.4%和5.3

  12. The effect of light and nitrogen availability on the caffeine, theophylline and allantoin contents in the leaves of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F. Pompelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most abundant and important purine alkaloid derived from several important crop, such as coffee, tea, cocoa, guarana, and other plants. In tea and coffee plants, caffeine is predominantly produced in the young buds of leaves and in immature fruits. The effect of light-stimulating caffeine biosynthesis is uncertain, but our results clearly show that light, independent of N-availability, increases caffeine (26%, allantoin (47%, and theophylline (8% content in plants compared with those grown in a shaded (50% solar irradiation environment. Caffeine is the major low-molecular-weight nitrogenous compound in coffee plants, and at times, it functions as a chemical defense for new bud leaves. Therefore, the primary question that remains is whether caffeine can serve as a nitrogen source for other metabolic pathways. If so, plants grown under a low nitrogen concentration should promote caffeine degradation, with the consequent use of nitrogen atoms (e.g., in NH3 for the construction of other nitrogen compounds that are used for the plant’s metabolism. Our results provide strong evidence that caffeine is degraded into allantoin at low rates in N-deficient plants but not in N-enriched ones. By contrast, this degradation may represent a significant N-source in N-deficient plants.

  13. Performance evaluation of the UV/H2O2 process on selected nitrogenous organic compounds: reductions of organic contents vs. corresponding C-, N-DBPs formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2011-10-01

    The presence of various organic contaminants in water sources is of concern due to their direct threats to human health and potential to react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic byproducts including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and nitrosamines in finished water. This study applied both medium-pressure and low-pressure ultraviolet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) to evaluate its efficacy for degradation of selected nitrogenous organic compounds and corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Six organic compounds were chosen as target precursors based on their nitrogen contents and molecular structures. The results showed that higher oxidation capacity resulted in better reduction of organic matters and DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs). However, insufficient contact time and oxidant doses could lead to a rise of DBPFPs in the early stages of UV/H2O2 reactions. A greater percentage removal was achieved for organic carbon than organic nitrogen after UV/H2O2 treatment, especially for compounds with complicated structure such as diltiazem. During the UV/H2O2 treatment, the intermediate products include tertiary amine, dimethyl amine (DMA) or DMA-like structures, which are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors after chlorination or chloramination. Furthermore, it was observed that using dissolved organic nitrogen and DMA to predict NDMAFP could lead to biased conclusions because of the complex nature of nitrogenous matters in aqueous environments.

  14. Interactive effects of nitrogen and light on growth rates and RUBISCO content of small and large centric diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Campbell, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Among marine phytoplankton groups, diatoms span the widest range of cell size, with resulting effects upon their nitrogen uptake, photosynthesis and growth responses to light. We grew two strains of marine centric diatoms differing by ~4 orders of magnitude in cell biovolume in high (enriched artificial seawater with ~500 µmol L(-1) µmol L(-1) NO3(-)) and lower-nitrogen (enriched artificial seawater with Nitrogen and total protein per cell decreased with increasing growth light in both species when grown under the lower-nitrogen media. Cells growing under lower-nitrogen media increased their cellular allocation to RUBISCO and their rate of electron transport away from PSII, for the smaller diatom under low growth light and for the larger diatom across the range of growth lights. The smaller coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is able to exploit high nitrogen in growth media by up-regulating growth rate, but the same high-nitrogen growth media inhibits growth of the larger diatom species.

  15. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  16. Non-biased prediction of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen with vis-NIR spectroscopy, as affected by soil moisture content and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Boyan Y.; Mouazen, Abdul Mounem

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of moisture content (MC) and texture on the prediction of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) with visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy under laboratory and on-line measurement conditions. An AgroSpec spectrophotometer was used to develop calibration models of OC and TN using laboratory scanned spectra of fresh and processed soil samples collected from five fields on Silsoe Farm, UK. A previously developed on-line vis-...

  17. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  18. Differential Effects of Legume Species on the Recovery of Soil Microbial Communities, and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents, in Abandoned Fields of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Hua; Jiao, Shu Mei; Gao, Rong Qing; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant-soil interactions are known to influence a wide range of ecosystem-level functions. Moreover, the recovery of these functions is of importance for the successful restoration of soils that have been degraded through intensive and/or inappropriate land use. Here, we assessed the effect of planting treatments commonly used to accelerate rates of grassland restoration, namely introduction of different legume species Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus suaveolens, on the recovery of soil microbial communities and carbon and nitrogen contents in abandoned fields of the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed effects were species-specific, and either positive, neutral or negative depending on the measure and time-scale. All legumes increased basal respiration and metabolic quotient and had a positive effect on activity and functional diversity of the soil microbial community, measured using Biolog EcoPlate. However, soil under Astragalus adsurgens had the highest activity and functional diversity relative to the other treatments. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and microbial biomass were effectively restored in 3-5 years by introducing Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens into early abandoned fields. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were retarded in 3-5 years and microbial biomass was retarded in the fifth year by introducing Melilotus suaveolens. Overall, the restoration practices of planting legumes can significantly affect soil carbon and nitrogen contents, and the biomass, activity, and functional diversity of soil microbial community. Therefore, we propose certain legume species could be used to accelerate ecological restoration of degraded soils, hence assist in the protection and preservation of the environment.

  19. Amino Acid Profiles, Total Nitrogen Contents, and Computed-Protein Efficiency Ratios of Manihot esculenta Root and Dioscorea rotundata Tuber Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous roots of cassava and yam are major sources of dietary carbohydrate to human, alternative sources of energy in livestock feeds, and sources of starch in small-scale industries. Investigations on amino acid profiles, total nitrogen contents, and computed-protein efficiency ratios (C-PER of tuberous root peels of Manihot esculenta Crantz and Dioscorea rotundata Poir. were carried out. Amino acid analysis was carried out using ion-exchange chromatography methods. Total nitrogen content was measured using the micro-Kjeldahl methods. The C-PER was calculated using regression equation. The concentrations of amino acids detected in the cassava peels ranged from 0.54 to 6.54 g/100 g protein, whereas those of yam peels were between 0.37 and 6.25 g/100 g protein. The total amino acid concentration of the cassava peels was not significantly (p>0.05 higher than that of the yam peels. Essential amino acid scores showed that Phe + Tyr and Met + Cys were the most abundant and limiting amino acids, respectively, in cassava and yam peels. The percentage nitrogen content and C-PER of the cassava peels were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those of the yam peels. The cassava and yam peels were not sources of good quality proteins. Therefore, the use of cassava or yam peels as livestock feeds should be supplemented with other sources rich in good quality proteins.

  20. Determination of the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of alanine and their uncertainties using the certified reference material L-alanine (NMIJ CRM 6011-a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sato, Ayako; Yamazaki, Taichi; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) contents of alanine and their uncertainties were estimated using a CHN analyzer and the certified reference material (CRM) L-alanine. The CHN contents and their uncertainties, as measured using the single-point calibration method, were 40.36 ± 0.20% for C, 7.86 ± 0.13% for H, and 15.66 ± 0.09% for N; the results obtained using the bracket calibration method were also comparable. The method described in this study is reasonable, convenient, and meets the general requirement of having uncertainties ≤ 0.4%.

