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Sample records for fois il est

  1. Il était sept fois la révolution Albert Einstein et les autres...

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    Certaines révolutions sont lentes et ne font pas couler de sang. Entre 1925 et 1935, la physique a connu un tel bouleversement : les atomes, ces petits grains de matière découverts quelques années plus tôt, n'obéissaient plus aux lois de la physique classique. Il fallait en inventer de nouvelles, penser autrement la matière. Une décennie d'effervescence créatrice, d'audace, de tourments, une décennie miraculeuse suffit à un petit nombre de physiciens, tous jeunes, pour fonder l'une des plus belles constructions intellectuelles de tous les temps : la physique quantique, celle de l'infiniment petit, sur laquelle s'appuie toujours la physique actuelle. Originaux, déterminés, attachants, pathétiques parfois, ces hommes ont en commun d'avoir été, chacun à sa façon, des génies. Dispersés aux quatre coins de l'Europe, à Cambridge, Copenhague, Vienne, Göttingen, Zurich ou Rome, ils se rencontraient régulièrement et s'écrivaient souvent. Leurs travaux se faisaient écho, suscitant l'admiration...

  2. Il était une fois le Centre d’études médiévales…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Iogna-Prat

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available L’histoire commence au cours de l’hiver 1984. Je suis à la veille de soutenir une thèse de troisième cycle sur le dossier hagiographique de saint Maieul, quatrième abbé de Cluny (954-994, et par les hasards de la recherche des sources (la Quellenforschung chère aux philologues je m’intéresse depuis plusieurs années aux écrits des maîtres carolingiens de l’École d’Auxerre, spécialement à Heiric, dont la Vita sancti Germani métrique est directement utilisée comme modèle par le rédacteur d’une...

  3. Novel fused oxazepino-indoles (FOIs) attenuate liver carcinogenesis via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling blockade as evidenced through data-based mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Bhadauria, Archana Singh; Kumar, Umesh; Raj, Vinit; Maurya, Vimal; Kumar, Dinesh; Maity, Biswanath; Prakash, Anand; De, Arnab; Samanta, Amalesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2018-05-15

    To potentiate the well-documented tumor protecting ability of paullones, literatures demand for rational modifications in paullone ring structure and exploration of a precise mechanism underlying their antitumor effects. Thus, recently we synthesized novel paullone-like scaffold, 5H-benzo [2, 3][1,4]oxazepino[5,6-b]indoles, where compounds 13a and 14a attenuated the growth of liver cancer specific Hep-G2 cells in vitro and formed stable binding complex with IL-6. Henceforth, we hypothesized that this action is probably due to the blockade of IL-6 mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling cascade. A preclinical study was conducted using NDEA-induced HCC rat model by oral administration of FOIs at 10 mg/kg dose for 15 days. The molecular insights were confirmed through ELISA, qRT-PCR, western blot analyses. The study was further confirmed by data-based mathematical modeling using the quantitative data obtained from western blot analysis. 1 H NMR based metabolomics study was also performed to unveil metabolite discriminations among various studied groups. We identified that the HCC condition was produced due to the IL-6 induced activation of JAK2 and STAT3 which, in turn, was due to enhanced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. The treatment with FOIs led to the significant blockade of the IL-6 mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Besides, FOIs showed their potential ability in restoring perturbed metabolites linked to HCC. In particular, the anticancer efficacy of compound 13a was comparable or somewhat better than marketed chemotherapeutics, 5-flurouracil. These findings altogether opened up possibilities of developing fused oxazepino-indoles (FOIs) as new candidate molecule for plausible alternative of paullones to treat liver cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Il était une fois la vertu : généalogie de la représentation sacrificielle de la moralité civique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Duhamel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore l’une des modalités conceptuelles par lesquelles le rejet de la catégorie multiséculaire de vertu s’est imposé dans le champ de la pensée politique dès lors qu’il s’est agi de désigner les attributs du citoyen. Je défends l’hypothèse selon laquelle la critique du langage de la vertu est indissociable de l’élaboration préalable d’une conception intransigeante de la morale où l’abnégation tend à prévaloir. De façon concomitante à son refoulement, la vertu du citoyen en vient ainsi à se réduire à une forme sacrificielle dans laquelle l’intérêt particulier et le bien commun sont mutuellement exclusifs. L’objectif de cet article est double : il s’agit, d’une part, de restituer la généalogie de cette opération en soulignant la contribution décisive de Montesquieu et, d’autre part, d’interroger les principales implications méthodologiques de cette configuration conceptuelle pour l’histoire des idées politiques.

  5. Pourquoi le « Disque Blanc » des Beatles est-il Blanc ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gensane

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Dans « Strawberry Fields Forever » (février 1967, John Lennon prévient, dans une perspective postmoderne, que la représentation artistique est impossible car « nothing is real ». Au même moment, Paul McCartney propose, avec « Penny Lane » (février 1967, une des plus troublantes définitions de ce qu’est la représentation artistique : « And though she feels as if she’s in a play / She is anyway ». Que se passe-t-il, en effet, lorsque l’art est sciemment accepté comme un faux-semblant à la foi...

  6. Identification de Staphylococcus aureus : est-il possible de réduire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2014 ... influencer la recherche de la staphylocoagulase libre ? 6027. Identification de Staphylococcus aureus : est-il possible de réduire le volume de plasma de lapin sans influencer la recherche de la staphylocoagulase libre ? Bankolé H.S., Dougnon T.V., Fiogbé E.P., Amoussou A.N., Baba-Moussa L.

  7. De quoi le genre est-il le nom ?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieu, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Cette note de lecture présente une courte évolution des travaux sur le genre sous l’angle du rapport au corps en démontrant comment la dénaturalisation du corps et du sexe biologique a conduit à une description culturaliste des fonctions individuelles et des rôles sociaux. Si le genre dénaturalise le corps c’est en refusant toute référence au sexe ou à la sexualité en tant qu’ils seraient des données naturelles. Depuis son apparition en 1947, sous la plume de John Money, psychologue chargé du...

  8. Estudo dos estágios motivacionais no tratamento de adolescentes usuários de substâncias psicoativas ilícitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Margareth da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A motivação vem sendo cada vez mais estudada no tratamento de adolescentes usuários de drogas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o estágio motivacional para mudança em adolescentes infratores usuários de substâncias ilícitas que cometeram ato infracional e analisar a relação entre o estágio motivacional e a adesão ao tratamento. O estudo foi pré-experimental, realizado no Laboratório de Intervenções Cognitivas (LABICO – PUCRS. Os instrumentos foram: uma entrevista para coletar dados sociodemográficos; URICA (University of Rhode Island Change Assesment; BAI e BDI. Participaram deste estudo 103 adolescentes. O estudo mostrou que a maior parte dos adolescentes encontrava-se no estágio de pré-contemplação. A análise após a conclusão do tratamento mostrou que apenas 35 adolescentes concluíram o programa. Os dados encontrados evidenciaram que os adolescentes que pontuaram altos escores na pré-contemplação representaram substancialmente o número de desistências do programa, demonstrando a importância da identificação dos estágios motivacionais para a implementação do tratamento

  9. Posturografia estática em dependentes de drogas ilícitas e álcool

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Daniela Affonso; Ganança,Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla,Heloisa Helena

    2012-01-01

    O uso de drogas ilícitas e álcool pode afetar o equilíbrio corporal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o equilíbrio corporal à posturografia estática em dependentes de drogas ilícitas, com ou sem abuso de álcool. Desenho de Estudo: Caso controle prospectivo. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e sete usuários de drogas ilícitas, com ou sem abuso de álcool e um grupo controle homogêneo constituído de 47 indivíduos hígidos foram submetidos a uma avaliação otoneurológica, incluindo a posturografia do Balance Rehabilitation Unit....

  10. Mon téléphone portable est-il dangereux?

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Les petites boîtes que nous portons sans cesse à notre oreille émettent des ondes électromagnétiques, en particulier des micro-ondes. Ces rayonnements présentent- ils un danger pour notre santé ?

  11. Il est temps que le Canada rende la justice accessible à tous | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    école ou qu'on exclut une personne d'un hôpital, les médias ne perdent pas de temps à exposer l'injustice. La privation de soins de santé ou de scolarisation est impensable pour la plupart des Canadiens; pourtant, l'accès à ...

  12. Posturografia estática em dependentes de drogas ilícitas e álcool Static posturography in addicted to illicit drugs and alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Affonso Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso de drogas ilícitas e álcool pode afetar o equilíbrio corporal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o equilíbrio corporal à posturografia estática em dependentes de drogas ilícitas, com ou sem abuso de álcool. Desenho de Estudo: Caso controle prospectivo. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e sete usuários de drogas ilícitas, com ou sem abuso de álcool e um grupo controle homogêneo constituído de 47 indivíduos hígidos foram submetidos a uma avaliação otoneurológica, incluindo a posturografia do Balance Rehabilitation Unit. RESULTADOS: A média dos valores da área do limite de estabilidade foi significantemente menor (p The use of illicit drugs and alcohol can affect body balance. AIM: To evaluate balance control with static posturography in individuals addicted to illicit drugs, with or without alcohol abuse. Study design: Case-control, prospective. METHODS: 47 users of illicit drugs, with or without alcohol abuse, and a homogeneous control group consisting of 47 healthy individuals were submitted to a neurotological evaluation including Balance Rehabilitation Unit posturography. RESULTS: The stability threshold mean values were significantly lower (p < 0.0001 in users of illicit drugs, with or without alcohol abuse when compared to the control group; the mean values for sway velocity and ellipse area in all evaluated conditions were significantly higher (p <0.05 in the experimental group when compared to the control group, except for the ellipse area in static force surface and opened eyes (p = 0.168. CONCLUSION: The balance control of individuals addicted to illicit drugs with or without alcohol abuse could present stability threshold, sway velocity and ellipse area abnormalities in static posturography.

  13. Pays en transition : pour que les sociétés se transforment, il est ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Conscient du fait que les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais qu'elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique, le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une ...

  14. Pharmacogénétique: qu'en est-il au Maroc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Meryem Janati; Ouldim, Karim; Amarti, Afaf; El Hassouni, Mohamed; Khabbal, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    La pharmacogénétique est l’étude de l'influence des variations génétiques interindividuelles sur la réponse aux médicaments, avec le but d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients en visant une médecine personnalisée. Au fait le génome de deux personnes ne diffère que par 0.1% des 3.2 milliards de paires de bases, ce qui implique les effets indésirables des médicaments, qui ont un très important impact sur le plan clinique que sur le plan économique. Or cette dernière décennie ces effets indésirables ont pu être évités grâce aux tests pharmacogénétiques. Au Maroc, la recherche en pharmacogénétique commence à susciter l'intérêt des chercheurs avec quelques études. Une toute première étude en 1986, sur l'acétylation de l'isoniazide chez la population marocaine, suivie par deux autres en 2011 se focalisant sur le métabolisme du tacrolimus et des anti-vitamines K. Ainsi l'espoir maintenant est d'identifier les majoritaires polymorphismes génétiques affectant les patients marocains, afin de leur fournir une prise en charge adaptée. PMID:23785548

  15. Le dessalement de l’eau de mer est-il une voie d’avenir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Salomon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La pénurie en eau semble devenir une perspective inquiétante pour l’humanité. Aujourd’hui les pays en situation de stress hydrique sont de plus en plus nombreux tandis que les besoins ne cessent de grandir. Face à ce constat, nombre de solutions techniques ont été apportées dont celle du dessalement de l’eau de mer. Cette activité est en pleine expansion du fait d’une amélioration constante des techniques et d’un coût de plus en plus réduit. Déjà le dessalement représente la principale source d’eau potable pour un grand nombre de pays (îles, pays à climat désertique ou subdésertique, etc.. Mais, ce coût restant encore bien supérieur à celui des autres modes d’alimentation, cette technique reste réservée à des États ayant des ressources financières et énergétiques consistantes (Moyen Orient, pays développés, ce qui limite les possibilités. L’avenir du dessalement doit également prendre en compte ses effets sur l’environnement car de plus en plus d’études en montrent les effets pervers et …coûteux. Cet article entend faire le point et attirer l’attention sur l’ensemble de cette technique qui offre une alternative intéressante au spectre de la pénurie d’eau annoncée par bien des médias dans le contexte du réchauffement climatique.

  16. Effet-dose de l’acide oléique alimentaire. Cet acide est-il conditionnellement essentiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans un travail précédent [1] nous avons montré que, globalement, au terme de la période de gestation-lactation chez des rats de 21 jours, la carence alimentaire en acide oléique entraîne une diminution de la concentration en 18:1(n-9; la synthèse endogène ne compense donc pas l’absence d’acide oléique dans les aliments. Afin de déterminer exactement l’effet de la présence et de la concentration de l’acide oléique dans l’alimentation sur la composition en acides gras de divers organes, les huiles végétales commerciales n’étant pas utilisables (car contenant toujours de l’acide oléique, des triglycérides ont été synthétisés par voie chimique et enzymologique; ils ont été formés soit d’acide oléique, soit d’acide alpha-linolénique, soit d’acide linoléique. La détermination de l’effet-dose a été réalisée avec un protocole expérimental portant sur 7 groupes de rats ayant reçu chacun des aliments de composition identique (en particulier au niveau des acides gras indispensables : les acides linoléique et alpha-linolénique mais dont la teneur, variable, en acide oléique était située entre 0 et 6 000 mg pour 100 g d’aliments. Les rates ont été nourries avec les régimes à partir de 2 semaines avant l’accouplement, leurs portées ont été sacrifiées soit à 21, soit à 60 jours. Quand la teneur de l’acide oléique augmente dans les aliments, les principales modifications observées chez les animaux de 21 jours sont les suivantes.– Concernant le 18:1(n-9 : dans le foie, le muscle, le coeur, les reins et les testicules, sa concentration constante (le plateau de la courbe est atteinte aux environs de 4 g d’acide oléique pour 100 g d’alimentation. En deçà de cette dose, la réponse est croissante. Dans le cerveau, la myéline et les terminaisons nerveuses (mais non le nerf sciatique, la teneur en acide oléique reste optimale et constante.– La concentration du 16:1(n-7 diminue

  17. Is the cooling of coils of pulsed accelerators profitable?; Le refroidissement des bobines des accelerateurs pulses est-il avantageux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyret, G.; Parain, J.; Schnuriger, J. C.

    1960-05-15

    In this report, the authors recall how metal resistivity decreases at low temperatures, and give some indications about the power and price of cryogenic installations. They report the study of the cooling of coils in accelerators displaying an alternate gradient with a 15 GeV energy, with or without a magnetic circuit in iron. They establish that cooling does not result in a decrease in the cost price for an hour of operation. They also state that it is not even sure that this cooling would result in a dimension reduction while increasing the maximum achievable induction [French] On rappelle comment la resistivite des metaux diminue aux basses temperatures, et on donne des indications sur la puissance et le prix des installations cryogeniques. On etudie le refroidissement des bobines d'accelerateurs a gradient alterne d'une energie de 15 GeV, avec ou sans circuit magnetique en fer; on trouve que le refroidissement ne permet pas de diminuer le prix de revient de l'heure de fonctionnement; il n'est meme pas sur qu'il puisse permettre de reduire les dimensions en elevant l'induction maximum realisable. L'idee de refroidir les bobines sans fer jusqu'a la temperature de l'air liquide est ancienne: Jean Perrin des 1907, puis Charly Fabry en 1910 l'avaient deja proposee. Recemment, cette idee est revenue a l'actualite: en 1958, R.F. Post a suggere de l'appliquer a la production de champs intenses en vue du confinement des plasmas thermonucleaires; en 1959, N.C. Christofilos a publie un projet d'accelerateur refroidi a 80 deg. K. Nous voulons examiner l'interet de refroidir les bobines d'un accelerateur, d'une part pour augmenter l'induction maximum (dans le cas de machines sans fer) et d'autre part pour diminuer l'importance de l'alimentation electrique. Cet examen est precede de generalites sur le refroidissement des bobines, generalites qui s'appliquent d'ailleurs a tous les champs magnetiques. Les trois metaux etudies sont ceux retenus comme les meilleurs par Post: le

  18. Il commercio estero dei paesi est europei e dell'URSS negli anni ottanta.(The foreign trade of Eastern European and USSR countries in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. MASTROPASQUA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il commercio dei paesi europei e URSS orientale è caratterizzato da una fondamentale asimmetria . Da una parte , vi è commercio intra-area ( intra - COMECON che costituisce la parte prevalente ma è tuttavia meno importante per la crescita . D' altra parte, vi è il commercio con i paesi industrializzati ( est-ovest , che , anche se rappresenta una porzione più piccola , attraverso l'importazione di manufatti ad alto contenuto tecnologico , è fondamentale per il processo di accumulazione interna . Il presente lavoro analizza il commercio le due aree negli ultimi dieci anni . L'autore esamina le principali caratteristiche del commercio intra - Comecon , il commercio est-ovest , le riforme del commercio estero e il problema della convertibilità delle valute in Unione Sovietica .The trade of Eastern European and USSR countries is characterised by a fundamental asymmetry. On the one hand, there is intra-area trade (intra-COMECON which constitutes the prevalent part but is, however, less important for growth. On the other hand, there is trade with industrialised countries (east-west which, although it represents a smaller portion, through the importation of highly technological manufactured goods, is crucial to the process of internal accumulation. The present work analyses the trade to the two areas over the past decade. The author looks at the principal characteristics of intra-COMECON trade, east-west trade, foreign trade reforms and the problem of currency convertibility in the Soviet Union. JEL: F14, P23

  19. 1945, Le jazz libère l’Allemagne... pour la seconde fois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Cohen-Avenel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available 1945, l’Allemagne vaincue est détruite, le régime en déroute, les morts innombrables, un grand nombre d’hommes faits prisonniers. La démocratie n’existe pas. Tout est à (reconstruire. Arrivent alors les troupes alliées et, avec les Américains, le jazz, une musique si prenante que bon nombre de jeunes d’Europe se laissent séduire immédiatement. Comme d’autres européens, les Allemands sont saisis par cette musique qui leur permet de se libérer, de s’exprimer et de le faire à l’unisson des autres États, vaincus ou vainqueurs. C’est au son de cette musique américaine, et plus tard du rock ‘n’ roll, qu’ils vont apprendre ou réapprendre la démocratie occidentale. Mais le triomphe de cette musique est-il seulement émancipateur ? N’est-il pas aussi le signe d’une domination du monde, nouvelle et sans partage, par le géant américain et sa puissance économique dont le plan Marshall incarne à la fois les bienfaits et la toute-puissance ? En fait, cette question est loin d’être inédite en Allemagne. Elle s’est déjà posée avec la même acuité en 1920, date à laquelle les Allemands furent confrontés pour la première fois au jazz dans des circonstances assez proches : une défaite humiliante, l’effondrement du régime, une démocratie imposée par les vainqueurs, la quête d’une culture et de valeurs démocratiques sans racines dans l’inconscient collectif, une possible émancipation des corps grâce à la danse après des années d’oppression et de militarisme. Car c’est dès 1920 que les Allemands découvrent le jazz, une musique alors non seulement américaine, mais noire, une musique qui semble primitive, mais qui incarne aussi les grandes villes les plus modernes du monde et une domination économique que les Allemands craignent depuis la fin du XXe siècle. D’économique, le « péril américain », se fait culturel par le biais de la danse. A moins qu’il n’offre enfin aux

  20. Afinal, quem foi Sacher-Masoch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Pereira França

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende aprofundar o conhecimento a respeito do masoquismo, resgatando dados da biografia e da obra de Sacher-Masoch, com base na leitura de Gilles Deleuze. Lendo A Vênus das peles, constata-se que Sacher-Masoch explicita os aspectos formal, estético e contratual do masoquismo, propostos por Deleuze. Justifica-se a importância de se ler diretamente a obra de Masoch para se ter acesso a aspectos da lógica do masoquismo que não têm sido levados em conta nos estudos sobre o tema.

  1. Qu'en est-il de la transmission dans les groupes d'analyse de pratiques en formation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Vallet, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Atelier 21 : Travail social et bénévolat; Ma recherche s'intéresse à la formation des professionnels de la relation, et à cette instance particulière qu'est l'analyse des pratiques : celle-ci suppose la transmission d'une capacité de problématisation des situations professionnelles, un regard critique ajusté, un certain rapport aux savoirs, une attitude herméneutique, et une posture particulière de l'animateur pour favoriser le cheminement des personnes en formation. Car au-delà d'une meilleu...

  2. L'état de l'environnement industriel français est-il objectivement mesurable ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gotteland, David; Boulé, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Working paper serie RMT (WPS 04-07); the environmental state is a frequently modelized variable in marketing research. This paper proposes updated scales and panorama of the objective state of 58 industrial branches defined by INSEE based on three characteristic dimensions: dynamism, complexity and capacity.; l'état de l'environnement est une variable fréquemment modélisée dans la recherche en marketing. A partir de ce constat, cet article propose une échelle de mesure et un panorama actualis...

  3. Dans quelle mesure l’athéisme est-il inacceptable pour l’auteur du Theophrastus redivivus et pour Spinoza ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gengoux

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Un problème posé par le Theophrastus redivivus, traité anonyme achevé en 1659, matérialiste et athée (au sens actuel du terme, est que l’auteur tout en critiquant radicalement la croyance en dieu, affirme qu’il faut chasser l’athéisme de la cité. Son athéisme est pourtant « pensable » : non seulement le mot n’est pas anachronique pour le xviie siècle, comme le pensent de nombreux commentateurs, mais le traité lui-même fait la généalogie de la croyance tout en exposant un système de pensée cohérent qui se passe de dieu.Le rejet du terme « athéisme » est d’ordre moral et social car il désigne celui qui se laisse entraîner par ses instincts. L’auteur nous prévient, en quelque sorte, que ce n’est pas parce qu’il nie les dieux qu’il n’est pas respectueux des lois. Cependant, l’« inacceptabilité » du terme « athée » a aussi un sens plus profond : comment, en effet, concilier l’ordre social et l’absence d’un Bien et d’un Mal absolus ? Certes le traité propose une solution purement naturelle en fondant la morale sur l’amour de soi, mais comment le faire comprendre ? C’est peu « acceptable » au sens de « compréhensible ».Nous pouvons distinguer des degrés d’inacceptabilité : l’amoralisme théorique paraît plus inacceptable, encore, que l’affirmation de l’inexistence de dieu, parce qu’il risque d’entraîner la désobéissance civile : c’est cette dernière qui constitue l’inacceptable absolu, pour notre Anonyme comme pour les lecteurs. Une conséquence paradoxale est que la thèse de l’imposture des religions est peut-être, pour des raisons politiques, moins inacceptable que cet amoralisme et surtout que le constat par l’Anonyme de l’inefficacité totale des religions. Enfin, les choses pouvant être dites plus ou moins haut, l’acceptabilité suppose plus de complicité et d’hypocrisie de la part du lecteur que nous aurions tendance

  4. Il est beau le lavabo, il est laid le bidet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer dislokering af subjektet på fransk. Der skelnes mellem tre hovedtyper: venstredislokering med og uden intonationsbrud og højre dislokering. I alle tilfælde indeholder sætningskernen principielt en pronominel kopi af subjektet. Det påvises, at de tre typer svarer til tre forske...

  5. A Deficiência de vitamina d está associada com níveis aumentados de il-17 e tnfα em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Milovanovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos recentes revelaram uma forte associação entre o estado de vitamina D (VD e a insuficiência cardíaca crônica (ICC. Hoje, é normalmente aceito que a resposta imune pró-inflamatória é subjacente ao desenvolvimento de ICC. OBJETIVO: Uma vez que a VD possui propriedades anti-inflamatórias, pesquisamos o seu impacto sobre as citocinas envolvidas na ICC, como TNFα e IL-17, em pacientes portadores de ICC. MÉTODOS: Foi extraído sangue de quarenta pacientes com ICC secundária à hipertensão arterial e/ou doença coronariana. Os níveis de VD status, IL-17 e TNFαforam avaliados através de 25-hidroxi VD3 EIA e ELISA de citocinas. Também foram realizadas avaliação clínica e ecocardiograma. RESULTADOS: Pacientes idosos com ICC em Nis (Sudeste da Europa, latitude 43ºN apresentaram níveis de 25-hidroxi VD3 abaixo do normal. Nossos dados demonstraram que pacientes com ICC secundária à hipertensão arterial têm níveis significativamente menores de 25-hidroxi VD3, e maiores de TNFαe IL-17A, se comparados com os níveis de pacientes com ICC secundária à doença coronariana. CONCLUSÃO: É demonstrado aqui que, mesmo em regiões com muitos dias ensolarados a deficiência de VD é motivo de preocupação. Os dados sugerem que o déficit de VD contribui para os elevados níveis de IL-17 e TNFα e, assim, contribuir ao desenvolvimento de ICC.

  6. La problématique du coût des nouvelles thérapeutiques en oncologie: qu'en-est-il du Maroc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Zahra, Ziani Fatima; Seddik, Youssef; Afqir, Said

    2016-01-01

    Le cancer est un problème majeur de santé public en Afrique. Les progrès réalisé dans le traitement des cancers ces dix dernières années est indéniable. L’émergence des thérapies ciblés en oncologie a permit de modifier l'histoire naturelle de certains cancers réputés de mauvais pronostic. En dépit de leurs efficacité, ces thérapeutiques pose un problème majeur de coût qui les rend inaccessible à la majorité des patients dans les pays en voie développement. Au Maroc, le cancer est reconnu comme a une affection de longue durée et les patients bénéficient de ce fait d'une couverture médicale totale. L'implication de la société civile a permis aussi d'améliorer la prise en charge ainsi qu'un accès plus élargi aux médicaments innovants pour les patients les plus démunis. PMID:27642392

  7. O medicamento proibido : como um derivado da maconha foi regulamentado no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Batista de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho investiga de que modo o canabidiol (CBD), um dos compostos da cannabis sativa, tomou a mídia, a agenda de agências reguladoras e passou a ser reconhecido pelo seu potencial terapêutico no Brasil no espaço de um ano (de março de 2014 a janeiro de 2015). A pesquisa, mais precisamente, elucida como um deriva-do da maconha foi regulamentado sem que a própria maconha fosse objeto de regulamentação. Para isso, a dissertação acompanha o caso de Anny Fischer, que utilizou o CBD ...

  8. Le développement durable est-il bienvenu dans les organisations ? Cas de l’implantation d’un Système de Management Environnemental en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Ben Yedder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Les entreprises sociétalement responsables sont celles qui s’inscrivent dans une logique de développement durable. Leur engagement se matérialise, notamment, par le déploiement de systèmes de gestion respectueux de l’environnement tels que les systèmes de management environnemental (SME. En plus de leur portée écologique, ces derniers ont une visée sociale puisqu’ils permettent d’améliorer les conditions de travail des opérateurs. Toutefois, leur mise en place peut être gênée par ces derniers s’ils ne retrouvent pas leurs intérêts lors de l’instauration d’un tel système. L’objectif de ce texte est d’étayer cette idée à partir de l’étude de cas d’une entreprise tunisienne où l’instauration d’un SME n’a pu aboutir en partie à cause de la résistance du personnel. Dans ce sens, nous appuierons l’idée selon laquelle les pratiques du Développement Durable et de la Responsabilité Sociale de l’Entreprise ne se greffent pas ex abrupto sur une entreprise mais nécessitent certains préalables d’ordre organisationnel pour être mis en place.Socially responsible firms are the ones which act in accordance to sustainable development logic. Their engagement is materialised by deploying environment friendly practices such as environmental management system (EMS. Those systems have also a social purpose in the way that they allow enhancing work conditions of operators. However, their setting could be embarrassed by those ones because of the change of habits that it implies for them. The purpose of this study is to shore up this idea by resorting to a case study of a Tunisian firm in which the setting of the environmental management system turned failed in part because of the resistance of the personnel. We will defend the idea that practices of sustainable development and corporate social responsibilities couldn’t be correctly adopted by firms without taking into consideration to some organizational

  9. A Deficiência de vitamina d está associada com níveis aumentados de il-17 e tnfα em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca crônica La deficiencia de vitamina D está asociada a niveles aumentados de IL-17 y Tnfα en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca crónica Vitamin d deficiency is associated with increased il-17 and tnfα levels in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Milovanovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos recentes revelaram uma forte associação entre o estado de vitamina D (VD e a insuficiência cardíaca crônica (ICC. Hoje, é normalmente aceito que a resposta imune pró-inflamatória é subjacente ao desenvolvimento de ICC. OBJETIVO: Uma vez que a VD possui propriedades anti-inflamatórias, pesquisamos o seu impacto sobre as citocinas envolvidas na ICC, como TNFα e IL-17, em pacientes portadores de ICC. MÉTODOS: Foi extraído sangue de quarenta pacientes com ICC secundária à hipertensão arterial e/ou doença coronariana. Os níveis de VD status, IL-17 e TNFαforam avaliados através de 25-hidroxi VD3 EIA e ELISA de citocinas. Também foram realizadas avaliação clínica e ecocardiograma. RESULTADOS: Pacientes idosos com ICC em Nis (Sudeste da Europa, latitude 43ºN apresentaram níveis de 25-hidroxi VD3 abaixo do normal. Nossos dados demonstraram que pacientes com ICC secundária à hipertensão arterial têm níveis significativamente menores de 25-hidroxi VD3, e maiores de TNFαe IL-17A, se comparados com os níveis de pacientes com ICC secundária à doença coronariana. CONCLUSÃO: É demonstrado aqui que, mesmo em regiões com muitos dias ensolarados a deficiência de VD é motivo de preocupação. Os dados sugerem que o déficit de VD contribui para os elevados níveis de IL-17 e TNFα e, assim, contribuir ao desenvolvimento de ICC.FUNDAMENTO: Estudios recientes revelaron una fuerte asociación entre el estado de la vitamina D (VD y la insuficiencia cardíaca crónica (ICC. Hoy, es normalmente aceptado que la respuesta inmune pro-inflamatoria es subyacente al desarrollo de ICC. OBJETIVO: Una vez que la VD posee propiedades antiinflamatorias, investigamos su impacto sobre las citocinas envueltas en la ICC, como TNFα y IL-17, en pacientes portadores de ICC. MÉTODOS: Fue extraída sangre de cuarenta pacientes con ICC secundaria a la hipertensión arterial y/o enfermedad coronaria. Los niveles de VD status, IL

  10. Study of once and twice forbidden {beta} transitions; Contribution a l'etude de transitions {beta} une fois et deux fois interdites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocquenghem, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-09-01

    The realisation of an experimental set up for directional angular correlation measurements allowed us to determine {beta} - {gamma} angular correlations. These measurements together with the determination of the {beta} shape-factor have been made for the following transitions: the first forbidden {beta}{sup -} transitions of 386 keV in the {sup 177}Lu disintegration and of 352 keV in the {sup 175}Yb disintegration. The experimental results have been compared with theoretical predictions of the Nilsson's model; the twice forbidden {beta}{sup -} transition of 473 keV in the {sup 94}Nb disintegration. The {beta} transition nuclear matrix elements have been extracted from the experimental results. Comparison have been made with the theoretical values calculated by taking for nuclear wavefunctions those obtained by diagonalization of the residual interaction and assuming that protons and neutrons outside the {sup 90}Zr core are respectively on the 1 g 9/2 and 2 d 5/2 orbits. (author) [French] La realisation d'un ensemble de mesures de correlations angulaires directionnelles nous a permis la mesure de correlations {beta} - {gamma} en fonction de l'energie. En completant celles-ci par la mesure du facteur de forme du spectre {beta}, nous avons pu etudier ainsi: d'une part, les transitions {beta}{sup -} une fois interdites de 386 keV de la desintegration de {sup 177}Lu et de 352 keV de la desintegration de {sup 175}Yb, Les resultats experimentaux ont ete compares aux valeurs calculees dans le modele de Nilsson; d'autre part, la transition {beta}- deux fois interdite de 473 keV de la desintegration de {sup 94}Nb. Les elements de matrice nucleaire de la transition {beta}, extraits des resultats experimentaux, ont ete compares aux valeurs theoriques calculees. Les fonctions d'ondes nucleaires utilisees ont ete obtenues par diagonalisation de l'interaction residuelle en supposant que les protons et les neutrons, en dehors du coeur forme par le {sup 90}Zr, sont respectivement

  11. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  12. Antimatière Est-elle la clé de l'Univers?

    CERN Multimedia

    Grousson, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    "De quoi est fait l'Univers? De matière ordinaire et, selon la théorie actuelle, de matière noire et d'énergie noire... dont nul ne sait rien! Et s'il s'agissait plutôt d'antimatière? Car elle permet de réécrire l'histoire du cosmos sans déroger à ses lois et, cette fois, sans nulle zone d'ombre. Reste à vérifier qu'elle antigravite bien..." (14 pages)

  13. Twitter a­-t­-il bousculé le droit parlementaire ? : Le jour où le #directAN s'est invité dans l'hémicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chibois , Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; En février 2013, lors de l'examen à l'Assemblée nationale du projet de loi sur l'ouverture du mariage aux couples de même sexe, l'agitation est telle sur Twitter que, au quatrième jour de délibération, la séance publique dans l'hémicycle est levée pour quelques minutes. À plusieurs reprises ensuite, fréquentes sont les allusions à des échanges de tweets entre députés, jugés inappropriés, pour lesquels sera demandée, sans succès, une régulation du président de séance. L...

  14. “O HOMEM QUE FOI DESMANCHADO” COMO (PRÉTEXTO DA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Geraldo Vianney Peres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the technological stigma signaling to modernity, anticipating their amazing impacts initially felt in the process of industrialization of the 19th century. The effects of modernization in the large centers, as well as the proletarian diaspora, showed up soon after the Enlightenment, which interfere with them in meaningful ways. At the core of such effervescent events, there was Edgar Allan Poe, romantic writer who expertly revealed the crisis of his contemporaries on mechanization, on which will be a brief inventory, through his short story “O homem que foi desmanchado”. Thus proceeding, there is the intention to see this (pretext of modernity.

  15. An initial limited biodosimetry inter-comparison exercise: FOI and DRDC Ottawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricklin, D.; Wilkinson, D.; Arvidsson, E.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Thorleifson, E.; Mullins, D.; Lachapelle, S.

    2007-01-01

    While biodosimetry is a valuable tool in radiation dose assessment, the dicentric assay, which is the most validated method to date, requires some degree of technical competence. Recently published ISO guidelines indicate the need for documenting competence and establishment of quality control programs. Inter-laboratory comparisons are required to document the ability to perform reproducible and accurate assessments. FOI and DRDC Ottawa have conducted an initial limited biodosimetry exercise inter-comparison for quality assurance purposes. The exercise involved blinded exchange of three previously prepared slides from each laboratory from samples that had been evaluated for each lab's dose-response curve. Approximately 100 cells from each slide were evaluated and aberration frequencies reported and compared to the expected frequencies. The limited number of cells evaluated for each sample could not permit statistically distinguishing a 20% difference in all the samples. However, the results indicated reasonable agreement in analyses for all samples for triage purposes. Comparison of aberration frequencies, rather than dose estimates, further illustrates consistent scoring criteria between the two laboratories. The exercise conducted by FOI and DRDC Ottawa provided an efficient means of documenting expertise. Such cooperation further establishes the international biodosimetry network and ensures our readiness for emergency response

  16. Characteristics of the large corporation-based, bureaucratic model among oecd countries - an foi model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartha Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deciding on the development path of the economy has been a delicate question in economic policy, not least because of the trade-off effects which immediately worsen certain economic indicators as steps are taken to improve others. The aim of the paper is to present a framework that helps decide on such policy dilemmas. This framework is based on an analysis conducted among OECD countries with the FOI model (focusing on future, outside and inside potentials. Several development models can be deduced by this method, out of which only the large corporation-based, bureaucratic model is discussed in detail. The large corporation-based, bureaucratic model implies a development strategy focused on the creation of domestic safe havens. Based on country studies, it is concluded that well-performing safe havens require the active participation of the state. We find that, in countries adhering to this model, business competitiveness is sustained through intensive public support, and an active role taken by the government in education, research and development, in detecting and exploiting special market niches, and in encouraging sectorial cooperation.

  17. A mobilidade urbana: uma agenda inconclusa ou o retorno daquilo que não foi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Ávila Gomide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta um resgate histórico das políticas de mobilidade urbana no Brasil, demonstrando como o tema foi tratado conforme o contexto político nas últimas décadas. O foco recai no período de redemocratização até os dias atuais, apresentando os avanços e desafios do setor, ilustrados nas demandas da sociedade e nas respostas governamentais. São estabelecidos os vínculos das pressões populares com a criação de marcos institucionais, estruturas administrativas e instrumentos financeiros em prol da melhoria da oferta dos serviços de transporte público coletivo, bem como os sucessos, fracassos e incompletudes das soluções criadas para suprir os anseios sociais. Com base nessa análise são sugeridas algumas direções, entendidas como contribuições ao recente retorno do tema à agenda decisória dos governos.

  18. Homicídio, suicídio, morte acidental... 'O que foi que aconteceu?'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klarissa Almeida Silva Platero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as práticas dos profissionais responsáveis por classificar uma morte como “homicídio”, suicídio”, “acidente” ou “morte natural” à luz de abordagens construtivistas que tratam dos processos de criminalização. São analisadas as receitas profissionais utilizadas pelo staff da perícia criminal na tipificação de ocorrências. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2012 com base na observação de 19 “perícias de local do crime” no Rio de Janeiro. Os resultados indicam que as práticas adotadas em casos de morte típicos são diferentes das receitas profissionais seguidas pelo mesmo staff nos casos de morte atípicos. Por isso, o trabalho da perícia parece pouco contribuir para a elucidação da autoria em casos típicos de mortes classificadas como homicídios. Os resultados demonstram a desigualdade social na investigação dos homicídios. The paper Homicide, Suicide, Accidental Death… `What Happened?` discusses state agent’s death classification practices as “homicide”, “suicide”, “accident” or “natural death” in the light of constructionist perspective that deals with criminalization processes. It analyzes officers and coroners’ practical action and practical reasoning and their typifications of the offense and the offender to account for what happened. Ethnographic research was developed based on the observation of nineteen "crime scene investigations" carried out by professionals from the Homicide Division of Rio de Janeiro. The results indicate that the reasoning and practices adopted in typical cases of death are different from the practical recipes followed by the staff in atypical cases of death. For this and others reasons theirs works does little to elucidate authorship in typical and more recurrent cases of deaths classified as homicides in Rio de Janeiro. The results demonstrate the social inequality in the homicide investigation.Keywords: criminal forensics, criminal

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 286 - DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information (FOI) Processing Cost” ER25NO98.000 ER25NO98.001 ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2086, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Costâ C Appendix C to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued...

  20. Il Gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beronio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chi si occupa di teatro incontra il gioco innanzitutto come una categoria estetica insita nei processi che caratterizzano l’atto teatrale. Ma dall’approfondimento di tali meccanismi emerge anche la potenzialità conoscitiva del gioco, come condizione umana di profonda consapevolezza di sé. Attraverso un percorso che passa attraverso Breton, Platone, Huizinga, e Alessandro Fersen, viene qui proposta una lettura del gioco come carattere fondamentale dell’arte e della conoscenza.

  1. Mimesis e il giallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne de Boer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di: Ilaria Marzia Orsini, Donne in giallo: la detective story tra genere e gender, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere – USB Ultra Slim Books, 2014, 128 p., ISBN: 97888575245680, € 11,00. Bruna Durante, Specchio delle mie trame: la vita secondo dieci scrittori italiani. Con interviste a Eraldo Baldini, Gianni Biondillo, Giancarlo De Cataldo, Giorgio Faletti, Marcello Fois, Carlo Lucarelli, Raul Montanari, Santo Piazzese, Andrea G. Pinketts, Gaetano Savatteri, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2014, 180 p., ISBN: 9788857518176, € 13,60.Carlo Oliva, Giallo popolare: il poliziesco alla radio, a cura di Nicoletta Di Ciolla e Nicoletta Vallorani, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2013, 150 p., ISBN: 9788857518183, € 12,00.

  2. La metaphore est-elle la marque de l’insuffisance de l’esprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L’une des caractéristiques les plus communément reconnues à la discipline de la terminologie est sa conceptualité. Au contraire de l’opinion émise sur la métaphore, la terminologie s’efforce de travailler à partir de notions précises dont le sens doit être délimité et l’articulation à d’autres notions explicitée afin de bannir les ambiguïtés et les fausses évidences qu’elles véhiculent. Elle se distingue aussi du texte poétique caractérisé en particulier par la richesse des images et le jeu sur les signifiants. On comprend dès lors pourquoi la métaphore apparaît de prime abord comme une ennemie du champ de la terminologie qu’il faudrait bannir à tout prix. Cette figure de rhétorique consistant en un transport de sens risque à tout moment de rendre inopérant l’effort d’univocité et de rigueur du travail du terminologue. Mais la métaphore n’est pourtant pas absente des textes de spécialité. Il faut dès lors se demander si cette présence est « accidentelle”, contingente, ou si elle est incontournable et signifiante. Pour cela, il nous faudra étudier à la fois la place de la métaphore dans le texte de spécialité, et le discours des scientifiques portant sur elle. Mais une telle démarche nous laisse prisonnier de la dichotomie entre concept et métaphore et masque peutêtre une parenté inaperçue entre eux. Si le concept est habité par la métaphore, qu’en est-il du discours de spécialité? N’est-il pas réduit à n’être qu’un vaste poème qui ne s’avouerait pas comme tel? Est-elle seulement une figure de style ou aurait-elle un impact qui outrepasseraitsa modeste fonction discursive ? Il semble bien, même si le débat sur la métaphore et son usage est loin d’être clos. Notre théorie s’inscrit plutôt dans le sens d’une réévaluation du sens, d’une extension toujours plus grande de l’impact de ce trope qui, plus qu’une simple finalité esthétique, aurait une

  3. La parole est à vous

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Nous avons identifié, ci-dessous, 3 grands chapitres pour lesquelles bon nombre d’entre vous se posent des questions et ont fréquemment sollicités leurs délégués, qui n’ont pas toujours pu donner de réponses : La retraite et sa préparation. L’affiliation aux régimes sécurité sociale de nos états hôtes et ses conséquences au moment de la retraite. La fiscalité en général. Le service juridique, que nous avons interrogé récemment, n’est pas toujours informé de vos interrogations et de ce fait, il n’a pas encore pu investiguer sur ces questions auprès des services compétents. Il nous a suggéré de vous interroger afin de collecter vos questions, de les synthétiser, afin de les transmettre...

  4. EST! best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-05

    This booklet presents the eighteen winners in a competition for projects that promote environmentally sustainable transportation (EST). These range from car sharing to hydrogen fueled buses to public transit promotion campaign. Each project is presen...

  5. Influência do grupo de pares e uso de drogas ilícitas entre adolescentes brasileiros: um estudo transversal

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Oliva Jorge; Raquel Conceição Ferreira; Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira; Ichiro Kawachi; Patrícia Maria Zarzar; Isabela Almeida Pordeus

    2018-01-01

    O estudo teve como objetivo examinar o uso de drogas ilícitas e as associações com fatores socioeconômicos e influência do grupo de pares entre adolescentes brasileiros de 15 a 19 anos de idade. Foi adotada uma amostra de clusters em dois estágios, com a seleção aleatória de escolas públicas e privadas entre os nove distritos administrativos de uma capital de estado, e a seleção aleatória de turmas em cada escola. A variável de desfecho foi o uso de drogas ilícitas, medido pela seguinte pergu...

  6. IL-6 anti-inflammatory activity in pleural effusion post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M S Chibante

    2007-05-01

    ós-cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (PCRM não está devidamente esclarecido em relação à resposta inflamatória local e requer maior interesse por ser uma observação constante e ainda pouco estudada. Objectivo: Avaliar o comportamento de algumas citocinas, em especial o possível papel anti-inflamatório da IL-6 (proteína envolvida na síntese da cortisona, no líquido pleural PCRM, uma vez que a sua actividade pró-inflamatória é constantemente referida, assim como o seu papel de citocina de fase de resposta aguda ao lado do TNF-α e da IL-1β nos processos inflamatórios agudos. Casuística e método: foram estudadas e analisadas pelo método ELISA as citocinas TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF e TGF-β em 16 transudatos e 43 exsudatos de líquido pleural em três tempos da fase aguda (2, 24 e 48 horas PCRM no Instituto do Coração e Serviço de Pneumologia da USP – Brasil. Resultados: Tanto o TNF-α como IL-2 não sofreram qualquer tipo de elevação dos seus níveis enquanto os da IL-1β só se elevaram a partir das 24 horas, o que coincidiu com a queda da curva da citocina anti-inflamatória TGF-β, que desde o início foi caindo flagrantemente até aos valores dos transudatos. A IL-8 permaneceu elevada nas três fases e o VEGF foi ascendendo os seus níveis, que permaneceram estáveis nas 24 e 48 horas seguintes. A IL-6 mostrou-se em concentrações elevadas desde o início, apresentando-se como a única citocina com potencial anti-inflamatório durante as três fases de avaliação. Conclusões: Concluímos que a citocina IL-6 parece ter papel anti-inflamatório de destaque e superior ao TGF-β nos derrames pleurais PCRM e que o seu comportamento desarticula, pelo menos neste tipo de derrame, a ideia de citocina pró-inflamatória de resposta de fase aguda. Ao que parece, este é o primeiro estudo que procura

  7. Expression of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines in the choroid and sclera of hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão das citocinas inflamatórias TNF-α e IL-6 na esclera e coroide de coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos. Método: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN recebeu ração padrão para coelhos; GH recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1%. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 4ª semana para o GN e 8ª semana para o GH foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais. Os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com os anticorpos TNF-α e IL-6. Resultados: O GH manifestou significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos em relação ao GN (p<0,001. Houve significativo aumento da expressão da TNF-α (p<0,001 e da IL-6 (p=0,002 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica induz ao aumento da expressão das citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 na coroide e esclera de coelhos.