  1. Strong increase of foliar inulin occurs in transgenic lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) overexpressing the Asparagine Synthetase A gene from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Anatoli P; Segre, Anna L; Giannino, Donato; Mariotti, Domenico; Nicolodi, Chiara; Brosio, Elvino; Amato, Maria E

    2007-12-26

    Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Cortina') lines expressing the asparagine synthetase A gene from Escherichia coli were produced to alter the plant nitrogen status and eventually enhance growth. The relative molecular abundance of water-soluble metabolites was measured by 1H NMR in transgenic and conventional plants at early developmental stages and grown under the same conditions. NMR metabolic profiles assessed that a transgenic line and the wild-type counterpart shared the same compounds, but it also revealed side effects on the carbon metabolism following genetic modification. Concerning the nitrogen status, the amino acid content did not vary significantly, except for glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid, which diminished in the transgenics. As for the carbon metabolism, in transgenic leaves the contents of sucrose, glucose, and fructose decreased, whereas that of inulin increased up to 30 times, accompanied by the alteration of most Krebs's cycle organic acids and the rise of tartaric acid compared to nontransformed controls. Lettuce leaf inulins consisted of short oligomeric chains made of one glucose unit bound to two/four fructose units. Inulins are beneficial for human health, and they are extracted from plants and commercialized as long-chain types, whereas the short forms are synthesized chemically. Hence, lettuce genotypes with high content of foliar short-chain inulin represent useful materials for breeding strategies and a potential source for low molecular weight inulin.

  2. Influence of Applying Foliar Fe Fertilizer to Hazelnut Tree on the Content of Nutritional Elements in the Leaves of Hybrid Hazelnut%叶面Fe肥对平欧杂种榛树营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严令; 裴帅帅; 季兰

    2012-01-01

    为初步确定榛园榛树叶片黄化是否由缺Fe或缺Cu引起,对9个不同品种(系)、叶片黄化程度一致的平欧杂种榛树进行了叶面增施Fe肥处理,测定了处理前后榛树叶片内叶绿素和N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、Mn、Zn的含量,并对两次测定结果进行了比较分析.结果表明,增施Fe肥能有效地使榛树黄化叶片转绿单独增施Fe肥效果优于合施Fe、Cu肥;增施Fe肥在一定程度上降低了黄化榛树叶片内K、Zn的含量.%In order to initially identified if the etiolation of hazelnut leaves in hazel park caused by the lack of Fe or Cu, nine varieties (lines) were used as materials. Foliar Fe fertilizer and Fe+Cu fertilizer were sprayed to etiolated hybrid hazelnut tree and the contents of chlorophyll and concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn in the leaves both before and affter applying Fe fertilizer were tested. Two replicates were analyzed. The results showed that the Fe fertilizer could effectively promote hazelnut leaves turn green. The effect of applying Fe fertilizer in turning leaves green was better than that of applying Fe+Cu fertilizer. Applying Fe fertilizer significantly reduced the content of Zn and K in leaves.

  3. Comparison of near infrared reflectance analysis of fecal fat, nitrogen and water with conventional methods, and fecal energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neucker, Anita Van den; Bijleveld, Charles M A; Wolthers, Bert G; Swaaneburg, Joost C J M; Kester, Arnold D M; Kreel, Bernard van; Forget, Pierre Philippe

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate Near-Infrared Analysis (NIRA) method for determining fecal fat, water and nitrogen. The results of fecal fat, water and nitrogen by NIRA were compared with results of van de Kamer and Acid Steatocrit (AS), Dumas and vacuum drying methods for fat, nitrogen and water respectively. Results of fat determining methods were also compared with total fecal energy as obtained by bomb calorimeter. NIRA results correlated significantly (p fat (r = 0.84 and r = 0.88 for van de Kamer and AS respectively) and water (r = 0.91). The limits of agreement for nitrogen and fat results were too wide for the methods to be used interchangeably. The fecal fat results correlated significantly (p fecal energy results. NIRA may be valuable for monitoring malabsorption but the diagnostic value remains to be determined.

  4. RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF DIETARY NITROGEN BY GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS IN RELATION TO DIET FORMULATION AND ENERGY CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VOICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on the use of the dietary nitrogen by fattening steers between 300-450 kg using the method of in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Alfalfa and corn-based diets were used, in different forms of preservation and with different ratio of the bulk forage to the concentrate feeds; diet digestibility expressed as organic matter and protein varied between 72-76% and between 66- 75% respectively; the best performance produced by the corn silage diets were observed in diet 2 (with ammonia, while the best results produced by the alfalfa diets was noticed in diet 5 (haylage; nitrogen balance showed the highest values of the retained nitrogen in the alfalfa half-hay diet, the alfalfa hay diet having lower values.

  5. Influence of salinity and nitrogen content on production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) by Skeletonema costatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; LI Chengxuan; SUN Juan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of changing salinity and nitrogen limitation on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations were investigated in batch cultures of coastal diatom Skeletonema costatum, an ecologically important species. Changes in salinity from 20-32caused no measurable variation in cell growth or culture yield, but increased intracellular DMSP per cell by 30%. Nitrogen limitation caused up to a two-fold increase in total DMSP per cell and up to a three-fold increase in DMS per cell. These changes in DMSP and DMS per cell in the Skeletonema costatum cultures with nitrogen limitation and changing salinity were primarily attributed to the physiological functions of DMSP as an osmolyte and an antioxidant. The data obtained in this study indicated that nitrogen limitation and salinity may play an important role in climate feedback mechanisms involving biologically derived DMS.

  6. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on the Content of Nitrogen and Nitrogenous Matter in Amur Corktree Seedlings%丛枝菌根对黄檗氮素及含氮物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范继红; 高琼; 邹原东

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究丛枝菌根对黄檗氮素及含氮物质含量的影响。[方法]通过盆栽试验,用丛枝菌根真菌接种黄檗一年生实生苗,研究丛枝菌根对黄檗(Phellodendron amurense Rupr.)氮素及含氮物质含量的影响。[结果]黄檗幼苗形成丛枝菌根后,增加了叶片氮素含量,接种G.mosseae的苗木叶片氮素含量比对照提高了1.28~1.60倍,光合能力增强。接种丛枝菌根菌后,显著提高了黄檗叶绿素含量及叶绿素a和b的比值,增强了黄檗光合作用的能力,叶绿素a含量提高了25%以上;同时,增加了植物体内吲哚乙酸的含量,增加比例在1.65~2.41倍之间;增强植物体内硝酸还原酶的活性,增加了可溶性蛋白含量,增加比例在1.67~2.49倍之间,增强了植物氮素代谢能力,促进植物生长,增强植物的次生代谢能力。[结论]该研究结果为丛枝菌根真菌在黄檗上的应用提供了理论依据。%[Objective] This study aimed to explore the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter in amur corktree(Phellodendron amurense Rupr.)seedlings. [Method] The annual seedlings of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. were inoculated with four arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in a pot experiment to study the influences of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter in Phellodendron amurense Rupr. [Result] After inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, the Phellodendron amurense Rupr. seedlings developed arbuscular mycorrhiza, leading to an enhancement of photosynthetic capacity. The leaf nitrogen content of those inoculated with Glomus mosseae increased to 1.28- 1.60 times as compared with the control. The chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were also raised, with an increase over 25% of chlorophyll a content. In addition, IAA content in plants increased to 1.65-2.41 times; and nitrate reductase activity was also

  7. Application of a colorimetric method to the determination of the protein content of commercial foods, mixed human diets and nitrogen losses in infantile diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioccia, A M; Gonzalez, E; Perez, M; Mora, J A; Romer, H; Molina, E; Hevia, P