  8. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  9. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  10. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  11. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  12. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Beatriz Tavares Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico. A identificação desta bactéria direcionou a investigação para a síndrome MIM. O diagnóstico de deficiência do receptor da interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1 foi confirmado através da dosagem de IL-12 e do interferon (IFN-gama produzido pelas células do paciente em meio de cultura. O resultado demonstrou ausência de produção de IL-12 e do IFN-gama mesmo após estímulo adequado. COMENTÁRIOS: a identificação da Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico de septicemia sugere uma disfunção do sistema imunológico. Foi realizada avaliação laboratorial das imunidades humoral, celular e inata. Após avaliação laboratorial direcionada para síndrome MIM, foi confirmada a deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1. O uso do IFN-gama é recomendado nos casos graves, assim como o tratamento de suporte e o aconselhamento genético.

  13. Influência do grupo de pares e uso de drogas ilícitas entre adolescentes brasileiros: um estudo transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliva Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo examinar o uso de drogas ilícitas e as associações com fatores socioeconômicos e influência do grupo de pares entre adolescentes brasileiros de 15 a 19 anos de idade. Foi adotada uma amostra de clusters em dois estágios, com a seleção aleatória de escolas públicas e privadas entre os nove distritos administrativos de uma capital de estado, e a seleção aleatória de turmas em cada escola. A variável de desfecho foi o uso de drogas ilícitas, medido pela seguinte pergunta: “Você já usou drogas ilícitas (maconha, inalantes, hipnóticos, cocaína/crack, alucinógenos, anfetaminas e/ou opióides alguma vez na vida?”. Os grupos de pares foram classificados como: escola, família, atividades religiosas e esportes/cultura. O nível socioeconômico foi avaliado com o Índice de Vulnerabilidade em Saúde (IVS baseado em área. Foram analisados os dados de 91 adolescentes com o teste do qui-quadrado e regressão logística. A proporção global de uso de drogas ilícitas foi 15,2%. A heterogeneidade por gênero dentro de grupos (OR = 3,14; IC95%: 1,63-6,06, amizades baseadas em religião (OR = 0,36; IC95%: 0,17-0,75 e amizades baseadas em esportes/cultura (OR = 0,44; IC95%: 0,22-0,87 permaneceram associadas significativamente com o uso de drogas ilícitas. Os adolescentes que residiam em áreas menos vulneráveis mostraram maior probabilidade de uso de drogas ilícitas, quando comparados aos jovens em áreas mais vulneráveis. As amizades baseadas em religião e esportes/cultura parecem ter um efeito protetor contra o uso de drogas ilícitas. A heterogeneidade de gênero dentro de grupos e a residência em áreas menos vulneráveis aumentaram as chances de uso de drogas ilícitas por adolescentes.

  14. Il secondo principio

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    L'asimmetria della Natura ; l'indicatore di una trasformazione ; scivolando verso il caos ; la quantificazione del caos ; la potenzialità del caos ; le trasformazioni del caos ; il dominio della temperatura ; caos costtrutivo ; le strutture del caos.

  15. L'internet nouveau est dans les "starting-blocks"

    CERN Multimedia

    Jennotte, A

    2001-01-01

    De nombreux chercheurs trouvent internet trop lent et limité. C'est pourquoi, ils travaillent sur un nouveau réseau : le Grid. Le Grid permettra de mieux partager les ressources informatiques en réseau (1 page).

  16. AcEST: BP917685 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ra... 262 7e-69 tr|Q1PWY3|Q1PWY3_9BACT Strongly similar to ATP-dependent proteas... 262 7e-69 tr|B5IL34...|B5IL34_9CHRO ATP-dependent chaperone ClpB OS=Cyanobium... 262 7e-69 >tr|Q9LF37|Q9LF37

  17. EST2Prot: Mapping EST sequences to proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin David M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EST libraries are used in various biological studies, from microarray experiments to proteomic and genetic screens. These libraries usually contain many uncharacterized ESTs that are typically ignored since they cannot be mapped to known genes. Consequently, new discoveries are possibly overlooked. Results We describe a system (EST2Prot that uses multiple elements to map EST sequences to their corresponding protein products. EST2Prot uses UniGene clusters, substring analysis, information about protein coding regions in existing DNA sequences and protein database searches to detect protein products related to a query EST sequence. Gene Ontology terms, Swiss-Prot keywords, and protein similarity data are used to map the ESTs to functional descriptors. Conclusion EST2Prot extends and significantly enriches the popular UniGene mapping by utilizing multiple relations between known biological entities. It produces a mapping between ESTs and proteins in real-time through a simple web-interface. The system is part of the Biozon database and is accessible at http://biozon.org/tools/est/.

  18. Hypnose : que se passe-t-il dans le cerveau ?

    OpenAIRE

    Touzet , Claude

    2017-01-01

    The Conversation; L'hypnose est un état de "transe" imposé au sujet qui permet d'obtenir de celui-ci qu'il se conforme aux suggestions qui lui sont faites indépendamment de leur véracité. Par exemple, le sujet n'éprouve pas de douleur alors même que nous savons que ce qu'il subit est douloureux.

  19. galaxieEST: addressing EST identity through automated phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R Henrik; Rajashekar, Balaji; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Ursing, Björn M

    2004-07-05

    Research involving expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is intricately coupled to the existence of large, well-annotated sequence repositories. Comparatively complete and satisfactory annotated public sequence libraries are, however, available only for a limited range of organisms, rendering the absence of sequences and gene structure information a tangible problem for those working with taxa lacking an EST or genome sequencing project. Paralogous genes belonging to the same gene family but distinguished by derived characteristics are particularly prone to misidentification and erroneous annotation; high but incomplete levels of sequence similarity are typically difficult to interpret and have formed the basis of many unsubstantiated assumptions of orthology. In these cases, a phylogenetic study of the query sequence together with the most similar sequences in the database may be of great value to the identification process. In order to facilitate this laborious procedure, a project to employ automated phylogenetic analysis in the identification of ESTs was initiated. galaxieEST is an open source Perl-CGI script package designed to complement traditional similarity-based identification of EST sequences through employment of automated phylogenetic analysis. It uses a series of BLAST runs as a sieve to retrieve nucleotide and protein sequences for inclusion in neighbour joining and parsimony analyses; the output includes the BLAST output, the results of the phylogenetic analyses, and the corresponding multiple alignments. galaxieEST is available as an on-line web service for identification of fungal ESTs and for download / local installation for use with any organism group at http://galaxie.cgb.ki.se/galaxieEST.html. By addressing sequence relatedness in addition to similarity, galaxieEST provides an integrative view on EST origin and identity, which may prove particularly useful in cases where similarity searches return one or more pertinent, but not full, matches and

  20. Viva il GIS Day!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Redazione

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Il GIS Day è sponsorizzato oltre che da ESRI, dalla National Geographic Society, dalla Association of American Geographers, dalla UCGIS (University Consortium for Geographic Information Science, dalla United States Geological Survey e dalla Library of Congress. Il tutto nasce nel corso della Geography Awareness Week, terza settimana di novembre che nel 1987 il Presidente degli Stati Uniti Ronald Reagan stabilì dovesse essere dedicata alla diffusione della cultura geografica.

  1. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  2. 1 1) Pourquoi est-ce que je ne parviens pas à ouvrir les formulaires ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Faites vos calculs avec soin car votre demande pourrait ne pas être admissible.) 6) Existe-t-il une liste de pays admissibles dans lesquels mon établissement ou organisme est autorisé à travailler ou à avoir des partenaires ? Non, le CRDI n'a rien de tel; cependant, il ne soutient des travaux que dans les pays à faible.

  3. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  4. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Cardiovascular Associated Complications in HIV. Positive Zambians before ... compare plasma levels of IL-6 in HIV positive and. HIV negative .... cancer. Results from this study showed that IL-6 levels in. HIV positive ART naive individuals were significantly higher than in the HIV positive individuals on ART. Our findings ...

  5. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold-Petry, C.A.; Rudloff, I.; Baumer, Y.; Ruvo, M.; Marasco, D.; Botti, P.; Farkas, L.; Cho, S.X.; Zepp, J.A.; Azam, T.; Dinkel, H.; Palmer, B.E.; Boisvert, W.A.; Cool, C.D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, L.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Voelkel, N.F.; Nold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we

  6. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  7. A era MTV: análise da estética de videoclipe (1984- 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Michele Kapp

    2011-01-01

    Uma das mais importantes evoluções registradas no reino da cena musical de massas foi o aparecimento do fenômeno videoclipe. Trata-se de um formato audiovisual que modificou a maneira de “ver” a musica. Porém, foi a emissora Music Television, criada na década de 80, que deu a este a devida importância, tornando-se referencia de uma estética. Assim, o presente trabalho objetiva analisar a estética de videoclipe durante a era MTV, a partir da observação dos vídeos premiados nas principais categ...

  8. Il Bosone di Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Poster di ATLAS sul bosone di Higgs indirizzato al pubblico generico, che spiega il meccanismo di Brout-Englert-Higgs e la sua importanza. Spiega anche il ruolo del Bosone di Higgs, come viene cercato, il percorso della sua scoperta e cosa viene dopo la scoperta. Disponibile anche in Francese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501) e Inglese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697389). Non esitate a utilizzarlo nelle sedi dei vostri Istituti e negli eventi divulgativi! Il poster è in formato A0. Cliccate sull'immagine per scaricare il .pdf ad alta qualità e stamparlo dove preferite. Per qualisasi domanda o commento potete contattare atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch

  9. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  10. Il corpo narratore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Gamelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Sapere cosa provo attraverso il mio corpo di fronte all’altro mi permette non solo di capire cosa l'altro prova, soprattutto di generare naturalmente un’effettiva sintonizzazione, di evidenziare e nominare emozioni e sentimenti che in-formano la relazione con quel particolare bambino, adolescente o adulto che sia. Il rapporto con il linguaggio del corpo, prima ancora di divenire pratica psicopedagogica, è una 'pedagogia dell'esistenza'. Una pratica della nostra quotidianità che possiamo affinare oltre e prima che essa diventi pratica psicopedagogica.

  11. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  12. Il Primo Dizionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne G. de Boer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recensione e commento a: Il Primo Dizionario italiano-olandese/Het Eerste Woordenboek Nederlands-Italiaans, Amsterdam 1672/2014, a cura di Vincenzo Lo Cascio. Amstelveen: Fondazione

  13. AcEST: DK948090 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erase A OS=Aspergillus tubingen... 50 1e-05 sp|P0C1S9|DGLB_RAT Sn1-specific diacy...|P47145|YJ77_YEAST Putative lipase YJR107W OS=Saccharomyces ce... 50 8e-06 sp|O42815|FAEA_ASPTU Feruloyl est

  14. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  15. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33 and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Farahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR, mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interleukin (IL-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33 in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

  16. AcEST: BP921475 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id O35902 Definition sp|O35902|DSG3_MOUSE Desmoglein-3 OS=Mus musculus Al...gnificant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O35902|DSG3_MOUSE Desmoglein-3 OS=Mus musculus GN=Dsg3 PE=2 SV=1 31 2....2 sp|Q29IL2|POMT2_DROPS Protein O-mannosyl-transferase 2 OS=Drosop... 30 4.8 >sp|O35902|DSG3_MOUSE Desmog

  17. Avaliação da expressão de interleucina 1 beta (IL-1β e antagonista do receptor de interleucina 1 (IL-1Ra em pacientes com hanseníase Evaluation of the expression of interleukin 1 beta(IL-1β and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A hanseníase é uma doença infectocontagiosa espectral que acompanha-se por uma série de eventos imunológicos desencadeados pela resposta do hospedeiro frente ao agente etiológico, o Mycobacterium leprae. Evidências sugerem que a indução e manutenção da resposta imune/inflamatória na hanseníase estão vinculadas a interações de múltiplas células e fatores solúveis, particularmente através da ação de citocinas. Nesse estudo, foram mensurados níveis de IL-1β e IL-1Ra de 37 casos novos de hanseníase acompanhados ao longo do tratamento e 30 controles sadios pelo teste ELISA. A coleta de sangue periférico foi realizada em quatro tempos para os casos de hanseníase (pré-tratamento com PQT, 2ª dose, 6ª dose e pós-PQT e em único momento para os controles. Na comparação dos níveis das moléculas de casos no pré-PQT e controles, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa somente para IL-1β. Nossos resultados sugerem a participação dessa citocina no processo imune/inflamatório.Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host's response to the etiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae. Evidence suggests that the induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, mainly through the action of cytokines. The ELISA test was used to measure the levels of IL-1β and IL-1Ra in 37 new leprosy patients followed-up during treatment and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood was collected four times during the treatment of leprosy patients (MDT pretreatment, 2nd dose, 6th dose and post-MDT, and only once from the controls. The comparison of molecular levels in pre-MDT patients and controls showed a statistically significant difference for IL-1β. The results suggest the participation of this cytokine in the genesis of the immune/inflammatory process.

  18. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between free radical generation, interleukins (IL-6 & IL-8), apoptotic marker soluble Fas (sFas), and the level of ... IL-6, IL-8 and sFas whereas serum fatty acid revealed that Linoleicacid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly decreased in the studied cases .

  19. Il corpo della strega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Come già evidenziato a proposito di altre pratiche, il sabba, attività ludica profana, religiosa, conferiva a ciascuno la possibilità di giocare efficacemente con la dinamica di un mondo da cui emergeva una figura archetipica, la strega, principale attore di questa danza in tondo. Il sabba era, dunque, uno dei luoghi ove si cristallizzavano le figure del proibito, questo per il suo carattere sacro, per la violenza istituzionale che presiedeva alla formazione dei rapporti sociali, e conferiva anche, per le caratteristiche di protesta che rivela, un'immagine sempre esaltante della capacità delle società a resistere. Il problema della nostra epoca ove rifioriscono le streghe nelle più svariate forme è, forse, quello di riallacciarsi con la dimensione gruppale dei nostri svaghi, nelle loro differenti forme e, contemporaneamente, con perdita di energia, a quanto presiedeva ai sabba e alla loro risoluzione sacrificale. In contro-corrente ai modelli meccanici che assegnano dei limiti precisi e funzionali ai corpi asserviti ad un ideale di controllo, il corpo sabbatico con la sua enfasi sulle posizioni limite (ciò che si rimproverava d'altronde alle streghe, era veramente corpo mistico.

  20. IL-17 for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschus, Florian C; Moos, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    The cytokine IL-17 is now a target for an array of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies supposed to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. The forerunner Secukinumab, an IL-17A neutralizing antibody, is meanwhile approved as first-line treatments for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and as second-line treatment for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ixekizumab and Brodalumab, both also targeting the IL-17 pathway, were also recently approved by the FDA for plaque psoriasis. Using mice overexpressing IL-17A in a tissue of choice, we showed that the ectopic expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes resulted in a spontaneous and very strong form of psoriasis-like dermatitis. Interestingly, this model showed some typical comorbidities found in humans with psoriasis. In this review, we will discuss why IL-17 is a good target especially in psoriasis and what we learned from mouse models about its functions in pathological situations. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  2. Comportamento anti-inflamatório da IL-6 nos derrames pleurais pós-revascularização do miocárdio*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M.S. Chibante

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: O comportamento pleural pós-cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (PCRM não está devidamente esclarecido em relação à resposta infla-matória local e requer maior interesse por ser uma observação constante e ainda pouco estudada.Objectivo: Avaliar o comportamento de algumas citocinas, em especial o possível papel anti-inflamatório da IL-6 (proteína envolvida na síntese da cortisona, no líquido pleural PCRM, uma vez que a sua actividade pró-inflamatória é constantemente referida, assim como o seu papel de citocina de fase de resposta aguda ao lado do TNF-α e da IL-1β nos processos inflamatórios agudos.Casuística e método: foram estudadas e analisadas pelo método ELISA as citocinas TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF e TGF-β em 16 transudatos e 43 exsudatos de líquido pleural em três tempos da fase aguda (2, 24 e 48 horas PCRM no Instituto do Coração e Serviço de Pneumologia da USP – Brasil.Resultados: Tanto o TNF-α como IL-2 não sofre-ram qualquer tipo de elevação dos seus níveis enquanto os da IL-1β só se elevaram a partir das 24 horas, o que coincidiu com a queda da curva da citocina anti-infla-matória TGF-β, que desde o início foi caindo flagran-temente até aos valores dos transudatos. A IL-8 perma-neceu elevada nas três fases e o VEGF foi ascendendo os seus níveis, que permaneceram estáveis nas 24 e 48 horas seguintes. A IL-6 mostrou-se em concentrações elevadas desde o início, apresentando-se como a úni-ca citocina com potencial anti-inflamatório durante as três fases de avaliação.Conclusões: Concluímos que a citocina IL-6 parece ter papel anti-inflamatório de destaque e superior ao TGF-β nos derrames pleurais PCRM e que o seu comportamento desarticula, pelo menos neste tipo de derrame, a ideia de citocina pr

  3. Dostoevskij e il sillogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Peace

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta di seguito la prima traduzione italiana del saggio di Richard Peace Dostoevsky and the Syllogism, pubblicato in lingua originale nel volume IX (2005 della collana Dostoevsky Studies, New Series. Il saggio è dedicato alla rielaborazione del sillogismo aristotelico da parte dei personaggi dostoevskiani nell’ambito del dibattito fra le due principali correnti filosofiche della Russia ottocentesca: l’ «occidentalismo» e lo «slavofilismo». Peace evidenzia come Dostoevskij miri a dimostrare che il ragionamento sillogistico sia estraneo alla forma mentis russa attraverso i fallimenti argomentativi dei suoi «ideofori»

  4. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  5. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 286 - DD Form 2086-1, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Data”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2086-1, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Dataâ D Appendix D to Part 286 National Defense Department of... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. D Appendix D to Part 286—DD Form 2086-1...

  7. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  8. Il Raffrescamento per Ventilazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    termicamente e sempre più a tenuta d'aria. Tali misure hanno consentito indubbiamente di ridurre la domanda energetica per il riscaldamento invernale, ma hanno determinato delle crescenti problematiche di surriscaldamento dell'ambiente interno. Molti degli edifici ad alta efficienza energeti-ca di nuova...

  9. Helping You Buy ILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  10. Il pericolo degli ebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I libri stampati: si possono acquistare anonimamente in contanti; quindi se ne è proprietari: non dobbiamo firmare una licenza che ne restringe l’uso: il loro formato è noto e per leggerli non occorrono tecnologie proprietarie; si possono dare, prestare o...

  11. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  12. IL-6/IL-12 Cytokine Receptor Shuffling of Extra- and Intracellular Domains Reveals Canonical STAT Activation via Synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, D M; Schönberg, M; Franke, M; Horstmeier, F C; Engelowski, E; Schneider, A; Rosenfeldt, E M; Scheller, J

    2017-11-09

    IL-35 and IL-39 are recently discovered shared members of the IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine family with immune-suppressive capacity. IL-35 has been reported to induce the formation of four different receptor complexes: gp130:IL-12β2, gp130:gp130, IL-12β2:IL-12β2, and IL-12β2:WSX-1. IL-39 was proposed to form a gp130:IL-23R receptor complex. IL-35, but not IL-39, has been reported to activate non-conventional STAT signaling, depending on the receptor complex and target cell. Analyses of IL-35 and IL-39 are, however, hampered by the lack of biologically active recombinant IL-35 and IL-39 proteins. Therefore, we engineered chimeric cytokine receptors to accomplish synthetic IL-35 and IL- 39 signaling by shuffling the extra- and intracellular domains of IL-6/IL-12-type cytokine receptors, resulting in biological activity for all previously described IL-35 receptor complexes. Moreover, we found that the proposed IL-39 receptor complex is biologically active and discovered two additional biologically active synthetic receptor combinations, gp130/IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R/IL-12Rβ2. Surprisingly, synthetic IL-35 activation led to more canonical STAT signaling of all receptor complexes. In summary, our receptor shuffling approach highlights an interchangeable, modular domain structure among IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine receptors and enabled synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 signaling.

  13. IL-22R Ligands IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 Promote Wound Healing in Diabetic db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Wu, Xiumin; Lee, Wyne P; Hackney, Jason A; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Gandham, Vineela; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Arora, Puneet; Wang, Xiaoting; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, when compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU.

  14. La Comunità Energetica del Sud Est Europa quale fattore di stabilità nell’area Balcanica

    OpenAIRE

    Massari, Saverio Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Il lavoro cerca di valutare il possibile ruolo della Comunità Energetica del Sud Est Europa quale fattore di stabilita’ nell’area Balcanica. Il Trattato fondativo della Comunita’ assegna a questa l’obiettivo di condurre una cooperazione in campo energetico al fine diffondere istituzioni e normative condivise, quali elementi di superamento del conflitto: tuttavia, sono molti gli ostacoli posti su questo cammino sia di natura interna alla regione che esterna, per l’influenza di fattori e poter...

  15. Relato de estágio práticas pedagógicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenir Guedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado final do estágio de regência na Educação Infantil, que foi realizado no CMEI Clara Teixeira, que está situada na Avenida das Sibipirunas, no Bairro Jardim Primaveras, no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso. O estágio foi realizado em tempo integral, no mês de Maio de 2011, contando com uma carga horária de 60 horas práticas. Cumprindo as normas do Curso de Pedagogia da Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT – campus de Sinop e a ementa da disciplina do Estágio Curricular Supervisionado na Educação Infantil II. Desenvolvemos um plano de aula, seguindo planejamento bimestral proposto pela Professora regente da sala, tendo fundamentação teórica.Palavras-chave: educador; educando; prática.

  16. Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. Telles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 clusters.O método de clustering adotado no Projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project tinha vários problemas (muitos clusters, presença de seqüências de ribossomo etc. Nós assumimos a tarefa de reprojetar todo o processo de clustering, propondo uma "limpeza" inicial mais cuidadosa das seqüências. Neste artigo as estratégias de limpeza das seqüências e de clustering são descritas em detalhe, incluindo os números oficiais do projeto (237,954 ESTs e 43,141 clusters.

  17. Prime note sulla tutela penale dei culti nei Paesi dell’Est Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimbalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Testo della relazione tenuta al Convegno “La Carta e la Corte” (Ferrara, 27 ottobre 2007 destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti. SOMMARIO: 1. Alcune considerazioni preliminari sullo status delle Confessioni religiose nei paesi dell’Est Europa - 2. I nuovi orientamenti del diritto penale nell’Est Europa - 3. Le norme statali in materia di tutela penale dei culti e del sentimento religioso. 3. Le norme penali relative ai culti e a al sentimento religioso prima del 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 4. Tipologie e tecniche legislative di tutela penale dei culti dopo il 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 5. Alcune sommarie considerazioni.

  18. Relatório de estágio

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira, Paulo Alexandre Narciso

    2010-01-01

    O presente relatório foi desenvolvido com a intenção de satisfazer um dos últimos requisitos do Mestrado em Enfermagem com Especialização em Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria (MESMP) da Universidade Católica Portuguesa (UCP), permitindo a obtenção da pós-licenciatura de especialização em Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria (ESMP) e após discussão pública, do Mestrado em Enfermagem. Este estágio encontra-se dividido em três módulos, nos quais se procurou atingir os objectivos e...

  19. Il nucleo terrestre: il cuore magnetico della Terra

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Il campo magnetico terrestre è una proprietà intrinseca del nostro pianeta e di altri oggetti del sistema solare. Il Sole stesso possiede un forte campo magnetico che si inverte quasi ciclicamente ogni 10-11 anni; tale comportamento è visibile attraverso la medesima ciclicità delle macchie solari che denotano sulla superficie l’intensa attività magnetica della nostra stella. Il campo magnetico terrestre è importantissimo per la vita sulla Terra. Esso protegge il pianeta dalle p...

  20. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  1. Quando a conversão ao Cristianismo não foi o suficiente. O caso dos judeus-conversos espanhóis

    OpenAIRE

    Follador, Kellen Jacobsen

    2009-01-01

    Desde o surgimento do Cristianismo, os judeus sofreram restrições diversas dentro da sociedade cristã. Durante a Idade Média o conflito judaico-cristão se acirrou e por vários momentos os judeus foram perseguidos, convertidos ao Cristianismo ou mortos. Apesar de esses acontecimentos se repetirem por toda a Cristandade, foi na Península Ibérica, reduto secular de comunidades judaicas, que os conflitos se intensificaram. Quando as conversões não mais conseguiram resolver a questão judaico-crist...

  2. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    compared with saline infusion. In addition, C-reactive protein increased 3 h post-rhIL-6 infusion and was further elevated 16 h later compared with saline infusion. rhIL-6 induced increased levels of plasma cortisol and, consequently, an increase in circulating neutrophils and a decrease in the lymphocyte......-alpha, enhances the levels not only of IL-1ra but also of IL-10. Furthermore, IL-6 induces an increase in cortisol and, consequently, in neutrocytosis and late lymphopenia to the same magnitude and with the same kinetics as during exercise, suggesting that muscle-derived IL-6 has a central role in exercise...

  3. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  4. O uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas em escolares do ensino médio (um estudo de caso)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Simone André de

    2013-01-01

    O uso de drogas, em escala mundial, constitui um dos grandes problemas que afligem a sociedade contemporânea e é visto como um dos fatores de risco mais comum na adolescência. Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a prevalência do consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas entre os escolares do ensino médio de uma escola pública de Samambaia – DF. A amostra foi composta por 213 estudantes do ensino médio (1°, 2° e 3° ano) de uma escola pública de Samambaia – DF, destes 53,5% eram do sexo feminin...

  5. Mimesis e il giallo

    OpenAIRE

    Minne de Boer

    2015-01-01

    Recensione di: Ilaria Marzia Orsini, Donne in giallo: la detective story tra genere e gender, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere – USB Ultra Slim Books, 2014, 128 p., ISBN: 97888575245680, € 11,00. Bruna Durante, Specchio delle mie trame: la vita secondo dieci scrittori italiani. Con interviste a Eraldo Baldini, Gianni Biondillo, Giancarlo De Cataldo, Giorgio Faletti, Marcello Fois, Carlo Lucarelli, Raul Montanari, Santo Piazzese, Andrea G. Pinketts, Gaetano Savatteri, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGen...

  6. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'ultimo decennio gli straordinari sforzi tecnologici hanno evoluto il settore geomatico e portato enormi vantaggi nell'ambito dei cosiddetti servizi a valore aggiunto. Tuttavia la svalutazione commerciale del sistema di navigazione satellitare ha fatto del navigatore un oggetto di uso comune, quasi alla pari del più quotato telefono cellulare. Scemata la corsa al cellulare più modaiolo è subentrata quella al navigatore satellitare più tecnologico con cartografia e punti di interesse più aggiornati. E' assai frequente trovare commercializzazioni degli operatori di telefonia che unisconoal dispositivo mobile il sistema di navigazione, grazie anche apolitiche di businness agreement tra le varie major. L'utilizzo dei dispositivi GPS è davvero ancora arenato alla semplice ricerca di un percorso o di un indirizzo da raggiungere? L'usodi tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  7. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  8. Boson de Higgs: il est la pierre ultime de l'édifice

    CERN Multimedia

    Grousson, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    On the paper, the Higgs boson saved the standard model! But more than forty years after its inventin, this particle remains imperceptible. Not for a long time any more? the researchers have now a portrait more and more precise. (7 pages)

  9. Et le pouce, où est-il, qui montrera vers le ciel? (Sonnet XXXII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Pintarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lʼarticle soumet à une brève analyse les Sonnets romains dʼAndrej Capuder, homme de politique, diplomate, professeur dʼuniversité, écrivain, traducteur et poète. Le passé et le souvenir mélancolique de lʼamour de jeunesse, lʼavenir et la rencontre prochaine avec Dieu, entre lʼun et lʼautre, tant de choses si terrestres, tantôt jugées avec sévérité, tantôt tolérées et tantôt même rendues complices.

  10. Deafness memories in Antonio Lobo Antunes’ chronicles “O surdo” (1998 and “Não foi com certeza assim mas faz de conta” (2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gomes Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to analyze some images and meanings attributed to deafness in two chronicles of Portuguese writer António Lobo Antunes: “Não foi com certeza assim mas faz de conta” (2002 and “O surdo” (1998. We are also interested in the type of creation of these texts, drawing a parallel with the kind of reflection developed in some writings of Walter Benjamin, basically in “One-way street” and “Berlin childhood”. In both authors, the fictional production is linked to the issue of memory, taking as its starting point the contact with a seemingly simple everyday object. Finally, we emphasize the discussion of the normalization of bodies, based on the issue of not hearing and how it is socially perceived.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22409/abriluff.2017n18a369

  11. Il bilinguismo disegnato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  12. Estrabismo após toxina botulínica para fins estéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Halfeld Ferrari Alves Lacordia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nas últimas décadas, a toxina botulínica tem sido aplicada para fins terapêuticos em inúmeras afecções. A toxina do tipo A foi aprovada primeiramente em 1989 para o uso em estrabismo, blefaroespasmo e espasmo hemifacial de pacientes maiores que 12 anos de idade. A observação de que pacientes tratados de blefaroespasmo com toxina botulínica apresentavam um efeito adicional de diminuição das rugas de expressão inspirou estudos sobre a aplicação cosmética da toxina. Recentemente, a toxina botulínica do tipo A foi aprovada para fins estéticos. Este trabalho relata um caso de ocorrência de estrabismo após aplicação de toxina botulínica na face para fins estéticos.

  13. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Congjiang; Li Fen; Zhang Lei; Liu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 levels were determined with RIA and IL-18 levels with ELISA in 32 patients with chronic renal diseases both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum IL -6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After 6 months of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Levels of serum IL-6, IL- 8, IL-10 and IL-18 increased significantly in patients with chronic renal diseases, especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  14. O dedo em baioneta e o uso de drogas ilícitas

    OpenAIRE

    Borini,Paulo

    2001-01-01

    A prevalência do "dedo em baioneta", sinal semiológico do distúrbio de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (DHDA), foi determinada em pacientes do sexo masculino usuários de drogas ilícitas, internados em hospital psiquiátrico. Grupo controle, pareado quanto ao sexo, idade e classe social, foi selecionado da população geral. O sinal foi observado em 165/345 (47,8%) dos usuários de drogas e 13/50 (26%) dos controles, a diferença sendo estatisticamente significativa. Os portadores da anormalida...

  15. Internalization of interleukin 1 (IL 1) correlates with IL 1-induced IL 2 receptor expression and IL 2 secretion of EL4 thymoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Von Hoegen, I.; Falk, Werner; Kojouharoff, G.; Krammer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL 1) plays an important role in the induction of IL 2 secretion and high-affinity IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) expression by T cells. The events that follow binding of IL 1 to IL 1R, however, are still unknown. In this study we describe two variants of the murine thymoma EL4 (5D3 and D6/76) that express comparable numbers of cell surface IL 1 receptors and bind IL 1 with the same affinity, but show distinct IL 1-dependent IL 2 secretion and IL 2R expression. In the prese...

  16. Il danno alla persona del lavoratore: il mobbing orizzontale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gentile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sommario:1. Il mobbing tra diritto civile e diritto del lavoro – 2. Il fenomeno mobbing: gli studi iniziali e la definizione – 3. Le concrete condotte integranti fattispecie di mobbing – 4. Onere della prova – 5. Il mobbing orizzontale – 6. L’elemento soggettivo di colpevolezza del da­tore di lavoro nella responsabilità ex art. 2087 c.c. per mobbing orizzontale

  17. En quoi est-ce que cela aidera Veronica ? | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Uganda Post and Telecoms Ltd (UPTL), société d'État. C'est à peu près à ce moment qu'il a accepté le poste de directeur exécutif de la Commission des communications de l'Ouganda (UCC), premier organe indépendant de ...

  18. Lorsque la recherche locale est source de changements véritables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 févr. 2011 ... Les think tanks africains se penchent sur certaines des difficultés les plus ... Lorsque la recherche locale est source de changements véritables en Afrique ... De quel type d'information les acteurs de la sphère politique ont-ils ...

  19. Il bizzarro mondo dei quanti

    CERN Document Server

    Camejo, Silvia Arroyo

    2008-01-01

    Scritto prima dell'esame di maturità da una giovane di eccezionale talento, questo libro colma il vuoto esistente tra la letteratura divulgativa sulla fisica quantistica, che normalmente evita ogni formula matematica, e la letteratura specialistica, ben farcita, invece, di matematica avanzata. L'autrice, appena diciannovenne, con l'ausilio della sola matematica della scuola superiore, introduce il lettore ai principi della fisica dei quanti. Se ne ricava uno sguardo profondo sul microcosmo, il regno affascinante delle particelle elementari: oggetti il cui comportamento si distingue in modo drastico e fondamentale da tutto ciò a cui è avvezzo il nostro umano buonsenso. "Un libro... che avrei desiderato avere a 17 anni". Silvia Arroyo Camejo "In modo assolutamente preciso dal punto di vista fisico, l'autrice spiega con grande passione e divertimento i fondamenti della moderna fisica quantistica ... " Prof. Reinhold A. Bertlmann "Un libro stupefacente di un'autrice straordinaria! Si avverte il suo entusiasmo ...

  20. Il paesaggio dell’architettura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zermani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available l saggio si articola come un’itinerario tra alcuni progetti italiani proposti come “occasioni di applicazione di un modo d’intendere l’architettura nel rapporto con il paesaggio smarrito, che cambia, ma potrebbe custodire ancora i valori di ciò che Heidegger definiva il “soggiorno”: la riconoscibilità intesa come misura”. Le architetture, come strumenti di conoscenza dello spazio, entrano nel paesaggio per diventarne speciali “misuratori”.Partendo dai luoghi del paesaggio padano, Noceto, con il Nuovo Municipio, con la minimale Cappella della Madonna, con il Padiglione privato, e Varano, con la Casa dal grande occhio spalancato sul bosco, alle terre umbre, con la Chiesa ed il Centro Parrocchiale di Perugia ed il Cimitero di Sansepolcro, si propone un percorso di ricerca di una identità dell’architettura italiana contemporanea nella dimensione paesaggistica. 

  1. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    di tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  2. Il cumulo dei redditi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. BARATTIERI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available L’imposizione dei redditi familiari è diffusa nella maggior parte dei paesi sviluppati, seppure con varianti profondamente diverse per mitigare l’onere. La tassazione separata è in vigore solo in Canada, Grecia e Nuova Zelanda, on chè , tra i paesi latini, in Argentina. Non sempre però la tassazione separata risulta più favorevole, in quanto alcune forme peculiari del cumulo, quali “splitting” ed il quoziente familiare, consentono un trattamento preferenziale per le famiglie rispetto ai nn coniugati. I vantaggi del quoziente familiare sono ancora maggiori , specie per le famiglie numerose, e questo sembra anacronistico in un momento in cui vi è larga convergenza d’opinioni sull’opportunità di non incoraggiare l’espansione demografica.

  3. Il fiore e la pietra

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Debora

    2012-01-01

    Il fiore e la pietra è un progetto di scultura urbana per una piazza della città di Torino. Il tema trae la sua prima ispirazione dal fumetto B.C. di Johnny Hart: un fragile fiore dialoga con una pietra. Lʼambiguità tra solidità e fragilità è simbolicamente accostata alla situazione avversa in cui si trova lʼindustria torinese per eccellenza, FIAT, e al problema dei quartieri dormitori. Il contesto nel quale venne realizzato il progetto è tuttora sintomatico di una situazione ...

  4. Role of periostin, FENO, IL-13, lebrikzumab, other IL-13 antagonist and dual IL-4/IL-13 antagonist in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Swati; Townley, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity, absences from work or school and hospitalizations. Patients with severe asthma which are not controlled despite taking effective therapy are most in need of new treatment approaches. IL-13 was demonstrated as 'central mediator of allergic asthma'. IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. IL-13 levels in the sputum and bronchial biopsy samples remain elevated in severe asthma despite the use of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids. Thus, IL-13 is a mediator involved in corticosteroid resistance. Periostin enhances profibrotic TGF-β signaling in subepithelial fibrosis associated with asthma. IL-13 induces bronchial epithelial cells to secrete periostin. Periostin may be a biomarker for Th2 induced airway inflammation. Lebrikizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-13. Lebrikizumab improved lung function in asthmatics who were symptomatic despite treatment with long acting beta agonist and inhaled corticosteroids and provided benefit in the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma. Lebrikizumab block IL-13 signaling through the IL-13Rα1/IL-4Rα receptor. There was a larger reduction in FENO in the high periostin subgroup than in the low periostin subgroup (34.4 vs 4.3%). Serum CCL17, CCL13 and total IgE levels decreased in the lebrikizumab group.

  5. IL-5 and IL-5 receptor in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATC Kotsimbos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils, along with mast cells are key cells involved in the innate immune response against parasitic infection whereas the adaptive immune response is largely dependent on lymphocytes. In chronic parasitic disease and in chronic allergic disease, IL-5 is predominantly a T cell derived cytokine which is particularly important for the terminal differentiation, activation and survival of committed eosinophil precursors. The human IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 5 in a gene cluster that contains the evolutionary related IL-4 family of cytokine genes. The human IL-5 receptor complex is a heterodimer consisting of a unique a subunit (predominantly expressed on eosinophils and a beta subunit which is shared between the receptors for IL-3 & GM-CSF (more widely expressed. The a subunit is required for ligand-specific binding whereas association with the beta subunit results in increased binding affinity. The alternative splicing of the alphaIL-5R gene which contains 14 exons can yield several alphaIL-5R isoforms including a membrane-anchored isoform (alphaIL-5Rm and a soluble isoform (alphaIL-5Rs. Cytokines such as IL-5 produce specific and non-specific cellular responses through specific cell membrane receptor mediated activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways which, to a large part, regulate gene expression. The major intracellular signal transduction mechanism is activation of non-receptor associated tyrosine kinases including JAK and MAP kinases which can then transduce signals via a novel family of transcriptional factors named signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATS. JAK2, STAT1 and STAT 5 appear to be particularly important in IL-5 mediated eosinophil responses. Asthma is characterized by episodic airways obstruction, increased bronchial responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Several studies have shown an association between the number of activated T cells and eosinophils in the airways and abnormalities

  6. The changes of IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in serum of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Liu Deyi; Hou Guihua; Wang Haodan

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship and the clinical significance between the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in patients with asthma, the serum IL-8, IL-10 are measured by radioimmunoassay method and the serum IL-12, IgE by ELISA in 55 patients with asthma. The level of serum IL-8, IgE at stage of episode are significantly higher than that at stage of remission (P<0.01); the level of serum IL-10, IL-12 at stage of episode are significantly lower than that at stage of remission (P<0.01). Linear regression shows that the decrease of IL-12 relate to the increase of IgE. The results suggests that the change of the level of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE could be a maker for the aggravation of asthma

  7. Study on the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenjing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels were measured with RIA in 38 patients with diabetic nephrosis and 36 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephrosis than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephrosis. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the disease. (authors)

  8. Análise Comparativa do Equilíbrio Quase Estático entre Praticantes de Muay-Thai de Diferentes Níveis de Aprendizado

    OpenAIRE

    Brigida, Patricia Aparecida; Possamai, Fernando; Nascimento Júnior, José Roberto Andrade do; Jacob, Weslei; Oliveira, Daniel Vicentini de

    2016-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar o equilíbrio quase estático de praticantes de Muay-Thai de diferentes níveis de aprendizado. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, no qual a amostra foi constituída de 20 praticantes de Muay-Thai, sendo 10 do Grupo Iniciante e 10 do Grupo Avançado de aprendizagem da modalidade. O instrumento utilizado para a coleta de dados foi a plataforma de força da marca EMG System do Brasil, modelo Biomec 4000. O protocolo aplicado foi a Estabilometria. Cad...

  9. De la chair imbibée de foi : la viande comme marqueur de la frontière entre chrétiens et musulmans en Éthiopie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éloi Ficquet

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamais en Éthiopie un chrétien et un musulman ne mangent de viande ensemble. Consommer de la viande qui n’a pas été consacrée à sa propre foi est appréhendé comme un acte hautement sacrilège équivalent à une apostasie. Cet interdit doit être compris dans une perspective comparative large sur les pratiques et les débats qui restreignent la commensalité de la viande entre les chrétiens et les musulmans. Les usages éthiopiens ont accentué cette question pour en faire un interdit puissant, marqueur d’une frontière interreligieuse. Comme toute frontière, cette « frontière carnée » a été le lieu de confrontations, d’aménagements et de transgressions dont les effets ont contribué à la construction de l’espace national éthiopien contemporain.Christians and Muslims in Ethiopia never eat meat together. Consuming meat that was not consecrated to one’s faith is seen as a highly sacrilegious act equal to apostasy. This interdict must be understood in comparative perspective that looks at the restrictions regarding the sharing of meat between Christians and Muslims. Ethiopian customs have emphasized this issue to turn it into a powerful interdict, tracing an inter-religious boundary. Like any boundary, this “dietary boundary” has been the site of confrontations, readjustments and transgressions whose effects have contributed to the building of a contemporary Ethiopian national space.

  10. IL CAMPO GEOMAGNETICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MOLINA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro non è un trattato sul campo geomagnetico e nemmeno
    una rassegna sull'argomento, almeno nel significato che normalmente
    si attribuisce al termine « rassegna »; esso è semplicemente
    un tentativo di condensare in termini comprensibili agli studiosi non
    specializzati ciò che oggi si sa o si ipotizza sul magnetismo terrestre
    e sulle sue cause. Chi scrive si è sempre trovato a disagio di fronte
    alle richieste di una spiegazione sull'origine del campo magnetico
    terrestre: o si cerca di cavarsela con poche parole (« si tratta di correnti
    elettriche indotte nell'interno della Terra » che possono forse accontentare
    chi non si occupa in modo particolare di problemi scientifici
    ma non possono soddisfare un fisico, oppure ci si sente obbligati a
    tentare faticosamente di approfondire, sia per capirli personalmente
    che per poterli poi spiegare agli altri, argomenti e ragionamenti che
    sono in realtà accessibili solo a un fisico teorico ben preparato. Apparentemente
    non esiste una via di mezzo, come del resto in molti altri
    campi della fisica contemporanea.
    La presente monografia rappresenta appunto il tentativo di trovare
    questa via di mezzo: nel terzo capitolo, dedicato alle teorie sull'origine
    del campo geomagnetico, si cerca di descrivere qualitativamente
    i principali processi fisici proposti come sorgenti del campo,
    dopo un accenno ai fondamenti fisici e matematici sui quali sono state
    elaborate le varie teorie. Senza farmi soverchie illusioni di essere riuscito
    nell'intento, mi dichiarerei tuttavia soddisfatto se questo lavoro
    destasse sull'argomento l'interesse di qualche giovane ricercatore, incoraggiandolo
    ad un approfondimento.

  11. Il discreto e il continuo complementarita in matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyk, Willem

    1982-01-01

    Nato dall'esperienza didattica dell'autore, il libro si presenta come un testo interdisciplinare di matematica e di filosofia, inteso a fornire un quadro complessivo dello stato attuale dei fondamenti della matematica.

  12. Psicologia Organizacional e do Trabalho: Relato de Experiência em Estágio Supervisionado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Oliveira Martins-Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo Trata-se de relato de experiência em estágio supervisionado em Psicologia Organizacional e do Trabalho (POT envolvendo um grupo de alunos de uma Instituição de Educação Superior (IES localizada no Estado do Espírito Santo. O objetivo central foi discutir os aspectos teóricos e práticos que influenciaram na formação profissional do discente em Psicologia, tendo como foco o estágio supervisionado. Além de relatar a experiência, foi realizado um levantamento junto aos ex-alunos sobre as contribuições do estágio na sua formação educacional e profissional. Da experiência relatada foi possível verificar que: a instituição das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN constituiu-se em um marco na flexibilização curricular dos cursos; o estágio é um componente curricular de integração entre ensino, pesquisa e prática; e o estágio em POT requer dos discentes conhecimentos multidisciplinares. Além desses aspectos, observou-se que a prática do estágio supervisionado indica o rompimento com a imagem negativa do psicólogo que atua em POT, limitada à aplicação de testes e psicotécnicas. De fato, a atividade do psicólogo em POT mostrou-se muito mais ampla e complexa, sobretudo em termos dos impactos de sua intervenção no ambiente organizacional.

  13. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michoud Marie-Claire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-13 is a critical mediator of allergic asthma and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-13 acts through a receptor complex comprised of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα subunits with subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. The IL-13Rα2 receptor may act as a decoy receptor. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM cells, IL-13 enhances cellular proliferation, calcium responses to agonists and induces eotaxin production. We investigated the effects of pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ on the responses of HASM cells to IL-13. Methods Cultured HASM were examined for expression of IL-13 receptor subunits using polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Effects of cytokine pre-treatment on IL-13-induced cell responses were assessed by looking at STAT6 phosphorylation using Western blot, eotaxin secretion and calcium responses to histamine. Results IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2 subunits were expressed on HASM cells. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of STAT6 which reached a maximum by 30 minutes. Pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and, to a lesser degree, IFN-γ reduced peak STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. IL-13, but not IFN-γ, pre-treatment abrogated IL-13-induced eotaxin secretion. Pre-treatment with IL-4 or IL-13 abrogated IL-13-induced augmentation of the calcium transient evoked by histamine. Cytokine pre-treatment did not affect expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα but increased expression of IL-13Rα2. An anti-IL-13Rα2 neutralizing antibody did not prevent the cytokine pre-treatment effects on STAT6 phosphorylation. Cytokine pre-treatment increased SOCS-1, but not SOCS-3, mRNA expression which was not associated with significant increases in protein expression. Conclusion Pre-treatment with IL-4 and IL-13, but not IFN-γ, induced desensitization of the HASM cells to IL-13 as measured by eotaxin secretion and calcium transients to histamine

  14. L'Inde : où est le milieu ? | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 avr. 2011 ... Des entrepreneurs futés, favorisés par les réformes économiques opérées au début des années 1990, ont tiré parti des nouveaux débouchés sur les ... À long terme toutefois, M. Mazumdar est d'avis qu'il s'agit d'un encouragement manifeste à privilégier l'expansion horizontale plutôt que verticale. S'il était ...

  15. A READING OF ANTONIO TABUCCHI'S IL FILO DELL'ORIZZONTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    modernist antihero2. He consequently never expresses faith in any totalizing master narrative nor in the Reason that explains and justifies it (“Il mondo è mondo / per essere dubitato”, 1988: 30). 1. “La muerte es vida vivida, / la vida es muerte que viene” (Obra poética, 1964: 122). “La ciudad está en mí como un poema / que ...

  16. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  17. Il marketing del nuovo millennio

    OpenAIRE

    M. Addis

    2007-01-01

    Con la consueta maestria, Kolter, supportato da Keller, mette a disposizione dei suoi numerosi lettori uno strumento di grande efficacia, dalla struttura estremamente agile, che potrà essere apprezzato da coloro che il marketing lo insegnano e dai professionisti che cercano un'opera di riferimento autorevole e aggiornata ma al contempo di facile consultazione, che possa accompagnarli nello svolgimento delle attività quotidiane. Il testo è una guida essenziale alla disciplina del marketing,...

  18. Eficácia da fonoterapia em disfagia neurogênica usando a escala funcional de ingestão por via oral (FOIS como marcador Efficacy of speech therapy in neurogenic dysphagia using functional oral intake scale (FOIS as a parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Furkim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia da fonoterapia e a interferência dos fatores de risco para disfagia no atendimento de pacientes adultos internados com doença neurológica e sintoma de disfagia, tendo a escala funcional de ingestão por via oral como marcador da progressão segura da dieta por via oral. MÉTODOS: foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 49 prontuários de pacientes com disfagia neurogênica, atendidos em fonoterapia no leito hospitalar e comparada a escala de ingestão de alimentação por via oral antes e depois da terapia - FOIS, (mede a quantidade e tipo de alimento que o paciente consegue ingerir por via oral de forma segura. Foram estudados também possíveis fatores de interferência na melhora via ingestão oral na fonoterapia como: doença de base, idade, condições respiratórias, condições clínicas, estado de consciência, tempo de terapia e número de sessões. RESULTADOS: dos 49 pacientes, 36 apresentaram melhora na FOIS após a fonoterapia. Quanto aos possíveis fatores de interferência nessa melhora, foram constatados: a piora clínica do doente, as intercorrências clínicas e o rebaixamento do nível de consciência, como estatisticamente significantes para a não evolução em fonoterapia visando à ingestão de alimentos por via oral. Os outros fatores analisados como: doença de base, idade, condições respiratórias, tempo e numero de sessões não demonstraram significância estatística, sugerindo não interferir na melhora ou piora do paciente. CONCLUSÃO: observa-se melhora efetiva da ingestão de alimentos por via oral nos pacientes com disfagia neurogênica atendidos em ambiente hospitalar em fonoterapia, salvo se apresentarem intercorrências clínicas e rebaixamento do nível de consciência durante o processo.PURPOSE: to evaluate efficacy of speech therapy treatments and the interference of risk factors in adult patients admitted to the wards with neurological diseases and symptoms of dysphagia

  19. PAVE: Program for assembling and viewing ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomhoff Matthew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sequencing technologies are rapidly emerging. Many laboratories are simultaneously working with the traditional Sanger ESTs and experimenting with ESTs generated by the 454 Life Science sequencers. Though Sanger ESTs have been used to generate contigs for many years, no program takes full advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information, hence, many tentative transcripts are assembled into two separate contigs. The new 454 technology has the benefit of high-throughput expression profiling, but introduces time and space problems for assembling large contigs. Results The PAVE (Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs assembler takes advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information by requiring that the mate-pairs be assembled into the same contig and joined by n's if the two sub-contigs do not overlap. It handles the depth of 454 data sets by "burying" similar ESTs during assembly, which retains the expression level information while circumventing time and space problems. PAVE uses MegaBLAST for the clustering step and CAP3 for assembly, however it assembles incrementally to enforce the mate-pair constraint, bury ESTs, and reduce incorrect joins and splits. The PAVE data management system uses a MySQL database to store multiple libraries of ESTs along with their metadata; the management system allows multiple assemblies with variations on libraries and parameters. Analysis routines provide standard annotation for the contigs including a measure of differentially expressed genes across the libraries. A Java viewer program is provided for display and analysis of the results. Our results clearly show the benefit of using the PAVE assembler to explicitly use mate-pair information and bury ESTs for large contigs. Conclusion The PAVE assembler provides a software package for assembling Sanger and/or 454 ESTs. The assembly software, data management software, Java viewer and user's guide are freely available.

  20. PAVE: program for assembling and viewing ESTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Carol; Johnson, Eric; Bomhoff, Matthew; Descour, Anne

    2009-08-26

    New sequencing technologies are rapidly emerging. Many laboratories are simultaneously working with the traditional Sanger ESTs and experimenting with ESTs generated by the 454 Life Science sequencers. Though Sanger ESTs have been used to generate contigs for many years, no program takes full advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information, hence, many tentative transcripts are assembled into two separate contigs. The new 454 technology has the benefit of high-throughput expression profiling, but introduces time and space problems for assembling large contigs. The PAVE (Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs) assembler takes advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information by requiring that the mate-pairs be assembled into the same contig and joined by n's if the two sub-contigs do not overlap. It handles the depth of 454 data sets by "burying" similar ESTs during assembly, which retains the expression level information while circumventing time and space problems. PAVE uses MegaBLAST for the clustering step and CAP3 for assembly, however it assembles incrementally to enforce the mate-pair constraint, bury ESTs, and reduce incorrect joins and splits. The PAVE data management system uses a MySQL database to store multiple libraries of ESTs along with their metadata; the management system allows multiple assemblies with variations on libraries and parameters. Analysis routines provide standard annotation for the contigs including a measure of differentially expressed genes across the libraries. A Java viewer program is provided for display and analysis of the results. Our results clearly show the benefit of using the PAVE assembler to explicitly use mate-pair information and bury ESTs for large contigs. The PAVE assembler provides a software package for assembling Sanger and/or 454 ESTs. The assembly software, data management software, Java viewer and user's guide are freely available.

  1. SNP-finding in pig mitochondrial ESTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Gilchrist, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-Danish pig genome project produced 685 851 ESTs (Gorodkin et al. 2007), of which 41 499 originated from the mitochondrial genome. In this study, the mitochondrial ESTs were assembled, and 374 putative SNPs were found. Chromatograms for the ESTs containing SNPs were manually inspected, an......, and 112 total (52 non-synonymous) SNPs were found to be of high confidence (five of them are close to disease-causing SNPs in humans). Nine of the high-confidence SNPs were tested experimentally, and eight were confirmed. The SNPs can be accessed online at http://pigest.ku.dk/more.mito...

  2. Ortodoncia estética invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    El adulto suele ofrecer resistencia a los convencionales tratamientos ortodóncicos, debido a la necesidad de llevar brackets visibles, tanto metálicos como estéticos de porcelana. El concepto de Ortodoncia Estética Invisible u Ortodoncia Lingual cubre las expectativas de este tipo de pacientes. La técnica multibrackets con aparatología lingual tiene aproximadamente 25 años de desarrollo y con la experiencia de los casos tratados, se ha llegado a la concepción de una técnica completamente prot...

  3. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  4. Triagem auditiva neonatal com emissão otoacústica transiente utilizando estímulo de banda estreita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Freixo Côrtes-Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade de um equipamento automático de Emissão Otoacustica Evocada Transiente que utiliza um estímulo de banda estreita, Narrow. MÉTODOS: foi analisado o resultado da Triagem Auditiva Neonatal de 300 neonatos. A Emissão Otoacústica Evocada Transiente foi realizada com um equipamento portátil automático, com o estímulo de banda estreita - Narrow. Todos os neonatos foram submetidos ao Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico com o estímulo clique, duração 100μs como padrão-ouro. RESULTADOS: o percentual de "passa" na Triagem Auditiva Neonatal foi de 90,7%. Considerando os resultados do padrão-ouro, foi observado uma taxa de falso-positivo de 9%. A sensibilidade e especificidade encontradas foram de 100% e 92%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: o estímulo de banda estreita - Narrow mostrou-se eficaz para ser utilizado nos programa de Triagem Auditiva Neonatal Universal.

  5. Relatório de Estágio Curricular - Grupo Monte, SGPS (Póvoa de Varzim)

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Bárbara

    2012-01-01

    A oportunidade de realizar um estágio tem, para mim, uma grande importância uma vez que foi possível pôr em prática toda a aprendizagem que adquiri ao longo do triénio de licenciatura e ter uma maior aproximação com o mundo do trabalho e com as suas responsabilidades. Na instituição senti que fazia parte da equipa de trabalho e fui muito bem recebida por todos os colaboradores. A minha atividade diária, que se repetiu ao longo do estágio, foi o clipping. Foi uma atividade muito enriquec...

  6. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Ponce

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM. This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc. However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  7. Supressão condicionada com diferentes estímulos aversivos: choque elétrico e jato de ar quente

    OpenAIRE

    NASCIMENTO, Gabriela Souza do

    2009-01-01

    Um estímulo neutro, quando pareado a um estímulo aversivo incondicional, adquire a função de aversivo (condicional) e, indiretamente, também é capaz de suprimir operantes. Tal fenômeno foi denominado de “supressão condicionada” e está principalmente relacionado a certos estados emocionais, como a ansiedade. A literatura mostra que, em geral, o estímulo aversivo incondicional utilizado se restringe ao choque elétrico. Foram poucos os estímulos aversivos alternativos testados que...

  8. Le big bang n'est pas une théorie comme les autres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Leglu, Dominique; Reinisch, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Le big bang n'est pas une théorie comme les autres. Ce n'est d'ailleurs pas une théorie physique au sens propre du terme, mais un scénario cosmologique issu des équations de la relativité générale. Il est le modèle qui s'ajuste le mieux aux observations actuelles, mais à quel prix ? Il nous livre un Univers composé à 96 % de matière et d'énergie noires inconnues. C'est donc un euphémisme que de dire que le big bang semble poser autant - sinon plus - de questions qu'il n'en résout. En ce sens, le big bang apparaît davantage comme une paramétrisation de notre ignorance plutôt que comme une modélisation d'un phénomène. Pourtant, le succès du big bang et l'adhésion qu'il suscite, tant dans la sphère scientifique que dans la sphère médiatique, ne se démentent pas. Surmédiatisé, son statut dépasse celui de modèle théorique, et la simple évocation de son nom suffit pour justifier des opérations de marketing scientifique ou rejeter des cosmologies alternatives. Pour éclaircir les pr...

  9. Nikita Il'ič Tolstoj: K 90-letiju so dnja roždenija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikova Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V svjazi s 90-letiem akademika Nikity Il'iča Tolstogo v 2013 godu v ego čest' v Rossii, Serbii i Avstrii prošli slavističeskie konferencii, organizovannye spodvižnikami i učenikami velikogo filologa. Očerk posvjaščen žizni, dejatel'nosti i osnovnoj problematike etnolingvističeskih i fol'klornyh rabot Nikity Il'iča Tolstogo.

  10. Franco Rasetti physicien et naturaliste : (il a dit non à la bombe)

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellet, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    Brève biographie d'un physicien italien injustement méconnu, professeur à l'Université Laval de 1939 à 1947. Ayant contribué, dans les années 1930, à des expériences qui ont par la suite mené à la fabrication de la bombe atomique, il s'est retiré du dossier dès qu'il en a compris le danger.

  11. Direct regulation of IL-2 by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Gyo; Hwang, Da-Jeong; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a crucial growth factor for both regulatory and effector T cells. Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the stimulation and suppression of immune responses. Recently, anti-IL-2 antibodies (Abs) have been shown to possess strong IL-2 modulatory activities by affecting the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. In this study, we screened an herbal library to identify a compound that regulates IL-2, which resulted in the identification of curcumin as a direct binder and inhibitor of IL-2. Curcumin is a phytochemical with well-known anti-cancer properties. In this study, curcumin mimicked or altered the binding pattern of anti-IL-2 Abs against IL-2 and remarkably inhibited the interaction of recombinant IL-2 with the IL-2 receptor α, CD25. Interestingly, curcumin neutralized the biological activities of IL-2 both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we elucidated the unsolved mechanism of the anti-cancer effect of curcumin by identifying IL-2 as a direct molecular target. Curcumin, as a small molecule IL-2 modulator, has the potential to be used to treat IL-2 related pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Captura da atenção por estímulos emocionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Erthal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo investigamos se estímulos emocionais distrativos são capazes de interferir na realização de tarefas nas quais é exigido um alto engajamento da atenção. Para tanto foi realizado um teste de discriminação de orientação entre duas barras apresentadas bilateralmente na periferia do campo visual (julgamento igual ou diferente. O grau de dificuldade da tarefa dependia da diferença de orientação das mesmas. Simultaneamente era apresentada uma figura central (neutra ou negativa entre as barras. Foi observado que as figuras negativas interferiram no desempenho dos voluntários mesmo na tarefa mais difícil, que exigia maior engajamento atencional. Além disto, quando o reconhecimento posterior destas figuras era testado, figuras negativas eram mais lembradas do que neutras. Estes dados sugerem que estímulos emocionais são privilegiados na disputa por recursos de atenção. É possível que esse privilégio ocorra devido a relevância destes estímulos, sendo dificilmente ignorados.

  13. Il libro agente della socializzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sideri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga il ruolo del libro come agente di socializzazione, con particolare riferimento al pubblico dei lettori ragazzi e bambini e alle specifiche funzioni formative della “lettura della letteratura” in età pre-scolare e scolare fino ai 14 anni. La ricerca di matrice socio-culturale si è occupata per lo più del libro in qualità di prodotto eminentemente sociale (sociologia della letteratura, contenitore di testi significanti (semiotica, e bene di consumo dell’industria culturale (cultural studies: lo studio proposto richiama le conclusioni fondamentali di decenni di studi intorno al libro, con l’intento di rintracciare i criteri adeguati (tema, target, identità visiva, funzione pratica e utopica a guidare una classificazione dei generi 0-14 che evidenzi il valore socializzante di ciascuno, proponendo così una originale tipologia, che giustifica l’inserimento del libro tra quelle definite “agenzie testuali” della socializzazione.

  14. Turismo y estética formativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Sánchez Arciniegas

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available ¿Existe alguna armonía entre el conocimiento y la estética? Sin duda alguna el hombre con conocimiento y sin virtud de la estética es un autómata; este necesita de las diferentes manifestaciones en las que se encuentra plasmada y necesita recordarlas continuamente. La estética como doctrina de conocimiento no es reciente, en el siglo xviii cuando por primera vez se define teóricamente hasta nuestros días en la Universidad actual. Esta última aparentemente menos evidente debido a las nuevas formas de aprendizaje con herramientas tecnológicas muy avanzadas y contraria a la imagen del universitario que hace dos siglos como complemento a su educación se distraía a través del Gran Tour, partida que tiene el turismo para fomentar el goce estético. ¿Cuál es entonces la relación entre distracción y formación? Se debe entonces reflexionar y comprender que el conocimiento interdisciplinario y la metodología debe procurar en los hombres actitudes adecuadas frente a la cultura y el arte a través del conocimiento.

  15. Il potere di Prometeo e il dovere di Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picchetti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant ci suggerisce qualcosa che Prometeo e il mito greco avevano già accennato. L'imperativo che pone freno al fare, è già in sé nel soggetto ed è per questo che egli che egli è responsabile delle proprie azioni, indipendentemente dalla legge scritta.

  16. Il Sole, il genoma e Internet strumenti delle revoluzioni scientifiche

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2000-01-01

    In queste appassionate conferenze «di soglia» Dyson si sporge sul domani con la visionarietà di un Verne o di un Wells, consapevole però di abbozzare «solo uno dei corsi possibili, tra i milioni di altri che il futuro potrà riservarci». Il nuovo trivio di forze rivoluzionarie che, secondo il modello di Dyson, muoverà lo sviluppo ha nomi noti a tutti, e disputati da molti: energia solare, ingegneria genetica, rete di comunicazione globale. Un loro utilizzo flessibile e sinergico arriverebbe a ridisegnare il paesaggio sociale del pianeta, facendo affluire verso aree depresse risorse ora concentrate in pochi paesi, e ridando vita ovunque all'economia di villaggio. La raccolta di energia da una fonte equidistribuita come la luce solare potrebbe infatti avvenire attraverso coltivazioni arboree manipolate genetica mente allo scopo, con costi sostenibili e senza pregiudizio della ecodiversità. Sia che guardi al prossimo futuro terrestre sia che contempli la prospettiva non troppo lontana di insediamenti uma...

  17. Il programma dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Da quando l'universo ha avuto inizio, ha cominciato a calcolare il proprio comportamento. All'inizio il computer-universo produceva strutture semplici, particelle elementari e leggi elementari della fisica; col passare del tempo ha processato "informazioni" sempre più complesse, producendo strutture sempre più intricate (galassie, stelle, pianeti), ma sempre secondo leggi semplici. Ogni cosa deve quindi la propria esistenza alla capacità intrinseca della materia e dell'energia di processare informazione. Se si decifrasse fino in fondo si potrebbe, con un computer quantistico di dimensioni ridotte, comprendere l'universo nel suo insieme.

  18. EST-PAC a web package for EST annotation and protein sequence prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strahm Yvan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing technology and the vast diversity of biological resources, researchers increasingly face the basic challenge of annotating a larger number of expressed sequences tags (EST from a variety of species. This typically consists of a series of repetitive tasks, which should be automated and easy to use. The results of these annotation tasks need to be stored and organized in a consistent way. All these operations should be self-installing, platform independent, easy to customize and amenable to using distributed bioinformatics resources available on the Internet. In order to address these issues, we present EST-PAC a web oriented multi-platform software package for expressed sequences tag (EST annotation. EST-PAC provides a solution for the administration of EST and protein sequence annotations accessible through a web interface. Three aspects of EST annotation are automated: 1 searching local or remote biological databases for sequence similarities using Blast services, 2 predicting protein coding sequence from EST data and, 3 annotating predicted protein sequences with functional domain predictions. In practice, EST-PAC integrates the BLASTALL suite, EST-Scan2 and HMMER in a relational database system accessible through a simple web interface. EST-PAC also takes advantage of the relational database to allow consistent storage, powerful queries of results and, management of the annotation process. The system allows users to customize annotation strategies and provides an open-source data-management environment for research and education in bioinformatics.

  19. Noi siamo quello che ricordiamo - Le frazze di Crucoli: il teatro, il rito, il riscatto sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Mingrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - IT Questo lavoro nasce da una ricerca di campo sulle frazze, termine dialettale che indica le farse di Carnevale che si rappresentavano fino a cinquant’anni fa in molti paesi calabresi, tra cui il mio, Crucoli, in provincia di Crotone. Lo scopo di questo lavoro non è fare un resoconto esaustivo di tutto ciò che accadeva a Crucoli durante la celebrazione del Carnevale, impresa assai difficile dal momento che non ci sono documenti scritti e quindi bisogna affidarsi ai racconti orali delle persone intervistate, spesso non fedeli alla realtà, perché modificati dal tempo e dalla memoria. L’approccio con cui ho intrapreso questa ricerca è sicuramente legato all’aspetto teatrale e performativo dell’evento, senza trascurarne la rilevanza antropologica. Il materiale raccolto è frutto di interviste e colloqui con la gente del posto unito ad un grande lavoro di ricerca bibliografica di autori che avevano trattato di questo argomento in relazione ai loro paesi di origine.Lo scopo è quello di delineare l’organizzazione e lo svolgimento delle frazze, cercando di ricostruire la sua durata e le ripercussioni sulla comunità, nonché dimostrare ancora una volta come il teatro, messo a disposizione di alcuni eventi, diventi un mezzo forte di liberazione e di contestazione. Abstract - FR Cet article prend sa naissance par une recherche sur champ concernant les frazze, terme dialectal qui dénote les farces du Carnaval mises en scène jusqu'à il y a cinquante ans dans plusieurs villages en Calabria, entre eux le mien, Crucoli, dans la province de Crotone. La raison de ce travail n'est pas d'accomplir un compte rendu exhaustif de tout ce qui avait lieu à Crucoli pendant la célébration du Carnaval, l'exploit étant très difficile, du moment qu'aucun document écrit a été parvenu et par conséquence il est nécessaire de se remettre aux contes des témoins interviewés, souvent pas fidèles au réel, parce-que détournés par les

  20. Psoriasis is not associated with IL-12p70/IL-12p40 production and IL12B promoter polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a type-1 T cell-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease. Since interleukin (IL)-12p70 promotes the development of type-1 T cells, we investigated whether psoriasis is associated with an increased production of this cyctokine by blood cells. Results revealed that the production of IL-12p....... The frequencies of the various genotypes for the promoter region of the gene encoding IL-12p40 (IL12B) did not differ between psoriasis patients and controls. No association was observed between the various IL12B promoter genotypes and the LPS-stimulated production of IL-12p70 or IL-12p40 by blood cells. Together......, psoriasis is not associated with a promoter polymorphism in the IL12B gene nor with the production of IL-12p70 by LPS-stimulated blood cells....

  1. établissement de réseaux de TIC-D en Afrique centrale, de l'Est et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    information et de la communication (TIC) à large bande dans certains pays des côtes est et ouest de l'Afrique. À cette fin, il financera l'établissement de réseaux de plaidoyer et de recherche en matière de TIC au service du développement ...

  2. O primeiro a utilizar anestesia em cirurgia não foi um dentista. Foi o m édico Crawford Williamson Long El primero en utilizar la anestesia en cirugía no fue un dentista, fue el médico Crawford Williamson Long The first to use surgical anesthesia was not a dentist, but the physician Crawford Williamson Long

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiro dos Reis Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A história da descoberta da anestesia continua incompletamente esclarecida em vários de seus aspectos. Mas é fácil definir que Crawford Williamson Long foi o primeiro a utilizar o éter sulfúrico para operar vários pacientes, sem dor, e realizar analgesias obstétricas. A história é uma ponte que liga o passado ao presente e deve ser estudada e entendida desde os seus primeiros pilares. Assim, justifica-se lembrar ou dar a conhecer quem foi Long, um nome certamente pouco conhecido entre nós, e qual a participação dele na descoberta da anestesia. CONTEÚDO: São discorridos porque e como Crawford Williamson Long foi levado a se tornar o primeiro médico a operar sem dor, quatro anos e meio antes de Morton, e o papel que desempenhou numa das maiores descobertas da Medicina. A biografia de Long é narrada, ressaltando-se o seu caráter, a competência, a dedicação, a modéstia, o desprendimento e um certo desapego com relação à conquista da glória. Descrevem-se as circunstâncias que o levaram a não divulgar de imediato sua descoberta. É analisado o envolvimento de Long na discussão pela primazia da descoberta da anestesia e relatado o seu falecimento. As numerosas homenagens recebidas por Long nos EUA e em outros países são citadas. CONCLUSÕES: W. T. G. Morton costuma ser considerado como o autor da descoberta da anestesia geral, sobretudo por ter sido o primeiro a fazer demonstração pública bem-sucedida, em importante hospital de Boston (EUA. Contudo, provou-se que Long foi o primeiro a utilizar a anestesia cirúrgica e é reconhecido em várias regiões de seu país como o pai da anestesia cirúrgica e "o seu descobridor". É necessário, ainda, reverter o fato de ser Long pouco conhecido entre nós e inseri-lo no lugar a que tem direito na história da anestesia geral.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La historia del descubrimiento de la anestesia continúa sin ser completamente aclarada en varios

  3. Development of EST-derived markers in Dendrobium from EST of related taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Narisa Juejun; Chataporn Chunwongse; Julapark Chunwongse

    2013-01-01

    Public databases are useful for molecular marker development. The major aim of this study was to develop expressedsequence tag (EST)-derived markers in Dendrobium from available ESTs of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. A total of 6063sequences were screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and introns. Primers flanking these regions were generated andtested on genomic DNAs of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. Twenty-three percent of amplifiable Phalaenopsis EST-derivedmarkers were cross-genera trans...

  4. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  5. Descobrir Galisson foi reconfortante para mim!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alarcão

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoptant une logique d’expérientialisme critique, l’auteur révèle comment sa rencontre avec la pensée de Galisson a dissipé ses doutes et l’a incitée à conceptualiser la Didactique des Langues-Cultures (DLC en tant que discipline de formation, de recherche et d’intervention. Chez ce didactologue, elle a découvert des problématisations concernant des questions qu’elle avait également amorcées sur la nature de la DLC, son autonomie, sa liaison avec la linguistique appliquée, sa dimension interactive, l’observation-problématisation et la théorisation interne, le recours à des savoirs issus d’autres disciplines, le rapport entre les connaissances académiques et les pratiques professionnelles et la conceptualisation en tant qu’ alternative à l’applicationnisme.

  6. Le Japon quatre fois frappé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Pelletier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Hauteur du tsunami sur le littoral (en mètresSources : Brunet R. (dir, 1994. Géographie universelle. Belin/Reclus ;Pelletier Ph., Fournier C., 2008. Atlas du Japon. Autrement ; http://silatitudes.teledetection.fr/index.php :actualité/54-mapping-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami Dans un essai polémiste au destin retentissant, du moins auprès de ceux qui s’intéressent sérieusement à l’Asie orientale, le sinologue Jean François Billeter dénonçait l’approche néo-orientaliste du sino...

  7. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  8. Pauropolis. Pianificare il controllo attraverso il progetto della sicurezza.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonese, Marco

    2008-01-01

    2006/2007 “Il grado di sicurezza misura la democrazia di un paese”, con questa frase un esponente della destra salutava l’approvazione nel parlamento italiano del nuovo pacchetto di norme in tema, appunto, di sicurezza. L’affermazione indica sintomaticamente come la questione, seppur non nuova, abbia acquisito un ruolo centrale nel dibattito contemporaneo, facilitata da una perfusione mediatica che ha trasformato l’evento dei primi giorni del settembre 2001 nel simbolo controverso della cr...

  9. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Aleluia Cerâmicas, S.A (Aveiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    O desenvolvimento do Estágio curricular foi realizado na empresa Aleluia Cerâmicas S.A. e teve a duração de 3 meses, 400horas. A estagiária teve oportunidade de conhecer de perto a realidade empresarial, experimentada em duas empresas do Grupo, na Ceramic e na Aleluia (sede da empresa), esta experiência que permitiu desenvolver mais competências, cimentando e evoluindo para além daquelas que foi adquirindo ao longo da sua formação académica. Foram desenvolvidas atividades variadas, entr...

  10. Otimização de metodologia PCR-SSP para identificação de polimorfismos genéticos de TNF e IL2 Optimization of the PCR-SSP methodology in the identification of TNF and IL2 genetic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo A. S. Franceschi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A análise de polimorfismos únicos de nucleotídeos (SNPs de citocinas pode ser útil em estudos de frequências alélicas e genotípicas em populações saudáveis de diversas regiões, em estudos de associação com doenças infecciosas ou autoimunes, em estudos antropológicos e na evolução pós-transplante. Estes SNPs podem ser avaliados por diferentes métodos moleculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi aperfeiçoar uma metodologia PCR-SSP simples e rápida para a genotipagem de três SNPs de citocinas usando um único teste laboratorial. Para a identificação de IL2-330T/G e IL2+166G/T foram utilizados dois procedimentos na mesma genotipagem, cada um baseado no uso de quatro iniciadores. Para a detecção de TNF-238G/A foram utilizados dois iniciadores que amplificam a guanina e adenina na posição -238. Este estudo permitiu aperfeiçoar um método simples e rápido para identificar três SNPs de citocinas num único teste, podendo ser utilizado em qualquer laboratório de biologia molecular, como alternativa ao uso de kits de alto custo.The analysis of cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can be useful in studies of allelic and genotypic frequencies in healthy populations from different regions of Brazil, in association studies of infectious or auto-immune diseases, in anthropological studies and in studies on post-transplant evolution. These SNPs can be assessed by different molecular methods. The objective of this study was to improve a simple and fast methodology, PCR-SSP, for the genotyping of three cytokine SNPs using a single laboratorial test. To identify IL2-330T/G and IL2+166G/T, two procedures were used in the same genotyping assay, each one based on the use of 4 primers. To detect TNF-238G/A, two primers were used that amplify guanine and adenine at position -238. This study enabled the improvement of a simple and fast method for identifying three cytokine SNPs in a single test, which can be adopted in any Molecular

  11. Comme c'est curieux, comme c'est bizarre et quelle coïncidence ! concours de nouvelles

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Elles sont partout : dans la nature, nichées au coeur des tournesols, des cristaux de quartz et des coquilles d'escargot sous la forme du nombre d'or ; dans nos vies ponctuées de rencontres, d'événements qui se font écho. Coïncidences : simples fruits du hasard, vraiment, ou signes d'une causalité cachée ? Un pigeon aux intestins facétieux rencontre un Président de la République malchanceux... Un obus rencontre une chambre à coucher – mais ses occupants ont rendez-vous avec un gâteau… Un dictateur qui abuse son peuple à coups de coïncidences truquées sera démasqué grâce à la rencontre inopinée d'un officier et d'un poisson… Jonglant avec les probabilités, l'Histoire et l'actualité, les lauréats de cette 6e édition ont montré, cette fois encore, que la rigueur scientifique est la meilleure amie de la fantaisie et de l'imagination. Quant à la table ronde qui ouvre ce recueil, elle croise étymologie, chaînes de causalités et lignes d'univers pour arriver à ce constat, partag�...

  12. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  14. The role of IL-17 in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Mona; Brown, Gabrielle Elena; Wang, Eva; Koo, John; Levin, Ethan C

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition traditionally believed to involve the Th1 pathway. Recently, the IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. From a clinician's perspective, we sought to review the basic science data relevant to IL-17's role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We performed a Pubmed and Web of Knowledge search for English articles starting from 1990 that discussed the Th17 pathway. Search terms such as "IL-17" and "psoriasis" were utilized. The IL-17 pathway is regulated by IL-23, a cytokine that is vital for the expansion and maintenance of the Th17 cell population. Th17 derived cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17A/F and IL-22) were elevated in both psoriasis-like murine models and human psoriatic lesional biopsies. Ixekizumab (anti-IL-17A) treatment of psoriasis was found to normalize levels of IL-17 downstream gene products. Both preclinical and clinical studies support the central role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  15. Relatório de Estágio Curricular - Catedral Café (Guarda)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    O estágio curricular foi desenvolvido no âmbito do curso de marketing lecionado no Instituto Politécnico da Guarda e foi realizado na empresa Catedralcafé sediada na cidade da Guarda. Teve como principal objetivo complementar a formação académica através do exercício de tarefas e funções práticas no âmbito de marketing. Quanto ao trabalho desenvolvido ao longo dos três meses foram várias as atividades elaboradas das quais se destaca: a criação de eventos, a criação de uma base de dados e a...

  16. Estágio na Compta

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Dário Miguel dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    O presente documento descreve o trabalho realizado no segundo ano letivo do Mestrado em Produção de Conteúdos Digitais. Relatando um estágio decorrido na empresa tecnológica Compta S.A. Neste relatório é feita uma apresentação da empresa, bem como os seus objetivos como tal. De seguida, efetua-se um enquadramento do estágio no âmbito contextual dos conteúdos digitais, descrevendo as tecnologias utilizadas, necessárias à criação de aplicações para dispositivos móveis. São ainda apresentados...

  17. Estética, Subjetividad y Conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Avendaño, Olimpia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de la tradicional dicotomía conocimiento objetivo-subjetivo. En él se analiza la posición de diferentes autores en búsqueda de los elementos que conducen al nacimiento de un nuevo paradigma, integrador, que supere la antinomia y permita visualizar al conocimiento pero sobre todo al individuo que lo produce, integralmente.

  18. Amar por cartas - este inferno de amara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matildes Demetrio dos Santos

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o amor nas Folhas caídas e nas Cartas de amor à Viscondessa da Luz, de Almeida Garrett.Seus poemas cheios de erotismo e sensua lidade, inspirados numa mulher casada, Rosa Montúrar Infante, escandalizaram a sociedade portuguesado sécu lo XIX. Suas cartas de amor, em segredo, criavam uma ficção de características místicas.

  19. The dichotomous pattern of IL-12r and IL-23R expression elucidates the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Chognard

    Full Text Available IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines respectively drive Th1 and Th17 type responses. Yet, little is known regarding the biology of these receptors. As the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors share a common subunit, it has been assumed that these receptors are co-expressed. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of each of these receptors is restricted to specific cell types, in both mouse and human. Indeed, although IL-12Rβ2 is expressed by NK cells and a subset of γδ T cells, the expression of IL-23R is restricted to specific T cell subsets, a small number of B cells and innate lymphoid cells. By exploiting an IL-12- and IL-23-dependent mouse model of innate inflammation, we demonstrate an intricate interplay between IL-12Rβ2 NK cells and IL-23R innate lymphoid cells with respectively dominant roles in the regulation of systemic versus local inflammatory responses. Together, these findings support an unforeseen lineage-specific dichotomy in the in vivo role of both the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways in pathological inflammatory states, which may allow more accurate dissection of the roles of these receptors in chronic inflammatory diseases in humans.

  20. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Formação de classes funcionais de estímulos musicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Roberto Machado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi verificar o efeito do treino discriminativo sobre a formação de classes funcionais de melodias em andamentos e modos diferentes. Nove estudantes universitários do 2° período da graduação em Psicologia foram divididos em três grupos: Modo, Andamento ou Misto. O software SomPsi, produzido especialmente para este estudo, treinou os participantes e gerou relatórios com informações sobre os desempenhos, nas quatro fases do procedimento. O treino proposto mostrou-se eficiente para a formação das classes funcionais de estímulos sonoros musicais. Observou-se que agrupamentos de estímulos pela propriedade andamento foram mais facilmente discriminados que os agrupados pela melodia. A manipulação combinada das duas propriedades, em condição convergente, permitiu desempenho superior dos participantes. A rápida formação de classes funcionais e equivalentes de estímulos musicais, a partir de procedimentos de ensino automatizado de relações condicionais entre estímulos musicais, indica a possibilidade de uso desse procedimento na iniciação à música.

  2. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  3. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  4. Serum IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels as "bioumoral bridges" between dyslipidemia and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, S; Leonardi, S; Panasiti, I; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies suggest a possible link between dyslipidemia and atopy, literature findings are still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and atopy in a pediatric population affected by dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia/atopic predisposition. Children with dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia and atopy as well as healthy children were recruited. Serum total IgE, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 levels as well as fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) were performed on all enrolled children. The present study evaluated 23 patients affected by dyslipidemia, 26 patients affected by atopy and dyslipidemia and, 22healthy children. Serum total IgE levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: positively with total cholesterol (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia and atopic predisposition share the same immune pathways as well as they offer new insights in the complex crosstalk between hyperlipidemia and atopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Controle de estímulos e história comportamental em humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Guerra Soares

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo foi observar o efeito de uma exposição a um mult FR-DRL sobre o comportamento subseqüente em um mult FI-FI, quando os mesmos controles de estímulo foram mantidos. Participaram quatro universitários, cuja tarefa experimental consistia em pressionar o botão esquerdo do mouse com o cursor sobre um botão (botão de resposta) que aparecia no monitor do computador. Ao ser cumprida a contingência de reforço programada, um smile aparecia no canto superior direito do monitor e, para que um p...

  6. Relatório de estágio – Hospital dos Capuchos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado, durante o ano de 2010 e 2011, no serviço de Neurocirurgia, do Hospital Santo António dos Capuchos e São José. O objectivo passou pela avaliação e reabilitação de doentes com limitações cognitivas e da linguagem. Foram efectuados dois acompanhamentos específicos de doentes, um dos casos apresentava uma Afasia Global e o outro caso uma Afasia Transcortical Motora, associadas a disfunções cognitivas. Os pacientes, após intervenção cirúrgica foram avaliados e su...

  7. "Foi normal, não foi forçado!" versus "Fui abusada sexualmente": uma interpretação dos discursos de agressores sexuais, das suas vítimas e de testemunhas "It was normal, it was not forced!" versus "I was sexually abused": an interpretation of the discourses of sex offenders, their victims and witnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os crimes sexuais contra crianças e adolescentes são uma forma de violência física que constitui uma preocupação no campo da Saúde Pública. Compreender estes crimes torna-se crucial para se poder intervir na sua prevenção e fundamentar o seu conhecimento para as políticas de saúde. Oartigo analisa as versões do crime sexual, comparando o discurso dos agressores com os depoimentos das vítimas e dos familiares registados em documento judicial. Estudo de natureza qualitativa, utilizando como técnicas de formação do corpus da pesquisa a entrevista individual com réus condenados ao regime de perda de liberdade e a análise documental das sentenças dos agressores sexuais de crianças e adolescentes. A reconstrução do delito sexual por parte dos reclusos, das vítimas e das testemunhas difere muito. Alguns dos agressores admitem o ato sexual criminoso, mas suas justificativas vão no sentido de eximir-se da responsabilidade alegando o consentimento da vítima; outros consideram seu crime uma acusação mentirosa elaborada por terceiros com o propósito de prejudicá-lo. As crenças partilhadas entre eles fazem com que minimizem seus comportamentos delituosos, declarando que o abuso sexual não tenha sido forçado, ou realizado mediante ameaças, nem traga sequelas físicas e psicológicas às vítimas. Os argumentos apresentados frequentemente pelos agressores expõem uma troca de papéis, passando do lugar de agressor ao da vítima. Esses agressores igualmente não reconhecem o fato de as vítimas ficarem com sequelas resultantes da violência sexual que poderão colocar seu futuro em causa.Sexual crimes against children are a form of physical violence that is a concern in the field of Public Health. Understanding these crimes becomes crucial to be able to intervene in their prevention and foster knowledge on which to ground health policies. The article analyzes versions of sexual crime, comparing the speech of the attackers with

  8. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  9. REDVET está indexada en Scirus

    OpenAIRE

    veterinaria.org

    2009-01-01

    ResumenA veces, la búsqueda en Internet de artículos científicos se convierte en una pesadilla, por lo que es conveniente recurrir a buscadores temáticos y en este aspecto Scirus es una buena opción ya que es uno de los mejores buscadores de temática científica de la Red pues busca en más de 450 millones de páginas web científicas con una búsqueda muy rápida y con resultados sorprendentes.

  10. Le bonheur est dans les airs

    OpenAIRE

    Robène, Luc; Bodin, Dominique; Héas, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    A partir des années 1880, en France, la dimension touristique des ascensions en ballon prend une importance croissante. En marge des pratiques strictement utilitaires de l'aérostation s’élabore un univers davantage tourné vers la communion et / ou vers le face-à-face de l'homme avec la nature en altitude. L'observation du milieu aérien, la confrontation avec la sauvagerie des éléments et le bien-être que l'environnement vierge des hauteurs est susceptible de procurer aux aéronautes constituen...

  11. ESTIMA, a tool for EST management in a multi-project environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2004-11-01

    an archived format from http://titan.biotec.uiuc.edu/ESTIMA/. The entity-relationship (E-R diagrams and the programs used to generate the Oracle database tables are also available. We have also provided detailed installation instructions and a tutorial at the same website. Presently the chromatograms, EST databases and their annotations have been made available for cattle and honeybee brain EST projects. Non-academic users need to contact the W.M. Keck Center for Functional and Comparative Genomics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, for licensing information.

  12. ESTIMA, a tool for EST management in a multi-project environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Charu G; LeDuc, Richard; Gong, George; Roinishivili, Levan; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, Lei

    2004-11-04

    ://titan.biotec.uiuc.edu/ESTIMA/. The entity-relationship (E-R) diagrams and the programs used to generate the Oracle database tables are also available. We have also provided detailed installation instructions and a tutorial at the same website. Presently the chromatograms, EST databases and their annotations have been made available for cattle and honeybee brain EST projects. Non-academic users need to contact the W.M. Keck Center for Functional and Comparative Genomics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, for licensing information.

  13. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  14. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  15. Estágio num laboratório de análises de águas e efluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Ana Carolina de Portugal

    2015-01-01

    Este relatório de estágio foi elaborado no âmbito da unidade curricular dissertação/projeto/estágio do Mestrado em Processos Químicos e Biológicos no Departamento de Engenharia Química e Biológica (DEQB) no Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (ISEC). O presente relatório reflete o estágio que decorreu na Associação para a Inovação Tecnológica e Qualidade (AEMITEQ), um laboratório acreditado pelo Instituto Português de Acreditação (IPAC) cuja atividade principal consiste na realizaç...

  16. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Randstad, Empresa de Recursos Humanos (Aveiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Débora

    2016-01-01

    O presente relatório surge no seguimento do estágio curricular realizado na Randstad – delegação de Aveiro, empresa que atua na área dos Recursos Humanos, para a conclusão da Licenciatura em Gestão de Recursos Humanos do Instituto Politécnico da Guarda. A estagiária pretende apresentar ao leitor um pouco sobre a empresa onde o estágio foi desenvolvido e também a descrição clara das tarefas que teve a oportunidade de desenvolver ao longo dos três meses de estágio. No decorrer do estágio, as...

  17. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  18. AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us AcEST AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Data detail Dat...a name AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00839-0...01 Description of data contents EST sequence of Adiantum capillus-veneris and its annotation (clone ID, libr...le search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/archive_acest#en Data acquisition method Capillary ...ainst UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases) Number of data entries Adiantum capillus-veneris

  19. IL-17A, IL-17RC polymorphisms and IL17 plasma levels in Tunisian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbi, Mayssa; Haouami, Youssra; Sfar, Imen; Abdelmoula, Leila; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gorgi, Yousr

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a cytokine mainly secreted by Th17 cells, seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional genetic polymorphisms in IL-17 and its receptor genes can influence either qualitatively or quantitatively their functions. Therefore, we aimed to study the impact of IL17-A and IL17RC polymorphisms on plasma level of IL-17 and RA susceptibility and severity. Methods In this context, IL-17A*rs2275913 and IL-17RC*rs708567 polymorphisms were investigated together with the quantification of IL17 plasma level in 115 RA patients and 91 healthy control subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic origin. Results There were no statistically significant associations between IL-17A and IL-17RC studied polymorphisms and RA susceptibility. In contrast, IL-17A plasma levels were significantly higher in patients (55.07 pg/ml) comparatively to controls (4.75 pg/ml), p<10E-12. A ROC curve was used to evaluate the performance of plasma IL-17 in detecting RA. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity of plasma IL-17A was 61.7% at a cut-off value of 18.25 pg/ml; p < 10E-21, CI = [0.849–0.939]. Analytic results showed that the IgM-rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies were significantly less frequent in patients with the IL-17RC*A/A genotype than those carrying *G/G and *G/A genotypes; p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively. Otherwise, IL-17 plasma levels’ analysis showed a significant association with the activity of RA (DAS28≥5.1 = 74.71 pg/ml vs. DAS28<5.1 = 11.96 pg/ml), p<10E-6. Conclusion IL-17A*rs2275913 (G/A) and IL-17RC*rs708567 (G/A) polymorphisms did not seem to influence RA susceptibility in Tunisian population. This result agrees with those reported previously. Plasma IL-17A level seems to be predictive of severe RA occurrence. PMID:29584788

  20. Clinical value of determination of changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after transfusion of Red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingting; Li Xinghua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigation the changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 contents after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 (with RIA), serum IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with peptic ulcer and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion,the serum IL-2 level in the patients was significantly lower than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels is clinically useful for monitoring progress and favourable prognosis of patients with peptic ulcer possess important clinical value. (authors)

  1. Relatório de estágio: Letra Zen, Comunicação e Marketing, Lda.

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Ana Rita Alves Silva e

    2014-01-01

    Relatório de Estágio apresentado ao Instituto de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Marketing Digital, sob orientação da Prof. Doutora Sandrina Teixeira Nota: 17 valores O presente relatório insere-se no âmbito da conclusão do segundo ciclo de estudos em Marketing Digital, do Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto e foi elaborado com o objetivo de descrever em pormenor as atividades que desenvolvidas durante o estág...

  2. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Randstad, Empresa de Recursos Humanos (Aveiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Dina

    2015-01-01

    O estágio curricular foi realizado na Randstad, na delegação de Aveiro, tendo uma duração aproximada de 3 meses. As atividades desenvolvidas no referido estágio foram enquadradas em três áreas complementares entre si: Gestão de clientes e colaboradores; Recrutamento e seleção; e a Gestão Administrativa de Recursos Humanos. Na gestão de clientes e colaboradores, as atividades desenvolvidas consistiram no atendimento telefónico e presencial de clientes e de colaboradores, entre outras. N...

  3. Estágio Supervisionado em Secretariado Executivo: A Visão do Graduando Concluinte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Lima de Barros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou compreender a visão do graduando em Secretariado Executivo a respeito da prática do estágio supervisionado nas organizações. Metodologicamente foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva com 26 alunos do curso de Bacharelado em Secretariado Executivo, estagiários, que estão cursando o último período do curso de uma Instituição Privada, no período 2013.2. Aplicou-se um questionário com questões fechadas dividido em dois blocos de perguntas, uma parte de múltiplas escolhas e a outra com escala de likert de cinco pontos onde se abordava o grau de concordância. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio da estatística descritiva. Os principais resultados foram: o valor agregador do estágio supervisionado como atividade didático-pedagógica para o graduando, a busca pelo estagiário do curso de Secretariado Executivo por organizações do setor público e a alocação de estagiários para setores mais específicos, permitindo que o estagiário agregue conhecimentos pertinentes à sua área de formação.  Conclui-se que a prática do campo e a formação pedagógica se mostram convergentes, bem como os graduados se mostras satisfeitos com a atuação supervisionada. 