    1995-02-01

    Recently we reported on the application of a method for protein determination which measures nitrogen in Kjeldahl digests colorimetrically. This procedure has the advantage of eliminating the distillation and titration steps of the Kjeldahl method and it is ideal for nutritional studies, since many samples can be run in a single day. Accordingly, the purpose of the present report was to extend the application of this method to the determination of the protein content of commercially available foods such as dairy products, dry cereals or cereal based products and legumes and also to evaluate this method in the determination of the protein content of the mixtures of cooked foods served during lunch at the cafeteria of the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas. In both cases the results of the colorimetric nitrogen agreed very well with those obtained by the macro Kjeldahl, indicating that the colorimetric method may be used in monitoring the protein content of commercial foods and in evaluating the protein offered in institutional food services. Finally, to further demonstrate the value of this method in clinical trials, we used it to monitor the daily nitrogen intake and nitrogen losses in 43 male young children with acute diarrhoea, and 15 with persistent diarrhoea fed liquid formulae, and showed that protein digestibility and retention were higher in persistent than in acute diarrhoea. The severity of acute diarrhoea affected negatively (r = -0.62) the percentage of protein absorbed, whereas the protein absorbed (r = 0.70) and retained (r = 0.55) correlated positively with protein consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Relative importance of macrophyte leaves for nitrogen uptake from flood water in tidal salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Stapel, J.; Van der Heiden, J.; Koutstaal, B.P.; Van Soelen, J.; Van IJzerloo, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen limits plant growth in most salt marshes. As foliar N-uptake makes a significant contribution to the overall N-requirements of submerged plant species such as (e.g.) seagrasses, we tested if foliar N-uptake was also significant in Spartina anglica Hubbard, a species that dominates the lowes

  9. Dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of sugarcane with different fertilizer rates of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Villazón Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research consisted of determining the quantities of dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass that contributes to the soil the sugarcane fertilized with different fertilizer rates of potassium in an experiment with a design in complete blocks at random (8 treatments x 6 repetitions on a Chromic Vertisol. Five plants were cut in the furrows 2 and 3 of the plots of the 3rd repetition before the harvest of each one of the four ratoons. To the sugarcane top of the samples were determined the percentages of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; was carried out a count of sugarcane stalk in each plot to express the percentages in magnitudes of mass. An analysis of variance of simple classification was executed and means were compared by Duncan test at 95 % of confidence. The treatment V was the one of bigger dry matter content, with 11.04 t ha-1. The 2nd ratoon showed the bigger dry matter content in the sugarcane tops, with 11.13 t ha-1. In the interactions the bigger influence of the sugarcane stubble phase on the dry matter can be appreciated. The treatment V was the one of bigger nutrient content, with 83, 16 and 197 kg of NPK, respectively. In the case of nitrogen the best interaction was the treatment V in the 3rd ratoon, in the phosphorus also the treatment V in the 2nd and 3rd ratoons and the treatment IV in the 4th ratoon, in potassium the interaction of the treatment V in the 2nd ratoon.

  10. Foliar and Seed Application of Amino Acids Affects the Antioxidant Metabolism of the Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Walquíria F.; Fagan, Evandro B.; Soares, Luís H.; Umburanas, Renan C.; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of natural substances on crops has been intensified in order to increase the resistance and yield of the soybean crop. Among these products are included plant biostimulants that may contain algae extracts, amino acids, and plant regulators in their composition. However, there is little information on the isolated effect of each of these constituents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the antioxidant metabolism of the soybean crop. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate, phenylalanine, cysteine, glycine in seed treatment, and foliar application at V4 growth stage. Antioxidant metabolism constituents evaluated were superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide content, proline, and lipid peroxidation. In addition, resistance enzymes as polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were evaluated. In both experiments, the use of cysteine, only in seed treatment and in both seed treatment and foliar application increased the activity of the enzyme PAL and catalase. Also in both experiments, the use of phenylalanine increased the activity of the enzyme PAL when the application was carried out as foliar application or both in seed treatment and foliar application. In the field experiment, the application of glutamate led to an increase in the activity of the catalase and PAL enzymes for seed treatment and foliar application. The use of the set of amino acids was only efficient in foliar application, which led to a greater activity of the enzymes peroxidase, PAL, and polyphenol oxidase. The other enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide presented different results according to the experiment. Therefore, glutamate, cysteine, phenylalanine, and glycine can act as signaling amino acids in soybean plants, since small doses are enough to increase the activity

  11. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  12. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Removing organic and nitrogen content from a highly saline municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate by UV/H2O2-BAC treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Shovana; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

    2015-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate (ROC) streams generated from RO-based municipal wastewater reclamation processes pose potential health and environmental risks on their disposal to confined water bodies such as bays. A UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process followed by a biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment was evaluated at lab-scale for the removal of organic and nutrient content from a highly saline ROC (TDS 16 g L(-1), EC 23.5 mS cm(-1)) for its safe disposal to the receiving environment. Over the 230-day operation of the UV/H2O2-BAC process, the colour and UV absorbance (254 nm) of the ROC were reduced to well below those of the influent to the reclamation process. The concentrations of DOC and total nitrogen (TN) were reduced by approximately 60% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 60 min. The reduction in ammonia nitrogen by the BAC remained high under all conditions tested (>90%). Further investigation confirmed that the presence of residual peroxide in the UV/H2O2 treated ROC was beneficial for DOC removal, but markedly inhibited the activities of the nitrifying bacteria (i.e., nitrite oxidising bacteria) in the BAC system and hence compromised total nitrogen removal. This work demonstrated that the BAC treatment could be acclimated to the very high salinity environment, and could be used as a robust method for the removal of organic matter and nitrogen from the pre-oxidised ROC under optimised conditions.

  14. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (Foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in A. rubrum and P. rubens trees growing in Hadlock Brook watershed, but differences were significant only for P. rubens. Foliar aluminum (Al) concentrations were also higher in both species growing in Hadlock Brook watershed but differences were significant only for A. rubrum. Foliar calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, on the other hand, were significantly lower in Hadlock Brook watershed for both species. Foliar potassium (K) was significantly higher for P. rubens growing in Hadlock Brook. No differences in foliar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were found between watersheds. The higher foliar N concentrations

  15. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  16. Increase of soybean nutritional quality with nonstandard foliar fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna DRAGIČEVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies of mineral elements in human nutrition could be surpassed by crop fortification. One of the prevalent measures of fortification is foliar fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the content and availability of the mineral nutrients Mg, Fe and Zn, together with phytate, as an anti-nutritive factor, and β-carotene as a promoter of mineral nutrient availability in grain of two soybean cultivars (Nena and Laura treated with different non-standard foliar fertilizers (mainly based on plant extracts. Generally, a negative correlation between Fe and phytate indicated that factors which decrease phytate and increase β-carotene could be primarily responsible for Fe utilization by humans and animals. Zlatno inje (based on manure had the highest impact on increasing the grain yield and decreasing the ratios between phytate and mineral elements in Nena grain, while for Laura, it was generally Zircon (based on an extract of Echinacea purpurea L, increasing also availability of mineral elements.

  17. Effects of Foliar-applied Selenite and Selenate on Selenium Accumulation in Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Author Name\tAffiliation\tE-mail WANG Xiao-fang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of foliar spray of selenite or selenate on selenium(Se accumulation, distribution in strawberry were observed in this study. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate were sprayed on the leaves of strawberry at the early stage of flowering. The results showed that foliar spay of both selenite and selenate significantly increased Se contents in strawberry fruits(P<0.05. The first batch of strawberry fruits contained 0.03, 0.10 and 0.15 mg Se·kg-1 fresh weight(FW at application rates of 20,40 and 60 g Se·hm-2 as selenite respectively, representing 3, 20 and 30 times of that under control. When applied with the same doses of selenate, contents of Se in the first batch of strawberry fruits were 0.05, 0.12, 0.17 mg Se·kg-1 FW, as much as 5, 24 and 34 times of that under control. However, foliar spray couldn't ensure long-term sustainability as Se contents in strawberry fruits decreased significantly in the following two batches. Four months after foliar spray, more than 30% of Se was translocated from leaves into roots of plants sprayed with selenite, while only less than 15% of Se was transported to roots when applied with selenate. The results demonstrated that foliar spray of Se significantly increased the Se concentration at the first stage and Se concentration decreased with the growing of strawberry. Sprayed selenite was more readily translocated from leaf to root than selenate.