  4. La violence sexuelle envers les enfants est-elle en baisse au Canada? Résultats d’enquêtes rétrospectives représentatives à l’échelle nationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shields

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Selon de nombreuses sources de données, la violence sexuelle envers les enfants (VSE est en baisse aux États-Unis depuis le début des années 1990. Il semble par ailleurs qu’elle ait connu une hausse après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Cette étude a pour but de faire l’examen des estimations de prévalence des cas de violence sexuelle durant l’enfance (VSdE signalés rétrospectivement dans le cadre de deux enquêtes nationales représentatives menées auprès de la population canadienne. Méthodologie : Les données proviennent de 13 931 répondants de 18 à 76 ans interrogés dans le cadre de l’enquête GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study – Canada de 2004-2005 et de 22 169 résidents âgés de 18 ans et plus ayant participé à l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes – Santé mentale (ESCC – Santé mentale de 2012. Nous présentons des comparaisons de la prévalence de la VSdE par sexe et par groupe d’âge à la fois entre ces deux enquêtes et au sein de chacune. Résultats : Les résultats des deux enquêtes indiquent une baisse de la VSE depuis 1993, qui va de pair avec la baisse observée aux États-Unis. Il ressort également des résultats que le risque de VSE était plus élevé entre 1946 et 1992 qu’avant 1946. Les données sont plus solides pour les femmes. Conclusion : Constater une baisse de la VSE au Canada depuis le début des années 1990 est encourageant, étant donné les effets débilitants à long terme qui sont associés à la VSE. Une surveillance continue est essentielle. Ces effets négatifs à long terme sont la preuve de l’importance de poursuivre sur cette lancée, pour passer d’un risque faible à un risque nul.

  5. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  6. Controle seletivo do estímulo em uma tarefa de emparelhamento com o modelo com palavras como estímulos compostos: análise de um procedimento de Resposta Diferencial de Observação (DOR) e estímulos com diferenças críticas e múltiplas

    OpenAIRE

    Wegbecher, Samira de Toledo

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um procedimento que utilizou Resposta Diferencial De Observação (DOR) e estímulos com diferenças críticas para eliminar o controle seletivo em tarefas de emparelhamento simultâneo com o modelo, realizadas por um participante diagnosticado com transtorno do espectro do autismo. Foram utilizados como estímulos três conjuntos, cada um composto por três palavras formadas por três letras e a última era o elemento crítico ou dif...

  7. I lectores medioevali tra il libro e il testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Riviello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’intento del lavoro è di problematizzare alcuni aspetti, generalmente ritenuti emblematici, della relazione tra i litterati medievali e il libro – nelle sue declinazioni di Testo sacro, Libro della natura e auctoritates. L’impiego, come strumenti di lavoro, di concetti di recente elaborazione e di osservazioni di pensatori contemporanei sull’argomento, non è finalizzato ad attualizzare tale relazione, quanto piuttosto ad ampliare i punti di vista su di essa e a metterne alla prova la capacità di offrire originali spunti di riflessione. Le proposte teoriche di Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault e Roland Barthes sono qui adoperate come esemplificazioni di un’interpretazione che ha storicamente reso quasi paradigmatico il modo di leggere dei docti, specialmente altomedievali. Tuttavia, alcune definizioni della Scrittura – il libro per eccellenza – proposte da questi ultimi, nonché la teorizzazione del suo quadruplice senso sembrano smussare la radicalità di queste osservazioni. Concetti quali “funzione-autore” di Foucault e “testo” di Barthes sono invece adottati per considerare all’interno di una diversa cornice teorica il confronto dei doctores, in particolare bassomedievali, con le cosiddette auctoritates. Nella visione ordinaria la reverenza nei confronti dell’autore, divino o umano, la ricerca e la riproposizione fedele di un significato univoco dell’opera aldilà dei segni, naturali o culturali, che lo veicolano costituiscono tratti tipici dell’atteggiamento dei lettori medievali. A fronte di questi aspetti, tuttavia, è possibile sottolinearne altri eterodossi e perlopiù trascurati, quali la rilevanza attribuita all’interpretazione, prassi ineludibile e da disciplinare, al ruolo del lettore e alla sua fruizione attiva e produttiva dei testi. The aim of the work is to problematize some aspects generally considered representative of the relationship between medieval savants and the book - in its variations

  8. Judy Estes Hall (1940-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Morgan T; Boucher, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Judy Estes Hall, who passed away on November 24, 2015. Hall served as the Executive Officer of the National Register of Health Service Psychologists until her retirement in 2013. She is a recognized expert in the development of education and training standards for the profession of psychology, she also made significant contributions in the field of international psychology, where she was a renowned expert in cross-national credentialing and an advocate for commonality in licensing standards. She was the coauthor of one edited volume and author of more than 60 journal articles, book chapters, and professional publications. A passionate advocate for the advancement of women in psychology, a devoted mother and grandmother, a connoisseur of wine and international traveler extraordinaire, she touched the personal and professional lives of many. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Marketing! Onde está o Paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deosir Flávio Lobo de Castro Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O debate quantitativo-qualitativo, não é uma discussão recente. O objetivo desse trabalho, portanto, é verificar por meio do conceito de paradigma, novas perspectivas de compreender as pesquisas acadêmicas em marketing, a evolução do pensamento de marketing e as metodologias utilizadas nos estudos da qualidade de serviço. Sem a pretensão de esgotar este assunto e apresentar uma conclusão final, são apresentadas pesquisas que apontam para a necessidade e a importância da pesquisa qualitativa, uma vez que auxilia ao pesquisador uma melhor compreensão da natureza complexa do mundo social em que vivemos. Segundo Santana e Gomes (2007, após análise da discussão de Hegel e Kant, concluem que a razão e a própria epistemologia são construções históricas e evoluem a partir de contradições. O presente artigo está dividido em cinco momentos. Na primeira parte apresenta-se além da introdução a constituição dos objetivos desse ensaio teórico. Na segunda parte apresenta-se uma breve discussão a respeito do conceito de paradigma e o marketing. Na terceira parte apresenta-se uma retrospectiva histórica do marketing e sua evolução de suas escolas a partir dos estudos de Miranda e Arruda (2004. Na quarta parte, são apresentadas as metodologias dos estudos sobre qualidade de serviços e finalmente na quinta parte apresenta-se as considerações finais.

  10. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  11. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.

  12. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Rauch

    Full Text Available IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/- TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  13. The IL-17F/IL-17RC Axis Promotes Respiratory Allergy in the Proximal Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin 17 (IL-17 cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, following infection with the upper respiratory pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, the IL-17F/IL-17RC axis mediated protection. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F exert distinct biological effects during pulmonary infection; the IL-17F/IL-17RC signaling axis has the potential to significantly worsen pathogen-associated inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in particular, and should be investigated further as a therapeutic target for treating pathological inflammation in the lung.

  14. IL-17 mediates immunopathology in the absence of IL-10 following Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez-Lombana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, resulting from infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, consists of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. A particularly severe form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, termed mucosal leishmaniasis, exhibits decreased IL-10 levels and an exaggerated inflammatory response that perpetuates the disease. Using a mouse model of leishmaniasis, we investigated what cytokines contribute to increased pathology when IL-10-mediated regulation is absent. Leishmania major infected C57BL/6 mice lacking IL-10 regulation developed larger lesions than controls, but fewer parasites. Both IFN-γ and IL-17 levels were substantially elevated in mice lacking the capacity to respond to IL-10. IFN-γ promoted an increased infiltration of monocytes, while IL-17 contributed to an increase in neutrophils. Surprisingly, however, we found that IFN-γ did not contribute to increased pathology, but instead regulated the IL-17 response. Thus, blocking IFN-γ led to a significant increase in IL-17, neutrophils and disease. Similarly, the production of IL-17 by cells from leishmaniasis patients was also regulated by IL-10 and IFN-γ. Additional studies found that the IL-1 receptor was required for both the IL-17 response and increased pathology. Therefore, we propose that regulating IL-17, possibly by downregulating IL-1β, may be a useful approach for controlling immunopathology in leishmaniasis.

  15. IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Chung-Hao; Wang, Lin; Huang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ko; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-06-01

    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were collected from every patient. We investigated IL-28 and IL-29 levels in serum by ELISA. The concentrations of serum IL-28 and IL-29 were significantly higher in subjects with dengue when compared to those of control group. The patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels had significantly lower ALAT and peripheral blood neutrophil percentage, but higher peripheral platelet, total white blood cell (WBC), monocyte, and lymphocyte counts. Patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels also had more flu-like symptoms, but less vomiting. Increased level of IL-28 and IL-29 was associated with better liver function, platelet and WBC numbers and clinical symptom in subjects with dengue and could potentially serve as a protective marker.

  16. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bonanno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC, 11 allergic rhinitis (AR patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH Vit D. In AAR 25(OH Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.

  17. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  18. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  19. Il Gambling Compulsivo: rilevanza epidemiologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coacci

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: il gioco d’azzardo ha profonde radici nella storia e nella cultura di ogni popolo. Si stima che circa l’80% della popolazione adulta nel nostro Paese giochi d’azzardo. Esso, pur rappresentando per la maggior parte di queste persone solo un innocuo passatempo, si trasforma talora in una vera e propria malattia (gambling compulsivo, con comportamenti che denotano forme estreme di rischio, sino a forme che portano alla distruzione della famiglia e persino della propria vita.

    Si tratta un disturbo poco conosciuto e spesso non diagnosticato. Infatti, benché sia largamente diffuso e comporti rilevanti costi umani e sociali, il gambling compulsivo solo di recente è stato incluso nelle classificazioni diagnostiche internazionali.

    Obiettivi: valutare l’impatto epidemiologico del gambling compulsivo (gioco d’azzardo patologico in una ASL/provincia.

    Materiali e metodi: è stato inviato un questionario ai 190 Medici di Medicina Generale della provincia di Grosseto (ASL 8, per raccogliere informazioni su: sistema di cura, numero di soggetti che si sono rivolti al proprio medico di famiglia per tale problema, eventuale coesistenza di problemi e comportamenti di dipendenza e di abuso (alcool, psicofarmaci, droghe illegali, ecc.

    Risultati: sono pervenuti 127 (pari al 66,8% questionari compilati. L’elaborazione dei dati è tuttora in corso.

    Conclusioni: dai risultati preliminari sembra emergere che il numero di persone che chiede aiuto al medico e al SSN, differentemente da quanto accade per i tossicodipendenti, è molto limitato e, quindi, intuitivamente poco indicativo della massa di soggetti realmente coinvolti dalla problematica studiata. Si discute del ruolo nella promozione della salute potenzialmente svolto dai Medici di Medicina Generale. Per quanto la tecnica di rilevazione appaia relativamente poco sensibile

  20. The greenhouse effect: is it urgent to wait?; Effet de serre est-il urgent d'attendre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentelin, J.L. [Universite d' Evry Val d' Essonne, 91 - Evry (France)

    2005-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the depletion of oil reserves are 2 urgent matters, one imminent and the other latent. The handling of these 2 related issues requires reconciling the advocates of precaution and the supporters of progress, technology and ethics. This is not at all easy, particularly as the delay in the climatic catastrophe tends to hide the issue. It appears that there are much more reasons to act than to wait: -) the climate thread is underestimated because of the slow evolution of the consequences of climatic change, -) the possible improvement of current technologies will have a low impact, -) technological breakthroughs are too rare to rely on them, -) the capacity of new technologies to take over is always underestimated, -) the changes in the way of consuming energy requires time to involve large part of the population, and -) international mechanisms lacks efficiency and adequacy. (A.C.)

  1. Is man responsible for global warming?; L'homme est-il responsable du rechauffement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, A

    2009-07-01

    According to politicians, ecologists and mass media, it is now certain that with our CO{sub 2} emissions, we are all responsible for a major global warming to come with dramatic consequences. But, is this affirmation indisputable? Are we all responsible for the rise of sea level and the summer thawing of the arctic ice shelf? Is this expected global warming without precedent? And is CO{sub 2}, necessary for life, the cause of our misfortune? The answers commonly claimed are maybe more complex in reality and the climate question more subtle than it looks like. This book tries to decode the wheels of the climate machine and the share of human responsibility in climate change. (J.S.)

  2. Le système alimentaire mondial est-il soluble dans le développement durable ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rastoin, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In a process of world economic domination by an agro-industrial and agro-tertiary food system, the author wonders about the feasibility of an alternative model. The intensive agro-industrial model (financiarized, concentrated, specialized and globalized), allows remarkable results in terms of products prices and safety, but generates negative externalities. In the long term, this model could threat the food equilibrium of the populations and ecological balance of our planet. The concept of su...

  3. Cultivares e estádios de Colheita no Rendimento Forrageiro da Soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Milanez de Rezende

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a influência do estádio de colheita sobre a produção e a qualidade do feno de duas cultivares de soja foi conduzido ensaio em Lavras, MG, no ano agrícola 2001/02. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições, compreendendo duas cultivares (Conquista e Monsoy 8400 e cinco estádios de corte (R2, R3, R4, R5 e R6. As cultivares afetaram apenas o rendimento de proteína do feno. Os maiores rendimentos de matéria seca, feno e proteínas foram obtidos com os cortes nos estádios R4, R5 e R6. Quanto ao rendimento de proteína bruta, verificou-se queda após o corte em R5. Esta redução, provavelmente, associada a efeito de estresse hídrico e ou diluição da proteína na matéria seca. O estádio de desenvolvimento R4 apresentou a melhor opção de corte para fenação, independentemente da cultivar. A cultivar Monsoy 8400 apresentou maior rendimento de proteína bruta que a cultivar Conquista.

  4. Crystal structure of hyperthermophilic esterase EstE1 and the relationship between its dimerization and thermostability properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Eunhee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EstE1 is a hyperthermophilic esterase belonging to the hormone-sensitive lipase family and was originally isolated by functional screening of a metagenomic library constructed from a thermal environmental sample. Dimers and oligomers may have been evolutionally selected in thermophiles because intersubunit interactions can confer thermostability on the proteins. The molecular mechanisms of thermostabilization of this extremely thermostable esterase are not well understood due to the lack of structural information. Results Here we report for the first time the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of EstE1. The three-dimensional structure of EstE1 exhibits a classic α/β hydrolase fold with a central parallel-stranded beta sheet surrounded by alpha helices on both sides. The residues Ser154, Asp251, and His281 form the catalytic triad motif commonly found in other α/β hydrolases. EstE1 exists as a dimer that is formed by hydrophobic interactions and salt bridges. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and heat inactivation kinetic analysis of EstE1 mutants, which were generated by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues participating in EstE1 dimerization, revealed that hydrophobic interactions through Val274 and Phe276 on the β8 strand of each monomer play a major role in the dimerization of EstE1. In contrast, the intermolecular salt bridges contribute less significantly to the dimerization and thermostability of EstE1. Conclusion Our results suggest that intermolecular hydrophobic interactions are essential for the hyperthermostability of EstE1. The molecular mechanism that allows EstE1 to endure high temperature will provide guideline for rational design of a thermostable esterase/lipase using the lipolytic enzymes showing structural similarity to EstE1.

  5. Non est hic. Le cas exemplaire de la protection du fugitif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cavaillé

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cas dont je voudrais ici esquisser l’histoire et montrer quelques uns des enjeux, est surtout, sinon exclusivement connu, aujourd’hui encore, dans la version proposée par Benjamin Constant pour mettre en évidence une conséquence nécessaire et selon lui inacceptable de la morale kantienne. Constant en effet écrit, dans ces Réactions politiques, publiées en 1797 : Le principe moral […] que dire la vérité est un devoir, s’il était pris d’une manière absolue et isolée, rendrait toute société i...

  6. Consumo de substâncias ilícitas por adolescentes portugueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e os motivos que os levam a experimentá-las. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 2.499 adolescentes de 17 anos, com base numa coorte designada por EPITeen, iniciada em 2003/2004 com adolescentes nascidos em 1990 que estudavam nas escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Porto, Portugal. Foi realizada nova avaliação em 2007/2008, sendo recuperados 1.716 adolescentes (79,4% e avaliados 783 novos participantes. Informações sobre características sociais e demográficas, história familiar e pessoal de doença e comportamentos foram obtidas com questionários estruturados autoadministrados. O teste de qui-quadrado foi utilizado para testar as associações. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa informático SPSS® versão 17. RESULTADOS: Dos adolescentes, 14,6% referiram ter experimentado drogas alguma vez na vida. A droga ilícita mais experimentada foi a cannabis (12,5%, seguida pelo álcool em simultâneo com cannabis (5,5% e pelos tranquilizantes (1,7%. A razão mais referida para experimentar drogas foi a curiosidade (77,5%. Os amigos foram a forma mais frequentemente referida para obter a droga e a escola era vista por 24,2% dos adolescentes como um local em que se podia comprar cannabis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados fundamentam a necessidade de intervir em idades precoces e sugerem que essa intervenção deve ser integrada com estratégias dirigidas a outros comportamentos de risco, nomeadamente em meio escolar.

  7. Qu’est-ce qu’un “ ethnonyme ” ?

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Fin 1984, à l’époque où, apprenti ethnologue, je m’apprêtais à effectuer mon premier séjour sur le terrain, il ne faisait aucun doute que je me rendais chez des gens qui s’appelaient “ les Matis ”. Tant pour la communauté scientifique que pour les autorités gouvernementales, telle était la désignation officielle de ce groupe d’alors cent neuf amérindiens récemment contacté dans la région des sources du rio Itui, dans le bassin du Javari, à l’ouest de l’Amazonie brésilienne. Une fois sur place...

  8. Increased IL-20 and IL-24 target osteoblasts and synovial monocytes in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Andersen, Morten Nørgaard; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) involves activation of the innate immune system, inflammation and new bone formation. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-20 and IL-24 have been shown to link innate immune activation and tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that these two cytokines...... are secreted as part of activation of the innate immune system and affect bone homeostasis in SpA. IL-20 and IL-24 were measured in plasma from axial SpA patients (n = 83). Peripheral SpA patients (n = 16) were included for in-vitro cell culture studies. The plasma IL-20 and IL-24 levels were increased in Sp...

  9. The role of CD40L, IL-10 and IL-17 in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting

    2003-01-01

    CD40L/CD40 interaction is central to the control of thymus-dependent humoral immunity and cell mediated immune responses. IL-17 has been shown to induce the production of IL-6 and G-CSF, which can induce proliferation and differentiation of CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors. IL-10 can interfere with up-regulation of costimulatory molecules, thus suppressing the production of costimulatory cytokines, such as IL-12. IL-10 has been implicated as an essential mediator in the induction of systemic immune suppression following ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Treating UV-irradiated mice with anti-IL-10 blocks the induction of immune suppression

  10. Il fuoco della fusione termonucleare controllata

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero; Sindoni, Elio

    1984-01-01

    Per realizzare la fusione termonucleare controllata, cioè catturare e dominare il fuoco che accende gli astri, e ottenere così una nuova fonte di energia praticamente illimitata e a basso costo, si richiede uno sforzo collettivo e unitario globale: non esiste infatti nazione al mondo che sia in grado, singolarmente presa, di affrontare il problema, sia per le risorse finanziarie necessarie all'impresa sia per il numero dei ricercatori che dovranno dedicarvisi.

  11. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    grown these cells in culture and have generated stable cell clones which express Tomato Red so that these cells can be followed through fluorescent...occurring in ovarian cell lines, we examined the effect of IL6 and IL6Ra expression on cell migration in vitro . Migration through uncoated cell culture ...or IL6R were plated on tissue culture plates and scratch wounds were made. Over the course of the experiment, photographs of the cultures were

  12. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli.

    OpenAIRE

    Salarelli, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura. Paolo Monelli‟s Il ghiottone errante (The Wand...

  13. Consumo de álcool e drogas ilícitas entre estudantes de medicina, biologia e enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthefano A. Gabriel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introdução - O hábito de ingerir quantidades impróprias de bebidas alcoólicas e o uso de drogas ilícitas traz inúmeras consequências para a saúde do ser humano, com repercussão sobre a produtividade no trabalho, no relacionamento familiar, além de ser causa importante de acidentes de trânsito, homicídios e suicídio. Fatores coadjuvantes como a boa permissividade do ambiente universitário e a facilidade de acesso a vários tipos de substâncias psicoativas contribuem para o aumento progressivo do uso de drogas ilícitas e consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas entre estudantes universitários. Objetivos - Verificar a prevalência do uso de bebidas alcoólicas e drogas ilícitas entre os estudantes dos primeiros anos de Biologia, Medicina e Enfermagem, pertencentes à Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (estudo realizado em 2004, comparando o uso de tais substâncias entre os mesmos. Material e Método - Foi utilizado um questionário com 161 questões de múltipla escolha, das quais apenas uma alternativa foi considerada válida. Os alunos responderam ao questionário através de uma folha anônima de respostas. Foram estudados 160 alunos, sendo 97 do curso de Medicina (44 homens e 53 mulheres, 36 do curso de Biologia (11 homens e 25 mulheres e 27 do curso de Enfermagem (4 homens e 23 mulheres. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se os teste de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e Qui-Quadrado. Resultados - A maior parte dos alunos de Biologia e Enfermagem moram com seus pais, enquanto que no curso de Medicina a maioria dos acadêmicos mora com amigos. Com relação às drogas mais utilizadas pelo menos alguma vez na vida, álcool, tabaco e maconha foram as mais consumidas pelos alunos de Biologia e Enfermagem; enquanto que álcool, tabaco e solventes foram as mais usadas pelos estudantes de Medicina. Discussão - Álcool, cigarro, solvente e maconha foram as drogas mais utilizadas nos últimos 30 dias pelos alunos dos tr

  14. La guerre contre les drogues illicites : Est-ce qu’elle est perdue ? - Has the war against drugs been lost ? - La guerra contro le droghe è persa ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Le système légal du Mexique est dans un état de ruine à cause des cartels de la drogue soutenus et subventionnés par les États-Unis d'Amerique. En effet, les États-Unis sont le marché principal de la marijuana, de la cocaine et, en moindre quantité, des drogues synthétiques provénantes du Mexique. L’article met en évidence que les régions frontalières du Mexique sont pris en otage entre d’une part, les principaux producteurs mondiaux de coca et d’autre part, les principaux consommateurs (de l’Amerique du Nord et de l’Europe. Pour cela, l’avis de l’autrice et de son collaborateur est que le Mexique ne peut résoudre seul les problèmes liés au narcotrafique. The Mexican legal system is in a state of ruin because of illegal drug cartels supported, sustained and subsidized by the United States of America. It is the U.S. which is the market for marijuana, cocaine and to a lesser extent synthetic drugs trafficked through Mexico. This article evidences that especially the frontier regions of Mexico have been taken hostage between, on the one hand, the principal world producers of cocaine and, on the other hand, the principal consumers (from North America and from Europe. Accordingly, it is the view of the author and her collaborator that Mexico cannot resolve in isolation the problems involved in narco-trafficking.Il sistema legale messicano versa in uno stato disastroso a causa dei cartelli della droga sostenuti e sovvenzionati dagli Stati Uniti d’America. Infatti, gli USA rappresentano il principale mercato della marijuana, della cocaina e delle droghe sintetiche (queste ultime in misura minore provenienti dal Messico. L’articolo mette in evidenza che le regioni frontaliere del Messico sono prese in ostaggio, da una parte, dai principali produttori modiali di cocaina e, dall’altra, dai principali consumatori (che si trovano nell’America del Nord ed in Europa. Pertanto, secondo l’autrice ed il suo collaboratore

  15. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1ß, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1ß, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-¿. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted...... in increased IFN-¿ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Ra, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33...

  16. Development of EST-derived markers in Dendrobium from EST of related taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisa Juejun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Public databases are useful for molecular marker development. The major aim of this study was to develop expressedsequence tag (EST-derived markers in Dendrobium from available ESTs of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. A total of 6063sequences were screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and introns. Primers flanking these regions were generated andtested on genomic DNAs of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. Twenty-three percent of amplifiable Phalaenopsis EST-derivedmarkers were cross-genera transferable to Dendrobium. Forty-one markers from both Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium thatamplified in Dendrobium were assessed on six commercial cultivars and six wild accessions. All of them were transferableamong Dendrobium species. High polymorphism and heterozygosity were observed within wild accessions. Sixteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for linkage analysis on an F1 segregating population. Seven markers were mapped into threelinkage groups, two of which showed syntenic relationship between dendrobium and rice. This relationship will facilitatefurther quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and comparative genomic studies of Dendrobium. Our results indicate thatPhalaenopsis EST-derived markers are valuable tools for genetic research and breeding applications in Dendrobium.

  17. Sinergetica il segreto del successo della natura

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione e sommario ; il disordine cresce sempre? la morte termica dell'universo ; i cristalli : strutture ordinate, ma morte ; strutture ordinate nei liquidi e nelle nubi e formazioni geologiche ; fiat lux! la luce del laser ; configurazioni chimiche ; l'evoluzione biologica e la sopravvivenza del migliore ; sopravvivi anche senza essere il migliore : specializzati, scavati una nicchia ecologica ; come si formano gli organismi biologici ; talvolta i conflitti sono ineluttabili ; il caos, il caso e la concezione meccanicistica del mondo ; gli effetti sinergetici nell'economia ; si possono prevedere le rivoluzioni ? ; le allucinazioni comprovano le teorie sul cervello.

  18. Il caso Lautsi contro l’Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégor Puppinck

    2012-02-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse – 2. Il ragionamento della Seconda Sezione - 2.1. La ridefinizione dalla finalità del sistema educativo pubblico - 2.2. Il pluralismo educativo come finalità – 2.3. Sintesi del ragionamento della Sezione – 2.4.  Una sentenza contestata - 3.  Il ragionamento sviluppato dalla Grande Camera - 3.1. La sussidiarietà e il margine di apprezzamento – 3.2.  Il laicismo è una convinzione filosofica non neutra – 3.3. La neutralità si applica all’ “agire” e non all' "essere” dello  Stato – 3.4.  Democrazia, neutralità confessionale e laicità – 3.5.  L’educazione pubblica  nel senso della Grande Camera – 3.6.  Il crocefisso: un simbolo passivo – 3.7.  L’assenza d’ingerenza dello Stato - 4.  Gli sviluppi supplementari alla sentenza della Grande Camera – 4.1.  Il crocefisso e il velo islamico – 4.2.  La libertà negativa di religione dei non credenti – 4.3. La falsa soluzione bavarese – 4.4.  La tradizione – 4.5. La religione maggioritaria – 4.6.  Il dibattito religioso e politico – 4.7. Le conseguenze del caso Lautsi.

  19. Punta del Este terrane : a better knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L; Basei, M.

    2002-01-01

    Field Punta del Este (TPE) is constituted by a series of gneisses and migmatites formed in the range of 1000 and 900 Ma, and have been intensely reworked during Rio Doce orogeny (ca. 600-500 Ma). This cortical segment represents high-grade metamorphic terrain, correlatable with complex gneiss Southwest Africa, particularly with Kibariáno Belt - Namaqualanos recognized in the southwestern portion of Africa (Namibia). U-Pb zircon ages in tonalite granitoids indicate values ​​between 1000 and 900 Ma and were interpreted as indicating the time of generation of these rocks. This should also be the age of high-grade metamorphism that affected a large part of the gneissic rocks of the region. Moreover, the anatectic related mobilized leucosomes ages of migmatites gave ca. 520-540 Ma, indicating that the metamorphic conditions (overlapping) during the Rio Doce orogeny reached at least the amphibolite facies. The metasedimentary cover TPE occurs in the vicinity of the towns of La Paloma Rocha. These are represented by a siliciclastic metasedimentary sequence represented by Rocha Formation. Despite the poly phase deformation and low grade metamorphism affecting this training, primary structures are common such as stratification plano-parallel, cross-bedding, hummock y and massive levels with gradational stratification

  20. Counterbalancing of TH2-driven allergic airway inflammation by IL-12 does not require IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournoy, K G; Kips, J C; Pauwels, R A

    2001-03-01

    Asthma is characterized by allergen-induced airway inflammation orchestrated by TH2 cells. The TH1-promoting cytokine IL-12 is capable of inhibiting the TH2-driven allergen-induced airway changes in mice and is therefore regarded as an interesting strategy for treating asthma. The antiallergic effects of IL-12 are only partially dependent of IFN-gamma. Because IL-12 is a potent inducer of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo whether the antiallergic effects of IL-12 are mediated through IL-10. C57BL/6J-IL-10 knock-out (IL-10(-/-)) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently exposed from day 14 to day 21 to aerosolized OVA (1%). IL-12 was administered intraperitoneally during sensitization, subsequent OVA exposure, or both. IL-12 inhibited the OVA-induced airway eosinophilia, despite the absence of IL-10. Moreover, a shift from a TH2 inflammatory pattern toward a TH1 reaction was observed, with concomitant pronounced mononuclear peribronchial inflammation after IL-12 treatment. Allergen-specific IgE synthesis was completely suppressed only when IL-12 was administered along with the allergen sensitization. Furthermore, treating the animals with IL-12 at the time of the secondary allergen challenge resulted not only in a significant suppression of the airway responsiveness but also in an important IFN-gamma-associated toxicity. These results indicate that IL-12 is able to inhibit allergen-induced airway changes, even in the absence of IL-10. In addition, our results raise concerns regarding the redirection of TH2 inflammation by TH1-inducing therapies because treatment with IL-12 resulted not only in a disappearance of the TH2 inflammation but also in a TH1-driven inflammatory pulmonary pathology.

  1. Pro-inflammatory signaling by IL-10 and IL-22: bad habit stirred up by interferons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eMühl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 and IL-22 are key members of the IL-10 cytokine family that share characteristic properties such as defined structural features, usage of IL-10R2 as one receptor chain, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 as dominant signaling mode. IL-10, formerly known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is key to deactivation of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Accordingly, pre-clinical studies document its anti-inflammatory capacity. However, the outcome of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of IL-10 in prototypic inflammatory disorders has been disappointing. In contrast to IL-10, IL-22 acts primarily on non-leukocytic cells, in particular epithelial cells of intestine, skin, liver, and lung. STAT3-driven proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial tissue protection is regarded a principal function of IL-22 at host/environment interfaces. In this hypothesis article, hidden/underappreciated pro-inflammatory characteristics of IL-10 and IL-22 are outlined and related to cellular priming by type I interferon. It is tempting to speculate that an inherent inflammatory potential of IL-10 and IL-22 confines their usage in tissue protective therapy and beyond that determines in some patients efficacy of type I interferon treatment.

  2. Role of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Olivier; Rivière, Elodie; Seror, Raphaèle; Nocturne, Gaetane; Boudaoud, Saida; Ly, Bineta; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Le Guern, Véronique; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Nititham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Chanson, Philippe; Dieudé, Philippe; Criswell, Lindsey A; Jagla, Bernd; Thai, Alice; Mingueneau, Michael; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2017-09-12

    An interferon signature is involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), but whether the signature is type 1 or type 2 remains controversial. Mouse models and genetic studies suggest the involvement of T H 1 and type 2 interferon pathways. Likewise, polymorphisms of the IL-12A gene (IL12A), which encodes for IL-12p35, have been associated with pSS. The IL-12p35 subunit is shared by 2 heterodimers: IL-12 and IL-35. We sought to confirm genetic association of the IL12A polymorphism and pSS and elucidate involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with pSS by using functional studies. The genetic study involved 673 patients with pSS from 2 French pSS cohorts and 585 healthy French control subjects. Functional studies were performed on sorted monocytes, irrespective of whether they were stimulated. IL12A mRNA expression and IL-12 and IL-35 protein levels were assessed by using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA and a multiplex kit for IL-35 and IL-12, respectively. We confirmed association of the IL12A rs485497 polymorphism and pSS and found an increased serum protein level of IL-12p70 in patients with pSS carrying the risk allele (P = .016). Serum levels of IL-12p70 were greater in patients than control subjects (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05); conversely, IL-35 levels were decreased in patients (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05). In blood cellular subsets both IL12p35 and EBV-induced gene protein 3 (EBI3) mRNAs were detected only in B cells, with a trend toward a lower level among patients with pSS. Our findings emphasize involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in the pathogenesis of pSS. Serum IL-35 levels were associated with low disease activity, in contrast with serum IL-12p70 levels, which were associated with more active disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Le Prix mondial de l'alimentation est décerné à un ancien boursier ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 mai 2016 ... M. Hillel est chercheur principal au Center for Climate Systems Research, qui relève de l'Earth Institute de l'Université Columbia, et travaille avec le NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Il a oeuvré par le passé avec de nombreux organismes de développement international et s'était vu octroyer une ...

  4. Georges Lemaître et la théorie du big bang qu'y avait-t-il au commencement de l'univers ?

    CERN Document Server

    Landa, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Georges Lemaître et ses inventions en moins d'une heure !L'origine de l'univers, voilà une problématique qui a tenu en haleine de très nombreux scientifiques. Alors que l'on pourrait croire que l'homme s'est posé cette question depuis la nuit des temps, il n'en est rien. C'est Georges Lemaître, un prêtre belge et grand astrophysicien, qui le premier cherche à dater l'univers et à tenter de découvrir ce qu'il y avait au commencement, alors même que l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique était persuadé qu'il avait toujours exis

  5. Onde está a antropologia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. S. Peirano

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o cenário da antropologia contemporânea mediante o contraste entre quatro livros publicados nos últimos anos, dois nos Estados Unidos (After the Fact, de Clifford Geertz, e Making PCR, de Paul Rabinow e dois na Índia (Pathways, de T. N. Madan, e Critical Events, de Veena Das. A comparação é realizada no contexto de uma breve etnografia das livrarias norte-americanas, na qual se avaliam algumas publicações recentes, assim como a reclassificação de disciplinas tradicionais. O papel indispensável dos autores e obras considerados clássicos é examinado no contexto atual, finalizando com uma agenda para reflexão sobre as possibilidades de comunicação entre antropólogos de várias origens e vertentes.This article examines the setting of contemporary anthropology by means of the contrast between four books recently published in the United States (After the Fact by Clifford Geertz and Making PCR by Paul Rabinow and India (Pathways by T. N. Madan and Critical Events by Veena Das. The comparison is made in the context of a brief ethnographic study of bookstores in the United States which evaluates several recent publications, as well as the reclassification of traditional disciplines. The indispensable role of the authors in works considered classics is examined in present-day context, concluding with a reflection on the possibility of communication between anthropologists of diverse backgrounds and perspectives.

  6. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung.

  7. Clinical significance of determination of changes in serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with acute conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in patients with acute conjunctivitis after treatment. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 (with RIA) hs-CRP (with Immuno-turbidity) and IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with acute conjunctivitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of the changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment might be inportant for outcome prediction in patients with acute conjunctivitis. (authors)

  8. Clinical significance of determination of some serum cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF) levels in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dong; Zhang Xiaolei; Yang Chunxiu; Chen Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, M-CSF (with RIA) and IL-18 (with ELISA) were measured in 55 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P<0.01). After one month of treatment, the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels decreased somewhat, but were still significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was disturbance of immunomodulation in patients with periodontitis as expressed by the changes of several cytokines levels in the eourse of the diseases. (authors)

  9. Pourquoi le Grundgedanke (T. 4.0312 de Wittgenstein est si “Fondamental”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La pensée fondamentale de Wittgenstein affirme que les constantes logiques ne représentent pas, ne fonctionnent pas sémantiquement comme des noms. En apparence triviale, cette pensée, nous le montrerons, à des ramifications étonnantes dans la philosophie du premier Wittgenstein, en particulier en ce qui concerne sa conception de la logique. Notre but est d'interpréter l'aphorisme en question (T. 4.0312 en montrant comment il se rapporte aux thèses et théories les plus importantes du Tractatus, et comment il permet de les faire tenir ensemble d'une façon cohérente, justifiant par là son caractère "fondamental". Nous tentons également d'apporter une réponse aux questions suivantes : les propositions complexes sont-elles encore - comme les propositions atomiques - des "images" de la réalité ? et quelle est cette "logique des faits" dont parle Wittgenstein dans l'aphorisme sous examen ?

  10. Déchets nucléaires : où est le problème ?

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Faut-il avoir peur des déchets nucléaires ? Sont-ils vraiment, comme le pense une partie du public, ce fardeau empoisonné ingérable faisant peser une menace fatale sur nous-mêmes et sur nos descendants ? Ou sont-ils au contraire, comme l'estime la grande majorité des scientifiques, des résidus que l'on sait fort bien conditionner et mettre hors d'état de nuire ? Entre le public inquiet et les ingénieurs rassurants, comment comprendre l'immense décalage des attitudes ? Et comment, face à ces déchets laissés en héritage, faire la part des choses entre ceux qui dénoncent "un crime contre les générations futures" et ceux qui jugent "la difficulté résolue" ? Bref, "Où est le problème ?" Sans craindre de bousculer bien des idées reçues mais sans méconnaître les risques encourus, Francis Sorin éclaire ici en quelques chapitres percutants les problèmes et les solutions liés à la gestion de ces déchets en France. II s'attache particulièrement au devenir des déchets de haute activité et...

  11. [Correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-Nan; Zou, Xian-De; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the changes of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins and the correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma and aimed to explore the role of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thirty-four children with asthma and 21 age and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined using ELISA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and IgE in patients with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. An increased IgG and a decreased IgA levels were found in asthmatic patients at the acute attack stage. There was a positive correlation between the IL-16 and IL-18 levels at both acute attack and convalescence stages of asthma (r=0.70, P attack stage of asthma (r=0.624, P asthma. The immunologic imbalance exists in children with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages. Anti-allergic therapy should be administered through the acute attack to the convalescence stages of asthma.

  12. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  13. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  14. Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F and asthma in Saudi Arabia: mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win-07

    IL17A and IL17F were significantly higher in asthma patients compared to controls [IL17A: 1.112 (2.088) vs 0.938 ... Asthma is a frequently encountered chronic airway in- ... transcription was performed, in 20 μl reaction volume using the.

  15. ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO - emergency response system for NPP Mochovce and NPP Bohunice V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caeny, P.; Chyly, M.; Suchon, D.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.; Mancikova, M.; Muller, P.

    2009-01-01

    Programs ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO are emergency response systems that help the crisis staff of the NPP in assessing the source term (predicted possible release of radionuclides to the atmosphere ), in assessing the urgent protective measures and sectors under threat, in assessing real release (symptoms of release really detected and observed), in calculating radiological impacts of real release, averted or avertable doses, potential doses and doses during transport or evacuation on specified routes. Both systems serve as instruments in case of severe accident (DBA or BDBA) at NPP Mochovce or NPP Bohunice, accidents with threat of release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Systems are implemented at emergency centre of Mochovce NPP and Bohunice NPP and connected online to the sources of technological and radiological data from the reactor, primary circuit, confinement, secondary circuit, ventilation stack, from the area of NPP (TDS 1) and from the emergency planning zone (TDS 11). Systems are connected online to the sources of meteorological data, too. (authors)

  16. ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO - emergency response system for NPP Mochovce and NPP Bohunice V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caeny, P.; Chyly, M.; Suchon, D.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.; Mancikova, M.; Muller, P.

    2008-01-01

    Programs ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO are emergency response systems that help the crisis staff of the NPP in assessing the source term (predicted possible release of radionuclides to the atmosphere ), in assessing the urgent protective measures and sectors under threat, in assessing real release (symptoms of release really detected and observed), in calculating radiological impacts of real release, averted or avertable doses, potential doses and doses during transport or evacuation on specified routes. Both systems serve as instruments in case of severe accident (DBA or BDBA) at NPP Mochovce or NPP Bohunice, accidents with threat of release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Systems are implemented at emergency centre of Mochovce NPP and Bohunice NPP and connected online to the sources of technological and radiological data from the reactor, primary circuit, confinement, secondary circuit, ventilation stack, from the area of NPP (TDS 1) and from the emergency planning zone (TDS 11). Systems are connected online to the sources of meteorological data, too. (authors)

  17. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  18. Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Hougs, Lotte; Barington, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination with ...

  19. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  20. Kohvik-restoran C'est La Vie = Cafe-restaurant C'est La Vie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kohvik-restorani C'est La Vie (Suur-Karja 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Maile Grünberg, kes kavandas ka valdavalt mööbli. Laevalgusti disainis Tõnis Vellama. Skulptuuride (koopiad) autor on keraamik Ülle Rajasalu. Maile Grünbergist, tema viimased tööd. Keldrikorruse ja I korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet, foto M. Grünbergist

  1. EST Express: PHP/MySQL based automated annotation of ESTs from expression libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robin P; Buchser, William J; Lemmon, Marcus B; Pardinas, Jose R; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2008-04-10

    Several biological techniques result in the acquisition of functional sets of cDNAs that must be sequenced and analyzed. The emergence of redundant databases such as UniGene and centralized annotation engines such as Entrez Gene has allowed the development of software that can analyze a great number of sequences in a matter of seconds. We have developed "EST Express", a suite of analytical tools that identify and annotate ESTs originating from specific mRNA populations. The software consists of a user-friendly GUI powered by PHP and MySQL that allows for online collaboration between researchers and continuity with UniGene, Entrez Gene and RefSeq. Two key features of the software include a novel, simplified Entrez Gene parser and tools to manage cDNA library sequencing projects. We have tested the software on a large data set (2,016 samples) produced by subtractive hybridization. EST Express is an open-source, cross-platform web server application that imports sequences from cDNA libraries, such as those generated through subtractive hybridization or yeast two-hybrid screens. It then provides several layers of annotation based on Entrez Gene and RefSeq to allow the user to highlight useful genes and manage cDNA library projects.

  2. EST Express: PHP/MySQL based automated annotation of ESTs from expression libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardinas Jose R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biological techniques result in the acquisition of functional sets of cDNAs that must be sequenced and analyzed. The emergence of redundant databases such as UniGene and centralized annotation engines such as Entrez Gene has allowed the development of software that can analyze a great number of sequences in a matter of seconds. Results We have developed "EST Express", a suite of analytical tools that identify and annotate ESTs originating from specific mRNA populations. The software consists of a user-friendly GUI powered by PHP and MySQL that allows for online collaboration between researchers and continuity with UniGene, Entrez Gene and RefSeq. Two key features of the software include a novel, simplified Entrez Gene parser and tools to manage cDNA library sequencing projects. We have tested the software on a large data set (2,016 samples produced by subtractive hybridization. Conclusion EST Express is an open-source, cross-platform web server application that imports sequences from cDNA libraries, such as those generated through subtractive hybridization or yeast two-hybrid screens. It then provides several layers of annotation based on Entrez Gene and RefSeq to allow the user to highlight useful genes and manage cDNA library projects.

  3. In vitro secretion profiles of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF alpha after selective infection with Escherichia coli in human fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida-Claros Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chorioamniotic membranes infection is a pathologic condition in which an abnormal secretion of proinflammatory cytokines halts fetal immune tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional response of human chorioamniotic membranes, as well as the individual contribution of the amnion and choriodecidua after stimulation with Escherichia coli, a pathogen associated with preterm labor. Methods Explants of chorioamniotic membranes from 10 women (37–40 weeks of gestation were mounted and cultured in a Transwell system, which allowed us to test the amnion and choriodecidua compartments independently. Escherichia coli (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL was added to either the amniotic or the choriodecidual regions or both; after a 24-h incubation, the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10 in both compartments was measured using a specific ELISA. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Results After stimulation with Escherichia coli, the choriodecidua compartment showed an increase in the secretion of IL-1beta (21-fold, IL-6 (2-fold, IL-8 (6-fold, and IL-10 (37-fold, regardless of which side of the membrane was stimulated; TNFalpha secretion augmented (22-fold also but only when the stimulus was applied simultaneously to both sides. When the amnion was stimulated directly, the level of IL-1beta (13-fold rose significantly; however, the increase in IL-8 secretion was larger (20-fold, regardless of the primary site of infection. TNFalpha secretion in the amnion compartment rose markedly only when Escherichia coli was simultaneously applied to both sides. Conclusion Selective stimulation of fetal membranes with Escherichia coli results in a differential production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10. These tissues were less responsive when the amnion side was stimulated. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that the choriodecidua may play a primary role during an ascending

  4. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – ARL, Construções S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Ao longo das 540h de estágio aumentei o meu nível de aprendizagem. Apesar de já ter algum conhecimento na área fiquei muito satisfeita com o decorrer do estágio. As primeiras semanas, na empresa, foram para me integrar tanto com as equipas de trabalho como com a organização de trabalho. Foi fácil esta integração devido á experiência que já possuía. Após essa integração o meu supervisor de estágio colocou-me numa obra com uma equipa de trabalho onde pode aplicar todo o conhecimento teórico adq...

  5. Pregnancy, but not the allergic status, influences spontaneous and induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudruz, Petra; Minang, Jacob Taku; Sundström, Yvonne; Nilsson, Caroline; Lilja, Gunnar; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery and at a non-pregnant state 2 years after delivery. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The spontaneous cytokine production, and the response following stimulation with agents that primarily activate the adaptive part of the immune system [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), allergen extracts from cat and birch], or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activate innate immunity was measured in vitro. There was a significantly higher spontaneous in vitro production of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PBMCs during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy, and this was not affected by the allergic status of the women. Conversely, in PHA-stimulated cell cultures there was a lower production of IL-10 and IL-12 during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy. LPS-induced IL-6 levels were significantly lower in PBMCs obtained during pregnancy than at 2 years after pregnancy. In addition, we made the interesting observation that in allergic women total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower 2 years after pregnancy compared to the levels during pregnancy. Taken together, our results indicate that while atopic allergy in women does not have a substantial effect on cytokine production, pregnancy has an obvious effect on the immune system in terms of cytokine production as well as on the total IgE levels.

  6. L'internat affectif ou Dans quelle mesure et sous quelles conditions l'éducateur d'internat au Centre Oriph doit-il et peut-il répondre aux besoins affectifs des adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrig, Michael; Grau, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    Dans le conscient collectif, l'internat est réputé pour ses qualités normatives et logistiques. Il n'en est pas de même pour ce qui est des besoins affectifs. Si la famille est synonyme d'amour, de partage et de tendresse, l'internat est plutôt synonyme de discipline, de communauté et d'ordre. Ce sont là des représentations courantes, qui ont aussi été les miennes. L'objet de ce travail, est d'éprouver ces représentations, d'identifier ce qui peut effectivement être offert en internat pour ré...

  7. Osteoma osteoide no osso ilíaco: relato de dois casos Osteoid osteoma in the iliac bone: report on two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano de Araújo Loures

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteoma osteoide é um tumor benigno do osso que se apresenta geralmente com dor noturna em adultos jovens, aliviada por repouso e salicilatos. Pode acometer qualquer osso, mas sua ocorrência no ilíaco é infrequente. Os autores descrevem dois casos de osteoma osteoide intramedular, localizado junto à articulação sacroilíaca, com sintomas que simulavam dor ciática e cujo diagnóstico se deu de forma tardia, apesar de o exame radiológico inicial mostrar lesão esclerótica em ambos os casos. O diagnóstico foi ratificado por tomografia computadorizada e o tratamento proposto foi a ressecção em bloco da lesão, com excisão do nidus. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico. No seguimento de longo prazo, ambos estão assintomáticos e observou-se completa remodelação óssea no sítio cirúrgico. Os autores enfatizam as características típicas do tumor, a localização não usual, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that generally presents with nighttime pain among young adults and is relieved by rest and salicylates. It can affect any bone, but occurrences in the iliac are unusual. The authors describe two cases of intramedullary osteoid osteoma next to the sacroiliac joint, with symptoms that simulated sciatic pain. The cases were diagnosed late, although the initial radiographs showed sclerotic lesions in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of CT scan and the nidus was excised surgically through en bloc resection. The definitive diagnosis was given by means of histopathological examination. Over long-term follow-up, both cases remained asymptomatic and complete bone remodeling at the surgical site was observed. The authors highlight the typical characteristics of the tumor, the unusual location, the differential diagnosis and the treatment.

  8. Structural Characterisation Reveals Mechanism of IL-13-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody Tralokinumab as Inhibition of Binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, B; Breed, J; Rees, D G; Gardener, M J; Vinall, L M K; Kemp, B; Spooner, J; Keen, J; Minter, R; Uddin, F; Colice, G; Wilkinson, T; Vaughan, T; May, R D

    2017-01-20

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic T helper type 2 cytokine frequently associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis. IL-13-mediated signalling is initiated by binding to IL-13Rα1, which then recruits IL-4Rα to form a heterodimeric receptor complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, considered as either a decoy or a key mediator of fibrosis. IL-13-neutralising antibodies act by preventing IL-13 binding to IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and/or IL-13Rα2. Tralokinumab (CAT-354) is an IL-13-neutralising human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with asthma. To decipher how tralokinumab inhibits the effects of IL-13, we determined the structure of tralokinumab Fab in complex with human IL-13 to 2 Å resolution. The structure analysis reveals that tralokinumab prevents IL-13 from binding to both IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. This is supported by biochemical ligand-receptor interaction assay data. The tralokinumab epitope is mainly composed of residues in helices D and A of IL-13. It is mostly light chain complementarity-determining regions that are driving paratope interactions; the variable light complementarity-determining region 2 plays a key role by providing residue contacts for a network of hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge in the core of binding. The key residues within the paratope contributing to binding were identified as Asp50, Asp51, Ser30 and Lys31. This study demonstrates that tralokinumab prevents the IL-13 pharmacodynamic effect by binding to IL-13 helices A and D, thus preventing IL-13 from interacting with IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Estágio Supervisionado Educação Infantil III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlanda Oliveira Bueno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste relatório é resultado do estágio de docência em educação infantil III sob a orientação da Professora Sandra Luzia Wrobel Straub da professora. MS. Lenita Korbes do curso de pedagogia da Unemat, Campus de Sinop/MT. Foi realizado as observações nos dias 29/ 30/ 31/de Novembro de 2013 e a regência entre os dias05/11/2013 á 15/11/ 2012 dando um total de 52 horas de estágio no CMEI as restantes das horas foram na UNEMAT e as professoras deram os encaminhamentos e sanaram as dúvidas, O está localizado na Avenida, André Maggi no jardim São Paulo; nos períodos matutino e vespertino, com uma turma de creche II.  Nas datas 08/09/05/2013 retornamos a universidade onde as professoras Sandra Luzia Wrobel Straub e a prof. MS. Lenita Korbes contribuíram na elaboração do plano de aula, Com carga horária total de 76 horas. Tendo como objetivo aprimorar a prática de ensinar as crianças em sala de aula e de compreender como ocorre a ação pedagógica na Educação Infantil, com crianças deidade entre 4 e 5 anos de idade, seguindo um planejamento que cumpriu com o regimento interno da Creche e que foi elaborado de acordo com as fontes teóricas trabalhados no decorrer do curso de pedagogia, na universidade aconteceu à socialização onde trocamos as experiências obtidas durante os estágios e enceramos com uma confraternização.  Palavras-chave: ação pedagógica, teoria/prática e educação infantil.

  10. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  11. Clinical significance of changes of levels of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and gastrin in patients with chronic eczema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Haifeng; Bi Mingye; Shi Hejian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic eczema and 30 controls. Results: The levels of serum IL-2 were significantly lower in the eczema patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum IL-10 and Gastrin levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema would be of help in monitoring the disease process and outcome prediction. (authors)

  12. IL-36 cytokines in autoimmunity and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liping; Wang, Xiaohui; Hong, Xiaoping; Lu, Liwei; Liu, Dongzhou

    2018-01-05

    The inteleukin-36 (IL-36) cytokines include IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra, which belong to the IL-1 family and exert pro-inflammatory effects on various target cells such as keratinocytes, synoviocytes, dendritic cells and T cells. Emerging evidence has suggested a role of IL-36 in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief review on the activation of IL-36 family cytokines and their involvement in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases, which will provide further insights in understanding the functions of IL-36 family cytokines in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...

  14. IL-13 and the IL-13 receptor as therapeutic targets for asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jesse; Dimov, Vesselin; Townley, Robert G

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that T-helper 2 cell (Th2) cytokines play an important role in the maintenance of asthma and allergy. Emerging evidence has highlighted the role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In particular, IL-13 is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration, and has been associated with the regulation of certain chemokine receptors, notably CCR5. Thus, targeting IL-13 and its associated receptors may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and/or allergy. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are researching various strategies, based on this approach, aimed at binding IL-13, increasing the level of the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha2, or blocking the effect of the chemokine receptor CCR5. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-13 agents and their role in the treatment of asthma and allergy.

  15. A DECISÃO DO SUPREMO TRIBUNAL FEDERAL QUE RECONHECEU A UNIÃO ESTÁVEL HOMOAFETIVA NO BRASIL: A PRIMEIRA GRANDE BATA LHA CONTRA A HOMOFOBIA FOI VENCIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriana Munhoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de familia no puede estar vinculada sólo a "el matrimonio, el sexo y la reproducción." El concepto de familia moderna debe comprenderse en uno más amplio, que se debe reconocer sin prejuicios ni discriminación, el afecto y la felicidad son básicos para su definición. Habida cuenta de la omisión legislativa, la reciente decisión de la Corte Suprema reconoce que la unión homosexual estable va al encuentro de este nuevo paradigma. Con cuidado para proteger a este grupo vulnerable, nuestro Tribunal Constitucional rompe "tabúes" y respeta los principios fundamentales de nuestra ley suprema, lo que demuestra que la libertad de la libre orientación sexual forma parte de la dignidad humana.

  16. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  17. Study on the changes of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with coronary cardiac heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaozhuo; Yu Xian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the role TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 played in the pathogenesis of coronary cardiac heart diseases. Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay in 32 patients with stable angina, 39 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 36 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in all patients were higher than those in controls. Remarkably increased level were seen in acute myocardial infarction group. Difference between control and patient groups were: stable angina group TNF-α, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.01 and IL-8, p<0.05; acute myocardial infarction group TNF-α, p<0.01, IL-1β, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.001 and IL-8, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is close relationship between serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 levels and development of coronary cardiac heart disease. They play an important role in the pathogenesis through mutual induction and synergistic actions

  18. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents for differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Wang Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 in patients with tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion. Methods: Serum and chest fluid ADA (with biochemical method), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 (with ELISA) contents were measured in 56 patients with tuberculosis pleural effusion, 53 patients with malignant effusion and 30 controls (in serum only). The receiving operative characteristic (ROC) curve for each parameter was analyzed for study of respective area under curse (Auc). Results: The serum IL-6 levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). The chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in patients with tuberculous effusion were all significantly higher than those in patients with malignancies (P<0.05). The Auc in the ROC was largest in the case of ADA, followed by IL-10, IL-6 with IL-2 the least. Conclusion: Determination of chest fluid ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents was helpful in the differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion. Combined determination of chest fluid ADA and IL-10 provided the highest accuracy rate for differentional diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  20. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  1. Caravaggio e il Maccheronico di Teofilo Folengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Piciché

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio ipotizza un’affinità tra Caravaggio e Teofilo Folengo, argomentando che la pittura del primo presenta analogie estetiche e etiche con la produzione in latino maccheronico del secondo. Il Baldus costituisce un tipico esempio di quella che Genette definirà come «parodia seria»: attraverso il rovesciamento e la irrisione beffarda Folengo ingaggia tenzone contro l’arte paludata e il travisamento dei valori cristiani. Non si tratta qui di stabilire un’influenza di Folengo su Caravaggio, bensì un’analogia, in virtù di un filo di congiunzione ideale, la cui presumibilità viene corroborata anche dal substrato biografico-culturale e da comune spirito religioso. Sia in Folengo che in Caravaggio sono stati individuati i caratteri di un certo modo della cultura lombarda di essere “contro” al punto che il duo Folengo-Caravaggio sembra epitomizzare l’antitesi al decorum curialcortigianesimo di Castiglione e Raffaello. Il Cristo-paradosso costituisce la vera fonte ispiratrice per entrambi. La comparazione tra due arti deve tenere conto dei diversi strumenti espressivi, e questo costituirà uno dei soggetti di riflessione nel testo. Se l’ipotesi della consentaneità viene ragionevolmente difesa, perché non individuare una componente maccheronica anche nell’arte di Caravaggio? Agli storici d’arte, tuttavia, decidere se si possa considerare il maccheronico come categoria pittorica

  2. Y a-t-il eu un instant zéro ?

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    D'où vient l'univers ? Et d'où vient même qu'il y ait un univers ? Aura-t-il une fin ? Pourquoi les humains y sont-ils apparus ? Si ces questions nous obsèdent depuis toujours, celle de l'origine demeure la plus mystérieuse, la plus vertigineuse, d'où la profusion de discours — mythologiques, religieux ou philosophiques — qui tentent d'y répondre. C'est grâce à la science, aux découvertes de Newton, Galilée, Edwin Hubble, Alexandre Friedmann et Georges Lemaître, qu'on peut retracer le grand récit de l'univers, remonter son histoire à 13,7 milliards d'années, jusqu'à cette phase très dense et très chaude qu'on a appelée le big bang. Mais celui-ci n'est pas pour autant, comme on l'a imaginé, cette explosion originelle qui aurait créé tout ce qui existe. Cet instant zéro, peut-on le décrire, le penser, raconter d'où il peut bien provenir ? Et d'où serait venu l'univers d'avant le big bang ? Mystère ! Qu'il y ait eu origine ou pas, on ne part donc jamais de zéro. En parler, c'est p...

  3. Palavras-estímulo favorecedoras para o tratamento do desvio fonológico em onset simples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Brancalioni

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivos: propor e analisar listas com palavras-estímulo em contextos linguísticos favorecedores para segmentos-alvo na posição de onset simples, utilizando um padrão de programação para pontuar o nível de favorecimento dessas palavras. Métodos: foi desenvolvido um padrão de programação, em linguagem Java, para determinar a pontuação das palavras-estímulo, que considerou o somatório dos pesos atribuídos às variáveis linguísticas: posição na palavra, tonicidade, número de sílabas, contexto precedente e contexto seguinte, para cada segmento-alvo. Foram utilizadas 748 palavras para elaboração de listas de palavras-estímulo para cada segmento-alvo. Todas as palavras-estímulo tiveram sua pontuação de favorecimento calculada a partir do padrão de programação e classificadas quanto ao nível de favorecimento. Resultados: verificou-se que as palavras-estímulo classificadas como favorecedoras (PEF foram as que alcançaram maior pontuação, uma vez que contemplaram os contextos mais favorecedores para produção do segmento-alvo. Contudo não foi necessário que todos os contextos favorecedores fossem privilegiados para as palavras serem classificadas como PEF. Conclusão: o padrão de programação desenvolvido foi eficiente para pontuar o nível de favorecimento das palavras-estímulo. Além disso, deve haver uma preferência por palavras-estímulo favorecedoras, ou que alcançam maior pontuação, porém nem sempre essas palavras são as mais adequadas para o tratamento de qualquer sistema fonológico desviante.

  4. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Relationship with IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL 22, and IL-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bayrak Degirmenci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed in our study to research the role of new cytokines such as IL-35, IL-22, and IL-17 that may form a target for novel treatment approaches. Methods. IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-22, and IL-35 serum levels of allergic rhinitis (AR patients were measured using ELISA method. Allergic sensitization was demonstrated by the skin prick test. Patients only with olive tree sensitivity were evaluated for seasonal AR (SAR. Patients only with mite sensitivity were included in the study for perennial AR (PAR. AR clinic severity was demonstrated by the nasal symptom scores (NSS. Results. In total, 65 AR patients (patient group, having 31 PAR and 34 SAR patients, and 31 healthy individuals (control group participated in the study. Cytokine levels between the patient group and the control group were compared; IL-17 (p=0.038, IL-22 (p=0.001, and TGF-β (p=0.031 were detected as high in the patient group, and IFN-γ (p<0.001 was detected as low in the patient group. When correlation analysis was made between age, gender, prick test result, NSS, AR duration, and cytokine levels in the patient group, a negative correlation was detected only between IFN-γ (p=0.032/r=−0.266 level and NSS. Conclusions. Accompanied by the literature information, these results made us think that T cell subgroups and cytokines have an important role in AR immunopathogenesis. It is thought that future studies to be conducted relating to this subject will form new targets in treatment.

  5. Asie du Sud-Est : enjeu régional ou enjeu mondial ?, Hugues Tertrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gédéon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans Asie du Sud-Est : enjeu régional ou enjeu mondial ?, Hugues Tertrais se livre à une analyse précise de la situation en Asie du sud-est au regard de la crise économique qui a secoué cette région du monde en 1997 et de ses conséquences. Soulignant la fragmentation de cet espace politique, caractérisé par sa très grande diversité culturelle et linguistique, l’auteur rappelle qu’il s’est édifié sur l’ancienne ligne de fracture entre monde chinois et puissances européennes, tout d’abord, puis...

  6. PCR-Based EST Mapping in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    J. PERRY GUSTAFSON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs to hexaploid wheat is aimed to reveal the structure and function of the hexaploid wheat genome. Sixty eight ESTs representing 26 genes were mapped into all seven homologous chromosome groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L using a polymerase chain reaction technique. The majority of the ESTs were mapped to homologous chromosome group 2, and the least were mapped to homologous chromosome group 6. Comparative analysis between the EST map from this study and the EST map based on RFLPs showed 14 genes that have been mapped by both approaches were mapped to the same arm of the same homologous chromosome, which indicated that using PCR-based ESTs was a reliable approach in mapping ESTs in hexaploid wheat.

  7. IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes: A renascence of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2016), e1102829 ISSN 2162-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Anti-IL-2 mAb * cancer immunotherapy * IL-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.719, year: 2016

  8. Procedimentos estéticos: percepção do cliente quanto ao esclarecimento para a tomada de decisão

    OpenAIRE

    Auricchio,Ana Maria; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho verificou a percepção do cliente quanto ao esclarecimento e à liberdade para tomada de decisão na realização de procedimentos estéticos. A amostra foi de 44 clientes, freqüentadores da Clínica do estudo. A coleta de dados foi realizada com instrumento de 28 proposições, classificadas nas categorias: Informação, Competência e Liberdade, e duas escalas para percepção dos clientes quanto ao esclarecimento das informações e a liberdade para tomada de decisão. Os resultados mostraram pr...

  9. The role of interleukin-5 (IL-5 in vivo: studies with IL-5 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus I Matthaei

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil recruitment is a characteristic feature of a number of pathological conditions and was the topic of the recent International Symposium on allergic inflammation, asthma, parasitic and infectious diseases (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-5, 1996. Since interleukin5 (IL5 is believed to regulate the growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils (Coffman et al. 1989, Sanderson 1992, the role of eosinophils and IL5 are closely linked. Although IL5 specifically regulates eosinophilia in vivo and this is its most well established activity, it is becoming clear that IL5 also has other biological effects. The recent derivation of an IL5 deficient mouse (Kopf et al. 1996, provides a model for exploring not only the role of IL5 and eosinophils but also other novel activities of IL5. Of note is that although the IL5 deficient mice cannot elicit a pronounced eosinophilia in response to inflammatory stimulation following aeroallergen challenge or parasite infection they still produce basal levels of eosinophils that appear to be morphologically and functionally normal. However, the basal levels of eosinophils appear insufficient for normal host defence as IL5 deficiency has now been shown to compromise defence against several helminth infections. In addition, IL5 deficient mice appear to have functional deficiencies in B-1 B lymphocytes and in IgA production.

  10. Interleukin-33 (IL-33): A nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a tissue-derived nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, both during homeostasis and inflammation. It functions as an alarm signal (alarmin) released upon cell injury or tissue damage to alert immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor (IL-1RL1). The major targets of IL-33 in vivo are tissue-resident immune cells such as mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Other cellular targets include T helper 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, basophils, dendritic cells, Th1 cells, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, iNKT cells, B cells, neutrophils and macrophages. IL-33 is thus emerging as a crucial immune modulator with pleiotropic activities in type-2, type-1 and regulatory immune responses, and important roles in allergic, fibrotic, infectious, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The critical function of IL-33/ST2 signaling in allergic inflammation is illustrated by the fact that IL33 and IL1RL1 are among the most highly replicated susceptibility loci for asthma. In this review, we highlight 15 years of discoveries on IL-33 protein, including its molecular characteristics, nuclear localization, bioactive forms, cellular sources, mechanisms of release and regulation by proteases. Importantly, we emphasize data that have been validated using IL-33-deficient cells. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palladino Ilaria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ and 77 healthy control subjects (HC for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP. Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

  12. Les humains sont-ils des entités matérielles ?

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    Tauveron Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nous étudions la sémantique des noms d’humains dans le lexique français. Dans la littérature, ces noms ont un positionnement indéterminé ou ambigu par rapport au critère concret/abstrait. Ce fait est regrettable car ce critère est considéré comme fondamental. Nous montrons leur positionnement particulier vis-à-vis de ce critère au travers de l’étude de métaphores attestées en corpus dans divers textes écrits. Nous suivons l’optique de Lakoff et Johnson en considérant que la métaphore est un révélateur des catégories de pensée. Dans cet esprit, la question est de savoir si les humains sont des entités matérielles ou non. L’étude est menée sur deux paramètres définitoires des entités matérielles : la masse et la spatialité. Nous apportons des caractérisations lexicales de ces deux propriétés. La masse est envisagée généralement, autour des noms, adjectifs et verbes relevés dans les dictionnaires. Nous proposons une synthèse des divers paramètres dénotant la spatialité dans la littérature, sous la forme de six points indépendants (forme, intérieur/extérieur, sous-parties, changement de posture, localisation, déplacement. L’étude de la spatialité est menée systématiquement dans ces directions grâce à des tests issus des caractérisations lexicales de ces aspects. Les tests font voir que, si les humains sont dotés d’une certaine dimension matérielle (qu’ils partagent ainsi avec les objets concrets, ils ont également au moins trois autres dimensions qui font qu’ils ne se réduisent pas à des objets matériels. Nous montrons ainsi que l’humain est, dans le lexique français, doté d’une multiplicité ontologique : en plus d’une dimension matérielle, il dispose d’une dimension psychologique, une dimension praxéologique et une dimension sociale. De plus, l’étude des métaphores montre que la dimension matérielle est souvent réduite voire anéantie par rapport aux

  13. Tecnologia italiana per il vuoto spinto

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "Ancora una volta ad aggiudicarsi un ambito riconoscimento internazionale e' un fisico italiano: Cristoforo Benvenuti ritirera' tra pochi giorni a Denver il premio Gaede-Langmuir che viene assegnato dalla American vacuum society" (1/2 page).

  14. Michel Foucault e il problema della genealogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Abeni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Si j'étais prétentieux, je donnerais comme titre général à ce que je fais : généalogie de la morale." Dietro questa affermazione, rilasciata nel contesto colloquiale di un'intervista, è possibile scorgere il segno di una confessione intellettuale e il compendio di un pensiero. In primo luogo, allusivamente, rinvia alla figura di Nietzsche e alla traccia indelebile che il suo pensiero ha lasciato nella filosofia e nella ricerca di Foucault. In secondo luogo, autorizza a osservare nella riflessione foucaultiana la filigrana di quella genealogia che il presente lavoro si propone di affrontare come stile d'interrogazione filosofica.

  15. PER ALDO NOSEDA: IL CRITICO MUSICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Fiaccadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo è un tentativo di fornire la lista completa degli scritti di Aldo Noseda (Milano, 1853-Stresa, 1916 come critico musicale. Fu un erudito conoscitore d’arte e appassionato collezionista, ma la quasi totalità dei suoi scritti sono dedicati alla scena musicale italiana. Prese parte all’infiammato dibattito a proposito della musica strumentale divenendo membro della Società del Quartetto e fondando la Società orchestrale della Scala a Milano. Dal 1876 al 1894, sotto lo pseudonimo de Il Misovulgo fu tra gli editorialisti militanti di importanti periodici come «La Gazzetta musicale di Milano», il «Corriere della Sera» e «Il Caffè», contribuendovi con una serie di appassionate recensioni dei contemporanei eventi musicali milanesi.

  16. Al Sharpton’s 2004 Presidential Campaign: Has the Reverend Lost the Faith? Le révérend aurait-il perdu la foi ? La candidature d’Al Sharpton aux élections présidentielles américaines de 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Urbanowski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’étudier la tactique électorale mise en place par Al Sharpton au cours de la campagne pour les élections présidentielles de 2004 aux États-Unis. Cette tactique dite de « déracialisation » l’a conduit à minimiser l’aspect religieux de sa candidature dans un contexte où précisément, les électeurs souhaitaient entendre davantage les candidats expliquer leurs rapports au religieux. Loin de lui faire gagner les voix espérées, ce choix lui a aliéné une partie de l’électorat noir, sans pour autant lui attirer d’autres électeurs.

  17. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus infection and IL-1Β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 polymorphisms in Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, Lawal Dahiru; Rezaei, Farhad; Marashi, Seyed Mahdi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Naseri, Maryam; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was aimed to investigate the polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 genes to find the possibility of their association with the clinical outcome of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection among the infected patients in Iran. This is a Case-Control study in which influenza A/H3N2 virus positive confirmed with real-time PCR were the cases. DNA samples from groups were genotyped for polymorphisms in rs16944 (IL-1β), rs1800872 (IL-10), rs2275913 (IL-17), and rs8099917 (IL-28). Confidence interval (95%CI) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated. IL-17 rs2275913 (GG and AG) were associated with risk of infection with that were statistically significant (P rs16944) (GG) was associated with reduced risk of infection (P < 0.01, OR = 0.46). Genotype GG and GT of IL-10 (rs1800872) were associated with increased risk of infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus (P < 0.05, OR = 2.04-2.58). In addition, IL-28 (rs8099917) genotypes GG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.49) and TG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.59) were associated with reduced risk of ILI symptom while genotype TT (P < 0.01, OR = 4.31) was associated with increased risk of ILI symptom. The results of this study demonstrated that polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory process affect the outcome of disease caused by influenza A/H3N2 virus. Thorough insight on host immune response at the time of influenza A virus infection is required to ensure adequate patient care in the case of feature outbreaks. J. Med. Virol. 88:2078-2084, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli

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    Alberto Salarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura.

  19. Increasing the biological activity of IL-2 and IL-15 through complexing with anti-IL-2 mAbs and Il-15Ralfa-Fc chimera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, Petra; Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA13-12885S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IL-2 * IL-15 * chimera Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.512, year: 2014

  20. Commensal bacteria and MAMPs are necessary for stress-induced increases in IL-1β and IL-18 but not IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maslanik

    Full Text Available Regular interactions between commensal bacteria and the enteric mucosal immune environment are necessary for normal immunity. Alterations of the commensal bacterial communities or mucosal barrier can disrupt immune function. Chronic stress interferes with bacterial community structure (specifically, α-diversity and the integrity of the intestinal barrier. These interferences can contribute to chronic stress-induced increases in systemic IL-6 and TNF-α. Chronic stress, however, produces many physiological changes that could indirectly influence immune activity. In addition to IL-6 and TNF-α, exposure to acute stressors upregulates a plethora of inflammatory proteins, each having unique synthesis and release mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses are dependent on the commensal bacteria, and more specifically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS shed from Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacteria. We present evidence that both reducing commensal bacteria using antibiotics and neutralizing LPS using endotoxin inhibitor (EI attenuates increases in some (inflammasome dependent, IL-1 and IL-18, but not all (inflammasome independent, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 inflammatory proteins in the blood of male F344 rats exposed to an acute tail shock stressor. Acute stress did not impact α- or β- diversity measured using 16S rRNA diversity analyses, but selectively reduced the relative abundance of Prevotella. These findings indicate that commensal bacteria contribute to acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses, and support the presence of LPS-mediated signaling in stress-evoked cytokine and chemokine production. The selectivity of the commensal bacteria in stress-evoked IL-1β and IL-18 responses may implicate the inflammasome in this response.

  1. Jalons pour une anthropologie de l’éthique entrepreneuriale en Asie du Sud-Est Groundwork for an Anthropology of Entrepreneurial Ethics in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Gallenga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available L’éthique entrepreneuriale est une notion largement mobilisée dans le milieu des affaires et des entreprises en Asie du Sud-Est où elle est présentée le plus souvent comme un ensemble de préceptes moraux, idéologiques ou religieux que les acteurs locaux rassemblent sous le vocable « valeurs asiatiques ». L’objet de cette introduction est de replacer ces valeurs dans le contexte de l’entreprise à partir de quelques travaux fondateurs de ce sujet en Asie du Sud-Est. Nous verrons que le plus souvent ils oscillent entre deux pôles : d’une part la sociologie wébérienne du capitalisme industriel par le prisme de l’éthique religieuse et d’autre part l’approche substantiviste de Polanyi. Si les grilles d’analyse nées de ces débats ont été appliquées en majorité aux entrepreneurs issus de la diaspora chinoise, c’est la question de l’idéologie des entrepreneurs qui prédomine à travers le prisme des courants philosophiques et religieux qui leur servent de repères. Comment des valeurs et des idéologies sont-elles perpétuées, adaptées ou transposées par les directions d’entreprise ? Comment s’insèrent-elles également dans les micro-stratégies des acteurs locaux ? Comment l’éthique entrepreneuriale se décline-t-elle dans des établissements de statuts divers et dans des familles d’entrepreneurs ? Quelles images ces dernières construisent-elles et quelles sont les valeurs (morales, religieuses, etc. qui participent à la construction de cette éthique ? En d’autres termes, il s’agit d’observer des pratiques qui ont cours dans cette partie du monde et d’en comprendre les logiques au travers d’analyses anthropologiques. Ainsi, les contributions présentées dans ce numéro apportent à la fois des éléments de réponse et ouvrent d’autres pistes de réflexion pour concourir à esquisser ce que « éthique entrepreneuriale » peut recouvrir dans cette région du Sud-Est asiatique

  2. O espaço dos possíveis de Steve Jobs: como foi possível a mitificação em torno da imagem da Apple?

    OpenAIRE

    Tartas, Felipe dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    A publicidade da Apple, inspirada na obra 1984 de George Orwell, veiculada durante a transmissão televisiva do Super Bowl XVIII serviu como alegoria da configuração história da esfera tecnológica dos Estados Unidos da América à época. Afetividade e racionalidade, antagonismo pelo qual, em uma lógica relacional, se definiu a Apple. O sucesso de Steve Jobs está atrelado às mudanças na esfera tecnológica nos últimos anos, a um maior encantamento dessa esfera, que reflete a estrutura social mais ...

  3. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Targeting the IL-17/IL-6 axis can alter growth of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in vivo/in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; McCaw, Lindsay; Spaner, David E; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2018-03-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo. Human recombinant IL-17 treatment also increased CLL engraftment in mice through an IL-6 mediated mechanism. Plasma of CLL patients showed elevated levels of both IL-6 and IL-17 by ELISA compared with healthy controls, with levels of IL-6 linearly correlated with IL-17 levels. CLL patients requiring fludarabine based chemotherapy expressed higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17, while CLL patients with the lowest levels of IgA/IgM had higher levels of IL-6, but not IL-17. These data imply an important role for the IL-17/IL-6 axis in CLL which could be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A importância do processo ensino: aprendizagem do trompete entre a música erudita e o jazz, tendo como objetivo a versatilidade na performance: relatório de estágio

    OpenAIRE

    Vilão, João Pedro Lúcio da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Resumo I (Prática Pedagógica) - O Relatório de estágio foi concebido no âmbito da Unidade Curricular de Estágio do Ensino Especializado, Mestrado em Ensino da Música pela Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa. Assim, este documento assenta sobre a prática pedagógica desenvolvida no Conservatório de Música David de Sousa – Polo Pombal no ano letivo 2014-2015, abrangendo três alunos de diferentes graus de ensino. Neste Relatório será caracterizado o estabelecimento de ensino onde decorreu o estág...

  6. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilasco, Maria Ines de Albuquerque; Uribe-Cruz, Carolina; Santetti, Daniele; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (patresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  8. Tra il mediterraneo e il fonte battesimale: Musulmani a Napoli nel XVI secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Varriale, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    Il saggio analizza la presenza di musulmani a Napoli durante il Cinquecento, quando la capitale vive una profonda trasformazione urbanistica, che è vincolata alla immigrazione di comunità esogene e al conflitto contro il Turco. Le ostilità tra la Casa d’Austria e la Sublime Porta condizionano inevitabilmente la vita dei maomettani, che appartengono a tre grandi categorie: schiavi, franchi o esuli. Secondo la propria condizione gli islamici occupano diversi spazi cittadini. I musulmani di Napo...

  9. Comunicação e mobilização: o movimento 'Não Foi Acidente' e a campanha em torno de um problema público no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Terezinha

    Full Text Available A partir da abordagem de acontecimento em Quéré (1997; 2005, de problema público em Gusfield (2009 e de enquadramento em Goffman (1991, o artigo analisa a emergência e as ações do movimento Não Foi Acidente, no desenvolvimento de uma campanha, potencializada por mídias sociais, para apresentar ao Congresso Nacional um projeto de lei de iniciativa popular visando modificar o Código de Trânsito e endurecer a penalização para quem beber e dirigir. Analisa-se o conteúdo de matérias jornalísticas veiculadas em mídias eletrônicas e digitais, além de comentários postados por internautas no blog do NFA e em seu perfil no Facebook. A análise mostra como a definição da situação-problema condiciona o tratamento proposto.

  10. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  11. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance.

  12. Profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN- ? , TNF- ? and KC-like cytokines in pregnant bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05. However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.

  13. Clinical significance of changes of serum gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels after treatment in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuexian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum Gas, Interleukin-6(IL-6) and Interleukin-10(IL-10) levels in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 (with RIA) levels were determined in 61 patients with peptic ulcer both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely related to the diseases process of peptic ulcer and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  14. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Guarda Unida Desportiva & UDR Santa Maria (Futebol)

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, André

    2015-01-01

    O meu estágio foi realizado em duas instituições. Primeiramente, fui acolhido pela Guarda Unida Sport Club, como treinador adjunto da sua equipa de Juvenis que disputou o Campeonato Distrital de Juvenis da Associação de Futebol da Guarda. Devido a problemas de ordem familiar optei por regressar a Lisboa no segundo semestre, onde exerci as funções de treinador adjunto da equipa de Infantis 7 da União Desportiva e Recreativa de Santa Maria, que participou no Campeonato Distrital de Infantis...

  15. Efeito do estímulo às relações interpessoais na aprendizagem de uma tarefa motora

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, Leontine Lima dos

    2011-01-01

    A sala de aula constitui um microssistema perfeito, onde o professor interfere na formação dos seus educandos, através da manipulação das variáveis de aprendizagem e das relações interpessoais (SCHILD, 1999). O presente estudo se caracteriza como uma pesquisa experimental que objetivou verificar o efeito do estímulo às relações interpessoais na aprendizagem de uma tarefa motora em adolescentes. A amostra, intencional, composta por 72 alunos de uma escola da cidade de Pelotas-RS, foi dividida ...

  16. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Câmara Municipal de Celorico da Beira.

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Sara

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho consistiu na análise e avaliação do funcionamento da rede de drenagem de água residual pluvial, da Freguesia da Lajeosa do Mondego. Numa primeira parte, procedeu-se ao levantamento exaustivo da rede de drenagem em estudo e na aquisição dos elementos relevantes para o seu traçado, como o levantamento topográfico existente, o qual foi fornecido pela instituição onde se realizou o estágio, e a realização de campanhas de levantamento da rede in situ. Posteriormente, definiram-...

  17. Modulation of pulmonary fibrosis by IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Robert V; Worrell, Julie C; Boylan, Denise; Walsh, Sinead M; Cramton, Jennifer; Counihan, Ian; O'Beirne, Sarah; Medina, Maria Fe; Gauldie, Jack; Fabre, Aurelie; Donnelly, Seamas C; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disease that involves the remodeling of the distal airspace and the lung parenchyma, which results in compromised gas exchange. The median survival time once diagnosed is less than three years. Interleukin (IL)-13 has been shown to play a role in a number of inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. IL-13 modulates its effector functions via a complex receptor system that includes the IL-4 receptor (R) α, IL-13Rα1, and the IL-13Rα2. IL-13Rα1 binds IL-13 with low affinity, yet, when it forms a complex with IL-4α, it binds with much higher affinity, inducing the effector functions of IL-13. IL-13Rα2 binds IL-13 with high affinity but has a short cytoplasmic tail and has been shown to act as a nonsignaling decoy receptor. Transfection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells with IL-13Rα2 inhibited the IL-13 induction of soluble collagen, TGF-β, and CCL17. Adenoviral overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in the lung reduced bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Our work shows that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 inhibits the IL-13 induction of fibrotic markers in vitro and inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary our study highlights the antifibrotic nature of IL-13Ra2. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  20. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Murray

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI. IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/- mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/- animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT mice to IL-1RI(-/- mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/- mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/- mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/- mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/- mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/- mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal

  1. Andrographolide presents therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Peifen; Chen, Xinyu; Zhou, Feng; He, Qiaona; Yang, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata . The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-γt (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.

  2. A Brief History of IL-1 and IL-1 Ra in Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Dayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of what, in 1979, was called interleukin-1 (IL-1, orchestrator of leukocyte inter-communication, began many years before then, initially by the observation of fever induction via the endogenous pyrogen (EP (1974 and then in rheumatology on the role in tissue destruction in rheumatoid diseases via the induction of collagenase and PGE2 in human synovial cells by a mononuclear cell factor (MCF (1977. Since then, the family has exploded to presently 11 members as well as many membrane-bound and soluble receptor forms. The discovery of a natural Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in human biological fluids has highlighted the importance of IL-1 and IL-1Ra in human diseases. Evidence delineating its role in autoinflammatory syndromes and the elucidation of the macromolecular complex referred to as “inflammasome” have been instrumental to our understanding of the link with IL-1. At present, the IL-1blockade as therapeutic approach is crucial for many hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, as well as for adult-onset Still’s disease, crystal-induced arthropathies, certain skin diseases including neutrophil-triggered skin diseases, Behçet’s disease and deficiency of IL-1Ra and other rare fever syndromes. Its role is only marginally important in rheumatoid arthritis and is still under debate with regard to osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This brief historical review focuses on some aspects of IL-1, mainly IL-1β and IL-Ra, in rheumatology. There are many excellent reviews focusing on the IL-1 family in general or with regard to specific diseases or biological discoveries.

  3. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls.

  4. Modello predittivo di idoneità ambientale per il cervo nell'Appennino centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Opramolla

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In un?area di studio ampia ca. 250 km², situata tra il Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo e quello della Majella, è stata studiata la densità del cervo in 84 unità di campionamento (ampiezza = 1 km² selezionate in maniera sistematica partendo dal reticolato geografico UTM. In ogni unità di campionamento sono stati individuati tre transetti paralleli orientati da Est a Ovest (lunghezza= 1 km/transetto e 33 plot circolari, ogni 100 m lungo i transetti. La presenza del cervo è stata rilevata tramite segni di presenza e avvistamenti. Sono stati effettuati tre campionamenti: giugno ? agosto 1999, settembre-ottobre 1999 e maggio - luglio 2000. Il cervo è risultato essere presente in 39 unità di campionamento e assente in 35. Sono state calcolate dalla cartografia numerica tramite GIS 69 variabili ambientali. La relazione tra variabili ambientali e presenza/assenza del cervo è stata analizzata con l?analisi della varianza univariata (anova e con l?analisi di regressione logistica dicotomica (rld. Sono state riscontrate differenze significative (anova tra le aree in cui è stata riscontrata la presenza del cervo ed aree in cui il cervo è risultato assente per le variabili relative alle attività antropiche, superficie delle radure, quota, esposizione, estensione delle colture, estensione e struttura del bosco e presenza di pecore al pascolo. Il modello di regressione logistica ha selezionato solo 3 variabili: superficie del bosco di latifoglie, indice medio della forma dei poligoni di bosco, superficie delle aree esposte a sud-ovest. Il modello spiega il 76% della varianza della variabile indipendente, e tutti i coefficienti di regressione sono correlati significativemente e positivamente alla probabilità di presenza del cervo. Il modello ha classificato correttamente il 91% dei casi in cui il cervo è risultato assente e il 92% dei casi in cui è risultato presente (percentuale media di classificazione= 91,9%. L?importanza del bosco nel condizionare

  5. Aspectos legales del uso de drogas ilícitas en México Aspectos legais do uso de drogas ilícitas no México Illegal aspects of illicit drugs use in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Magdalena Gallegos Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue conocer las opiniones de un grupo de personas sobre aspectos legales en materia de adicción. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal; se aplicó una encuesta estructurada, formada por 4 apartados. Uno de los criterios para participar fue que la persona no consumiera drogas y que conociera a alguien cercano que las consumía. Los datos obtenidos se procesaron en el paquete estadístico SPSS V. 14. Participaron 100 sujetos, en el cual, 75% eran del género femenino, 38% tenían una relación de amistad con un usuario de drogas ilícitas, el cual consumía mayoritariamente marihuana y cocaína. Como opinión general, se sugiere que las leyes sean más rigurosas para quienes consumen, venden o transportan drogas. Las leyes actuales no mejoran la conducta criminal de los consumidores. Es importante realizar otros estudios, de opinión sobre este fenómeno, que puedan ofrecer una visión más real del problema de las drogas.Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as opiniões de um grupo de pessoas sobre questões jurídicas no domínio dos vícios. É estudo transversal, descritivo. Para o levantamento, foi utilizado um questionário estruturado com quatro temas. Um dos critérios para a participação era de que a pessoa não usasse drogas e que tivesse alguém próximo que usasse. Os dados foram processados usando SPSS V. 14. Participaram 100 indivíduos, dos quais 75% eram do sexo feminino, 38% tinham relação amigável com um usuário de drogas ilícitas, principalmente consumidores de maconha e cocaína. Como opinião geral sugeriram que as leis deviam ser mais punitivas para aqueles que consomem, vendem ou transportam drogas. As leis vigentes não melhoram o comportamento criminoso dos consumidores. É importante conduzir estudos de opinião sobre o fenômeno para que se possa ter visão mais realista do problema do consumo de droga.The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to obtain the

  6. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Animeventos, organização de eventos Lda (Praia da Barra)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Foi com este pressuposto que surgiu a oportunidade de realizar estágio na empresa Animeventos, organização de eventos, durante o período de 16 de Agosto a 16 de Novembro, permitindo assim a inserção e auxílio na estruturação do principal evento da empresa, a Expotrakinas – Feira de animação, serviços e produtos para crianças e jovens. Este relatório pretende por tal, ser o relato fidedigno do trabalho realizado durante o período de estágio, desenrolando-se por dois capítulos. O primeiro te...

  7. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo.

  8. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sik Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα.

  9. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tae Sik; Jo, Yuna; Lee, Byunghyuk; Kim, Geona; Hwang, Hyunju; Ko, Eunhee; Kang, Seung Wan; Oh, Sae-Ock; Baek, Sun-Yong; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc) is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα. PMID:28127156

  10. EST data - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...st.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/red/LATEST/red_est.zip File size: 629 KB Simple search U...ase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us EST data - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Analysis of SSR information in EST resources of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags ( ESTs) offer the opportunity to exploit single, low -copy, conserved sequence motifs for the development of simple sequence repeats ( SSRs). The total of 262 113 ESTs of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the database of NCBI were downloaded and analyzed, which resulted in...

  12. Lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 regulates IL-17-mediated ocular mucosal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong Woo; Mittal, Sharad K.; Hwang, Ho Sik; Chang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Joon H.; Seo, Yuri; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Lee, Hye Sun; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory damage of mucosal surface of the eye is a hallmark of dry eye disease (DED), and in severe cases can lead to significant discomfort, visual impairment, and blindness. DED is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder with a largely unknown pathogenesis. Using a cross-sectional patient study and a well-characterized murine model of DED, herein we investigated the immunoregulatory function of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in the pathogenesis of DED. We found that IL-22 levels were elevated in lacrimal fluids of DED patients and inversely correlated with severity of disease. Acinar cells of the lacrimal glands, not inflammatory immune cells, are the primary source of IL-22, which suppresses inflammation in ocular surface epithelial cells upon desiccating stress. Moreover, loss of function analyses using IL-22 knock-out mice demonstrated that IL-22 is essential for suppression of ocular surface infiltration of Th17 cells and inhibition of DED induction. Our novel findings elucidate immunoregulatory function of lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 in inhibiting IL-17-mediated ocular surface epitheliopathy in DED thus making IL-22 a new relevant therapeutic target. PMID:28051088

  13. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefebvre, C.; Brant, S. R.; Cho, J. H.; Silverberg, M. S.; Taylor, K. D.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J-P; Xavier, R. J.; Daly, M. J.; Duerr, R. H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R. K.; Rioux, J. D.

    Objectives: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  14. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E.A.M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefèbvre, C.; Brant, S.R.; Cho, J.H.; Silverberg, M.S.; Taylor, K.D.; de Jong, D.J.; Stokkers, P.C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.P.; Xavier, R.J.; Daly, M.J.; Duerr, R.H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.; Rioux, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  15. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefèbvre, C.; Brant, S. R.; Cho, J. H.; Silverberg, M. S.; Taylor, K. D.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.-P.; Xavier, R. J.; Daly, M. J.; Duerr, R. H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R. K.; Rioux, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac disease, type 1

  16. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E.A.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefebvre, C.; Brant, S.R.; Cho, J.H.; Silverberg, M.S.; Taylor, K.D.; Jong, D.J. de; Stokkers, P.C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.P.; Xavier, R.J.; Daly, M.J.; Duerr, R.H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.; Rioux, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  17. [Plasma IL-18 levels are related to insulin and are modulated by IL-18 gene polymorphisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; Nuñez Savall, Ester; Lendínez, Verónica; Olivares, Laura; Benito, Esther; Real, Jose T; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease influenced by multiple factors. Different prospective studies have shown that plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers were related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether plasmatic levels of interleukin 18 (IL-18) are modulated by SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the IL 18 gene and its possible association with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. 746 individuals were studied for a period of two years by opportunistic selection in the metropolitan area of Valencia. Parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed by standard methodology. IL-18 was measured by ELISA. Individuals with insulin resistance showed significant higher levels of IL-18. IL 18 was significantly correlated with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. The CC genotype of the rs1834481 SNP was significantly associated with lower levels of IL-18. However, the GG genotype of the rs7559479 was associated with significant higher levels of IL-18. IL-18 is associated with insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, being those levels genetically regulated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  19. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Conti

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  20. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  1. Eraldo Affinati. Il "peregrin d'amore" sulle tracce di Bonhoeffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Orsillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Orsillo, authoress of this paper, in December 2014 presented and discussed her Thesis in order to obtain the Licenza Degree in Religious Sciences in the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences “San Roberto Bellarmino” of Capua. The work, entitled Bonhoeffer: il percorso di una vita nella scrittura di un letterato contemporaneo, Eraldo Affinati, was provided, in the Appendix, with an interview with the Roman writer. This interview is published here, preceded by a brief summary of the work of Affinati placed at the center of the Orsillo’s Thesis.L’auteur de ce papier, Daniela Orsillo, en Décembre 2014 a présenté et a discuté sa thèse pour l’obtention du diplôme de Licence canonique en Sciences Religieuses dans l’Institut Superieur de Sciences Religieuses “S. Roberto Bellarmino” de Capua. L’ouvrage, intitulé Bonhoeffer: il percorso di una vita nella scrittura di un letterato contemporaneo, Eraldo Affinati, a été assorti d’un entretien avec M. Affinati. Est publié ici l’entretien, précédée par un bref résumé du texte de M. Affinati qui est au centre de la thèse de M.me Orsillo.L'autrice di questo scritto, Daniela Orsillo, ha presentato nel Dicembre 2014 la sua Tesi per l'ottenimento della Licenza Canonica in Scienze Religiose nell'Istituto Superiore di Scienze Religiose "S: Roberto Bellarmino" di Capua (CE. L'opera, dal titolo Bonhoeffer: il percorso di una vita nella scrittura di un letterato contemporaneo, Eraldo Affinati, aveva in appendice un'intervista con l'Affinati. Qui viene pubblicato il testo dell'intervista, preceduto da un breve riassunto delle idee di Affinati intorno alle quali si è dipanato il lavoro della Tesi.