  18. Water, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment of a large-scale mariculture area in the Zhelin Bay of eastern Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; LIN Junda; SHANG Xu; LI Jin; HUANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The Zhelin Bay is one of the most important bays for large-scale maricuhure in Guangdong Province,China.Owing to the increas-ing human population and the expanding marieuhure in the last two decades,the ecological environment has greatly changed with frequent harmful algal blooms.A monthly survey of water content,organic matter ( TOM ),and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in sediment from July 2002 to July 2003 in the bay was conducted.The results showed that the water content was cor-related significantly with TOM and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used as proxy for quick and rough estimate of these factors in the future surveys.TOM was also correlated significantly with various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus,indica-ting that it was one of the key factors affecting the concentrations and distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the investigated waters. Average total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TkN) Content was( 1113.1±382.5 )μg/g and average total phosphorus (TP) content was(567.2 ± 223.3)μg/g, and both were much higher than those of similar estuaries in China and elsewhere. Average nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher inside than outside the bay,higher at aquaculture than non-aquacuhure areas,and higher at fish-cage culture than oyster culture areas,suggesting that large-scale mariculture inside the bay played an important role in the eutrophication of the Zhelin Bay.Various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher during the warm season (July--September),which was due to the increased decomposition and concentration of organic matter resulted from the fast growth and high mortality of the cultured species.Compared with July 2002,TkN and TP contents were much higher in July 2003,in consonance with the eut~'ophication of the Zhelin Bay.Because exchangeable phosphorus ( Ex-P),iron-bounded phos-phorus (Fe-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) combined accounted for 34.3% of the TP and authigenie phosphorus (Au-P) ac

  19. Enzyme Complex Added to Broiler Diets: Effects on Performance, Metabolizable Energy Content, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GBS Pessôa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were performed to evaluate the effects of an enzyme complex (EC on broiler performance, metabolizable energy, and phosphorus and nitrogen balance. In the first trial, 960 one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (three nutritional levels and the inclusion or not of EC, totaling six treatments with eight replicates of 20 birds per pen, and reared until 42 days of age. The control diet was formulated to meet the broilers' nutritional requirements. The other diets contained reduced available phosphorus (P, metabolizable energy, and amino acid levels, considering 100% and 150% of the EC nutritional matrix. The inclusion of the EC (200 g/ton resulted in better broiler performance, improving weight gain in 4% and feed conversion ratio in 3% (p< 0.05. In the second trial, 240 male broilers were randomly distributed into the same treatments with eight replicates of five birds per cage. The method of total excreta collection was used. There was an interaction (p< 0.05 between diets and EC for P intake, nitrogen (N intake, and N retention. The EC supplementation improved nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values in 2.02% (p< 0.05. Significant effects were observed on phosphorus and nitrogen balance (p< 0.05. Phosphorus retention improved in 10.26%, nitrogen retention increased in 5.3%, while nitrogen excretion decreased in 3.3%. Based on the results of the present study, we recommend the addition of 200 g/t of the enzyme complex to broiler diets, considering nutrient reduction based on 100% of the EC nutritional matrix.

  20. Foliar Application of Organic Nutrient on the N、 P、 K Contents of Rubber Tree Seedings%叶面喷施有机养分对橡胶树幼苗N、P、K含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金展; 马旭东; 林钊沐; 华元刚

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of organic nutrients on the nutrition of the rubber tree, we conducted the pot experiment and the results showed that different organic nutrients were sprayed to the rubber tree seedings would lead to different N , P , K nutrient content of the leaves and some of the organic nutrients in a relatively low concentration could be conducive to N, P and K accumulation in leaves compared with ammonium sulfate.%为了弄清有机养分对橡胶树营养的影响,指导有机养分在橡胶树上的使用,采用盆栽试验研究叶面喷施有机养分对橡胶幼苗N、P、K含量的影响.结果表明:相较于硫酸铵,叶面喷施不同有机养分对橡胶树幼苗N、P、K养分含量有着不同的效果.其中部分有机养分能够在相对较低浓度下,更利于叶片N、P、K养分的积累.

  1. Low-Temperature Nitriding of Deformed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Various Nitrogen Contents Obtained by Prior High-Temperature Solution Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the past decades, high nitrogen steels (HNS) have been regarded as substitutes for conventional austenitic stainless steels because of their superior mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the main limitation to their wider application is their expensive production process. As an alternative, high-temperature solution nitriding has been applied to produce HNS from three commercially available stainless steel grades (AISI 304L, AISI 316, and EN 1.4369). The nitrogen content in each steel alloy is varied and its influence on the mechanical properties and the stability of the austenite investigated. Both hardness and yield stress increase and the alloys remain ductile. In addition, strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite is suppressed, which is beneficial for subsequent low-temperature nitriding of the surface of deformed alloys. The combination of high- and low-temperature nitriding results in improved properties of both bulk and surface.

  2. 化学发光法测定油品氮含量的研究%Study on Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Nitrogen Content of Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晶丽

    2012-01-01

    Using chemiluminescence method for the determination of nitrogen content in oil products,mainly inspects the quality measurement of appropriate sample size in oil,nitrogen is converted to NO the best conditions and measurement precision,improve the correctness and practicability of the method.%用化学发光法测定油品中的氮含量,主要考察了用质量法测量比较合适的进样量、油品中氮转化为NO的最佳条件及测量的精密度,提高了该方法的准确性和实用性。

  3. PARTITIONING THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF SOIL N, MYCORRHIZAE, AND FOLIAR N UPTAKE ON FOLIAR δ15N PATTERNS: CAN WE DETECT FOLIAR UPTAKE OF REACTIVE N?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive N in N-limited systems and may be capable of incorporating reactive N compounds directly into leaves through the foliar uptake pathway. A proxy for atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation would be useful to estimate the impact of direct foliar N uptake on plant metabolism. Natural abundance foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) is a practical tool for this purpose because plant-available N sources often have different isotopic compositions. Current understanding of foliar δ15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of soil δ15N, direct foliar N uptake, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we estimated the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N patterns in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along an N deposition gradient in New York State. We found that mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ15N in red maple seedlings from 0.03 - 1.01‰ across sites. Along the same temporal and spatial scales, we examined the influence of soil δ15N, foliar N uptake, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in adult stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), red maple (A. rubrum), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Using multiple regression models, atmospheric NO2 concentration explained 0%, 69%, 23%, and 45% of the residual variation in foliar δ15N remaining in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for soil δ15N. Our results suggest that foliar δ15N may be used to estimate pollution-derived atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation via the foliar N uptake pathway.

  4. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  5. Evaluation of vegetation indices (VI) for their sensitivity to corn biomass and chlorophyll content changes associated with nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of canopy sensors for nitrogen (N) management in corn production in the Southeast US requires first the identification of the relationship between field-measured crop status and sensor-measured canopy spectral reflectance, therefore reflectance values can be used to estimate in-season y...