  2. Relato do estágio curricular supervisionado do Ensino Fundamental III 2010/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marili Lando Moura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste relatório serão abordadas características de uma turma de alfabetização de 1º ano do primeiro segmento de uma escola municipal de Sinop, onde foi realizada a prática docente da disciplina de Estágio Curricular do Ensino Fundamental III do Curso de Pedagogia além do processo de desenvolvimento das práticas docentes, a descrição e análise crítica dos resultados obtidos tanto na docência como no processo de intervenção e as considerações finais. Apresentaremos também as referências bibliográficas de alguns autores, principalmente de Paulo Freire que serviram de suporte para fundamentar este trabalho.Palavras-chave: prática docente; análise crítica; processo de intervenção.

  3. IL-8 as antibody therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Beurskens, Frank J; Zachariae, Claus O C

    2008-01-01

    IL-8 is a chemokine that has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil activation. HuMab 10F8 is a novel fully human mAb against IL-8, which binds a discontinuous epitope on IL-8 overlapping the receptor binding site, and which effectively neutralizes IL-8-dependen...

  4. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  5. Genome-wide association study of genetic variants in LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-α cytokine response in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Albrechtsen, Anders; Thørner, Lise Wegner

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to find genetic variants that might affect the levels of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokine production....

  6. Relatório do estágio curricular supervisionado na Educação Infantil I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Assmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este relatório é o resultado de observação conjunta sobre os aspectos pedagógicos no que se refere à estrutura física, identificação da creche, estrutura organizacional e político-pedagógica da mesma. Esta observação foi motivada pela intenção de um crescimento dentro do curso de pedagogia na área da educação infantil e teve como atividade observar o que a sala de aula produz para o desenvolvimento da estruturação de rotinas diárias e semanal do berçário, de uma creche pública no município de Sinop.Palavras-chave: estágio; criança; desenvolvimento infantil.

  7. Estudo comparativo preliminar entre os alongamentos proprioceptivo e estático passivo em pacientes com seqüelas de hanseníase

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Augusto Floricel; Moro, Fabio Luiz; Binotto, Jussara Machado; Fréz, Andersom Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    A proposta deste estudo foi comparar a aplicação de alongamento estático passivo e alongamento proprioceptivo no tratamento de seqüelas de hanseníase. Doze pacientes com essas seqüelas participaram da pesquisa, separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o grupo FNP, tratado com facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva, e o grupo AEP, com alongamento estático passivo. Ambos realizaram dez sessões de alongamentos, sendo submetidos à avaliação inicial e final nas quais foram aplicados o questionár...

  8. Il-legitimacy in the eyes of the il-legitimated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis has brought il-legitimacy to the center of organizational life in the banking industry. It is unfortunate that little is known about how organizational il-legitimacy is experienced and handled by the people who spend most of their wakening hours at work within...... these organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap of knowledge by exploring how members of a bankrupted bank experience and handle attributions of organizational il-legitimacy: to investigate the phenomenon from an inside perspective - in the eyes of the people who undergo it. The paper has...... an inductive approach and offers an explorative analysis based on an in-depth study of qualitative interviews with 20 members of a bankrupted bank. The analysis shows that in bankers’ narrations, (il)legitimacy is central: as a problem and as a solution. The paper contributes to extant knowledge on (il...

  9. ConiferEST: an integrated bioinformatics system for data reprocessing and mining of conifer expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Kikia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing, the amount of public domain Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequence data available for both model and non-model organism is growing exponentially. While these data are widely used for characterizing various genomes, they also present a serious challenge for data quality control and validation due to their inherent deficiencies, particularly for species without genome sequences. Description ConiferEST is an integrated system for data reprocessing, visualization and mining of conifer ESTs. In its current release, Build 1.0, it houses 172,229 loblolly pine EST sequence reads, which were obtained from reprocessing raw DNA sequencer traces using our software – WebTraceMiner. The trace files were downloaded from NCBI Trace Archive. ConiferEST provides biologists unique, easy-to-use data visualization and mining tools for a variety of putative sequence features including cloning vector segments, adapter sequences, restriction endonuclease recognition sites, polyA and polyT runs, and their corresponding Phred quality values. Based on these putative features, verified sequence features such as 3' and/or 5' termini of cDNA inserts in either sense or non-sense strand have been identified in-silico. Interestingly, only 30.03% of the designated 3' ESTs were found to have an authenticated 5' terminus in the non-sense strand (i.e., polyT tails, while fewer than 5.34% of the designated 5' ESTs had a verified 5' terminus in the sense strand. Such previously ignored features provide valuable insight for data quality control and validation of error-prone ESTs, as well as the ability to identify novel functional motifs embedded in large EST datasets. We found that "double-termini adapters" were effective indicators of potential EST chimeras. For all sequences with in-silico verified termini/terminus, we used InterProScan to assign protein domain signatures, results of which are available

  10. ConiferEST: an integrated bioinformatics system for data reprocessing and mining of conifer expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lin; Ji, Guoli; Fang, Lin; Liu, Yuansheng; Carter, Kikia; Webb, Jason S; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2007-05-29

    With the advent of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing, the amount of public domain Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequence data available for both model and non-model organism is growing exponentially. While these data are widely used for characterizing various genomes, they also present a serious challenge for data quality control and validation due to their inherent deficiencies, particularly for species without genome sequences. ConiferEST is an integrated system for data reprocessing, visualization and mining of conifer ESTs. In its current release, Build 1.0, it houses 172,229 loblolly pine EST sequence reads, which were obtained from reprocessing raw DNA sequencer traces using our software--WebTraceMiner. The trace files were downloaded from NCBI Trace Archive. ConiferEST provides biologists unique, easy-to-use data visualization and mining tools for a variety of putative sequence features including cloning vector segments, adapter sequences, restriction endonuclease recognition sites, polyA and polyT runs, and their corresponding Phred quality values. Based on these putative features, verified sequence features such as 3' and/or 5' termini of cDNA inserts in either sense or non-sense strand have been identified in-silico. Interestingly, only 30.03% of the designated 3' ESTs were found to have an authenticated 5' terminus in the non-sense strand (i.e., polyT tails), while fewer than 5.34% of the designated 5' ESTs had a verified 5' terminus in the sense strand. Such previously ignored features provide valuable insight for data quality control and validation of error-prone ESTs, as well as the ability to identify novel functional motifs embedded in large EST datasets. We found that "double-termini adapters" were effective indicators of potential EST chimeras. For all sequences with in-silico verified termini/terminus, we used InterProScan to assign protein domain signatures, results of which are available for in-depth exploration using our biologist

  11. Il rumore elettrico Dalla fisica alla progettazione

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottino, Giovanni Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    L’opera fornisce una trattazione chiara, agile ed essenziale, ma completa, del rumore elettrico, argomento considerato generalmente oscuro e specialistico. Molto più breve (circa 275mila battute) dei testi attualmente disponibili. Il contenuto copre gli aspetti essenziali della matematica e della fisica del rumore (termico, shot. 1/f, …), e della sua rappresentazione nei circuiti. Discute quindi il rumore nei dispositivi passivi e attivi, e introduce i criteri di progettazione a basso rumore. Affronta infine brevemente questioni quali l’estrazione del segnale dal rumore e gli impieghi utili del rumore. L’attenzione è generalmente rivolta alla strumentazione fisica a bassa frequenza, in relazione alla pluridecennale esperienza specifica dell’autore. Si tratta di una estensione delle dispense, utilizzate per anni, di un corso universitario. Pertanto la trattazione è fortemente didattica, con particolare attenzione a rimuovere ambiguità e incertezze, discutendo il materiale in termini fisici intuit...

  12. Disfunção da articulação sacro-ilíaca em jovens com dor lombar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramírez Ramírez

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A dor lombar representa um problema de saúde pública. Estima-se que uma elevada porcentagem de casos de dor lombar (85-90% não tem uma causa conhecida. Acredita-se que a disfunção da articulação sacro-ilíaca possa explicar, em parte, essa alta porcentagem. OBJETIVO: Determinar a frequência da disfunção da articulação sacro-ilíaca em jovens com dor lombar e descrever possíveis associações com características sócio-demográficas, clínicas e antropométricas da população estudada. METODOLOGIA: A amostra foi selecionada por meio de entrevista direta. Sessenta e sete sujeitos (92,5% mulheres com idade média de 21 ± 2,1 participaram do estudo. Foi realizado exame físico que incluiu a avaliação da dor à palpação, amplitude de movimento da flexão do quadril, funcionalidade avaliada por meio do Oswestry Disability Index, e realização de quatro provas de provocação de dor da articulação sacro-ilíaca (Gaenslen, thigh thrust, compressão ilíaca e compressão sacra. O diagnóstico para disfunção da articulação sacro-ilíaca foi considerado positivo se pelo menos três das provas foram positivas. RESULTADOS: A frequência de disfunção da articulação sacro-ilíaca foi de 35,8% IC 95% (24,0-47,6. Foi observada associação da disfunção da articulação com diminuição de flexibilidade dos isquiotibiais, pontuação do Oswestry Disability Index e dor à palpação. Não foram encontradas associações estatisticamente significativas com as variáveis sócio-demográficas. CONCLUSÃO: A alta frequência de disfunção da articulação sacro-ilíaca encontrada sugere a possibilidade de detectar e intervir precocemente uma possível causa de dor lombar, evitando alterações funcionais de maior severidade.

  13. Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Concepcion; Linares, Marisela; Garfias, Yonathan; Loustaunau, Luisa M.; Pavon, Lenin; Perez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Jimenez-Martinez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3−CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3−CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. PMID:25741769

  14. The secreted form of the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 inhibits IL-23 functions and abrogates IL-23-mediated antitumour effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozato, Osamu; Ugai, Shin-ichi; Chiyo, Masako; Takenobu, Hisanori; Nagakawa, Hiroyasu; Wada, Akihiko; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine consisting of a novel p19 molecule and the p40 subunit of IL-12. Since secreted p40 can act as an antagonist for IL-12, we investigated whether p40 also inhibited IL-23-mediated immunological functions. p40 did not induce interferon (IFN)-γ or IL-17 production from splenocytes but impaired IL-23-induced cytokine production by competitive binding to the IL-23 receptors. Furthermore, a mixed population of murine colon carcinoma Colon 26 cells transduced with the p40 gene and those transduced with the IL-23 gene developed tumours in syngenic mice, whereas the IL-23-expressing Colon 26 cells were completely rejected. p40 also suppressed IFN-γ production of antigen-stimulated splenocytes and IL-23-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in the mice that rejected Colon 26 cells expressing IL-23. p40 can thereby antagonize IL-23 and is a possible therapeutic agent for suppression of IL-23 functions. PMID:16423037

  15. IL17eScan: A Tool for the Identification of Peptides Inducing IL-17 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Gupta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IL-17 cytokines are pro-inflammatory cytokines and are crucial in host defense against various microbes. Induction of these cytokines by microbial antigens has been investigated in the case of ischemic brain injury, gingivitis, candidiasis, autoimmune myocarditis, etc. In this study, we have investigated the ability of amino acid sequence of antigens to induce IL-17 response using machine-learning approaches. A total of 338 IL-17-inducing and 984 IL-17 non-inducing peptides were retrieved from Immune Epitope Database. 80% of the data were randomly selected as training dataset and rest 20% as validation dataset. To predict the IL-17-inducing ability of peptides/protein antigens, different sequence-based machine-learning models were developed. The performance of support vector machine (SVM and random forest (RF was compared with different parameters to predict IL-17-inducing epitopes (IIEs. The dipeptide composition-based SVM-model displayed an accuracy of 82.4% with Matthews correlation coefficient = 0.62 at polynomial (t = 1 kernel on 10-fold cross-validation and outperformed RF. Amino acid residues Leu, Ser, Arg, Asn, and Phe and dipeptides LL, SL, LK, IL, LI, NL, LR, FK, SF, and LE are abundant in IIEs. The present tool helps in the identification of IIEs using machine-learning approaches. The induction of IL-17 plays an important role in several inflammatory diseases, and identification of such epitopes would be of great help to the immunologists. It is freely available at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/IL17eScan/ and http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/IL17eScan/.

  16. IL-21: an executor of B cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konforte, Danijela; Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J

    2009-02-15

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine that shares the common receptor gamma-chain with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. B cells are one of the lymphoid cell types whose development and function are regulated by IL-21. Depending on the interplay with costimulatory signals and on the developmental stage of a B cell, IL-21 can induce proliferation, differentiation into Ig-producing plasma cells, or apoptosis in both mice and humans. Alone and in combination with Th cell-derived cytokines IL-21 can regulate class switch recombination to IgG, IgA, or IgE isotypes, indicating its important role in shaping the effector function of B cells. This review highlights the role of IL-21 in B cell development, function, and disease and provides some perspectives on the future studies in this area.

  17. Influence of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism on in vivo synthesis of IL-1Ra and IL-1beta after live yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, U T; Erhardt, S; Tschöp, K; Jelinek, T; Endres, S

    2001-09-01

    The inflammatory response in infectious and autoimmune diseases is regulated by the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-1 complex contains polymorphic genes coding for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra. The IL-1Ra (variable number of tanden repeat) VNTR polymorphism has been shown to influence the capacity to produce IL-1beta and IL-1Ra after in vitro stimulation. Allele 2 of this polymorphism is associated with a number of inflammatory diseases. To determine the impact of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on in vivo human cytokine synthesis, we used a yellow fever vaccination model for the induction of cytokine synthesis in healthy volunteers. Two different yellow fever vaccines were used. After administration of the RKI vaccine (34 volunteers), plasma TNF-alpha concentration increased from 13.4 +/- 0.9 pg/ml to 23.3 +/- 1.1 pg/ml (P < 0.001), and plasma IL-1Ra concentration increased from 308 +/- 25 pg/ml to 1019 +/- 111 pg/ml (P < 0.001), on day 2. Using Stamaril vaccine, no increase in the plasma concentrations of either TNF-alpha or IL-1Ra could be detected (n = 17). Only the RKI vaccine induced TNF-alpha synthesis after in vitro stimulation of MNC. Carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra polymorphism had increased baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra (350 +/- 32 pg/ml) compared with non-carriers (222 +/- 18 pg/ml, P < 0.001), and decreased concentrations of IL-1beta (0.9 +/- 0.2 pg/ml for carriers versus 2.8 +/- 0.7 pg/ml for non-carriers, P = 0.017). After yellow fever vaccination (RKI vaccine), no significant differences in the increase of IL-1Ra plasma levels were detected between carriers and non-carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism. This is the first study to examine the influence of this genetic polymorphism on in vivo-induced human IL-1beta and IL-1Ra synthesis. Baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra and IL-1beta were significantly influenced by the IL-1Ra polymorphism. No influence of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on the in vivo

  18. Il Decameron de Pier Paolo Pasolini: da prosa medieval ao roteiro cinematográfico Il Decameron by Pier Paolo Pasolini: from the medieval prose to the screenplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Siega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo situa-se no campo das teorias da recepção e trabalha com o conceito de "leitura como ato criativo", desenvolvido por Hans Robert Jauss e Wolfgang Iser. Interpretando o roteiro como estrutura textual produtora de imagens literárias, elegemos como objeto de estudo o texto Il Decameron, escrito por Pier Paolo Pasolini com base na obra de Giovanni Boccaccio. Na análise, investigamos os efeitos poéticos produzidos pela releitura do texto medieval, indicando as transformações que o realismo boccacciano assume na linguagem de Pasolini. Para tanto, evidenciamos a importância que as realidades do sexo e da morte adquirem no roteiro, observando como o autor conjuga estes temas às reflexões que faz sobre a própria contemporaneidade.Questo articolo è situato nel campo delle teorie della ricezione e lavora con il concetto di "lettura come atto creativo", sviluppato da Hans Robert Jauss e Wolfgang Iser. Nell'interpretare la sceneggiatura come struttura testuale produttrice di immagini letterarie, scegliamo come oggetto di studio il testo Il Decameron, scritto da Pier Paolo Pasolini basato sull'opera di Giovanni Boccaccio. Nell'analisi, investighiamo gli effetti poetici prodotti dalla rilettura del testo medioevale indicando le trasformazioni che il realismo boccacciano assume nel linguaggio di Pasolini. Pertanto, evidenziamo l'importanza che le realtà del sesso e della morte acquisiscono nella sceneggiatura, osservando come l'autore concilia questi temi con le riflessioni che fa sulla propria contemporaneità.This article is situated in the field of the reception theories and works with the concept of "reading as creative act", developed by Hans Robert Jauss and Wolfgang Iser. Seeing in the screenplay a textual structure that produces literary images, we choose as our object the text Il Decameron, written by Pier Paolo Pasolini based on Boccaccio's work. In the analysis, we investigate the poetic effects produced by the rereading of

  19. Playware e robotica modulare per il gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. Lund

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo presentiamo e usiamo il concetto di building block robotico per la creazione di playware. Il concetto tecnologico di building block programmabili e dotati di input e output (ivi inclusa la comunicazione e dell'intelligenza artificiale embodied, che enfatizza la relazione fra morfologia e controllo.Per dare un esempio concreto del concetto di building block robotico, proponiamo le mattonelle che abbiamo creato, come elementi che compongono un nuovo tipo di campo giochi sul quale i bambini possono sperimentare un feedback immediato ai loro movimenti.

  20. Il corpo, lo sport, le immagini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available E’ stato per primo Norbert Elias, nella sua critica al riduzionismo sociologico, a lamentare la difficoltà delle scienze sociali a misurarsi con le problematiche dello sport, così come delle emozioni, della sessualità, del gioco e della guerra. Attività umane che convergono in quell’autentico luogo sociale che è il corpo. Nel caso che ci interessa, si tratta di connettere il corpo, nella sua dimensione biologica, psichica e sociale, con quell’aspetto cruciale della civilizzazione che Elias definisce sportivizzazione.

  1. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  2. Recombinant human growth-regulated oncogene-alpha induces T lymphocyte chemotaxis. A process regulated via IL-8 receptors by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Frydenberg, Jane; Mukaida, N

    1995-01-01

    receptors on the cells. This process can be augmented by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and inhibited by IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. In addition, we also document that on T lymphocytes there exist IL-8 receptors that can be up-regulated by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2. Our results demonstrate that rhGRO-alpha gene...

  3. Il diritto al ricongiungimento familiare e la sua tutela multilivello

    OpenAIRE

    BANA, SOKOL

    2013-01-01

    L’unità familiare rappresenta, ovviamente, uno dei diritti primari della persona e il ricongiungimento familiare può ascriversi all’insieme di garanzie giuridiche poste a tutela della famiglia, intesa quale nucleo naturale e fondamentale della società. Il diritto a farsi accompagnare o a ricongiungersi ai membri della propria famiglia costituisce il presupposto da cui dipende la possibilità per lo straniero di esercitare il proprio diritto alla vita familiare. Il ricongiungimento familiare è ...

  4. DMPD: Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534111 Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-1...):575-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-...4 and IL-13. PubmedID 10534111 Title Differential responses of human monocytes an

  5. Giordano Bruno e il Problema della Modernita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ulliana

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Il testo viene pubblicato per gentile concessione della casa editrice ESI ed e’ tratto dal libro di Stefano Ulliana “Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno. Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi”, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2003. Le argomentazioni presentate ne Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno (Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi costituiscono le conclusioni ultime e definitive di un lavoro di ricerca che ha investito l’insieme dei Dialoghi Italiani, riuscendo a reperire ed a far emergere quello che pare il nucleo più profondo ed importante—il vero e proprio elevato fondamento—della speculazione bruniana: la presenza attiva di un concetto triadico teologico-politico—il Padre, il Figlio e lo Spirito della tradizione trinitaria cristiana—però riformulato attraverso il capovolgimento rivoluzionario di questa stessa tradizione, attuato attraverso il concetto creativo e dialettico dell’infinito. In questo modo la stessa tradizione platonica pare subire una trasformazione essenziale, abbandonando qualunque forma di alienazione e negazione, per riaprirsi invece verso soluzioni che paiono riprendere moniti ed osservazioni suscitati dalle prime, grandi e maestose, speculazioni dei filosofi presocratici. Parmenide, Eraclito ed Empedocle sembrano rivivere nei testi bruniani, riproponendo una soluzione ben diversa a quei nodi e problemi teoretico-pratici—fondamentale il rapporto Uno-molti e tutto ciò che da esso consegue, sia sul piano naturale che politico—apparentemente risolti e codificati dal pensiero postsocratico, prima platonico e poi aristotelico. L’inscindibilit� del principio di libert� (la figura teologica del Padre ed eguaglianza (il Figlio, attraverso

  6. Clinical significance of the changes of serum IL-8 and IL-12 levels in pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura (AP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhenming; Liu Xia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of IL-8 and IL-12 in the pathogenesis of anaphylactoid purpura (AP) and anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN). Methods: Serum IL-8 (with RIA) and IL-12 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 32 pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura (AP), 11 pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN) and 15 controls. Results: During acute stage, serum IL-8 and IL-12 levels in both the AP and APN patients were significantly higher than those in controls and remained higher during convalescence. IL-8 and IL-12 levels were mutually positively correlated in acute stage. Conclusion: IL-8 and IL-12 participated in the pathogenesis of AP and APN. Theoretically, antagonist to those cytokines might be of clinical benefits. (authors)

  7. The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, J; Christiansen, M; Tønnesen, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma has previously been shown to influence interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels, but the association of injury severity and mortality with IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the early phase of accidental trauma remains to be investigated. We wished to describe serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10...... in the first 24 h after trauma and to assess the relationship with severity of injury and mortality. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive cohort study in a Level 1 trauma centre, Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 265 consecutive adult trauma patients admitted directly from the accident scene during an 18-month...... period. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 h after admittance using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Analysis of variance was used...

  8. En torno a una estética del deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Olivera Betrán*

    2006-01-01

    Aunque el término estética tiene varios significados especiales, en el contexto de las ciencias sociales se emplea preferentemente para designar el conjunto de investigaciones que están relacionadas con las artes. Estética es el estudio del comportamiento y la experiencia del hombre al crear arte, al percibir y comprender el arte y al ser influido por el arte. El arte es el medio que promueve una fusión del individuo con el todo, el hombre para rebasar los límites que le impone la individuali...

  9. Recherche sur le paranormal et croyances irrationnelles: quel est le lien?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Catherine Mousseau

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A la fin du 19ième siècle, les phénomènes paranormaux étaient couramment étudiés et débattus par les scientifiques les plus renommés (l'astronome Camille Flammarion, les physiciens William Crook et Oliver Lodge, les prix Nobel Charles Richet, Pierre et Marie Curie, .... Les débats étaient intenses et de haut niveau. Leurs travaux étaient généralement publiés dans des journaux prestigieux. Ce champ d'étude était appelé 'métapsychique'. Aujourd'hui, les questions qu'ils avaient soulevées sont complètement ignorées par la communauté scientifique. Ses représentants prétendent que le débat est clos et le considèrent démodé et ridicule. C'est devenu une sorte de 'tabou', 'un des plus puissants interdits des temps modernes'.

  10. « Un seul oiseau en cage / La liberté est en deuil »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concours Twittérature service culturel de l’Ambassade de France au Canada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available « Un seul oiseau en cage / La liberté est en deuil » (Jacques Prévert Concours de twittérature (Semaine de la Francophonie 2017 Pour célébrer la Semaine de la Francophonie 2017, le service culturel de l’Ambassade de France au Canada a lancé en mars dernier un concours de twittérature, autour de la figure du poète et artiste français Jacques Prévert, disparu il y a tout juste quarante ans. En 140 signes maximum – incluant le mot dièse #Prévert et le tag @francetoronto – élèves, enseignants, parents, poètes en herbe comme poètes confirmés, ont pu laisser libre cours à leur imagination en répondant au vers de la plume de Prévert – « Un seul oiseau en cage / La liberté est en deuil » – à partir de leur compte Twitter.

  11. Genetic variability of the inflammatory response. I. The -511 C/T IL1β polymorphism in different Peruvian subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Oscar; Solano, Luis; Huerta, Doris; Oré, Daniel; Sandoval, José; Figueroa, José; Fujita, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    El polimorfismo -511 citosina/timina (-511 C/T) en la región promotora del gen interleuquina 1 beta (IL1β) está implicado en la producción diferencial de la citoquina y por tanto puede estar asociado a la respuesta inmuno-inflamatoria en obesidad, dislipidemias, cardiopatías, cáncer, infecciones, y el tratamiento con nutrientes y fármacos. Objetivos: Establecer la distribución de frecuencias de los genotipos y alelos del polimorfismo -511 C/T del gen IL1β en diferentes subpoblaciones peruanas...

  12. Type I IL-1 Receptor (IL-1RI as Potential New Therapeutic Target for Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Hong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1R/TLR family has been receiving considerable attention as potential regulators of inflammation through their ability to act as either activators or suppressors of inflammation. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic inflammation, elevated serum total, allergen-specific IgE levels, and increased Th2 cytokine production. The discovery that the IL-1RI–IL-1 and ST2–IL-33 pathways are crucial for allergic inflammation has raised interest in these receptors as potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies for bronchial asthma. This paper discusses the current use of neutralizing mAb or soluble receptor constructs to deplete cytokines, the use of neutralizing mAb or recombinant receptor antagonists to block cytokine receptors, and gene therapy from experimental studies in asthma. Targeting IL-1RI–IL-1 as well as ST2–IL-33 pathways may promise a disease-modifying approach in the future.

  13. Predictive value of IL-35 and IL-17 in diagnosis of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Amira Ibrahim; Abd Almonaem, Eman Rateb; Behairy, Ola Galal; Gouda, Tahany Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of IL-17 and IL-35 and the presence and severity of childhood asthma. The study was performed on 60 diagnosed asthmatic children, who were further classified into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma Guidelines for Asthma Severity and Control (GINA) 2016, plus 30 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children. All participants were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and laboratory evaluation in the form of complete blood count (CBC), serum total IgE, IL-17 and IL-35 by ELISA. Our results revealed that eosinophils count, IgE and IL-17 were significantly higher in the asthmatic group than the control group (p 13.1 pg/mL; this value could predict childhood asthma with sensitivity of 81.7% and 83.3%, and specificity of 76.7% and 70%, respectively. A combination of both cytokines yielded an increase in sensitivity to 95%. In conclusion, in the current study, IL-17 is upregulated while IL-35 is downregulated in childhood asthma with a significant negative correlation between both. These results suggest that both may play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma.

  14. Il capriolo nel Pollino: ieri, oggi e domani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sangiuliano

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Fino agli inizi del secolo scorso, il capriolo conservava molto probabilmente un?ampia diffusione in tutta la Calabria settentrionale con una distribuzione pressoché continua, dal Massiccio del Pollino alla Catena Costiera. La contrazione dell?area di distribuzione iniziò verosimilmente già nel sec. 19°, acuendosi tra le due guerre mondiali, con l?estinzione della specie a nord del fiume Lao e sulla Catena Costiera. Cacciabile fino ai primi anni ?70 e in seguito perseguitato dal bracconaggio, il capriolo continuava nel suo inesorabile declino negli anni ?80 e ?90. L?areale era stimato essere di circa 7500 ha, più o meno circoscritto alla impervia Valle del Fiume Argentino (Orsomarso e alle aree limitrofe, con una stima di consistenza intorno a poche decine di individui. Solo in seguito all?istituzione del Parco Nazionale del Pollino, si è registrata una graduale inversione di tendenza: studi della seconda metà degli anni ?90 hanno individuato un?area di presenza stabile e accertata di poco inferiore a 6.000 ha, e una periferica di presenza sporadica e/o probabile (circa 9.000 ha. In seguito a una Convenzione stipulata nel 2000 tra l?Ente Parco e l?Università di Siena, è in corso uno studio sull?ecologia e conservazione del capriolo nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, per favorire l?incremento della locale popolazione di capriolo. Per la determinazione della distribuzione della specie, mensilmente sono stati effettuati percorsi fissi diurni, notturni (con faro e avvistamenti da punti di visibilità, oltre che una serie di escursioni periodiche in aree di presenza incerta. Inoltre è stata condotta una valutazione dell?idoneità ambientale per la specie mediante l?utilizzo di tecniche statistiche multivariate (Analisi di Regressione Logistica Multipla. I nostri dati sembrano indicare che l?area di distribuzione ?storica? si sia notevolmente ampliata soprattutto in direzione nord, nord-est ed est, dove la presenza della specie è stata

  15. Conditional IL-2 gene deletion: consequences for T cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2 in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analogue, tamoxifen (TAM as adults. Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT, conventional IL-2 (-/-, TAM-treated Cre recombinase negative (Cre-/IL2fl/fl, and Cre+/IL-2fl/fl (Cre+, were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. IL-2 production was monitored by quantitative ELISA and multiple additional cytokines were monitored by protein-bead arrays. Splenocytes from conventional IL-2 (-/- and TAM-treated Cre+ mice resulted in undetectable IL-2 production, so that both strains were IL-2 deficient. As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice did so. By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre- switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice was compromised. Splenocytes from IL-2 deficient conventional IL-2 (-/- mice produced low or undetectable other γc-chain cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-21, whereas production of these γc-chain cytokines from IL-2-deficient conditional IL-2 (-/- Cre+ mice were comparable with WT and Cre- mice. These results indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell blastogenesis cannot be attributable to IL-2 alone, but a switch to aerobic glycolysis is attributable to IL-2, and proliferation

  16. IL-2 absorption affects IFN-gamma and IL-5, but not IL-4 producing memory T cells in double color cytokine ELISPOT assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Stefan; Zhang, Wenji; Shive, Carey; Kovalovski, Damian; Ott, Patrick A; Herzog, Bernhard A; Boehm, Bernhard O; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Karulin, Alexey Y; Lehmann, Paul V

    2005-09-01

    Cytokine assays are gaining increasing importance for human immune monitoring because they reliably detect antigen-specific T cells in primary PBMC, even at low clonal sizes. Double color ELISPOT assays permit the simultaneous visualization of cells producing two different cytokines. Permitting the simultaneous assessment of type 1 and 2 immunity and due to the limited numbers of PBMC available from human study subjects, double color assays should be particularly attractive for clinical trials. Since the performance of double color assays has not yet been validated, we set out to compare them to single color measurements. Testing the recall antigen-induced cytokine response of PBMC, we found that double color assays regularly provided lower numbers of IFN-gamma and IL-5 spots than single color measurements when IL-2 detection was part of the double color assay. We showed that the inhibitory effect resulted from IL-2 absorption and could be overcome by either antibody free preactivation cultures or by inclusion of anti-CD28 antibody. In contrast, the simultaneous detection of IL-2 did not affect the numbers of IL-4 spots. Therefore, unlike IL-2/IL-4 and IFN-gamma/IL-5 assays, IL-2/IFN-gamma, and IL-2/IL-5 assays require compensation for the IL-2 capture to provide accurate numbers for the frequencies of cytokine producing memory T cells.

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of EPS IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10 and LDH5/LDH1 levels in patients with chronic prostatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongchang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of expressed prostatic secretion IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10 and LDH5/LDH1 levels in patients with chronic prostatitis. Methods: Expressed prostatic secretion IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10 (with Radioimmunoassay) and LDH5/LDH1 (with cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis) levels were determined in 32 patients with chronic prostatitis and 35 controls. These 32 patients were of 3 groups: 1)chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP, n=10) 2) chronic pelvic pain syndrome IIIA (CPPS IIIA n=9) 3) CPPSIIIB n=13. Results: Expressed prostatic secretion levels of IL-1β, IL-2 and LDH5/LDH1 were significantly higher in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) groups than those in controls (all P 0.05). But the expressed prostatic secretion levels of IL-10 were still significantly lower in patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome(CPPSIIIB) groups than those in controls (all P<0.05). Conclusion: There were changes of expressed prostatic secretion IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10 and LDH5/LDH1 levels in patients with chronic prostatitis. Combined determination of the expressed prostatic secretion 4 markers levels is valuable for the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and CPPSIII and for differentiation of CPPSIII types. (authors)

  18. [Cytokines and malaria. A study of TNF-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6 and IL2R in 28 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, P; Hovette, P; Merouze, F; Touze, J E; Martet, G

    1994-01-01

    Authors have studied TNF alpha, IL1 bêta, IL6 and RIL2s in 28 malaria illness patients. Increased levels of TNF, IL1 bêta and RIL2s in serum, are observed on admission to hospital. These cytokine levels are decreased, eight days later, after patients are treated. In discussion, TNF levels as a prognosis component is evocated.

  19. IL PIRANDELLISMO DI BUZZATI (Seconda Parte) - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    del “Corriere”, ma al quale vuole confessare una strana storia iniziata all'epoca del suo apprendistato giornalistico. Il flashback, costellato da ..... pirandelliani anche della realtà primitiva della Sicilia, la storia che narra è una storia emblematica di un individuo maledetto, di un essere soggiogato dalle mani di un destino ...

  20. Supervising and leading teams in ILS

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Provides a practical guide to supervisory skills, suitable for team leaders and supervisors in library and information work. Illustrated by examples and case studies from different types of ILS, this book offers self-assessment audits and other activities to enable the reader to relate the tools and techniques to their own work situation.

  1. Il progetto Virgo, Einstein e i computer

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Virgo sta accendendo i suoi laser: mercoledi e stato inaugurato a Pisa il piu potente rivelatore di onde gravitazionali al mondo, capace eventualmente di segnalare l'arrivo di un'onda dal cosmo, con una sensibilita di un miliardesimo di miliardesimo di metro" (1/2 page)

  2. Clay Shirky, Internet e il collegio invisibile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Come Internet sta cambiando il nostro modo di pensare? Fra le 172 risposte presentate da Edge, Clay Shirky ne propone una particolarmente interessante per i ricercatori di professione. Internet, scrive Shirky, ha aumentato straordinariamente la capacità espressiva dell’umanità. Ma che una risorsa divenga abbondante, da scarsa che era, è una sfortuna, almeno per chi su [...

  3. Il significato della relatività

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    1955-01-01

    La prima edizione di questo libro, pubblicata bel 1922, comprendeva il testo delle Stafford Little Lectures tenute da Einstein nel maggio 1921 alla Università di Princeton. Nel 1945 Einstein aggiunse un'appendice sulla sua teoria generalizzata della gravitazione. Nel 1953 Einstein rifece del tutto, ampliandola, la seconda appendice, a cui aggiunse un Supplemento nel 1954.

  4. Fasting induces IL-1 resistance and free fatty acid-mediated up-regulation of IL-1R2 and IL-1RA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jenifer j joesting

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight loss is a near societal obsession and many diet programs use significant calorie restriction (CR including fasting/short term starvation to generate rapid effects. Fasting is also a well-recognized cause of immunosuppression especially within the innate immune system. In this study, we sought to determine if the IL-1 arm of the neuroimmune system was down-regulated by a 24 hr fast and how fasting might generate this effect. Design: Mice were allowed ad libitum access to food or had food withheld for 24 hrs. Expression of the endogenous IL-1 antagonists IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA were determined as were sickness behaviors before and after IL-1 administration.Results: Fasting markedly increased gene expression of IL-1R2 (83-fold in adipose tissue, 9.5-fold in liver and IL-1RA (68-fold in liver. Fasted mice were protected from IL-1-induced weight loss, hypoglycemia, loss of locomotor and social anxiety. These protections were coupled to a large positive interaction of fasting and IL-1 on IL-1R2 gene expression in adipose tissue and liver (2.6-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively. Fasting not only increased IL-1RA and IL-1R2 protein 2.5-fold and 3.2-fold, respectively, in liver; but also increased IL-1R2 1.8-fold in adipose tissue. Fasting, in turn, triggered a 2.4-fold increase in plasma free-fatty acids (FFAs and a 2.1-fold increase in plasma corticosterone. Inhibition, of glucocorticoid action with mifepristone did not impact fasting-dependent IL-1R2 or IL-1RA gene expression. Administration of the FFA, palmitate, to mice increased liver IL-1R2 and IL-1RA gene expression by 14-fold and 11-fold, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that fasting augments expression of endogenous IL-1 antagonists inducing IL-1 resistance. Fasting-induced increases in plasma FFAs appears to be a signal that drives immunosuppression during fasting/short term starvation.

  5. Family based association analysis of the IL2 and IL15 genes in allergic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Haagerup, Annette; Binderup, Helle

    2006-01-01

    ) identified in a family based association study of two Danish samples comprising a total of 235 families with allergic diseases. None of the IL15 SNPs showed significant association and the haplotype analysis yielded inconsistent results in the two samples. In contrast, the two IL2 SNPs showed association...... both separately and in haplotypes with several atopic phenotypes, most significantly with IgE-mediated allergy. (single SNP P-value 0.0005 for positive skin prick test, haplotype P-value 0.019 for positive RAST test). To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting association between IL2 and Ig...

  6. IL-4 enhances IL-10 production in Th1 cells: implications for Th1 and Th2 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ruth E; Hassan, Masriana; Burton, Bronwen R; Britton, Graham; Hill, Elaine V; Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C

    2017-09-12

    IL-10 is an immunomodulatory cytokine with a critical role in limiting inflammation in immune-mediated pathologies. The mechanisms leading to IL-10 expression by CD4 + T cells are being elucidated, with several cytokines implicated. We explored the effect of IL-4 on the natural phenomenon of IL-10 production by a chronically stimulated antigen-specific population of differentiated Th1 cells. In vitro, IL-4 blockade inhibited while addition of exogenous IL-4 to Th1 cultures enhanced IL-10 production. In the in vivo setting of peptide immunotherapy leading to a chronically stimulated Th1 phenotype, lack of IL-4Rα inhibited the induction of IL-10. Exploring the interplay of Th1 and Th2 cells through co-culture, Th2-derived IL-4 promoted IL-10 expression by Th1 cultures, reducing their pathogenicity in vivo. Co-culture led to upregulated c-Maf expression with no decrease in the proportion of T-bet + cells in these cultures. Addition of IL-4 also reduced the encephalitogenic capacity of Th1 cultures. These data demonstrate that IL-4 contributes to IL-10 production and that Th2 cells modulate Th1 cultures towards a self-regulatory phenotype, contributing to the cross-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells. These findings are important in the context of Th1 driven diseases since they reveal how the Th1 phenotype and function can be modulated by IL-4.

  7. Rappresentare il progetto di interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Zannoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ItQuesto saggio indaga le conseguenze che, nel mutato contesto del progetto contemporaneo del design, implica la forte convergenza della disciplina del progetto nei temi legati all'interaction design. L'evidenza di questo mutamento mette in luce come nell'iter progettuale il ruolo centrico del disegno e della rappresentazione è messo in crisi da una trasformazione dei contenuti del progetto. Il rapporto tra il progetto dell'interfaccia e il product design, la dematerializzazione dei feedback tattili e visivi, la sempre più diffusa digitalizzazione delle superfici di interazione degli oggetti, mostrano come il design del prodotto non è immune alla trasformazione che ha cambiato i media della comunicazione negli ultimi dieci anni e gli strumenti della rappresentazione si devono adeguare per poter prefigurare una sempre maggior complessità del percorso progettuale.EnIn the changing context of contemporary design, this essay explores the consequences entailed by the significant convergence of the discipline of design towards the themes relative to action design. The evidence of this change highlights how the central role of drawing and representation in the design process is challenged by the transformation in the contents of design. The relationship between the design of the interface and product design, the dematerialization of tactile and visual feedback, the increasingly widespread digitalization of the interaction surfaces of objects, prove that product design is not immune to the transformation that has changed communication media over the past ten years and the tools of representation must adapt to maintain the capacity to prefigure the growing complexity of the design process.

  8. Vaghezza e chiarezza: tradurre Il grande Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Cavagnoli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La traduzione di The Great Gatsby (1925 di Francis Scott Fitzgerald, pubblicata da Feltrinelli nel 2011: dalla tensione fra lingua scritta e lingua orale all’alternarsi di registri linguistici assai vari nei dialoghi (formale, colloquiale, popolare, dalla difficoltà di seguire Fitzgerald nelle sue ellissi all’aderenza sia alle sue scelte stilistiche sia ai campi espressivi da lui prediletti, in particolare l’area semantica del mare, delle tenebre, dell’inquietudine. Nell’articolo entro nel dettaglio delle singole scelte traduttive – attraverso il confronto della traduzione con il testo fonte e la spiegazione delle decisioni prese – compiute all’insegna di una scelta di fondo, e cioè che il fine etico dell’atto traduttivo sia accogliere lo Straniero in quanto tale, affinché nel versare un libro nella propria lingua madre l’Altro resti Altro e il desiderio di tradurre non porti a sostituire il proprio all’altrui. The article retraces the path I followed in my translation, published by Feltrinelli in 2011, of Francis Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925 – from the tension between the written and spoken languages to the wide diversity of registers (formal, colloquial, popular in the dialogues, from the difficulty of staying in step with Fitzgerald’s ellipses to the preservation of his stylistic choices and his favourite semantic fields, particularly those of the sea, of darkness and of restlessness. By comparing my translation with the source text and explaining the rationale behind my decisions, I will perform a thorough examination of my translation choices, which have been based on the tenet that the ethical aim of the translation act is to receive the Foreign as Foreign, so that when one turns a book into one’s own mother tongue the Other remains the Other and the wish to translate does not lead one to replace the Other with the Self.  

  9. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D. [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Furlong, Suzanne J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lin, Tong-Jun [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  10. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M.; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D.; Furlong, Suzanne J.; Lin, Tong-Jun; Hoskin, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Curcumin inhibits CD4 + T-lymphocyte proliferation. → Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4 + T-lymphocytes. → Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. → IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4 + T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 (α chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca 2+ release to inhibit IκB phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  11. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  12. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: kmichiko@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  13. Targeting the IL-33/IL-13 Axis for Respiratory Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Chantal; Bourke, Jane E; Vlahos, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are highly prevalent worldwide. One of the major factors that limits the efficacy of current medication in these patients are viral infections, leading to exacerbations of symptoms and decreased quality of life. Current pharmacological strategies targeting virus-induced lung disease are problematic due to antiviral resistance and the requirement for strain-specific vaccination. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. In this Opinion article, we provide state-of-the-art evidence from humans and preclinical animal models implicating the interleukin (IL)-33/IL-13 axis in virus-induced lung disease. Thus, targeting the IL-33/IL-13 axis may be a feasible way to overcome the limitations of current therapy used to treat virus-induced exacerbations of lung disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum concentration of IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFNγ in Vitiligo patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. Although the etiology of vitiligo is unknown, over the last few years, substantial data from clinical research has greatly supported the ′Autoimmune theory′ and this is supported by the frequent association of vitiligo with disorders that have an autoimmune origin, including Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, Graves disease, type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and Addison′s disease. As cytokines are important mediators of immunity, there is evidence to suggest that they play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Aim: Keeping this in view we have assayed sera for cytokine IL-6, IL-2, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IFNγ in 80 cases of vitiligo and compared it with healthy subjects, in order to find out whether they play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo or not. Materials and Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFNγ were done by the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean serum IL-6 and IL-2 levels in the patient group were significantly higher when compared with those of the normal controls. The mean serum IFNγ level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than that in the control group. There was no significant difference in the serum level of TNF-α between vitiligo and healthy controls. Conclusion : An increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-2 in vitiligo patients may play an important role in melanocytic cytotoxicity. Thus, we speculate that the cytokine production of epidermal microenvironment may be involved in vitiligo.

  15. Differential expression of IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A regulates invasion/angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Das, Anjan Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2018-04-26

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines. The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. Here, we have established a co-relation between IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A and their regulation in hypoxia induced invasion/angiogenesis. We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples. We studied a co-relation among MAO-A and IL-6/IL-6R and tumour angiogenesis/invasion in hypoxic environment in breast cancer model. Activation of IL-6/IL-6R and its downstream was found in hypoxic cancer cells. This elevation of IL-6/IL-6R caused sustained inhibition of MAO-A in hypoxic environment. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling or IL-6R siRNA increased MAO-A activity and inhibited tumour angiogenesis and invasion significantly in different models. Further, elevation of MAO-A with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) modulated IL-6 mediated angiogenesis and invasive signatures including VEGF, MMPs and EMT in hypoxic breast cancer. High grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) clinical specimen displayed elevated level of IL-6R and depleted MAO-A expression. Expression of VEGF and HIF-1α was unregulated and loss of E-Cadherin was observed in high grade IDC tissue specimen. Suppression of MAO-A by IL-6/IL-6R activation promotes tumour angiogenesis and invasion in hypoxic breast cancer environment.

  16. Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Serum Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Shen, Min; Smith, Martyn T.; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Ji, Zhiying; Reiss, Boris; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Songwang; Bagni, Rachel; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark; Hu, Wei; Yue, Fei; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the immunotoxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE), we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of workers exposed to TCE. We measured serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, which play a critical role in regulating various components of the immune system, in 71 exposed workers and 78 unexposed control workers. Repeated personal exposure measurements were taken in workers before blood collection using 3 M organic vapor monitoring badges. Compared to unexposed workers, the serum concentration of IL-10 in workers exposed to TCE was decreased by 70% (P = 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. Further, the magnitude of decline in IL-10 was >60% and statistically significant in workers exposed to <12 ppm as well as in workers with exposures ≥ 12 ppm of TCE, compared to unexposed workers. No significant differences in levels of IL-6 or TNF-α were observed among workers exposed to TCE compared to unexposed controls. Given that IL-10 plays an important role in immunologic processes, including mediating the Th1/Th2 balance, our findings provide additional evidence that TCE is immunotoxic in humans. PMID:23798002

  17. activismo y estéticas en experimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rincón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Podemos comunicarlo todo: tenemos las tecnologías de la comunicación cada vez más cerca; pero no podemos contar nada, porque no tenemos nada qué decir, ni sabemos cómo decirlo. Hay que inventarlo todo, intervenir de nuevo la sociedad desde la comunicación. Es necesario convertir los medios en experiencia estética, social y política. ¿Cómo? Usando a las tecnologías para el activismo y el experimento; recurriendo a los llamado retro, porque no es lo más actual, lo más mercado, como experiencia de inspiración y emoción. Hay que volver a las estéticas, a los modos de narrar y a las historias que están inscritas en nuestras identidades locales; en nuestras sensibilidades femeninas, juveniles o sexuales; en nuestras tradiciones étnicas, o en nuestros modos urbanos. Sólo basta una minicámara para inventar el universo. En este ensayo se realiza un alegato contra los universos estético-narrativopolíticos construidos por la máquina televisiva y la homogeneidad del mercado. En este texto se argumenta a favor del activismo comunicativo, de la exploración tecnológica y de la inspiración étnica como estrategias para generar una mayor conciencia sobre el valor social de la comunicación, la intervención estético-narrativa de la sociedad y la importancia política de los medios de la gente.