  6. The effects of nitrogen uptake before and after heading on grain protein content and the occurrence of basal- and back-white grains in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Tsukaguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chalky rice (Oryza sativa L. grains are induced by high temperature during the grain-filling period. Plant nitrogen status also affects the occurrence of basal- and back-white grains (BBWG. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relations between nitrogen availability per spikelet during the grain-filling period (NGF and each of the percentage of BBWG and grain protein content (GPC. We further compared the effect of the components of NGF determined before heading (NBH and after heading (NAH on BBWG and GPC. We grew the rice cultivar ‘Koshihikari’ in pots in 2012 and 2013, and top-dressed nitrogen at the panicle formation and heading stages, under two (2012 or three (2013 temperature regimes during the grain-filling period. GPC was explained well by NGF, but BBWG was not. BBWG was best explained in a multiple-regression equation by mean air temperature after heading and by NBH and NAH. The partial correlation coefficients for NBH were 1.6 and 3.0 times those for NAH in 2012 and 2013, respectively. On the other hand, in a multiple-regression equation for GPC, the partial correlation coefficients for NBH were 0.91 and 0.71 times those for NAH in 2012 and 2013, respectively. These results suggest that rice grains are most sensitive to plant nitrogen status before heading for BBWG but after heading for GPC, and that there is an optimal timing for nitrogen top-dressing that would maximize the reduction in BBWG per unit increment of GPC.

  7. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  8. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  9. 用偏光显微镜检测硝化棉的含氮量%Determination of the Nitrogen Content in Nitrocellulose Using Polarized Light Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鹏飞; 陈智群; 王景荣; 邵自强; 张皋; 李文杰; 王明

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for determination of the nitrogen content in nitrocellulose was established using a polarized light microscope. Senarmont method was used to determine the average optical path difference. The results show that the relationship(w= -0. 046 6λ+ 12. 388) between the nitrogen content and the optical path difference was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0. 999 3 when the range of the nitrogen content in nitrocellulose were 11.0%-13.8%. Certified nitrocellulose reference materials were used to evaluate the method and the results show that the recoveries ranged from 99.7 % to 100.2 % with the relative standard deviations falling between 0.15% and 0.20%. The method is simple , accurate and environment-friendly.%建立了偏光显微镜测定硝化棉含氮量的新方法.采用色那蒙法测定了平均光程差.结果表明,当硝化棉含氮量为11.0%~13.8%时,光程差与含氮量线性相关,线性回归方程为ω=-0.0466λ+12.388,线性相关系数R=0.9993.用硝化棉标准物质对新方法检测结果进行了验证,回收率为99.7%~100.2%,变异系数为0.15%~0.20%.新方法操作简单,结果准确,环境友好.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen contents in particle-size fractions of topsoil along a 3000 km aridity gradient in grasslands of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sistla, Seeta A.; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Han, Xing-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Climate factors such as aridity significantly influence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. Further, soil texture plays an important role in driving changes of soil C and N contents at regional scale. However, it remains uncertain whether such changes resulted from the variation of different soil particle-size factions and/or the C and N concentrations in those fractions. We examined the distribution of total C and N in both bulk soil and different soil particle-size fractions, including sand (53-2000 µm), silt (2-53 µm), and clay (century.

  11. Reclamation with blue-green algae: changes in nucleic acids, protein and nitrogen content of algae exposed to solid waste of a chlor-alkali factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B.B.; Nanda, D.R.; Misra, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    During an attempt at the possible reclamation of solid waste from a chlor-alkali factory by blue-green algae, the effects of the solid waste on biochemical variables were studied. DNA, RNA, protein, and algal nitrogen content of the algal material showed a significant decrease with increase in time and also solid waste concentration. An increase in RNA/DNA ratio and a decrease in protein/RNA ratio were also observed. Algae accumulated appreciable amounts of mercury from the waste, showing dependence on both concentration and time. Significant correlations were obtained between mercury uptake and concentrations of the waste and between different combinations of algae and mercury uptake.

  12. Comparison of carbon and nitrogen content of infected and uninfected snails, Succinea ovalis, and the trematode Leucochloridium variae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burky, A J; Hornbach, D J

    1979-06-01

    In June, 6.7% of adult Succinea ovalis collected near Urbana, Ohio, were infected with the trematode, Leucochloridium variae. The effects of parasitism were assessed as total organic carbon (equivalent to calorific values) and as total nitrogen. The parasite represents 23.8% of total (parasite + snail tissue) dry tissue weight, 21.4% of total carbon and 19.8% of total nitrogen of infected snails. The higher C : N ratio for parasite tissue indicates a higher proportion of nonproteinaceous compounds (e.g., fats and/or carbohydrates) as compared to host tissue. There is less snail tissue in parasited S. ovalis. The C : N ratios for parasitized and nonparasitized snail tissue suggest identical percentage compositions of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

  13. Phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization: results of field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusà, E; Tosi, L

    2005-06-01

    The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. Phosphorous acid residues were found in apples after application of foliar P fertilizers. Concentrations of the residues ranged between 0.02 and 14 mg kg(-1) depending on the phosphorous acid content in the fertilizer used and the plant size and yield. The treatments induced an accumulation of the residue in the course of the experiments, which in some cases reached a level exceeding the maximum limit set by EU legislation. Residues were also detected in other plant organs, i.e., roots and buds. Plants treated with Fosetyl-Al contained phosphorous acid residues in their fruits and buds two years after the suspension of the treatment, suggesting a long-term persistence of the substance in plant storage organs. A second experiment, involving treatment of trees with seven foliar fertilizers of different composition, also induced accumulation of phosphorous acid residues in fruits. It is concluded that a wide array of foliar products containing phosphorous acid, even as a minor component, could mimic the residue effect of phosphonate fungicide treatments.

  14. Mitigating the Effects of Salinity by Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Babar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present research work was conducted to alleviate the salinity-induced harmful effect on biomass production and physiochemical attributes of fenugreek by foliar application of salicylic acid. Two varieties (Deli Kabul and Kasuri were grown in salt treated (100 mM NaCl and untreated (0 mM NaCl growth medium. Two levels of salicylic acid (0 mg L−1 and 100 mg L−1 were applied through foliar method. Salinity stress significantly reduced the growth biomass in both varieties. Higher shoot fresh weight was recorded in Deli Kabul, while lower in Kasuri. Such reduction in growth biomass was mitigated by the foliar application of SA in both plants. Salinity caused a marked reduction in gas exchange attributes including net CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and substomatal CO2 concentration. Exogenous applied salicylic acid also overcomes the reduction in gas exchange attributes of the plants. The varieties “Deli Kabul” and “Kasuri” showed higher and lower net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively. These results indicate that growth medium salinity induced reduction in biomass production, gas exchange attributes, and also chlorophyll contents whereas the application of SA through foliar method can be used to protect plant growth and improve these attributes under salt stress.