  18. Aproximaciones a una estética de lo americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Milagro Casalla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El legado filosófico que nos ha dejado Rodolfo Kusch tiene cada vez más presencia y valor en este largo itinerario de descubrirnos como americanos. La pasión de este pensador por la América profunda es una fuente de ins- piración para quienes creemos que vivir en América no es simplemente un episodio geográfico sino un horizonte desde y a partir del cual construimos nuestra identidad. En este trabajo se pretende recrear sus consideracio - nes estéticas recogidas en su ensayo “Anotaciones para una estética de lo americano”, escrito en el año 1955. Aunque se trata de uno de los primeros escritos de Rodolfo Kusch, en el mismo se encuentran presentes numerosos conceptos que luego serán tematizados extensamente a lo largo de toda su obra. Considero que el abordaje a sus consideraciones estéticas no ha sido tan frecuentado como sí otros aspectos de su pensamiento (ser-estar, geocultura, símbolo y religión, etc.. Por ello, creo que este trabajo puede constituir una orientación preeliminar para futuras interpretaciones y, a la vez, ser un humilde homenaje a su filosofía, que, a lo largo de los años, sigue estimulando a antiguas y nuevas generaciones de pensadores dedicados a la filosofía latinoamericana.

  19. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  20. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  1. IL-1Ra: its role in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is one of the pivotal cytokines in initiating and driving the processes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and the body’s natural response, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, has been shown conclusively to block its effects. IL-1 mediate several clinical symptoms of the inflammatory reaction (i.e. fever, pain, sleep disturbances. IL-1 is considered a key mediator in RA joint damage because of its greater capacity (greater than TNF of increasing matrix degradation by inducing the production of MMPs and PGE2 in synovial cells, as well by its role as mediator of bone and cartilage destruction. In addition, IL-1 decreases the repair process by suppressing matrix synthesis and shows a strong synergism with TNF in inducing many inflammatory genes at both local and systemic level. The induced endogenous production of IL-1Ra, in presence of the RA synovitis, is too low to contrast the high affinity of IL-1 for the cell receptors. Therefore, IL-1Ra presence should result in very effective prevention of IL-1 signal transduction particularly in the inflammatory site. In laboratory and animal studies inhibition of IL-1 by either antibodies to IL-1 or IL-1Ra proved beneficial to the outcome. IL-1Ra is a member of the IL-1 superfamily. The effects of different DMARDs on IL-1Ra levels in RA patients support the important role that selected anticytokine treatments might exert in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, since anti TNFα therapy it is not effective in all RA patients, nor does it fully control the arthritic process in affected joints of good responders and complete TNF suppression should be avoided, the combined treatment with intermediate doses of TNF and IL-1 blockers, reaching synergistic suppression of arthritis, seems warranted in RA.

  2. Qu'est-ce que l'Univers ?

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Les plus grans spécialistes français sont réunis dans ce quatrième volume. Ils éclairent les grandes questions que pose la cosmologie, le Système solaire, les étoiles et les galaxies, la Terre, les océans et le climat, la matière et son organisation, l'évolution des mathématiques, la complexité, les transformations chimiques.

  3. Uma nova proposta para o estágio de pratica de ensino em psicologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Neide Damico Figueiró

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to propose a new alternative for the Teaching Practicum in Psychology which could provide better experiences for the licentiate student in the Educational field in terms of quality and in regards to the community needs. The methodology of this work consisted of planning, accomplishing and evaluating the extension courses and events of 20 or 30 hours taught by the licentiate students to Primary and Secondary school students, teachers of pre, school and primary school, nursery employees and the community in general. The results showed that in a significantly higher proportion the licentiate students considered, the experience in Teachining Practicum and the contribution of it to his/her professional career to be excellent. The clientele, as a whole, evaluated positively the quality of the courses and the range of the proposed objectives. It was concluded that the new alternative has brought new improvement to the Teaching Practicum, providing an integration of students of Higher Education with the primary and secondary teaching and the community in general" in favor of the knowledge democratization. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi propor uma nova alternativa para os estágios de Prática de Ensino em Psicologia que aprimorasse as experiências do licenciando no campo da Educação, dando mais qualidade a esses estágios, num vínculo com as necessidades da comunidade. A metodologia consistiu no planejamento, execução e avaliação de cursos-evento-extensão de 20 ou 30 horas pelos licenciados junto a alunos de 1° e 2° graus, professores de pré-escola e 1° grau, funcionários de creche e comunidade em geral. Quanto aos resultados, os licenciandos avaliaram, numa proporção significativamente maior, como sendo ótima a experiência em Prática de Ensino e a contribuição do estágio para a sua vida profissional. A clientela, em sua totalidade, avaliou de forma positiva a qualidade dos cursos e o alcance dos

  4. The lysine deacetylase inhibitor givinostat inhibits ß-cell IL-1ß induced IL-1ß transcription and processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahllöf, Mattias Salling; Christensen, Dan P; Lundh, Morten

    2012-01-01

    . Further, IL-1R antagonism improves normoglycemia and ß-cell function in type 2 diabetic patients. Inhibition of lysine deacetylases (KDACi) counteracts ß-cell toxicity induced by the combination of IL-1 and IFN¿ and reduces diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We hypothesized that KDACi......Aims: Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in particular IL-1ß, IFN¿, and CXCL10, contribute to ß-cell failure and loss in DM via IL-1R, IFN¿R, and TLR4 signaling. IL-1 signaling deficiency reduces diabetes incidence, islet IL-1ß secretion, and hyperglycemia in animal models of diabetes...

  5. Study on the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuntao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured with KIA in 38 patients with psoriasis and 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with psoriasis than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases. (authors)

  6. DMPD: Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15546391 Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. Watf...ord WT, Hissong BD, Bream JH, Kanno Y, Muul L, O'Shea JJ. Immunol Rev. 2004 Dec;202:139-56. (.png) (.svg) (....html) (.csml) Show Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. PubmedID 15546391 T...itle Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. Author...s Watford WT, Hissong BD, Bream JH, Kanno Y, Muul L, O'Shea JJ. Publication Immunol Rev. 2004 Dec;202:139-56

  7. Il primato della libertà politica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Casalini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Casalini ripercorre Politics out of History di Wendy Brown soffermandosi in particolare sul dialogo che Brown intrattiene con il pensiero di Marx, Nietzsche e Freud. L’accento posto sul nesso tra libertà individuale e libertà politica e sulla distinzione tra “moralismo” e “moralità” apre alla problematizzazione del nodo teoria-politica. Alla luce della crisi contemporanea della sinistra americana il ruolo del teorico è quindi quello di introdurre tratti di discontinuità in quel discorso di senso comune che la politica tende invece a cristallizzare. In conclusione, secondo Brown, questo scarto deve essere recepito anche dai Women Studies che, restando ancorati a identità statiche, rischiano di non riuscire a svolgere una necessaria «funzione omeopatica» all’interno dei regimi democratici.

  8. El leviatán estético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Peñuela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo exploro algunos argumentos de Hannah Arendt, con el fin de mostrar las razones que explican el odio que se manifestaba en las discusiones artísticas de comienzos del siglo XX, odio que persiste aún en muchos escenarios artísticos actuales. Con Arendt sostengo que este fenómeno no está superado, porque el odio es la herramienta que despliega el Capital, para amalgamar a todos los desheredados que ha creado. Contextualizo en la práctica artística colombiana el siguiente argumento de Arendt: el capitalismo creó una amalgama de frustrados sociales, políticos y estéticos que destruye la esfera pública como lugar para el acontecer de la política, amalgama que denominó populacho. Introduzco la categoría de populacho estético, para hablar del odio que ha animado las prácticas artísticas en Colombia desde 1940.

  9. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines de Albuquerque Wilasco

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. Methods: The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child–Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. Results: IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (p < 0.001, 0.21 vs. 0.14 (p = 0.007, and 0.65 vs. 0.36 (p = 0.004, respectively. IL-6 and IL-10 were positively correlated with disease severity (0.450 [p = 0.001] and 0.410; [p = 0.002], respectively. TNF-α did not show a significant correlation with disease severity (0.100; p = 0.478. Regarding nutritional evaluation, IL-6 was negatively correlated with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.493; p < 0.001 and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.503; p < 0.001, respectively. IL-10 exhibited a negative correlation with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.476; p < 0.001 and the standard deviation score of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.388; p = 0.004. TNF-α did not show any significance in both anthropometric parameters (−0.083 (p = 0.555 and −0.161 (p = 0.253. Conclusion: The authors suggest that, in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status.

  10. Association of IL1A and IL1B loci with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Indranil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease in which secondary degenerative losses occur after primary insult by raised Intraocular pressure (IOP or by other associated factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in the IL1A and IL1B genes are associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of these polymorphisms in eastern Indian POAG patients. Methods The study involved 315 unrelated POAG patients, consisting of 116 High Tension Glaucoma (HTG patients with intra ocular pressure (IOP > 21 mmHg and 199 non-HTG patients (presenting IOP IL1A (-889C/T; rs1800587, IL1B (-511C/T; rs16944 and IL1B (3953C/T; rs1143634. Haplotype frequency was determined by Haploview 4.1 software. The association of individual SNPs and major haplotypes was evaluated using chi-square statistics. The p-value was corrected for multiple tests by Bonferroni method. Results No significant difference was observed in the allele and genotype frequencies for IL1A and IL1B SNPs between total pool of POAG patients and controls. However, on segregating the patient pool to HTG and non-HTG groups, weak association was observed for IL1A polymorphism (-889C/T where -889C allele was found to portray risk (OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.041-1.830; p = 0.025 for non-HTG patients. Similarly, 3953T allele of IL1B polymorphism (+3953C/T was observed to confer risk to HTG group (OR = 1.561; 95% CI = 1.022-2.385; p = 0.039. On haplotype analysis it was observed that TTC was significantly underrepresented in non-HTG patients (OR = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.356- 0.815; p = 0.003 while TCT haplotype was overrepresented in HTG patients (OR = 1.784; 95% CI = 1.084- 2.937; p = 0.022 compared to control pool. However, after correction for multiple tests by Bonferroni method, an association of only TTC haplotype with non-HTG cases sustained (pcorrected = 0.015 and expected to confer protection. Conclusion The study

  11. I processorie Itanium "accelerano" il CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    "Il CERN è di nuovo in prima fila nell'abbinamento tra informatica e ricerca scientifica. L'organizzazione europea utilizzerà anche computer basati sui nuovi microprocessori Intel Itanium a 64 bit". - CERN is again at the forefront of the coupling of informatics and scientific research. The European organization will use computers with new 64 bit Intel Itanium microprocessors (0.5 page)

  12. Il museo della scienza di Villa Farnesina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Salvemini

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Rappresentavano l’Astronomia le due logge romane del viridario di villa Farnesina con la Sala adiacente del Trionfo di Ercole: lo spazio, l’astrolabio zodiacale della Sala di Galatea - in testa le stelle dell’Orsa minore fatte di “sasso” da Medusa, Peruzzi nella biografia di Vasari - e il tempo, la meccanica dello gnomone solare del Trionfo di Cupido.

  13. Mais oui, il était un joli temps du passé comme les autres, mon joli petit hypocoristique…

    OpenAIRE

    Bres, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Comment rendre compte de l'imparfait dans le tour hypocoristique ? Les explications proposées consistent, de différentes manières, à ne pas prendre l'imparfait pour ce qu'il est et à lui imputer des valeurs produites par d'autres paramètres co(n)textuels. J'avance que, dans le tour hypocoristique comme dans tous ses autres emplois, l'imparfait donne la même instruction temporalo-aspectuelle; et que l'effet de sens hypocoristique est produit résultativement par l'intera...

  14. Análise tempo-intensidade dos estímulos doce e amargo de extrato de folhas de estévia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni] em doçura equivalente a sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDELLO Helena Maria André Bolini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O extrato de folhas de estévia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni é o único edulcorante utilizado na substituição da sacarose, que pode ser produzido totalmente no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os comportamentos de características temporais dos estímulos doce e amargo da estevia em doçuras equivalentes a soluções de sacarose (DESS a 3 e 10%. As curvas tempo-intensidade (T-I para cada substância foram coletadas utilizando-se o programa "Sistema de Coleta de Dados Tempo-Intensidade - SCDTI" para Windows, onde os provadores registravam com auxílio do "mouse" a percepção de cada estímulo solicitado em função do tempo, para cada amostra. Os parâmetros das curvas T-I coletados foram: tempo de intensidade máxima (TImax, intensidade máxima (Imax, tempo onde a intensidade máxima começa a declinar (Td, tempo de platô (Platô, área sob a curva (Área e tempo total de duração do estímulo (Ttot. Os parâmetros Td, Ttot, Área e Platô das curvas T-I para o estímulo doce nos dois níveis de doçura foram significativamente superiores para estévia, enquanto TImax e Imax foram significativamente menores (p£0,05, sendo que as diferenças entre os valores para as duas substâncias foram muito maiores a DESS a 10%. A sacarose não apresentou nenhum registro para o estímulo amargo tanto a 3 como a 10%, enquanto a estévia apresentou curvas T-I características, com intensidade e o tempo total de duração dependente da concentração.

  15. Associations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene and cytokine (IL-1B, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFA genes combinations with type 2 diabetes mellitus in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Iosifovich Konenkov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and cytokine (IL1B, IL4, IL6, IL10 and TNFAgene polymorphism combinations with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in women. Materials and methods. 374 Caucasian women without carbohydrate metabolism disorders from 23 to 68 years of age and 212 womenwith T2DM from 28 to 69 years of age were included in the study. The combinations of polymorphism А-2578С, С+936Т in VEGFgene with polymorphism in IL1B С-31Т, IL4 С-590Т, IL6 G-174C, IL10 A-592C and А-1082G, TNFA А-238G, A-308G and A-863Cwere studied. Results. Analysis revealed 52 combined genetic variations with different rate of occurrence between diabetic and control groups(р

  16. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  17. Le fascisme, c’est du théâtre. Macchina scenica e meccanica narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Canzaniello

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available «Le fascisme, c’est du théâtre», sostiene Jean Genet, e come tale i suoi legami con la natura e la prassi della messa in scena sono essenziali alla specificità del fenomeno. La resa spettacolare della nazionalizzazione delle masse è stata senz’altro tra i temi fondamentali della ricerca sui totalitarismi. Il mio proposito è qui quello di intarsiare alcuni nuclei consolidati della ricerca storica con le rese squisitamente letterarie di quello che fu poco più che un  decennio di immensi tableaux vivants, visioni di un nuovo ordine di massa. Un’opera d’arte collettiva, basata su una premessa  fondamentale: dare “figurabilità” ai detriti e alle rovine (rimosse? di alcuni miti delle origini propri della cultura romantica, e  consapevolmente avviare e mettere in luce un enorme processo più generale di disgregazione del logos e di tutta la civiltà europea nella sua prospettiva diremo cartesiana, geometrica e razionalista. Il mio discorso si fonda, anche se in breve, su un testo solo: la Gerbe des forces (1937 di A. de Châteaubriant, uno dei più singolari resoconti di pellegrinaggio politico verso il miraggio totalitario che si sia dato tre le due guerre mondiali. Soccorsi non secondari sono il saggio di Sontag Under the sign of Saturn (1980 e quello di Tame La Mystique du Fascisme dans l’oeuvre de Robert Brasillach (1986. According to Jean Genet: «Le fascisme, c’est du théâtre», and as such its relationship with the nature and praxis of staging are essential to the specificity of the phenomenon. The magnificent representation of mass nationalisation is beyond doubt one of the fundamental issues when investigating totalitarianisms. My aim here is to link some wellestablished nuclei of historical research to the literary outputs of what was little more than a decade of immense tableaux vivants, visions of a new mass order. A collective work of art, based on a fundamental premise: to give ‘figurality’ to the rubble

  18. Il Medioevo nella percezione contemporanea: alcuni spunti per una riflession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Benvenuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cet article retrace la perception du Moyen Âge à l’époque contemporaine en mettant en évidence les stéréotypes avec lesquels le Moyen Âge est proposé au grand public. Le but de cet article n’est pas de type philologique, comme celui d’indiquer des « erreurs » d'interprétation, mais plutôt d’essayer de comprendre les attitudes culturelles et idéologiques qui sous-tendent ces « erreurs ». Les sources de l’étude ont été choisies afin de couvrir une zone assez vaste, de la littérature scientifique (par exemple le fameux texte du politologue britannique Hedley Bull, ‘La société anarchiste’ à la littérature fantastique, des produits des médias traditionnels aux films et aux jeux de rôle. Une attention particulière a été accordée à l'analyse des thèmes liés aux Croisades. A cet égard, on a privilégié quelques films célèbres en essayant de montrer comment les topoi médiévaux peuvent être des indicateurs de la vision politique globale des auteurs et, plus précisément, un marqueur de leur vision de la relation entre l'Orient et l’Occident.This paper analyzes the cultural perception of the Middle Ages in the contemporary Age by highlighting the most successful stereotypes through which the Middle Ages has been proposed to the public. The aim of this essay is not to correct philologically the “errors” of interpretation, but rather to understand the cultural and ideological attitudes underlying these “errors”. The sources of this study were chosen to cover a fairly large area: from scientific literature (for example the famous text of British political scientist Hedley Bull, “The anarchist society” to fantasy literature, from the products of traditional media to films and role-playing games. A particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the themes related to the Crusades; privileging the analysis of some famous films, showing how the medieval topoi used to represent the

  19. Construction, database integration, and application of an Oenothera EST library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrácek, Jaroslav; Greiner, Stephan; Cho, Won Kyong; Rauwolf, Uwe; Braun, Martha; Umate, Pavan; Altstätter, Johannes; Stoppel, Rhea; Mlcochová, Lada; Silber, Martina V; Volz, Stefanie M; White, Sarah; Selmeier, Renate; Rudd, Stephen; Herrmann, Reinhold G; Meurer, Jörg

    2006-09-01

    Coevolution of cellular genetic compartments is a fundamental aspect in eukaryotic genome evolution that becomes apparent in serious developmental disturbances after interspecific organelle exchanges. The genus Oenothera represents a unique, at present the only available, resource to study the role of the compartmentalized plant genome in diversification of populations and speciation processes. An integrated approach involving cDNA cloning, EST sequencing, and bioinformatic data mining was chosen using Oenothera elata with the genetic constitution nuclear genome AA with plastome type I. The Gene Ontology system grouped 1621 unique gene products into 17 different functional categories. Application of arrays generated from a selected fraction of ESTs revealed significantly differing expression profiles among closely related Oenothera species possessing the potential to generate fertile and incompatible plastid/nuclear hybrids (hybrid bleaching). Furthermore, the EST library provides a valuable source of PCR-based polymorphic molecular markers that are instrumental for genotyping and molecular mapping approaches.

  20. IL-4 deficiency is associated with mechanical hypersensitivity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Üçeyler

    Full Text Available Interleukin-4 (IL-4 is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokine that induces opioid receptor transcription. We investigated IL-4 knockout (ko mice to characterize their pain behavior before and after chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. We investigated opioid responsivity and measured cytokine and opioid receptor gene expression in the peripheral and central nervous system (PNS, CNS of IL-4 ko mice in comparison with wildtype (wt mice. Naïve IL-4 ko mice displayed tactile allodynia (wt: 0.45 g; ko: 0.18 g; p<0.001, while responses to heat and cold stimuli and to muscle pressure were not different. No compensatory changes in the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-13 were found in the PNS and CNS of naïve IL-4 ko mice. However, IL-1β gene expression was stronger in the sciatic nerve of IL-4 ko mice (p<0.001 28 days after CCI and only IL-4 ko mice had elevated IL-10 gene expression (p = 0.014. Remarkably, CCI induced TNF (p<0.01, IL-1β (p<0.05, IL-10 (p<0.05, and IL-13 (p<0.001 gene expression exclusively in the ipsilateral spinal cord of IL-4 ko mice. The compensatory overexpression of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokines IL-10 and IL-13 in the spinal cord of IL-4 ko mice may explain the lack of genotype differences for pain behavior after CCI. Additionally, CCI induced gene expression of μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors in the contralateral cortex and thalamus of IL-4 ko mice, paralleled by fast onset of morphine analgesia, but not in wt mice. We conclude that a lack of IL-4 leads to mechanical sensitivity; the compensatory hyperexpression of analgesic cytokines and opioid receptors after CCI, in turn, protects IL-4 ko mice from enhanced pain behavior after nerve lesion.

  1. The role of IL 23 in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Lluís

    2017-06-01

    The IL-23/IL-17 axis is currently considered to be crucial in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Human IL-23 is primarily produced by antigen-presenting cells and induces and maintains differentiation of Th17 cells and Th22 cells, a primary cellular source of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22, which mediate the epidermal hyperplasia, keratinocyte immune activation and tissue inflammation inherent in psoriasis. Agents that target the p40 subunit common to both IL-12 and IL-23 have shown robust clinical activity, but selectivity for IL-23p19 could offer advantages in efficacy and safety with respect to anti-p40 blockade. Areas covered: Relevant references regarding the role of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis and clinical trials with IL-23p40 and IL-23p19 blocking agents were obtained through a literature search in MEDLINE/Pubmed for articles published until November 2016. Moreover, ongoing registered clinical trials (RCTs) of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were searched through clinicaltrials.gov website, and a manual search was made for pertinent communications at the 2016 American Academy of Dermatology and European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology meetings. Expert commentary: There are potential advantages in selective blockade of the IL23-specific p19 subunit with respect to distal blockade of IL-17A or its receptor. Acting upstream in the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine pathway is likely to reduce the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on keratinocytes -including IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22-, in addition to IL-17A. On the other hand, safety data thus far suggest that these drugs might be devoid of some adverse effects of IL-17A blockade that seem to be class related, such as mucocutaneous Candida infections or triggering or worsening of inflammatory bowel disease. Specific IL-23p19 blockade with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies seems to be able to induce long

  2. IL-27 Activates Human Trophoblasts to Express IP-10 and IL-6: Implications in the Immunopathophysiology of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanlin Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effects of IL-27 on human trophoblasts and the underlying regulatory signaling mechanisms in preeclampsia. Methods. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor (WSX-1 was studied in the placenta or sera from patients with preeclampsia. In vitro, we investigated the effects of IL-27 alone or in combination with inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α on the proinflammatory activation of human trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo and the underlying intracellular signaling molecules. Results. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor α (WSX-1 was significantly elevated in the trophoblastic cells from the placenta of patients with preeclampsia compared with control specimens. In vitro, IL-27 could induce the expression of inflammatory factors IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-6 in trophoblasts, and a synergistic effect was observed in the combined treatment of IL-27 and TNF-α on the release of IP-10 and IL-6. Furthermore, the production of IP-10 and IL-6 stimulated by IL-27 was differentially regulated by intracellular activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase-AKT, p38MAPK, and JAK/STAT pathways. Conclusions. These results provide a new insight into the IL-27-activated immunopathological effects mediated by distinct intracellular signal transduction molecules in preeclampsia.

  3. Prevalência e fatores associados ao uso de drogas ilícitas em gestantes da coorte BRISA

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Coimbra Rocha; Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e Alves; Deysianne Costa das Chagas; Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Rosangela Fernandes Lucena Batista; Raimundo Antonio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O artigo objetiva analisar a prevalência e fatores associados ao uso de drogas ilícitas na gestação. Estudo transversal, aninhado à coorte pré-natal do estudo de coorte BRISA. Utilizou-se medidas de frequência e modelo de regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. A prevalência estimada foi de 1,45% para o uso de drogas ilícitas, 22,32% para o uso de bebidas alcóolicas e 4,22% para o de cigarro. A população mostrou-se jovem, de 20-34 anos de idade (81%), com escolaridade de 9-11 anos ...

  4. Genetic regulation of IL1RL1 methylation and IL1RL1-a protein levels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, F Nicole; Xu, Chengjian; Melén, Erik; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Kumar, Asish; Nolte, Ilja M; Gruzieva, Olena; Pershagen, Goran; Grotenboer, Neomi S; Savenije, Olga E M; Antó, Josep Maria; Lavi, Iris; Dobaño, Carlota; Bousquet, Jean; van der Vlies, Pieter; van der Valk, Ralf J P; de Jongste, Johan C; Nawijn, Martijn C; Guerra, Stefano; Postma, Dirkje S; Koppelman, Gerard H

    2018-03-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 ( IL1RL1 ) is an important asthma gene. (Epi)genetic regulation of IL1RL1 protein expression has not been established. We assessed the association between IL1RL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a protein levels, and aimed to identify causal pathways in asthma.Associations of IL1RL1 SNPs with asthma were determined in the Dutch Asthma Genome-wide Association Study cohort and three European birth cohorts, BAMSE (Children/Barn, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, an Epidemiological survey), INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) and PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy), participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy study. We performed blood DNA IL1RL1 methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis (n=496) and (epi)genome-wide protein QTL analysis on serum IL1RL1-a levels (n=1462). We investigated the association of IL1RL1 CpG methylation with asthma (n=632) and IL1RL1-a levels (n=548), with subsequent causal inference testing. Finally, we determined the association of IL1RL1-a levels with asthma and its clinical characteristics (n=1101). IL1RL1 asthma-risk SNPs strongly associated with IL1RL1 methylation (rs1420101; p=3.7×10 -16 ) and serum IL1RL1-a levels (p=2.8×10 -56 ). IL1RL1 methylation was not associated with asthma or IL1RL1-a levels. IL1RL1-a levels negatively correlated with blood eosinophil counts, whereas there was no association between IL1RL1-a levels and asthma.In conclusion, asthma-associated IL1RL1 SNPs strongly regulate IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a levels, yet neither these IL1RL1- methylation CpG sites nor IL1RL1-a levels are associated with asthma. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  5. Relaciones de equivalencia con estímulos compuestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Hernández, Sonia Céspedes, Leonardo Prieto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la presente investigación fue identificar las relaciones emergentes de entrenamientos entre estímulos muestra simples con estímulos de comparación compuestos. El estudio realizado corresponde a una investigación de tipo intrasujeto. Se contó con diez estudiantes universitarios, seis hombres y cuatro mujeres, con edades entre los 17 y 22 años de edad fueron escogidos por conveniencia y recibieron entrenamiento en discriminación condicional a través de tareas de igualación a la muestra arbitraria de tres elecciones por medio de un aplicativo en Visual Basic. En el primer y segundo bloque de entrenamiento se establecieron las relaciones condicionales entre estímulos muestra simples y estÌmulos de comparación compuestos (ej., A1-B1B1; A2-B2B2; A3-C3C3 y B1-C1C1; B2-C2C2; B3-C3C3 y se conformaron tres clases equivalentes de tres miembros cada una (ej., A1A1-B1B1-C1C1, asÌ como relaciones equivalencia-equivalencia (ej. A1A2- B1B2-C1C2. Cuatro de los diez participantes mostraron relaciones emergentes de simetrÌa, transitividad y equivalencia junto con relaciones equivalencia-equivalencia. Estos hallazgos indican que los entrenamientos entre estímulos simples y compuestos o viceversa producen relaciones emergentes propias de la equivalencia de estímulos.

  6. Comment des ex-délinquants participant au CWP aident-ils à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 août 2016 ... L'accent est mis sur le rôle d'ex-détenus au sein du CWP et leur travail pour mettre en œuvre des initiatives de prévention du crime et de la violence dans ces deux communautés. Les ex-délinquants décrivent leur implication dans le CWP comme une occasion de se racheter pour la douleur qu'ils ont ...

  7. A gravidade da cárie está associada à desnutrição proteico-calórica em pré-escolares?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Claudia Costa Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se se gravidade da cárie está associada à desnutrição proteico-calórica em pré-escolares. Foi realizado um estudo seccional aninhado a uma coorte retrospectiva de 625 crianças entre 24 -71 meses, em São Luís, Maranhão. Um modelo hierarquizado foi avaliado em cinco níveis: 1º Variáveis socioeconômicas (classe econômica, escolaridade materna, cor da pele; 2º Variáveis de acesso; 3º Baixo peso ao nascer e amamentação exclusiva; 4º Peso para altura aos 12 meses e 5º Gravidade da cárie e níveis de albumina (Alb. O desfecho foi desnutrição proteico-calórica (z escore altura para idade < -2. A prevalência do desfecho foi de 5,0 %, e da cárie foi de 32%. As variáveis do primeiro nível não foram associadas ao desfecho, porém a classe econômica foi mantida até o modelo final. As variáveis do segundo e do terceiro níveis não foram significativas. No quarto nível, peso para altura aos 12 meses não foi significativo, porém foi mantido até o modelo final. No último nível, os níveis de Alb não foram associados ao desfecho e a gravidade da doença cárie foi positivamente associada com desnutrição proteico-calórica em pré-escolares. A associação da gravidade da cárie com déficit antropométrico sinaliza que a saúde bucal deva ser parte importante nas políticas públicas de atenção à infância.

  8. Estéticas de las culturas de ocio

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo Vélez, Luis Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como propósito explorar el significado estético del ocio en la cultura contemporánea. Para cumplir este objetivo ha sido necesario hacer un breve balance de la manera como el concepto de ocio se ha entendido tanto en los escritos de algunos destacados filósofos (Aristóteles, Séneca y Kant) como en los escritos de algunos pensadores sociales modernos (Thorstein Veblen) y contemporáneos (Jean Baudrillard, Erich Weber, Joffre Dumazedier, Gilles Lipovetsky, Vicente Verdú...

  9. Dia mundial da espirometria na ESTeSL

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Hermínia Brites; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-01-01

    Objectivos do estudo: associar a ESTeSL e a AC de CPL às comemorações do Dia Mundial da Espirometria promovidas pela Fundação Europeia do Pulmão; realizar o maior número possível de espirometrias; consciencializar a comunidade para o papel da espirometria no diagnóstico precoce da patologia respiratória; colocar a ESTeSL, enquanto entidade formadora de Técnicos de Cardiopneumologia, na primeira linha das iniciativas relacionadas com o estudo espirométrico; identificar possíveis alter...

  10. El "cerco-muro" que está construyendo Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Frediani, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    Israel está construyendo un "cerco-muro" en la Ribera Occidental o "Cisjordania", con una extensión de 728 kilómetros, que aislará a 81 pueblos palestinos con 163.000 habitantes y a otros 210.000 que viven en el este de Jerusalén. Se extiende de norte a sur, violando la llamada "línea verde" que separaba Cisjordania del territorio israelí desde 1967. El gobierno de Ariel Sharon dice que el "cerco de seguridad" tiene por finalidad impedir el ingreso de suicidas palestinos. Los palestinos sosti...

  11. Formação do audiodescritor: a estética cinematográfica como base para o aprendizado da estética da audiodescrição - materiais, métodos e produtos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ferreira Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p34 A Audiodescrição (AD, recurso utilizado para tornar o teatro, o cinema, a TV, bem como obras de arte visuais, acessíveis a pessoas com deficiência visual, vem aos poucos sendo implantada no Brasil e demandando profissionais capacitados. Com base nessa constatação, este artigo traz o relato de um projeto desenvolvido durante estágio pós-doutoral que se dedicou ao confronto da estética cinematográfica com as técnicas de audiodescrição a fim de verificar como o conhecimento da primeira pode contribuir para a formação do audiodescritor. Por meio da pesquisa-ação, foi produzido um curta-metragem adaptado de um conto de Mário de Andrade intitulado O Peru de Natal. O filme homônimo, assim como sua audiodescrição, foram realizados pelos alunos e professores da disciplina Tradução Intersemiótica do curso de Letras da Universidade Estadual do Ceará (UECE. Assim, pretendeu-se sugerir procedimentos didáticos que partiram da experiência dos alunos ao avaliarem suas escolhas e as implicações destas.

  12. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  13. que particularidades estão associadas a melhores resultados?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Pedro Geraldo Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Projeto de Graduação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciado em Fisioterapia Objectivo: analisar um conjunto de planos de intervenção com exercício excêntrico, no tratamento da tendinopatia do rotuliano, e definir as características que parecem evidenciar um melhor resultado. Métodos: foi efectuada uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diversas bases de dados utilizando os seguintes termos de pesquisa: “patellar”, “tendin*”, e “eccen...

  14. La matematica e il calcolatore l'avventura pisana

    CERN Document Server

    Capovani, Milvio

    2004-01-01

    La matematica ha invaso domini regolati dall'autorità e dall'abitudine e li ha radicalmente modificati; il calcolatore guida una profonda rivoluzione nel sistema mondo: la matematica, attraverso il calcolatore, si è diffusa in vari campi del sapere. Questi i temi trattati. La storia delle macchine per il calcolo a Pisa è incastonata in questo scenario.

  15. Il valore dell'eBook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cavalli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ItQuanto vale un e-book? Quale valore percepisce chi compra e usa gli e-book? Comprare un libro o un e-book è una scelta che i lettori oggi si trovano a fare quotidianamente: la diffusione degli e-book reader a prezzi accessibili e la proposta sempre più varia dei piccoli e grandi editori sta cambiando la percezione del valore commerciale dell'oggetto libro e del valore attribuito dal consumatore finale al lavoro di intermediazione delle case editrici e della distribuzione. Sorgono sistemi "alternativi" di condivisione dei testi digitali, che sfruttano la rete Internet, celebrati come democratici o demonizzati come pirateria illegale, ma sicuramente rispondenti a quello che è il cambio di prospettiva, di percezione, di abitudini di consumo del lettore. Quanto si può parlare, dunque, di pirateria nel mercato degli e-book? E quanto, invece, è importante che l'industria editoriale tenga in considerazione la risposta del consumatore? La presente ricerca si è posta l’obiettivo di svolgere una indagine esplorativa su questi temi, che stanno assumendo un rilievo sempre maggiore all’interno dell’opinione pubblica, e che sono destinati in futuro ad incidere in modo sempre più diretto sull’evoluzione economica e professionale dell’intero settore editoriale. L’indagine ha visto, in questa prima fase, l’utilizzo di un questionario diffuso online sui social network, in siti e forum dedicati alla lettura, attraverso mailing list di gruppi di interesse, con il primo obiettivo di precisare il profilo di quell’avanguardia di lettori forti e che si muovono agilmente tra il cartaceo e il digitale, raccogliere informazioni rispetto alle loro abitudini di ricerca di nuove letture e descriverne le dinamiche di matchmaking preliminari all’acquisto. In aggiunta, si è indagata la consistenza di pratiche di prestito e condivisione dei libri, l’appoggio a sistemi tradizionali, come quello bibliotecario, o la decisa svolta verso sistemi di

  16. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...

  17. Cultural history and aesthetics of nursing care La historia cultural y la estética de los cuidados de enfermería A história cultural e a estética dos cuidados de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Siles González

    2011-10-01

    historia, se evidencia en la actividad cuidadora de la unidad funcional, en el marco funcional y en el elemento funcional. Se concluye que en las estructuras sociales mediante el proceso de socialización, el "conformismo lógico" y el "habitus" configuran los patrones estéticos de los cuidados mediante sentimientos como la maternidad, la religiosidad, el profesionalismo, el tecnologicismo y el humanismo.O objetivo deste artigo foi esclarecer o papel da estética na organização e motivação dos cuidados ao longo história. A seguir, são mostradas as perguntas norteadoras: quais foram os valores e sentimentos estéticos que fundamentaram e motivaram os cuidados pré-profissionais e profissionais? E em quais estruturas têm sido socializados historicamente? Foram consultadas fontes secundárias e primárias, selecionadas de acordo com critérios estabelecidos para evitar viés de busca e seleção. A análise de dados foi guiada pelas categorias: habitus e conformismo lógico. Identificaram-se evidências da relação entre as estruturas sociais e os padrões estéticos pré-profissionais (maternidade, religiosidade e profissionais (profissionalismo, tecnicismo dos cuidados através da história em: a atividade cuidadora da unidade funcional, o referencial funcional e o elemento funcional. Conclui-se que as estruturas sociais, mediante o processo de socialização, o conformismo lógico e o habitus configuram os padrões estéticos dos cuidados, mediante sentimentos como: maternidade, religiosidade, profissionalismo, tecnicismo e humanismo.

  18. Concentrações de IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 em crianças com excesso de massa corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Magalhães Guedes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar a relação das concentrações de IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 em crianças com excesso de massa corporal. As bases de dados investigadas PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS e Periódico Capes foram consultadas retrospectivamente para os últimos seis anos (2009 a 2014 utilizando combinações de palavras chaves como inflamação, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1 combinadas com crianças e escolares. Foram analisados 21 artigos. Foi encontrado associação entre sobrepeso/obesidade com IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 em 73,3% (11/15, 80% (12/15 e 60% (3/5 dos estudos que analisaram tais marcadores, respectivamente. Crianças com excesso de massa corporal possuem concentrações elevadas de IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 resultando em inflamação sistêmica crônica e aumentando o risco de desenvolvimento de outras doenças cardiovasculares. 

  19. Poéticas del cuerpo monstruoso en la Ilíada y la Odisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Nava Contreras

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Si bien la tradición ha considerado que los poemas homéricos son una fuente determinante en la creación y el desarrollo de la estética griega clásica fundamentada en los ideales de belleza y armonía, también es posible identificar allí una estética de la fealdad y de lo monstruoso, basada en la desmesura y la deformidad. A través de una revisión de la descripción de criaturas como Gorgona, Quimera, Escila, los Cíclopes o el Can Cerbero, es posible elaborar una poética de lo monstruoso que opera en la Ilíada y la Odisea como recurso patémico, pero también como instrumento narrativo.

  20. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 ameliorates IL-1β-induced IL-8 in human gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Sen; Xia, Yong; Ung, Trong Thuan; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme oxygenase (HO), presents antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Accumulating evidence supports that interleukin (IL)-8 contribute to the vascularity of human gastric cancer. However, the inhibition of IL-8 expression by CO is yet to be elucidated. Here, we utilized CO releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) to investigate the effect of CO on IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression and the underlying molecular mechanisms in human gastric cancer AGS cells. CORM-2 dose-dependently suppressed IL-1β-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein expression as well as IL-8 promoter activity. IL-1β induced the translocation of p47 phox to activate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX). Moreover, IL-1β activated MAPKs (Erk1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK) and promoted nuclear factor (NF)-kB and activator protein (AP)-1 binding activities. Pharmacological inhibition and mutagenesis studies indicated that NOX, ROS, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK are involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression. Transient transfection of deletion mutant constructs of the IL-8 promoter in cells suggested that NF-kB and AP-1 are critical for IL-1β-induced IL-8 transcription. NOX-derived ROS and MAPKs (Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK) functioned as upstream activators of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. CORM-2 pretreatment significantly mitigated IL-1β-induced activation of ROS/NF-kB and Erk1/2/AP-1 cascades, blocking IL-8 expression and thus significantly reducing endothelial cell proliferation in the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  2. La Naturaleza de la Experiencia Estética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Herbert Mead

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El texto que presentamos en este número de Athenea Digital es "La Naturaleza de la Experiencia Estética" escrito por G.H.Mead en 1926, traducido e introducido por Estaban Laso y Anna Vitores. Como los mismos traductores explican en la introducción que precede al texto de Mead: El artículo ?La Naturaleza de la Experiencia Estética? (1926 que presentamos en este mismo número ?y que como la inmensa mayoría de los escritos de Mead es muy breve? se inscribe dentro de la orientación hacia la crítica cultural de su obra tardía. En tanto que parte de la brecha entre la esfera instrumental y la de los valores que caracteriza a la actividad y al pensamiento humano en la sociedad moderna, ofrece una buena oportunidad para pensar acerca de la tensión meadiana entre creatividad y normatividad. Y quizás también, para ir más allá y reflexionar sobre la tensión entre cambio y reproducción social, y sobre las formas en que podríamos ofrecer un concepto de acción y de experiencia no individualistas que permitieran articular esta tensión.

  3. GrowInclusive : la plateforme tant attendue est en construction ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 janv. 2018 ... La croissance inclusive est devenue une idée centrale dans la plupart des plans de développement nationaux, mais pour beaucoup, elle reste avant tout une aspiration. Les gouvernements, les bailleurs de fonds internationaux et les organisations de la société civile manquent de mécanismes éprouvés ...

  4. Releyendo Frankfurt: la Experiencia Estética en Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stra, Sebastián Matías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [es]Intentaremos en este trabajo explorar la noción de Experiencia Estética en la obra de Theodor Adorno, entendiéndola como una compleja mediación conceptual que nos puede permitir dar cuenta de las oscuras configuraciones de la relación entre arte, cultura y conocimiento en la producción del pensador de Frankfurt. En este marco, cruzaremos las reflexiones estéticas adornianas con lecturas más cercanas a nuestro campo disciplinar, como la noción de Industria Cultural y la interpretación del mito y su derivación en la conformación de la racionalidad moderna. [en] In this work, we will try to explore the notion of Aesthetic Experience in Theodor Adorno`s work, understanding it as a complex conceptual mediation that can allow us getting in the dark settings of the relationship between art, culture and knowledge in the production of Frankfurt`s thinker. Like this, we are going to cross adornians aesthetic reflections with readings that are going to be closer to our disciplinary field, as the notion of cultural industry and the interpretation of myth and its derivation in the configuration of modern rationality.

  5. Exploiting a wheat EST database to assess genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Gurel, Filiz; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2010-10-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers have been used to assess variety and genetic diversity in wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, 1549 ESTs from wheat infested with yellow rust were used to examine the genetic diversity of six susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. The aim of using these cultivars was to improve the competitiveness of public wheat breeding programs through the intensive use of modern, particularly marker-assisted, selection technologies. The F(2) individuals derived from cultivar crosses were screened for resistance to yellow rust at the seedling stage in greenhouses and adult stage in the field to identify DNA markers genetically linked to resistance. Five hundred and sixty ESTs were assembled into 136 contigs and 989 singletons. BlastX search results showed that 39 (29%) contigs and 96 (10%) singletons were homologous to wheat genes. The database-matched contigs and singletons were assigned to eight functional groups related to protein synthesis, photosynthesis, metabolism and energy, stress proteins, transporter proteins, protein breakdown and recycling, cell growth and division and reactive oxygen scavengers. PCR analyses with primers based on the contigs and singletons showed that the most polymorphic functional categories were photosynthesis (contigs) and metabolism and energy (singletons). EST analysis revealed considerable genetic variability among the Turkish wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to yellow rust disease and allowed calculation of the mean genetic distance between cultivars, with the greatest similarity (0.725) being between Harmankaya99 and Sönmez2001, and the lowest (0.622) between Aytin98 and Izgi01.

  6. A estética como factor promotor da aprendizagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Maria BEZERRA BARBOSA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La reflexión filosófica sobre el arte, lo hermoso, lo bueno, lo verdadero y su capacidad de promover el desarrollo humano es un tema que remonta a Platón en la cultura occidental. Considerando que la educación debe ser entendida como un fenómeno integral, que abarca no sólo las dimensiones intelectuales sino también las dimensiones sensibles, la intuición y el raciocinio, las capacidades imaginativas y creativas, el «saber ser» y el «saber estar» parejas del «conocer» y del «saber hacer», pensamos que es incuestionable la importancia de la estética en el fenómeno educativo. El objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar la importancia de la educación estética como motor fundamental de desarrollo humano y, en este sentido, como catalizador de la motivación y del aprendizaje, para que, a través de la imaginación y de la creatividad, sea posible la innovación en la construcción de vías alternativas para un mundo más humano y placentero.

  7. Construction of an EST-SSR-based interspecific transcriptome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Construction of an EST-SSR-based interspecific transcriptome linkage map of fibre development in cotton. CHUANXIANG LIU, DAOJUN YUAN and ZHONGXU LIN. ∗. National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Centre of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan),. Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan ...

  8. Si usted está embarazada, no fume

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast explica los peligros de fumar durante el embarazo, tanto para la madre como para el bebé en desarrollo, y ofrece información sobre cómo buscar ayuda para dejar de fumar para siempre.

  9. Las afecciones estéticas: un problema para prevenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulisa Otero Baxter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La estética facial asociada con los dientes ha preocupado a la sociedad desde la antigüedad. El temor al rechazo social por cambios de forma, color o posiciones dentales, puede producir un gran impacto psicológico en los pacientes. Con el objetivo de valorar la repercusión psicosocial de las alteraciones estéticas faciales, de determinar el nivel de prioridad que ocupan los tratamientos estéticos dentales y demostrar así la necesidad de intensificar nuestra labor educativa encaminada a evitar aquellas afecciones estéticas que más inciden en nuestra población, procedimos a la aplicación de una encuesta anónima en 110 pacientes que acudieron al Servicio de Estomatología Integral de la Facultad de Estomatología entre noviembre de 1999 y abril del 2000. Se recogió información sobre: actitud asumida por pacientes afectados, prioridades de tratamientos, etcétera. Dicha información fue procesada en tablas estadísticas. Los resultados del trabajo nos permiten concluir que las afecciones estéticas dentales tienen gran repercusión psicosocial, lo que unido al haber encontrado las lesiones traumáticas como las afecciones estéticas de mayor prevalencia, nos evidencia la necesidad de enfatizar nuestra labor educativa en este aspecto.Society has worried about facial esthetics associated with teeth since ancient times. Being afraid of social rejection due to changes of dental form, color or positions may produce a great psychological impact on patients. In order to assess the psychosocial repercussion of the facial esthetic alterations, to determine the priorty level of the esthetic dental treatments and to show the need of intensifying our educative work directed to prevent the most common esthetic affections in our population, we did an anonimous survey among 110 patients that received attention at the Service of Comprehensive Stomatology of the Faculty of Stomatology between November, 1999, and April, 2000. Information was gathered

  10. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Euan A; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-10-13

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease.