  15. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  16. Concentração foliar de nutrientes e produtividade de tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes substratos e doses de ácidos húmicos Leaf nutrient content and yield of tomato grown in different substrates and doses of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional e a produtividade do tomateiro, híbrido Vênus, cultivado em substratos, com aplicação de ácidos húmicos (AH e fertirrigação. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de AH (0, 20, 40 e 80 L ha-1 e quatro substratos: S1 (fibra de coco (FC, S2 (FC + casca de café carbonizada (CC na proporção 1:3, S3 (FC + CC na proporção 2:3 e S4 (CC. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x4. As mudas foram transplantadas com 35 dias para sacolas plásticas com capacidade de 7,0 L. Os AH foram aplicados quatro vezes em um intervalo de oito dias, sendo a primeira aplicação oito dias após o transplantio. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos nos teores de N, K e S nas folhas e na produção de frutos não comerciais. No entanto, houve efeito significativo dos substratos nos teores de P, Ca, Mg e sobre a produção de frutos total e comercial. Doses crescentes de AH induziram redução de forma linear dos teores de B e Cu (em S1; porém, induziram aumento dos teores de Zn. Em doses de 31 a 49 L ha-1 de AH, ocorreu o máximo teor foliar de Fe, Cu e o mínimo de Mn. As maiores produtividades comerciais foram obtidas com a fibra de coco (S1 com média de 5,6 kg planta-1, apresentando incremento médio de produtividade de 22,9%, 38,7% e 49,7% em relação a S2, S3 e S4, respectivamente.We evaluated the nutritional status and yield of tomato hybrid "Vênus", grown on substrates, with application of humic acids (AH and fertigation. Four doses of AH (0, 20, 40 and 80 L-1 ha and four substrates: S1 (coconut fiber (CF, S2 (FC + carbonized coffee husk (CC in the ratio 1:3, S3 (CF + CC - in the ratio 2:3 and S4 (CC were evaluated following the randomized blocks design in factorial 4x4 scheme with four replications. The 35-day old seedlings were transplanted into plastic bags of 7 L. The humic acids were applied four times in eight

  17. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content.

  18. Nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design for enhancing lipid content and lipid production of a newly isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31: implications for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-11-01

    Microalgae are recognized for serving as a sustainable source for biodiesel production. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design on the performance of lipid production and of CO(2) fixation of an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31. Comparison of single-stage and two-stage nitrogen starvation strategies shows that single-stage cultivation on basal medium with low initial nitrogen source concentration (i.e., 0.313 g/L KNO(3)) was the most effective approach to enhance microalgal lipid production, attaining a lipid productivity of 78 mg/L/d and a lipid content of 55.9%. The lipid productivity of C. vulgaris ESP-31 was further upgraded to 132.4 mg/L/d when it was grown in a vertical tubular photobioreactor with a high surface to volume ratio of 109.3 m(2)/m(3) . The high lipid productivity was also accompanied by fixation of 6.36 g CO(2) during the 10-day photoautotrophic growth with a CO(2) fixation rate of 430 mg/L/d. Analysis of fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid indicates that over 65% of fatty acids in the microalgal lipid are saturated [i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0)] and monounsaturated [i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)]. This lipid quality is suitable for biodiesel production.

  19. Study on Nitrogen Distribution in Leaf, Stem and Sheath at Different Layers in Winter Wheat Canopy and Their Influence on Grain Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-jie; WANG Ji-hua; HUANG Wen-jiang; MA Zhi-hong; ZHAO Ming

    2003-01-01

    Vertical distribution of nitrogen in wheat canopy, nitrogen remobilization and their influence on grain quality of winter wheat were studied. Two winter wheat cultivars, Jingdong8, a common cultivar, and Zhongyou9507, a high quality cultivar, were selected. Leaf nitrogen showed an obvious decreasing trend from the canopy top to the ground surface for all treatments in growth duration. There was no apparent vertical nitrogen gradient in stem and sheath of Zhongyou9507 compared with Jingdong8. Zhongyou9507 had more nitrogen remobilization from leaf, stem and sheath than Jingdong8 from middle grain filling to waxening, especially the nitrogen remobilization amount in stem and sheath, which was higher than that in Jingdong8 during growth duration. Higher vertical nitrogen gradients in Jingdong8 at anthesis had disadvantages on its grain quality. But higher vertical nitrogen gradients between middle and lower layers of Jingdong8 at grain filling stage enhanced its grain quality. Higher vertical nitrogen gradients in upper layer at anthesis and upper layer leaf and middle layer stem and sheath at grain filling stage had advantages on protein accumulation in grain of Zhongyou9507. There were positive correlations between foliar nitrogen remobilization amount and grain quality at later growth stage for the two cultivars. There was a positive correlation between quality of Jingdong8 and stem and sheath nitrogen remobilization amount from anthesis to early grain filling, and that of Zhongyou9507 emerged from anthesis to early grain filling and from middle grain filling to waxening. Contribution of leaf nitrogen to the quality of Jingdong8 was larger than nitrogen from stem and sheath. High protein content of Zhongyou9507 was attributed to the nitrogen condition in its leaf, stem and sheath. Nitrogen in stem and sheath played a more important role on the grain quality of Zhongyou9507 than on that of Jingdong8.

  20. Assessing foliar ascorbate content in the rice diversity panel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early spring plantings of rice can have poor stands due to cold temperatures. Our previous studies have shown that high vitamin C (ascorbate AsA) Arabidopsis lines are tolerant to cold stress. The rice diversity panel 1 (RDP1) represents the genetic diversity of Oryza sativa and has been extensively...

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen form and concentration on growth and photosynthesis of a fast- and slow-growing grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, J M; Press, M C

    1996-03-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of Agrostis capillaris L. and Nardus stricta L. were measured for plants grown under ambient and elevated concentrations of CO2 (340 and 550 μl CO2 l(-1) respectively) and a range of nitrogen concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg N l(-1) ) supplied as either ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate. After 42 d of growth for A. capillaris and 49 d of growth for N. stricta, the higher nitrogen concentrations resulted in stimulation of growth. The form of nitrogen did not affect the total dry weight attained by A. capillaris. However, ammonium-grown N. stricta attained a greater total dry weight than did nitrate-grown plants. Nitrogen form influenced leaf area ratio, which was greater in nitrate-grown A. capillaris and in ammonium-grown N. stricta. At the two lowest nitrogen concentrations there was no effect of elevated CO2 on total dry weight in either species, whilst at the two highest nitrogen concentrations positive growth responses to elevated C02 were observed. Photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency were lower in plants grown in elevated CO2 at the two lowest nitrogen concentrations, and were associated with greater leaf soluble carbohydrate content and lower foliar nitrogen concentrations. By contrast, the CO2 treatment did not affect these parameters at the two highest nitrogen concentrations employed.

  2. Effects of Foliar Treatments of Salicylic Acid on Apple (Malus domestica L.) Against Freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Türkyılmaz Ünal; Oğuzhan Mentiş; Ethem Akyol

    2015-01-01

    In our study we aim to increase frost resistance and improve the yield and quality of apple is important in Turkey and world economy. Phenological and morphological observations, physiological and biochemical analyzes were carried out in apple (Malus domestica L.) plants. It was studied to determine the effects of foliar Salicylic acid (0, 500 ppm/plant and 1000 ppm/plant) on adaptation of this plant when exposed to freezing stress, the quality and yield. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents...

  3. Foliar fertilization with potassium, magnessium and calcium and postharvest fruit quality in plums (prunus domestica l)

    OpenAIRE

    Vangdal, Eivind; Flatland, Sigrid; Mehl, Ingvild

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. Foliar applications of fertilizers are an important part of standard fertilization programmes in apples to optimize the content of nutrients important to growth and fruit quality. In an experiment in plums (Prunus domesti...

  4. Assimilação foliar de enxofre elementar pela soja Foliar elementary sulfur assimilation by soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godofredo Cesar Vitti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a assimilação de enxofre elementar (S0, aplicado nas folhas de soja, e sua eficiência comparada à adubação feita ao solo, de acordo com a dose e a natureza da fonte do nutriente. O S0 aplicado às folhas, independentemente da dose e fonte, foi assimilado pela planta, o que acarretou em aumento no teor de proteína total na folha. Todas as fontes de S aplicadas às folhas aumentaram a produção de grãos, semelhantemente à aplicação ao solo. Observou-se uma mesma produtividade com o uso de 20 kg ha-1 de S0 no solo ou de 6 kg ha-1 via foliar. A eficiência da aplicação de S via foliar, com base no conteúdo de proteína solúvel total, foi superior à da aplicação ao solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the elementary sulfur (S0 assimilation applied on soybean leaves, and its efficiency compared to the fertilization done in the soil, according to the dose and nature of the nutrient source. The S0 applied to leaves, independently of the dose and source, was assimilated by the plant, what resulted in increase of total protein content in the leaf. All S sources applied to leaves increased the grain yield, similarly to the application to the soil. The same productivity was observed with the use of 20 kg ha-1 of S0 in the soil or 6 kg ha-1 applied to leaves. The elementary S application efficiency on leaves, based on the content of total soluble protein, was superior to application efficiency on soil.

  5. Effects of SeleniumFertilizers on SeleniumContent and Nutrient Quality of Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Hong-qin; Chen, Yue; Fang, Yong; ZHANG, JUN; Zong, Liang-Gang; SUN Hong-jie; Chen, Xi; Xue, Mei; Zhao, Fang-Jie; HU Qiu-hui

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different fertilization methods on selenium content and nutrition quality of kiwifruits were employed for selenium fortification. The fertilization methods were root fertilization, foliar fertilization and combined fertilization on their corresponding fertilizing periods. The results demonstrated that selenium content of these three experimental groups was in the order of foliar fertilization>combined fertilization>root fertilization. Foliar fertilization with the dose of 0.5 k...

  6. Effects of SeleniumFertilizers on SeleniumContent and Nutrient Quality of Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Hong-qin; Chen, Yue; Fang, Yong; Zhang, Jun; ZONG Liang-gang; SUN Hong-jie; Chen, Xi; Xue, Mei; Zhao, Fang-Jie; HU Qiu-hui

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different fertilization methods on selenium content and nutrition quality of kiwifruits were employed for selenium fortification. The fertilization methods were root fertilization, foliar fertilization and combined fertilization on their corresponding fertilizing periods. The results demonstrated that selenium content of these three experimental groups was in the order of foliar fertilization>combined fertilization>root fertilization. Foliar fertilization with the dose of 0.5 k...

  7. Nitrogen accumulation tracks carbon in multispecies system under elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.B.; Polley, H.W.; Mayeux, H.S. [USDA-ARS, Temple, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The woody legume Acacia smallii (huisache), and two perennial grasses, Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem) and Stipa leucotricha (Texas wintergrass) were grown as monocultures and in mixture under CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370, 700, and 1000 {mu}L/L for more than two years. The fine sandy loam soil was unfertilized, enriched in N15, and inoculated with huisache rhizobia. Elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated nitrogen fixation by huisache. After one year 33%, 64% and 76% of foliar N in the woody legume was ascribable to nitrogen fixation in the 370, 700 and 1000 {mu}L/L treatments, respectively. Percent nitrogen content of shoots decreased as CO{sub 2} increased (28% in 700 {mu}L/L and 34% 1000 {mu}L/L) relative to 370 {mu}L/L but the total nitrogen/plant increased 74% and 108% for these same concentrations due to greater plant biomass produced in the elevated CO{sub 2}. In the grass mixtures atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the wintergrass from mixtures was reduced relative to monocultures while the %N concentration was increased. These results suggest that a positive feedback between elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen accumulation may exist in multispecies systems containing legumes which can enhance the response of terrestrial carbon fixation to rising CO{sub 2}.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  9. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  10. 高有效氮可降低泥炭藓泥炭中的多酚含量%High Nitrogen Availability Reduces Polyphenol Content in Sphagnum Peat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Bragazza; Chris Freeman; 谷晓楠(译); 葛佳丽(译)

    2014-01-01

    泥炭藓是雨养泥炭沼泽中的优势植物和主要造炭植物。多酚类化合物通常被视为是一种植物防御性化合物的次生代谢产物。泥炭藓含有独特的多酚,可抑制微生物活性,减缓泥炭残体分解。在自然生态系统中生物活性氮不断增加的背景下,泥炭藓残体成为检测大气氮沉降对泥炭残体多酚含量潜在影响的理想基质。本研究选择长期大气氮沉降梯度上的11处欧洲雨养泥炭地,测试了泥炭藓泥炭样本的总氮含量和可溶性多酚浓度。试验结果表明,由于外源性有效氮的增加,导致泥炭藓残体中氮浓度持续增长,残体中多酚含量降低。这种负相关关系与有关泥炭藓中多酚与蛋白质生物合成争夺相同前体的报道相一致。由于有效氮的抑制分解作用,导致多酚含量下降,加快泥炭残体的分解,因此长期氮富集所导致的泥炭藓残体化学特征变化将对全球碳平衡产生重要影响。%Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. Polyphenols are a wide group of secondary metabolites that are often regarded as plant defensive compounds. These plants contain pe-culiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphag-num mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim,we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availabil-ity, is accompanied by a decreasing

  11. [Responses of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi yield and root baicalin content to the fertilization rates of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xian-Yan; Xu, Fu-Li; Wang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Jing; Huang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2012-08-01

    A field experiment with three-factor (N, P, and K) and quadratic saturation D-optimal design was conducted to evaluate the effects of the fertilization rates of N, P, and K on the yield and root baicalin content of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi at harvesting time. A ternary quadratic polynomial mathematical model was built, in which, the N, P, and K fertilization rates were independent variables, and the yield and root baicalin content were the target functions. Through the analysis of the model, the optimum fertilization pattern was obtained. The results showed that the fertilization rates of N and P had significant effects on the yield of S. baicalensis. Under low fertilization level, the yield increased with increasing N and P fertilization rates; after exceeding definite fertilization range, no obvious effects were observed. N, P, and K fertilization all had significant effects on the root baicalin content. With increasing fertilization rates of N and K, the root baicalin content rates decreased after an initial increase. Under low fertilization level, the root baicalin content increased with increasing P fertilization rate first, and kept stable then. There existed interactive effects between the fertilization rates of N and P, N and K, and P and K on the yield and root baicalin content of S. baicalensis. Under our experimental conditions, the optimum fertilization model for obtaining over 4000 kg x hm(-2) of S. baicalensis yield and > 14% of root baicalin content was 90.5-104.7 kg x hm(-2) of N, 163.9-199.9 kg x hm(-2) of P2O5, and 84.1-140.8 kg x hm(-2) of K2O, with an N:P2O5:K2O ratio of approximately 1:1.86:1.15.

  12. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xiao LA; Ping FANG; Yi-bo TENG; Ya-juan LI; Xian-yong LIN

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassioa alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height,stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem,11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L,elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios.Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.

  13. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-06-01

    The effects of CO(2) enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO(2) concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 microl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO(2) concentration, N concentration, and CO(2)xN interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO(2). However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO(2) had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO(2) concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO(2) concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO(2) condition.

  14. Determination of representative nitrogen contents for the activity calculation of core components with respect to the C-14 activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Philipp [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Huettner, Frank [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear, Hamburg (Germany); Phlippen, Peter-Wilhelm [WTI GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    For the final repository Konrad during operating and decommissioning phase, ten radionuclides and two radionuclide groups are restricted regarding their maximum storable activity quantities. One of the ten relevant radionuclides is C-14. The determination of the C-14 activities within activation calculations is currently performed with conservative assumptions. With the results of the presented analysis a method for a realistic determination of representative C-14 contents of irradiated steels is available now. The relevant N-14 contents as a source for the C-14 amount are lower than previously estimated.