  11. Comparison of IL-6, IL-8 Concentrations in H. pylori- and non-H. pylori-associated Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Alamsyah Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a non-invasive microorganism causing intense gastric mucosal inflammatory and immune reaction. The gastric mucosal levels of the proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin 6 (IL-6 and IL-8 have been reported to be increased in H. pylori infection, but the serum levels in H. pylori infection is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in H. pylori infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on eighty consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from May-October 2014. Histopathology was performed for the diagnosis of gastritis. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating IL-6 and IL-8. Univariate and bivariate analysis (independent t test were done. RESULTS: There were 41.25% patients infected with H. pylori. Circulatory IL-6 levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to H. pylori promotes systemic inflammation, which was reflected in an increased level of serum IL-6. Serum levels of IL-8 were not significantly different between H. pylori positive and negative. KEYWORDS: Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, IL-6, IL-8, cytokine.

  12. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  13. IL-6 Improves Energy and Glucose Homeostasis in Obesity via Enhanced Central IL-6 trans-Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Katharina; Denson, Jesse Lee; Steculorum, Sophie Marie; Heilinger, Christian; Engström-Ruud, Linda; Wunderlich, Claudia Maria; Rose-John, Stefan; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Brüning, Jens Claus

    2017-04-11

    Interleukin (IL)-6 engages similar signaling mechanisms to leptin. Here, we find that central application of IL-6 in mice suppresses feeding and improves glucose tolerance. In contrast to leptin, whose action is attenuated in obesity, the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding is enhanced in obese mice. IL-6 suppresses feeding in the absence of neuronal IL-6-receptor (IL-6R) expression in hypothalamic or all forebrain neurons of mice. Conversely, obese mice exhibit increased soluble IL-6R levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IL-6 trans-signaling in the CNS abrogates the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding. Furthermore, gp130 expression is enhanced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) of obese mice, and deletion of gp130 in the PVH attenuates the beneficial central IL-6 effects on metabolism. Collectively, these experiments indicate that IL-6 trans-signaling is enhanced in the CNS of obese mice, allowing IL-6 to exert its beneficial metabolic effects even under conditions of leptin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IL-6 Improves Energy and Glucose Homeostasis in Obesity via Enhanced Central IL-6 trans-Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Timper

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-6 engages similar signaling mechanisms to leptin. Here, we find that central application of IL-6 in mice suppresses feeding and improves glucose tolerance. In contrast to leptin, whose action is attenuated in obesity, the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding is enhanced in obese mice. IL-6 suppresses feeding in the absence of neuronal IL-6-receptor (IL-6R expression in hypothalamic or all forebrain neurons of mice. Conversely, obese mice exhibit increased soluble IL-6R levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IL-6 trans-signaling in the CNS abrogates the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding. Furthermore, gp130 expression is enhanced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH of obese mice, and deletion of gp130 in the PVH attenuates the beneficial central IL-6 effects on metabolism. Collectively, these experiments indicate that IL-6 trans-signaling is enhanced in the CNS of obese mice, allowing IL-6 to exert its beneficial metabolic effects even under conditions of leptin resistance.

  15. Estrutura fatorial da escala de atitudes frente a relacionamentos afetivos estáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano Lemos Milfont

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa contribuir para a comprovação da estrutura fatorial da Escala de Atitudes Frente a Relacionamentos Afetivos Estáveis (RAE; Reis, 1995. Participaram da pesquisa 658 estudantes universitários com idade média 19,9 anos (DP=2,5. Análises fatoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias indicaram a existência de uma estrutura multidimensional. Os cinco fatores encontrados (Comprometimento, Edificação, Mutualidade, Envolvimento e Indulgência apresentaram índices de consistência interna satisfatórios (0,68<α<0,83, itens com saturações altas (0,46<λy<0,75 e significativas (p<0,05. Esta estrutura multidimensional apresentou melhores índices de bondade de ajuste (χ2/gl=3,07; GFI=0,91; CFI=0,97; RMSEA=0,056 e foi estatisticamente superior [Δχ2(111=676,69, p<0,001] à estrutura unidimensional. Resultados de correlações com as auto-imagens independente e interdependente (Singelis, 1994, com os valores humanos básicos (Gouveia, 2003, além de diferenças quanto ao sexo, confirmam a validade dos cinco novos fatores.

  16. Lesão da artéria ilíaca esquerda durante laminectomia lombar: relato de caso Lesión de la arteria ilíaca izquierda durante laminectomia lombar: relato de caso Left iliac artery injury during lumbar laminectomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley Rodrigues Moreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Lesão da artéria ilíaca é uma ocorrência rara em laminectomias, porém, muito grave. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar um caso de lesão da artéria ilíaca esquerda, em paciente submetido a laminectomia lombar sob raquianestesia, que se manifestou clinicamente no pós-operatório imediato, sete horas após o início da cirurgia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, estado físico ASA I, 31 anos, 68 kg, foi submetido à laminectomia lombar em decúbito ventral sob raquianestesia em L2-L3, com bupivacaína hiperbárica a 0,5% (20 mg e fentanil 25 µg. A cirurgia transcorreu normalmente e sete horas após o seu início, já no pós-operatório, o paciente apresentou hipotensão arterial, taquicardia, agitação e dor abdominal difusa. A tomografia abdominal mostrou aspecto compatível com hematoma retroperitoneal e a laparotomia exploradora revelou lesão da artéria ilíaca comum esquerda. Após a laparotomia, o paciente evoluiu bem. CONCLUSÕES: Na dependência do posicionamento e do estado físico, técnicas de anestesia geral se impõem. O caso chama atenção para o fato de que qualquer técnica anestésica que tenha sido realizada, o sangramento no campo operatório pode não ser real, na vigência de uma lesão vascular, porque este sangramento pode ser tardio. No presente caso, a manifestação clínica ocorreu sete horas após o início da cirurgia, quando o paciente já estava recuperado da anestesia. No entanto, o fenômeno (hipotensão arterial poderia ter ocorrido no per-operatório.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Lesión de la arteria ilíaca es una ocurrencia rara en laminectomias, no obstante, muy grave. El objetivo de este relato es presentar un caso de lesión de la arteria ilíaca izquierda, en paciente sometido a laminectomia lombar sobre raquianestesia, que se manifestó clínicamente en el pós-operatorio inmediato, siete horas después del inicio de la cirugía. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente

  17. Interleukin (IL)-23 mediates Toxoplasma gondii-induced immunopathology in the gut via matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and IL-22 but independent of IL-17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Melba; Heimesaat, Markus M; Danker, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to the development of small intestinal inflammation dependent on Th1 cytokines. The role of Th17 cells in ileitis is unknown. We report interleukin (IL)-23-mediated gelatinase A (matrixmetalloproteinase [MMP]-2) up-regulation in the ileum of infected...... mice. MMP-2 deficiency as well as therapeutic or prophylactic selective gelatinase blockage protected mice from the development of T. gondii-induced immunopathology. Moreover, IL-23-dependent up-regulation of IL-22 was essential for the development of ileitis, whereas IL-17 was down...

  18. Extracellular Neutrophil Proteases Are Efficient Regulators of IL-1, IL-33, and IL-36 Cytokine Activity but Poor Effectors of Microbial Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Danielle M; Sullivan, Graeme P; Moran, Hannah B T; Henry, Conor M; Reeves, Emer P; McElvaney, Noel G; Lavelle, Ed C; Martin, Seamus J

    2018-03-13

    Neutrophil granule proteases are thought to function as anti-microbial effectors, cooperatively hydrolyzing microorganisms within phagosomes, or upon deployment into the extracellular space. However, evidence also suggests that neutrophil proteases play an important role in the coordination and escalation of inflammatory reactions, but how this is achieved has been obscure. IL-1 family cytokines are important initiators of inflammation and are typically released via necrosis but require proteolytic processing for activation. Here, we show that proteases liberated from activated neutrophils can positively or negatively regulate the activity of six IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ) with exquisite sensitivity. In contrast, extracellular neutrophil proteases displayed very poor bactericidal activity, exhibiting 100-fold greater potency toward cytokine processing than bacterial killing. Thus, in addition to their classical role as phagocytes, neutrophils play an important immunoregulatory role through deployment of their granule proteases into the extracellular space to process multiple IL-1 family cytokines. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The distribution of IL-13 receptor alpha1 expression on B cells, T cells and monocytes and its regulation by IL-13 and IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, P; Gretener, D; Herren, S; Aubry, J P; Elson, G; Poudrier, J; Lecoanet-Henchoz, S; Alouani, S; Losberger, C; Bonnefoy, J Y; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Gauchat, J F

    1998-12-01

    To study the expression of IL-13 receptor alpha1 (IL-13Ralpha1), specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated. Surface expression of the IL-13Ralpha1 on B cells, monocytes and T cells was assessed by flow cytometry using these specific mAb. Among tonsillar B cells, the expression was the highest on the IgD+ CD38- B cell subpopulation which is believed to represent naive B cells. Expression was also detectable on a large fraction of the IgD-CD38- B cells but not on CD38+ B cells. Activation under conditions which promote B cell Ig class switching up-regulated the expression of the receptor. However, the same stimuli had an opposite effect for IL-13Ralpha1 expression levels on monocytes. While IL-13Ralpha1 mRNA was clearly detectable in T cell preparations, no surface expression was detected. However, permeabilization of the T cells showed a clear intracellular expression of the receptor. A soluble form of the receptor was immunoprecipitated from the supernatant of activated peripheral T cells, suggesting that T cell IL-13Ralpha1 might have functions unrelated to the capacity to form a type II IL-4/IL-13R with IL-4Ralpha.

  20. Scanning Study of 700 Livers Evaluation of Existing Diagnostic Procedures; Etude Scintigraphique de 700 Foies (Evaluation des Procedures Actuelles de Diagnostic); Issledovanie pecheni 700 bol'nykh s pomoshch'yu skennirovaniya; Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales De Diagnostico); Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales de Diagnostico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P. [Radium and Isotope Institute, Government Hospital, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    1964-10-15

    dans 44% des cas, on a obtenu un scintigramme voile dans 30% des cas et on a constate des modifications morphologiques de l'organe dans 29% de cas. Dans deux des 158 cas de tumeurs malignes, le scintigramme semblait faussement normal, mais dans 40% de ces memes cas les resultats obtenus au laboratoire etaient negatifs. Par la technique d'exploration stereographique dans deux ou trois plans, on a obtenu dans 45% des cas des renseignements nouveaux ou complementaires sur l'etat de l'organe. On a egalement utilise la scintigraphie pour le controle ulterieur des resultats. On a fait les constations suivantes: 1. Apres extirpation du kyste hydatique, une cicatrice caracterisee persiste sous forme de lesion en volume; 2. Trois mois apres le traitement d'un abces amibien, une regeneration complete intervient; 3. Apres une derivation porto-cavale, le scintigramme du foie devient plus petit et celui de la rate plus grand - meme lorsque l'etat general est satisfaisant; 4. Les agents cytostatiques peuvent etre momentanement efficaces pour certaines lesions hepatiques diffuses; 5. Il arrive qu'une lesion dont on n'avait pu affirmer la presence avec certitude devienne macroscopique ou qu'elle cesse totalement d'etre visible; par consequent, le moment de l'exploration peut affecter le diagnostic. L'auteur tire les conclusions suivantes: 1. On peut considerer la scintigraphie comme une methode tres utile pour le diagnostic clinique, morphologique et topographique en hepatopathologie. 2. On peut ameliorer les resultats: a) en utilisant des appareils perfectionnes ou en ayant recours aux techniques d'exploration stereographiques; b) par une bonne collaboration entre le clinicien et le chirurgien. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha examinado el higado de 700 pacientes (estudios clinicos, analisis de laboratorio, examenes roentgenograficos y exploraciones centelleograficas), ha seguido la evolucion clinica de los pacientes y ha podido obtener en la mayoria de los casos una confirmacion

  1. Determinants of IL-6 levels during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants in three international HIV trials (SMART, ESPRIT and SILCAAT) with IL-6 plasma levels measured at baseline were included (N=9864). Factors independently associated with log2-transformed IL-6 level were identified by multivariate linear regression; exponentiated estimates......INTRODUCTION: Elevated IL-6 levels have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and death. Compared to the general population, treated HIV+ persons have 50-100% higher IL-6 levels, but few data on the determinants of IL-6 levels during HIV infection currently exist...

  2. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  3. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...threatening anaphylaxis. We have identified a novel multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that produce large amounts of IL-9, IL

  4. La crise de Crimée (mars 2014) : comment en est-on arrivé là ?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Yann

    2014-01-01

    La crise ukrainienne a des causes internes et externes nombreuses. On peut regretter que la presse française en parle de façon très orientée sans prendre le temps de présenter le point de vue russe, si ce n’est pour affirmer que le président Poutine relançait la guerre froide et réactivait l’impérialisme russe. Le rattachement de la Crimée est sans conteste une annexion déguisée et c’est un coup de force autant qu’un rejet des prescriptions élémentaires du droit international. Toutefois, il f...

  5. The Role of IL-33 in Gut Mucosal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pastorelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family that is widely expressed throughout the body and has the ability to induce Th2 immune responses. In addition, IL-33 plays a key role in promoting host defenses against parasites through the expansion of a novel population of innate lymphoid cells. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that the proinflammatory properties displayed by IL-33 are detrimental in several experimental models of inflammation; in others, however, IL-33 appears to have protective functions. In 2010, four different research groups consistently described the upregulation of IL-33 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Animal models of IBD were subsequently utilized in order to mechanistically determine the precise role of IL-33 in chronic intestinal inflammation, without, however, reaching conclusive evidence demonstrating whether IL-33 is pathogenic or protective. Indeed, data generated from these studies suggest that IL-33 may possess dichotomous functions, enhancing inflammatory responses on one hand and promoting epithelial integrity on the other. This review focuses on the available data regarding IL-33/ST2 in the physiological and inflammatory states of the gut in order to speculate on the possible roles of this novel IL-1 family member in intestinal inflammation.

  6. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Stephen R; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training. However, sustained elevations in IL-6 due to repeated bouts of unaccustomed activities or prolonged exercise with limited rest may result in untoward physiologic effects, such as accelerated muscle proteolysis and diminished nutrient absorption, and may impair normal adaptive responses to training. Recent intervention studies have explored the role of mixed meals or carbohydrate, protein, ω-3 fatty acid, or antioxidant supplementation in mitigating exercise-induced increases in IL-6. Emerging evidence suggests that sufficient energy intake before exercise is an important factor in attenuating exercise-induced IL-6 by maintaining muscle glycogen. We detail various nutritional interventions that may affect the IL-6 response to exercise in healthy human adults and provide recommendations for future research exploring the role of IL-6 in the adaptive response to exercise.-Hennigar, S. R., McClung, J. P., Pasiakos, S. M. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise. © FASEB.

  7. Mercenario della ricerca evoluzione dello studioso di fisica tra il 1900 e il 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Sironi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In meno di un secolo la percezione della ricerca da parte del grande pubblico e il modo di praticarla sono profondamente cambiati. Il ricercatore, non più isolato e parte di una élite ristretta, oggi è quasi sempre inserito in gruppi strutturati, spesso numerosi. Questa impostazione, particolamente evidente in Fisica e Astrofisica, ha prodotto grandi progressi scientifici. In Italia però questi progressi rischiano di essere vanificati dalla perdurante mancanza di politiche organiche dedicate alla ricerca, sia pubblica che privata. Per un giovane dotato vale ancora la pena di puntare a fare ricerca?

  8. IL DUELLO NEL RINASCIMENTO E IL RIPENSAMENTO ETICO SUL DUELLO DI FRANCESCO PATRIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Šuran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In questa prima parte del saggio ci soff ermeremo in modo particolare al periodo che intercorre tra la seconda metà del XV secolo e la prima metà del XVI secolo, in quanto è in questo lasso di tempo che si trovano serie e chiare testimonianze riguardanti la questione del duello. E questo sia nelle opere letterarie che in quelle riguardanti la precettistica. Per quanto riguarda quelle di precettistica, oltre al gran numero di trattati, è da tener presente anche il gran numero delle loro riedizioni, specialmente di quelli più famosi. Dove, oltre all'immancabile comunanza d’interessi fra poeti epici e trattatisti del duello, si noterà anche una sostanziale identità terminologica - per esempio sia i poeti sia i trattatisti ritengono che il duello sia una ‘prova’ di giudizio fi nale. Questo non comporta, nel contempo, una convergenza di convinzioni fi losofi che, in quanto, come si vedrà, il duello letterario diff erisce da quello reale proprio per la sua diversa comprensione fi losofi ca del combattere. Pertanto con la presente relazione si cercherà di dispiegare la problematica che questo istituto di per sé ha comportato nel periodo storico preso in considerazione. Il duello infatti si configurava come una questione sociale tutt'altro che irrilevante per la sua connotazione ambivalente di ordalia – quale forma particolare di rapporto fra uomo e sacro – e di inculpata tutela – quale forma particolare di ricorso alla violenza privata a tutela di un fondamentale diritto naturale. In tutti e due i casi si tratta di una forma di onore, sia individuale sia nobiliare, del quale il Patrizi ne discuterà la fondatezza interpretandolo specialmente in qualità di virtù. In questa defi nizione dell'onore – che il Patrizi aff ronta con un gusto platonico – si possono scorgere questioni di alta portata politica, che ponevano sotto varia forma la questione dei rapporti tra individuo e Stato. In tal modo il duello d’onore assumeva un

  9. Il volgare e il principe. Politica culturale e questione della lingua alla corte di Cosimo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Quaglino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Il principato di Cosimo I rappresenta un periodo di snodo fondamentale per la questione della lingua italiana. Il contributo ripercorre la bibliografia degli ultimi vent’anni con l’intento di definirne le principali traiettorie e individuarne l’originalità e le prospettive future rispetto agli studi precedenti. Sono esaminati in particolare gli studi relativi all’opera di Benedetto Varchi e Vincenzio Borghini; ai volgarizzamenti di Giovan Battista Gelli e Cosimo Bartoli; alla redazione e all’edizione delle Vite di Vasari e al rapporto tra letterati e artisti nella celebrazione del potere.

  10. Il nuovo volto dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Radicati di Brozolo, L A

    1994-01-01

    Quale realtà indaga la più avanzata scienza odierna? Con quali strumenti concettuali opera? Dai contributi di alcuni fisici italiani emerge un'immagine del mondo radicalmente rinnovata. Petrillo, R. Rozzi, G. Sapelli, A. Savignano, L. Sicca, F. Silari, P. Toninelli, M. Vasta, G. Zanetti. mal di mare. Il velista che dispone di una imbarcazione progettata e equipaggiata secondo gli standard degli anni '90, con un'accurata preparazione, sarà in grado di unirsi alla schiera di navigatori famosi che sono sopravvissuti a condizioni ambientali proibitive.

  11. Il cavo orale nel paziente obeso

    OpenAIRE

    Faggella, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    Le condizioni di sovrappeso ed obesità anche in età evolutiva sono aumentate negli ultimi decenni al punto che, secondo l'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità, sono diventate un problema di salute pubblica in tutti i Paesi occidentali. Questa tesi è nata nell’obiettivo di individuare caratteristiche odontostomatologiche in pazienti affetti da obesità; il gruppo campione(80 pazienti, età media 10,5 anni) è stato suddiviso in due sottogruppi: sottogruppo A comprendente 54 pazienti affetti da...

  12. Il rilievo del ponte normanno di Serravalle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Bernardini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Un ponte normanno che versa in stato di totale abbando no nel contesto unico delle forre laviche ai piedi dell’Etna. Un topog rafo che, nonostante alcune difficoltà logistiche ne effettua il rilievo.An ancient norman bridge in disrepair at the foot of Etna, in Sicily. The project to restore the bridge needed a detailed scale model of the bridge and the surrounding area. The survey proved to be demanding due to the difficult conditions of the area: dense vegetation and steep terrain.

  13. Morphometric analysis of the intimal reaction after stent implantation in iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty in pigs Análise morfométrica da reação intimal secundária ao implante de stent em artérias ilíacas submetidas à angioplastia em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Castro Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare through digital morphometry, the intimal thickening of the common ilíac arteries (CIA in pigs, submitted to angioplasty and angioplasty followed by stent implantation. METHODS: Angioplasty was performed in 10 pigs in both CIA, followed by a stent implantation in the left CIA. After four weeks, the aorto-iliac segment was dissected. Histologic slices where divided in three groups: left CIA in the area of the proximal (group 1 and distal (group 2 implantation site of the stent and the region of angioplasty in the right CIA (group 3. The histological slices were digitalized to be analyzed by morphometry with calculation of the luminal, intimal and media layers areas. Descriptive statistics analysis was performed through average and standard deviation of areas on each group, using ANOVA, with LSD Post-Hoc test (pOBJETIVO: Analisar, por meio da morfometria digital, o espessamento intimal das artérias ilíacas comuns (AIC de suínos, submetidas à angioplastia e à angioplastia seguida do implante de stent. MÉTODOS: Em dez suínos, foi realizada a angioplastia da AIC bilateral, seguida do implante do stent na AIC esquerda. Após quatro semanas, o segmento aorto-ilíaco foi retirado. As lâminas histológicas foram divididas em três grupos: segmento proximal (grupo 1 e distal (grupo 2 do local de implante do stent na AIC esquerda e a área da angioplastia da AIC direita (grupo 3. As imagens das lâminas foram digitalizadas e analisadas por programa de morfometria com cálculo das áreas luminal, da camada íntima e da camada média dos cortes histológicos. A análise estatística foi realizada através de média e desvio padrão das áreas em cada grupo, utilizando ANOVA, com teste Post-Hoc LSD (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Na análise das médias das áreas obtidas, foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto à camada íntima dos grupos 1 e 2, quando comparados ao grupo 3 e em relação à camada média dos grupos

  14. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeilschifter Josef

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of interferon (IFN-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA. mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA, respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8.

  15. Association between genes encoding components of the IL-4/IL-4 receptor pathway and dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Yousri M; Shalaby, Sally M; Nassar, Amani; Alzahrani, Saad S; Alharbi, Ayman S; Nouh, Maha

    2014-07-25

    To determine whether IL-4, IL-4Rα and STAT6 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to dermatitis in Egyptian children. We genotyped three groups of children, consisting of 106 atopic dermatitis (AD) children, 95 non-AD children, and 100 of healthy controls, for IL-4 (-590 C/T), (-33 C/T), IL-4Rα (I50V), (Q576R) and STAT6 (2964 G/A), (2892 C/T) gene polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP assay. Total serum IgE and serum IL-4 levels were detected by ELISA. There was a non-significant association of IL-4 -590 C/T, -33 C/T polymorphisms in the children with non-AD or those with AD when compared with the controls. We identified a significant association between IL-4Rα I50V, Q576R polymorphisms and dermatitis susceptibility in AD (p=0.002, dermatitis was found. Patients who were carriers of IL4 -590C, IL-4Rα I50V G, STAT6 2964 A and STAT6 2892 T had an increased risk of AD [OR and 95% CI: 3.2 (2.5-4.2), p=0.005]. Furthermore, there was no relation between each polymorphism and serum IL-4 level (p>0.05 for each) while homozygosity for the risk alleles of IL-4, IL-4Rα and STAT6 SNPs were significantly associated with increased total IgE levels in all subjects. In Egyptian children, the IL-4Rα and the STAT6 polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility to AD. In addition, gene-gene interaction between the IL-4, the IL-4Rα and the STAT6 significantly increases an individual's susceptibility to AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating ESWL-induced renal injury based on urinary TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Cemal; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Bicik, Zerrin; Horuz, Rahim; Unsal, Ibrahim; Serteser, Mustafa; Albayrak, Selami; Sarıca, Kemal

    2012-10-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has dramatically changed the treatment of urinary lithiasis and has been the first treatment option for the majority of patients for more than two decades. Despite its significant benefits, it induces acute renal injury that extends from the papilla to the outer cortex. We evaluated the severity of the inflammatory response to ESWL by measuring the urinary excretion of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6. The study included 21 selected patients and 14 control subjects. All patients underwent the same ESWL procedure (2,500 shockwaves at 100 shockwaves/min and 0.039 J from the lithotripter). Urine TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 levels were measured using standard ELISA kits. In the study population (patients and controls), we did not detect TNF-α in the urine samples. The levels of both IL-1α (2.5 pg/ml) and IL-6 (3.8 pg/ml) measured before ESWL were not significantly different from the control group (2.5 and 5.2 pg/ml, respectively; p > 0.05). Twenty-four hours after ESWL, in contrast to IL-1α (4 pg/ml), urine IL-6 (19.7 pg/ml) increased significantly (p ESWL, IL-1α increased to 5 pg/ml, while IL-6 (7 pg/ml) decreased to the control level. Urine cytokine levels may be used to evaluate the inflammatory response to ESWL. After ESWL, IL-6 levels increased in the early phase, while IL-1α levels increased later. These two markers may be used to measure the severity of inflammation. In contrast to IL-1α and IL-6, urine TNF-α excretion was not increased by ESWL. We believe that the inflammatory response to ESWL can be detected by the urinary excretion of IL-1α for up to 14 days.

  17. IL-25 inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni T Mantani

    Full Text Available IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice.Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apoE deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease.The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses.

  18. The role of genetic variation across IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and BDNF in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Tiwari, Arun K; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Kennedy, James L; Kennedy, Sidney H; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotics with high weight gain-inducing propensities influence the expression of immune and neurotrophin genes, which have been independently related to obesity indices. Thus, we investigated whether variants in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met are associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). Nineteen polymorphisms were genotyped using Taqman(®) assays in 188 schizophrenia patients on antipsychotic treatment for up to 14 weeks. Mean weight change (%) from baseline was compared across genotypic groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Epistatic effects between cytokine polymorphisms and BDNF Val66Met were tested using Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction. In European patients, IL-1β rs16944*GA (P = 0.013, Pcorrected = 0.182), IL-1β rs1143634*G (P = 0.001, Pcorrected = 0.014), and BDNF Val66Met (Val/Val, P = 0.004, Pcorrected = 0.056) were associated with greater AIWG, as were IL-1β rs4849127*A (P = 0.049, Pcorrected = 0.784), and IL-1β rs16944*GA (P = 0.012, Pcorrected = 0.192) in African Americans. BDNF Val66Met interacted with both IL-1β rs13032029 (Val/Met+ TT, PPerm = 0.029), and IL-6 rs2069837 (Val/Val+ AA, PPerm = 0.021) in Europeans, in addition to IL-1β rs16944 (Val/Val+ GA, PPerm = 0.006) in African Americans. SNPs across IL-1β and BDNF Val66Met may influence AIWG. Replication of these findings in larger, independent samples is warranted.

  19. Association analysis of IL10, TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 SNPs with Behçet's disease risk in Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahiba eKhaib Dit Naib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have conducted the first study of the association of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 regionSNPswith Behçet's disease (BD in Western Algeria. Methods: A total of 51 BD patients and 96 unrelated controls from West region of Algeria were genotyped by direct sequencing for 11 SNPs including 2 SNPsfrom the IL10 promoter [c.-819T>C (rs1800871, c.-592A>C (rs1800872], 6 SNPs from the TNF-α promoter [c.-1211T>C (rs1799964, c.-1043C>A (rs1800630, c.-1037C>T (rs1799724, c.-556G>A (rs1800750, c.-488G>A (rs1800629 and c.-418G>A (rs361525], and 3 SNPs from the IL23R-IL12RB2 region [g.67747415A>C (rs12119179, g.67740092G>A (rs11209032 and g.67760140T>C (rs924080]. Results: The minor alleles c.-819T and c.-592A were significantly associated with BD (OR= 2.18; 95% CI 1.28-3.73, p = 0.003; whereas, there was weaker association between TNF-αpromoter SNPs or IL23R-IL12RB2 region and disease risk.Conclusion: Unlike the TNF-αand the IL23R-IL12RB2 region SNPs, the two IL10 SNPs were strongly associated with BD. The -819T, and -592A alleles and the -819TT, -819CT, and -592AA and -592CA genotypes seem to be highly involved in the risk of developing of BD in the population of Western Algeria.

  20. Anti-IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) polyclonal antibodies ameliorate autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiding; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Gaizhi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Wang, Tianxiao; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Xiao, He; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2018-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines have been examined as therapeutic targets in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Our previous study showed that a novel IL-12 family cytokine, IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) mediates inflammation in lupus-like mice. In the present study, the effect of anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice was investigated. Rabbit anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant mouse IL-39, and purified using protein A chromatography. These antibodies were subsequently used to treat lupus-like mice. Flow cytometry, captured images, ELISA and H&E staining were used to determine the effect of anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on inflammatory cells, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells and the structure of the glomerular region. The anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies effectively reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells, splenomegaly, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and restored the structure of the glomerular region in MRL/lpr mice. Taken together, these results suggested that anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies ameliorated autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice. Therefore, IL-39 may be used as a possible target for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:29138852

  1. ¿Está en peligro el periodismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodríguez Elizondo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Debatir sobre este tema tiene una historia propia. En un artículo publicado el año 2000 me referí al futuro de la prensa, las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación y la hiper y auto-información como eventuales amenazas. El tema, de apariencia imponente y con hipótesis ominosas, tuvo de mi parte una decodificación optimista. Dado que aquel futuro lleva ya más de una década de desarrollo, este nuevo artículo servirá para contrastar las percepciones y los pronósticos de entonces. Lo haré en el disfrute de la mayor libertad crítica que es posible concebir, que es la que se expresa como autocrítica.

  2. Differential Expression ESTs Associated with Fluorosis in Rats Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride has volcanic activity and abundantly exists in environment combining with other elements as fluoride compounds. Recent researches indicated that the molecular mechanisms of intracellular fluoride toxicity were very complex. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects on gene expression of chronic fluoride-induced damage is unknown, especially the detailed regulatory process of mitochondria. In the present study, we screened the differential expression ESTs associated with fluorosis by DDRT-PCR in rat liver. We gained 8 genes, 3 new ESTs, and 1 unknown function sequence and firstly demonstrated that microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1, ATP synthase H+ transporting mitochondrial F0 complex subunit C1, selenoprotein S, mitochondrial IF1 protein, and mitochondrial succinyl-CoA synthetase alpha subunit were participated in mitochondria metabolism, functional and structural damage process caused by chronic fluorosis. This information will be very helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fluorosis.

  3. Sobre a estética platônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Bellintani Ribeiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto começa pela consideração da aparente posição desfavorável da estética, entendida tanto como o domínio da arte, quanto como o relativo à sensação, perante a metafísica platônica. A consideração posterior, porém, do caráter ontológico do critério metafísico, que, em tese, poria a arte e a sensação a seu reboque, ensejou, mais que uma reabilitação, uma inversão: a metafísica platônica é que seria fundada numa estética.

  4. Introducing an ILS methodology into research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, N. de; Borsani, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is the managerial organisation that co-ordinates the activities of many disciplines to develop the supporting resources (training, staffing, designing aids, equipment removal routes, etc) required by technologically complex systems. The application of an ILS methodology in defence projects is described in several places, but it is infrequently illustrated for other areas; therefore the present paper deals with applying this approach to research reactors under design or already in operation. Although better results are obtained when applied since the very beginning of a project, it can be applied successfully in facilities already in operation to improve their capability in a cost-effective way. In applying this methodology, the key objectives shall be previously identified in order to tailor the whole approach. Generally in high power multipurpose reactors, obtaining maximum profit at the lowest possible cost without reducing the safety levels are key issues, while in others the goal is to minimise drawbacks like spurious shutdowns, low quality experimental results or even to reduce staff dose to ALARA values. These items need to be quantified for establishing a system status base line in order to trace the process evolution. Thereafter, specific logistics analyses should be performed in the different areas composing the system. RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Supportability), Manning, Training Needs, Supplying Needs are some examples of these special logistic assessments. The following paragraphs summarise the different areas, encompassed by this ILS methodology. Plant design is influenced focussing the designers? attention on the objectives already identified. Careful design reviews are performed only in an early design stage, being useless a later application. In this paper is presented a methodology including appropriate tools for ensuring the designers abide to ILS issues and key objectives through the

  5. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    QuEST is a publication of the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). This issue contains brief articles on: Risk Identification and Mitigation, Material Management and Substitution Efforts--Hexavalent Chrome-free Coatings and Low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Coatings, Lead-Free Electronics, Corn-Based Depainting Media; Alternative Energy Efforts Hydrogen Sensors and Solar Air Conditioning. Other TEERM Efforts include: Energy and Water Management and Remediation Technology Collaboration.

  6. Extra heavy crudes and bitumens in the new EST technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, R.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic and market reasons dictate for the diversification of the supply sources. The huge reserves of extra heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen will provide the answer in this direction, but it is mandatory the availability of a suitable technology to process these poor quality feedstocks. EST Technology, developed by Snamprogetti and EniTecnologie, allows to get full conversion to produce high quality distillates [it

  7. 28 milliards d’euros, c’est grand comment ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Pierre; Salmon, Marc; Theunissen, Yannick

    2009-01-01

    J’ouvre mon quotidien. Fortis : 28 milliards d’euros de pertes en 2008. Ma fille de sept ans qui commence à lire et pose sans cesse des questions sur tout me lance : « Dis-moi, papa : 28 milliards d’euros, c’est grand comment ? ». Grande question… Je réfléchis et tente de trouver une parade parlante pour un enfant qui, in fine, se pose les mêmes questions que les grandes personnes.

  8. Exploiting a wheat EST database to assess genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Karakas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressed sequence tag (EST markers have been used to assess variety and genetic diversity in wheat (Triticum aestivum. In this study, 1549 ESTs from wheat infested with yellow rust were used to examine the genetic diversity of six susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. The aim of using these cultivars was to improve the competitiveness of public wheat breeding programs through the intensive use of modern, particularly marker-assisted, selection technologies. The F2 individuals derived from cultivar crosses were screened for resistance to yellow rust at the seedling stage in greenhouses and adult stage in the field to identify DNA markers genetically linked to resistance. Five hundred and sixty ESTs were assembled into 136 contigs and 989 singletons. BlastX search results showed that 39 (29% contigs and 96 (10% singletons were homologous to wheat genes. The database-matched contigs and singletons were assigned to eight functional groups related to protein synthesis, photosynthesis, metabolism and energy, stress proteins, transporter proteins, protein breakdown and recycling, cell growth and division and reactive oxygen scavengers. PCR analyses with primers based on the contigs and singletons showed that the most polymorphic functional categories were photosynthesis (contigs and metabolism and energy (singletons. EST analysis revealed considerable genetic variability among the Turkish wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to yellow rust disease and allowed calculation of the mean genetic distance between cultivars, with the greatest similarity (0.725 being between Harmankaya99 and Sönmez2001, and the lowest (0.622 between Aytin98 and Izgi01.

  9. ¿Está escuchando? ASP (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-08

    Este anuncio de servicio público de radio motivan a las mujeres a aprender los síntomas del cáncer ginecológico y a prestar atención a lo que les dice su cuerpo.  Created: 9/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/8/2015.

  10. ¿Está escuchando? ASP (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-08

    Este anuncio de servicio público de radio motivan a las mujeres a aprender los síntomas del cáncer ginecológico y a prestar atención a lo que les dice su cuerpo.  Created: 9/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/8/2015.

  11. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal toxin on stimulating of IL-2 and IL-5 cytokines production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Soleimany

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Bacillus thuringiensis, is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that produces crystalline parasporal protein (Cry during sporulation. Some of these Cry toxins do not show cytotoxicity against insects but they are capable to kill some human and animal cancer cells. The aim of this study was to verify whether cytocidal parasporal of B thuringiensis strains have immunostimulatory activity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC and to evaluate the ability of IL-2 and IL-5 production. Materials and methods: B. thuringiensis toxin with cytocidal activity was isolated and treated with proteinase K. PBMNC was cultured and treated with activated crystal proteins. We evaluated the ability of different cytokines production with Flow Cytometry. Results: In this study, immune stimulatory toxins Cry1 were distinguished. This toxin can stimulate production of cytokines IL-2 and stop production of IL-5. Discussion and conclusion: According to anti-cancer effect of B. thuringiensis toxins and also immune stimulatory effect, with more research these toxins can be introduced as immunotherapy drug in cancer treatment.

  12. Il degrado abusivo e il "degrado legale" del territorio: gli ecomostri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cicchetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Il fenomeno di una urbanizzazione senza criteri né misure, collegata a ragioni turistiche, molto spesso opportunistiche, è affrontato dalla giurisprudenza nella sua azione di controllo del territorio: ne sono un caso esemplare gli “ecomostri”, ormai comunemente e tristemente sono conosciuti dalla società civile. Queste costruzioni di grande impatto territoriale, ambientale e paesaggistico, in alcuni casi sono legittimati da interventi normativi non bene soppesati e in altri avvengono in maniera c.d. abusiva, con l’unica conseguenza, in entrambe le ipotesi, di deturpare l’ambiente circostante sotto molteplici profili, non ultimo quello incidente su località turistiche. Il contributo si pone l’obiettivo di contribuire ad una politica turistica attenta al profilo ambientale: occorre individuare una maggiore cogenza e conoscenza normativa a favore di una pianificazione urbanistica e politica del paesaggio, in grado di sostenere il recupero, la riqualificazione e valorizzazione delle bellezze naturali presenti sul territorio. Solo il coinvolgimento e la necessaria collaborazione di tutti i soggetti del territorio per una programmazione orientata a realizzare uno «sviluppo capace di rispondere ai bisogni delle generazioni attuali, senza compromettere la capacità delle generazioni future di rispondere ai propri».

  13. Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforcin, J M; Amaral, J T; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K

    2009-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of a water extract of lemongrass on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of lemongrass essential oil on cytokine production by macrophages was also analysed in vitro. The chemical composition of the extract and the oil was also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of lemongrass inhibited macrophages to produce IL-1beta but induced IL-6 production by these cells. Lemongrass essential oil inhibited the cytokine production in vitro. Linalool oxide and epoxy-linalool oxide were found to be the major components of lemongrass water extract, and neral and geranial were the major compounds of its essential oil. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this natural product.

  14. IL-2 and IL-15 regulate CD154 expression on activated CD4 T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Bonyhadi, M; Odum, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The cellular and humoral immune system is critically dependent upon CD40-CD154 (CD40 ligand) interactions between CD40 expressed on B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and CD154 expressed primarily on CD4 T cells. Previous studies have shown that CD154 is transiently expressed on CD4 T cells...... after T cell receptor engagement in vitro. However, we found that stimulation of PBLs with maximal CD28 costimulation, using beads coupled to Abs against CD3 and CD28, led to a very prolonged expression of CD154 on CD4 cells (>4 days) that was dependent upon autocrine IL-2 production. Previously...... activated CD4 T cells could respond to IL-2, or the related cytokine IL-15, by de novo CD154 production and expression without requiring an additional signal from CD3 and CD28. These results provide evidence that CD28 costimulation of CD4 T cells, through autocrine IL-2 production, maintains high levels...

  15. Importance of IL-10 and IL-17 cytokines in human asthma as studied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    by ex vivo-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) by. ELISA. Hence it would be .... excess water and allowed to dry at 37oC for. 30 minutes. Calculation of .... Figure 3: Mean spot distribution for IL-10 in patients and controls.

  16. IL-10 and IL-27 producing dendritic cells capable of enhancing IL-10 production of T cells are induced in oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Aya; Tanabe, Kosuke; Tsuji, Noriko M; Sato, Ryuichiro; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2009-06-30

    Oral tolerance is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic tolerance to ingested antigens (Ag). Dendritic cells (DC) have been revealed as important immune regulators, however, the precise role of DC in oral tolerance induction remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of DC in spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and Peyer's patch (PP) after oral Ag administration in a TCR-transgenic mouse model. DC from PP and MLN of tolerized mice induced IL-10 production but not Foxp3 expression in cocultured T cells. IL-10 production was markedly increased after 5-7-day Ag administration especially in PP DC. On the other hand, IL-27 production was increased after 2-5-day Ag administration. CD11b(+) DC, which increased after ingestion of Ag, prominently expressed IL-10 and IL-27 compared with CD11b(-) DC. These results suggest that IL-10 and IL-27 producing DC are increased by interaction with antigen specific T cells in PP, and these DC act as an inducer of IL-10 producing T cells in oral tolerance.

  17. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen-Waern Marianne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the cytokine response at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanisme involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in pigs and to monitor the development of important immunoregulatory cytokines in blood collected at various stages of the disease. Methods Ten conventional pigs (~23 kg were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204T. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general body condition. Blood was sampled before inoculation and repeatedly during acute dysentery and recovery periods and cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-6, Il-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Results IL-1β was increased at the beginning of the dysentery period and coincided with the appearance of Serum amyloid A and clinical signs of disease. TNF-α increased in all animals after inoculation, with a peak during dysentery, and IL-6 was found in 3 animals during dysentery and in the 2 animals that did not develop clinical signs of disease. IL-10 was found in all sick animals during the recovery period. IFN-γ was not detected on any occasion. Conclusion B. hyodysenteriae inoculation induced production of systemic levels of IL-1β during the dysentery period and increased levels of IL-10 coincided with recovery from dysentery.

  18. Analysis of IL-6, IL-10 and NF-κB Gene Polymorphisms in Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Hülya; Görgün, Emine Pirim; Korkmaz, Ertan Mahir

    2017-06-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), demonstrated to be suppressed by interleukin-10 (IL-10) are known to be regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB). The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between genetic polymorphism of these genes (IL-6(-174), IL-10(-597) and NF-κB1-94ins/del)) and chronic/aggressive periodontitis. Forty-five patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 58 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) and 38 periodontally healthy subjects were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood samples. The NF-κB, IL-6, and IL-10 polymorphisms were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Among subjects for the ins/ins genotypes of NF-κB1 gene, the AA genotypes of IL-10 presented a higher frequency in chronic periodontitis group than in healthy controls (p=0.023). A statistically significant difference in genotyping frequencies between AP group and healthy controls was observed for the IL-6 gene. The AA genotype of IL-10 was overrepresented in CP and AP groups compared to healthy controls (OR=9.93, 95% CI: 2.11-46.7, OR=5.7, 95% CI: 1.22-26.89, respectively). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the IL-10 (-597) AA genotype is associated with susceptibility to chronic/aggressive periodontitis and IL-6 (-174) GG genotypes and G allele seems to be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Clinical relevance: The results of the current study indicate that IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes seem to be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Also, the AA genotypes of IL-10 presented a higher frequency in chronic periodontitis subjects with carrying NF-κB1 ins/ins genotypes. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  19. IL-12 and IL-23 modulate plasticity of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human Leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Alpana; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA), rIL-12 and rIL-23 for 48h. Expression of FoxP3 in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, intracellular cytokines IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-17 in Tregs cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) after stimulation. rIL-12 treatment increases the levels of pStat4 in Tregs and IFN-γ production. In the presence of rIL-23, pStat3 + and IL-17A + cells increase. rIL-12 and r-IL-23 treatment downregulated the FoxP3 expression, IL-10 and TGF-β production by Tregs and enhances the expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86). In conclusion rIL-12 converts Tregs into IFN-γ producing cells through STAT-4 signaling while rIL-23 converts Tregs into IL-17 producing cells through STAT-3 signaling in leprosy patients. This study may helpful to provide a new avenue to overcome the immunosuprression in leprosy patients using in vitro cytokine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alimentation animale et valeur nutritionnelle induite sur les produits dérivés consommés par l’homme : Les lipides sont-ils principalement concernés ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-09-01

    . Les faibles variations susceptibles d’être éventuellement obtenues ne permettraient toutefois pas de participer significativement à l’amélioration de la couverture de besoins nutritionnels de l’homme. Les produits tripiers font exception, mais ils ne sont plus consommés que marginalement et ne peuvent concourir significativement à la couverture moyenne des besoins en nutriments de l’homme. Toutefois, concernant les poissons, de notables différences peuvent être observées selon les lieux de pêche et les saisons (entre autres, et, par voie de conséquence très probable, selon les élevages (pour les vitamines D et E, l’iode le fer et le sélénium. Pour les œufs, la composition varie beaucoup selon les formulations des aliments donnés aux poules pondeuses (principalement pour les vitamines A, D et E et plusieurs éléments, dont l’iode. Une nouvelle approche se dessine avec les micro-nutriments non indispensables pour l’homme trouvés dans les produits animaux destinés à la consommation humaine. Il s’agit, par exemple, des caroténoïdes liposolubles. Parmi ceux-ci, la lutéine et la zéaxanthine sont présentes dans le jaune de l’œuf, contribuant à sa coloration. Or, des travaux très récents montrent que ces molécules peuvent être quantitativement augmentées dans l’œuf par une alimentation appropriée des poules pondeuses. Point nouveau, la consommation d’œufs ainsi enrichis a permis d’accroître les concentrations des deux caroténoïdes dans le sang de volontaires humains, et par conséquent dans leur rétine. Par ailleurs, on sait que ces substances sont présentes dans l’œil, en particulier dans la rétine. Or, une augmentation de la prise alimentaire de lutéine et de zéaxanthine induit leur accroissement dans la rétine. D’autre part, il est bien connu que la cataracte comme la dégénérescence maculaire liée à l’âge sont presque 2 fois moins fréquentes chez les sujets dont la teneur de ces substances