  15. Variability of mineral nitrogen contents in soil as affected by meat and bone meal used as fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stępień

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of alternative sources of organic matter have been discovered, such as producís made of waste materials and recycled into composts or as meal of meat and bone. Meat and bone meal, a by-product of the meat industry, is rich in N and P and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers. This study determined the direct effect of different doses of meat and bone meal (MBM used as fertilizer on the content of mineral N in soil. The effect of MBM fertilizer applied at rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 t ha-1 was compared with no fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the years 2007-2009 at the research station in Balcyny, Poland. MBM was applied every year for 3 yr, with the following crop sequence: 2007 winter wheat (T. aestivum, 2008 winter rape (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg., and 2009 spring wheat. Determination of mineral N (NO3--N and NH4+-N were taken from the 0-30 cm layer, each year, during the full plant vegetation. The study found that changes in the mineral N content in soil depended on the dose of MBM and the crop species in a sequence. Each 0.5 t of MBM above 1.0 t ha-1 increased the mineral N content by an average of 4 mg. MBM applied every year at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 produced a 2.33- and 2.56-fold increase in the mineral N content compared to unfertilized soil. The rate of release of NO3--N was found to be the highest at those sites in all the years of study, while that of NH4+-N was highest during the first 2 yr of study. The levels of NO3--N lay within the range of very low fertility. A strong correlation was found between NO3--N and NH4+-N content in soil and the N content in winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain and in winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg. The NO3--N and NH4+-N compounds released from MBM were a good source of N for the plants.

  16. Bedrock nitrogen inputs support litter nitrogen fixation and temperate forest ecosystem fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, K. A.; Mitchell, S. A.; Morford, S.; Houlton, B. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most frequently limiting nutrients to terrestrial ecosystem productivity worldwide. As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations continue to rise, progressive N limitation is expected to constrain the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store additional C, making an understanding of N inputs to terrestrial ecosystems increasingly important. In temperate forests, rock reservoirs and biological N fixation (BNF) represent two significant, but poorly characterized, inputs of bioavailable N. Recent research has demonstrated that bedrock can provide a substantial amount of ecosystem-available N in moderate-to-high relief areas with N-rich sedimentary bedrock. In these same ecosystems, asymbiotic BNF performed by heterotrophic microbes in plant litter can provide an additional N input of up to ~2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rock N inputs support increased litter BNF via enhanced ecosystem N fertility. We measured rates of BNF along with rock, soil, foliage, and litter chemistry across sites varying substantially in rock N concentrations (from 32 to 800 ppm N). The sites are dominated by Douglas fir and share similar climates and landscape positions (eroding slopes), yet display marked increases in foliar and soil N content as a function of rock N concentrations (foliar: R2=0.18, p<0.001, soil: R2=0.50, p=0.001). We found a significant positive correlation between rock N content and litter BNF rates (R2=0.11, p=0.0035), with rates of BNF at sites with greater than 400 ppm N in bedrock more than double rates of BNF at sites with lower than 400 ppm N in bedrock (p<0.001). These patterns could not be explained by increases in other rock-derived nutrients such as phosphorus or molybdenum, as neither of these known BNF controls increased over the rock N gradient. We found declining foliar lignin:N ratios with increased rock N, suggesting that rock N inputs can increase litter quality, supporting greater microbial activity

  17. Foliar phloem infrastructure in support of photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Walter Adams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatory adjustments of foliar minor loading veins in response to growth at different temperatures and light intensities are evaluated. These adjustments are related to their role in providing infrastructure for the export of photosynthetic products as a prerequisite for full acclimation of photosynthesis to the respective environmental conditions. Among winter-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with greater numbers of sieve elements per minor vein as well as an increased apparent total membrane area of cells involved in phloem loading (greater numbers of cells and/or greater cell wall invaginations. Among summer-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with increased vein density and, possibly, a greater number of sieve elements and companion cells per minor vein. Among symplastic loaders, minor loading vein architecture (number per vein and arrangement of cells was apparently constrained, but higher photosynthesis rates were associated with higher foliar vein densities and larger intermediary cells (presumably providing a greater volume for enzymes involved in active raffinose sugar synthesis. Winter-active apoplastic loaders thus apparently place emphasis on adjustments of cell membrane area (presumably available for transport proteins active in loading of minor veins, while symplastic loaders apparently place emphasis on increasing the volume of cells in which their active loading step takes place. Presumably to accommodate a greater flux of photosynthate through the foliar veins, winter-active apoplastic loaders also have a higher number of sieve elements per minor loading vein, whereas symplastic loaders and summer-active apoplastic loaders have a higher total number of veins per leaf area. These latter adjustments in the vasculature (during leaf development may also apply to the xylem (via greater numbers of tracheids per vein and/or greater vein density per leaf area

  18. Effect of Foliar Zinc Application on Yield, Physiological Traits and Seed Vigor of Two Soybean Cultivars under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh KARAMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of water deficit stress and zinc foliar application on yield, physiological traits and also on seed vigor and seedling emergence percentage in two soybean cultivars, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete block arrangement in split factorial design with three replications. The main factor was drought stress in three levels of optimal irrigation, withholding irrigation from vegetative growth stage and withholding irrigation from flowering stage; subordinate factors were the combination of foliar zinc application in three levels and two cultivars (‘L17’ and ‘Clark 63’. Water deficit stress obviously decreased the yield, soluble protein and chlorophyll content in leaves. Proline and soluble sugars content were significantly increased in response to stress. Water deficit stress increased antioxidant enzymes activity. Also, water deficit stress decreased the germination rate, radicle and plumule dry weight. Foliar application with zinc sulfate increased the yield, germination rate and percentage, radicle and plumule weight. Zinc prevented the harmful effects of stress which caused decreasing of leaf protein, chlorophyll content and increasing proline and carbohydrate accumulation. In general, foliar application of zinc decreased the harmful effects of oxidative stress due to water deficit stress and improved growth conditions of plants.

  19. Nitrogen metabolism enzymes, soluble protein and free proline content in soybean genotypes and their F1 hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Sanja T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, as well as free proline and soluble protein content were measured in eight soybean parent genotypes and six F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to determine variability and the mode of inheritance for these parameters, and point out the genotypes of interest for future breeding programs. Analysed genotypes and their F1 hybrids expressed significant differences in activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase enzymes, as well as in soluble proteins and free proline contents. Since mode of inheritance for all investigated traits was in most cases dominance or heterosis, it can be concluded that these parameters are under control of dominant genes. The obtained results suggest that genotypes with favorable traits, such as variety Linda, line 1511, and F1 hybrids (Linda x LN92-7369 and (Balkan x BL-8, could be of interest as a good starting material for further breeding programs.

  20. Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-11

    Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by {sup 14}N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A {sup 252}Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

  1. Effect of fluorescence characteristics and different algorithms on the estimation of leaf nitrogen content based on laser-induced fluorescence lidar in paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Du, Lin; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-20

    Paddy rice is one of the most significant food sources and an important part of the ecosystem. Thus, accurate monitoring of paddy rice growth is highly necessary. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of growth status of paddy rice and determines the dose of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to be used. This study aims to compare the predictive ability of the fluorescence spectra excited by different excitation wavelengths (EWs) combined with traditional multivariate analysis algorithms, such as principal component analysis (PCA), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and support vector machine (SVM), for estimating paddy rice LNC from the leaf level with three different fluorescence characteristics as input variables. Then, six estimation models were proposed. Compared with the five other models, PCA-BPNN was the most suitable model for the estimation of LNC by improving R2 and reducing RMSE and RE. For 355, 460 and 556 nm EWs, R2 was 0.89, 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. Experimental results demonst